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Sample records for central east greenland

  1. East Asian origin of central Greenland last glacial dust: just one possible scenario?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Svensson, Anders; Klötzli, Urs Stephan; Manning, Christina; Németh, Tibor; Kovács, János

    2016-04-01

    Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust emitting regions and atmospheric circulation for the last glacial period. However, the source dust material to Greenland over this period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and Sr-Nd isotopic data from eleven loess samples collected around the Northern Hemisphere and compare the 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic signatures of fine (Greenland ice core dust data (GISP2, GRIP; [1]; [2]). Smectite contents and kaolinite/chlorite (K/C) ratios allow exclusion of continental US dust emitting regions as potential sources, because of the very high (>3.6) K/C ratios and extremely high (>~70%) smectite contents. At the same time, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions demonstrate that ice core dust isotopic compositions can be explained by East Asian (Chinese loess) and/or Central/East Central European dust contributions. Central/East Central European loess Sr-Nd isotopic compositions overlap most with ice core dust, while the Sr isotopic signature of Chinese loess is slightly more radiogenic. Nevertheless, an admixture of 90‒10 % from Chinese loess and circum-Pacific volcanic material would also account for the Sr‒Nd isotopic ratios of central Greenland LGM dust. At the same time, sourcing of ice core dust from Alaska, continental US and NE Siberia seems less likely based on Sr and Nd isotopic signatures. The data demonstrate that currently no unique source discrimination for Greenland dust is possible using both published and our new data [3]. Thus, there is a need to identify more diagnostic tracers. Based on initial Hf isotope analyses of fine separates of three loess samples (continental US, Central Europe, China), an apparent dependence of Hf isotopic signatures on the relative proportions of radiogenic clay minerals (primarily illite) was found, as these fine dust fractions are apparently zircon-free. The observed difference between major potential source regions in

  2. Depleted basaltic lavas from the proto-Iceland plume, Central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Baker, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    New geochemical and isotopic data are presented for volumetrically minor, depleted low-Ti basalts that occur in the Plateau Basalt succession of central East Greenland (CEG), formed during the initial stages of opening of the North Atlantic at 55 Ma. The basalts have MORB-like geochemistry (e...... contamination (isotopic composition (ca. 1% lower for 206Pb/204Pb and 0.1% higher for 87Sr/86Sr depending on the contaminant). Negative ¿Nb suggests a MORB affinity for the low-Ti magmas, however they are distinguished from.......g. depleted LREE) and are distinct from the high-Ti lavas that dominate the sequence. REE geochemistry implies derivation from a source more depleted than the typical MORB source, and suggests polybaric melting and contributions from both spinel and garnet facies mantle. The low-Ti basalts have Sr...

  3. Coeval dust accumulation minima in Greenland and East Central Europe over 31-23 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Varga, György; Kovács, János; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    As reflected in δ18O values in ice cores, the North Atlantic area experienced a series of abrupt, dramatic climatic fluctuations over the last glacial during which oceanic and atmospheric conditions alternated between full glacial (stadial) and relatively mild (interstadial) conditions [1,2]. Beyond the δ18O profiles, calcium ion concentration data (hereafter [Ca2+]) also exhibit particularly clear stadial/interstadial contrasts [3]. The Ca2+/dust concentration records are considered as a proxy for the amount of terrestrial dust reaching the ice sheet [4] and/or changing dust storm activity in the source areas around the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in East Asia [5,6]. The mode of the dust size distributions is thought to reflect transit times during transport, with larger modes indicating shorter transit times and transport routes, i.e. changed atmospheric circulation patterns [5]. However, based on clay mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of loess sediments Újvári, et al. [7] suggested that Central European dust cannot be excluded as a potential source of Greenland dust. As such, it is vital to analyze dust deposition in the key dust depocentres of Eastern Europe. As a record of Carpathian Basin dust source activity, we therefore studied loess sedimentation and grain size changes in the Dunaszekcsö loess sequence in Southern Hungary. For this record, we developed the highest resolution geochronological dataset for European loess based on 61 AMS 14C dates from molluscs and charcoal fragments. This allowed us to establish a uniquely high precision Bayesian age-depth model, with the mean 95% confidence ranges that vary between 119 and 798 yr. Sedimentation rates (SR) calculated from the age-depth model vary between 0.36-1.7 mm yr-1 and the estimated bulk dust mass accumulation rates (MAR) range from 551 to 2525 g m-2 yr-1. Both the SR and MAR display millennial/sub-millennial scale variations, visible uniquely due to the high precision dating, together

  4. Origin and Role of Recycled Crust in Flood Basalt Magmatism: Case Study of the Central East Greenland Rifted Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Continental flood basalts (CFB) are extreme manifestations of mantle melting derived from chemically/isotopically heterogeneous mantle. Much of this heterogeneity comes from lithospheric material recycled into the convecting mantle by a range of mechanisms (e.g. subduction, delamination). The abundance and petrogenetic origins of these lithologies thus provide important constraints on the geodynamical origins of CFB magmatism, and the timescales of lithospheric recycling in the mantle. Basalt geochemistry has long been used to constrain the compositions and mean ages of recycled lithologies in the mantle. Typically, this work assumes the isotopic compositions of the basalts are the same as their mantle source(s). However, because basalts are mixtures of melts derived from different sources (having different fusibilities) generated over ranges of P and T, their isotopic compositions only indirectly represent the isotopic compositions of their mantle sources[1]. Thus, relating basalts compositions to mantle source compositions requires information about the melting process itself. To investigate the nature of lithologic source heterogeneity while accounting for the effects of melting during CFB magmatism, we utilize the REEBOX PRO forward melting model[2], which simulates adiabatic decompression melting in lithologically heterogeneous mantle. We apply the model to constrain the origins and abundance of mantle heterogeneity associated with Paleogene flood basalts erupted during the rift-to-drift transition of Pangea breakup along the Central East Greenland rifted margin of the North Atlantic igneous province. We show that these basalts were derived by melting of a hot, lithologically heterogeneous source containing depleted, subduction-modified lithospheric mantle, and recycled oceanic crust. The Paleozoic mean age we calculate for this recycled crust is consistent with an origin in the region's prior subduction history, and with estimates for the mean age of recycled

  5. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  6. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeogene North Atlantic Igneous Province is among the largest igneous provinces in the world and this review of the East Greenland sector includes large amounts of information amassed since previous reviews around 1990.The main area of igneous rocks extends from Kangerlussuaq (c. 67°N to Scoresby Sund (c. 70°N, where basalts extend over c. 65 000 km2, with a second area from Hold with Hope (c. 73°N to Shannon (c. 75°N. In addition, the Ocean Drilling Project penetrated basalt at five sites off South-East Greenland. Up to 7 km thickness of basaltic lavas have been stratigraphically and chemically described and their ages determined. A wide spectrum of intrusions are clustered around Kangerlussuaq, Kialeeq (c. 66°N and Mesters Vig (c. 72°N. Layered gabbros are numerous (e.g. the Skaergaard and Kap Edvard Holm intrusions, as are under- and oversaturated syenites, besides small amounts of nephelinite-derived products, such as the Gardiner complex (c. 69°N with carbonatites and silicate rocks rich in melilite, perovskite etc. Felsic extrusive rocks are sparse. A single, sanidine-bearing tuff found over an extensive area of the North Atlantic is thought to be sourced from the Gardiner complex.The province is famous for its coast-parallel dyke swarm, analogous to the sheeted dyke swarm of ophiolites, its associated coastal flexure, and many other dyke swarms, commonly related to central intrusive complexes as in Iceland. The dyke swarms provide time markers, tracers of magmatic evolution and evidence of extensional events. A set of dykes with harzburgite nodules gives unique insight into the Archaean subcontinental lithosphere.Radiometric dating indicates extrusion of huge volumes of basalt over a short time interval, but the overall life of the province was prolonged, beginning with basaltic magmas at c. 60 Ma and continuing to the quartz porphyry stock at Malmbjerg (c. 72°N at c. 26 Ma. Indeed, activity was renewed in the Miocene with

  7. Polar continental margins: Studies off East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienert, J.; Thiede, J.; Kenyon, N. H.; Hollender, F.-J.

    The passive continental margin off east Greenland has been shaped by tectonic and sedimentary processes, and typical physiographic patterns have evolved over the past few million years under the influence of the late Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The Greenland ice shield has been particularly affected.GLORIA (Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic), the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences' (IOS) long-range, side-scan sonar, was used on a 1992 RV Livonia cruise to map large-scale changes in sedimentary patterns along the east Greenland continental margin. The overall objective of this research program was to determine the variety of large-scale seafloor processes to improve our understanding of the interaction between ice sheets, current regimes, and sedimentary processes. In cooperation with IOS and the RV Livonia, a high-quality set of seafloor data has been produced. GLORIA'S first survey of east Greenland's continental margin covered several 1000- × 50-km-wide swaths (Figure 1) and yielded an impressive sidescan sonar image of the complete Greenland Basin and margin (about 250,000 km2). A mosaic of the data was made at a scale of 1:375,000. The base map was prepared with a polar stereographic projection having a standard parallel of 71°.

  8. Ice age plant refugia in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    From the distribution of plants it has been inferred by some botanists that ice-free areas existed in East Greenland accommodating a flora which survived one or several ice ages in the area. Comparing this evidence with recent information on the chronology of glaciations and post-glacial vegetation...... of Greenland. 14 C dating and amino-acid age estimates of marine sediments show that lowland areas near the outer coast have been ice-free for at least 40,000 years. The vegetation history, as reflected in pollen diagrams extending back to ca. 10,000 yr. B.P., has shown that many of the extant species...

  9. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  10. Anthropogenic carbon in the East Greenland Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutterström, Sara; Jeansson, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Sections of dissolved inorganic anthropogenic carbon ( CTanthro) based on 2002 data in the East Greenland Current (EGC) are presented. The CTanthro has been estimated using a model based on optimum multiparameter analysis with predefined source water types. Values of CTanthro have been assigned to the source water types through age estimations based on the transit time distribution (TTD) technique. The validity of this approach is discussed and compared to other methods. The results indicated that the EGC had rather high levels of CTanthro in the whole water column, and the anthropogenic signal of the different source areas were detected along the southward transit. We estimated an annual transport of CTanthro with the Denmark Strait overflow ( σθ > 27.8 kg m -3) of ∼0.036 ± 0.005 Gt C y -1. The mean CTanthro concentration in this density range was ∼30 μmol kg -1. The main contribution was from Atlantic derived waters, the Polar Intermediate Water and the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water.

  11. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  12. The East Greenland Caledonides—teleseismic signature, gravity and isostasy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Balling, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    surrounding the North Atlantic. Teleseismic receiver function interpretation in the Central Fjord Region of East Greenland recently suggested the presence of a fossil Caledonian subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of serpentinised mantle peridotite. Here we...... further investigate this topic using inverse receiver functions modelling. The obtained velocity models are tested with regard to their consistency with the regional gravity field and topography. We find that the obtained receiver function model is generally consistent with gravity and isostasy...... as a fossil subduction zone complex. The spatial relations with Caledonian structures suggest a Caledonian origin. The results indicate that topography is isostatically compensated by density variations within the lithosphere, and that significant dynamic topography is not required at the present day....

  13. Age of the youngest Palaeogene flood basalts in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Piasecki, Stefan; Abrahamsen, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    Intra-basaltic sediments 50 m below the top of the Paleogene lava succession at Kap Dalton, East Greenland, contain dinoflagellate cysts of late Ypresian-earliest Lutetian age, while sediments immediately above the lavas contain an assemblage of early Lutetian age. Combined with paleomagnetic...... results, this constrains the termination of the East Greenland Paleogene Igneous Province to the Early-Middle Eocene transition (nannoplankton chronozones NP13-NP14/earliest NP15). This is 6-8 Ma younger than according to previous biostratigraphic age assignments. The new data show that flood basalt...

  14. Retroflection of part of the east Greenland current at Cape Farewell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, N. Penny; Meyer, Amélie; Bacon, Sheldon; Alderson, Steven G.; de Cuevas, Beverly

    2007-04-01

    The east Greenland current (EGC) and the smaller east Greenland coastal current (EGCC) provide the major conduit for cold fresh polar water to enter the lower latitudes of the North Atlantic. They flow equatorward through the western Irminger Basin and around Cape Farewell into the Labrador Sea. The surface circulation and transport of the Cape Farewell boundary current region in summer 2005 is described. The EGCC merges with Arctic waters of the EGC to the south of Cape Farewell, forming the west Greenland current. The EGC transport decreases from 15.5 Sv south of Cape Farewell to 11.7 Sv in the eastern Labrador Sea (where the water becomes known as Irminger Sea Water). The decrease in EGC transport is balanced by the retroflection of a substantial proportion of the boundary current (5.1 Sv) into the central Irminger Basin; a new pathway for fresh water into the interior of the subpolar gyre.

  15. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    The East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides once formed a major coherent mountain range, as a consequence of the collision of the continents of Laurentia and Baltica. The crustal and upper mantle structure was furthermore influenced by several geodynamic processes leading to the formation...

  16. Recent changes in the freshwater composition east of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Torres, D.J.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2015-01-01

    Results from three hydrographic surveys across the East Greenland Current between 2011 and 2013 are presented with focus on the freshwater sources. End-member analysis using salinity, d18O, and nutrient data shows that while meteoric water dominated the freshwater content, a significant amount of Pa

  17. First indication of Storegga tsunami deposits from East Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, B.; Bennike, O.; Klug, M.; Cremer, H.

    2007-01-01

    A 2.73 m long sediment sequence from Loon Lake, located at 18m a.s.l. on outer Geographical Society Ø, East Greenland, was investigated for its chronology and changes in physical and biogeochemical properties, macrofossils, and grain-size distribution. The predominance of marine fossils throughout t

  18. Upper-mantle P- and S-wave velocities below Scandinavia and East Greenland from teleseismic traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak

    2014-01-01

    north. The UMVB was resolved in P-and S-velocity as well as the VP/VS anomaly. From the Oslo Graben the UMVB follows the western edge of the Trans-scandinavian Igneous Belt to the Atlantic coast, from where where it continues northward sub-parallel to the coast. Third study compiled all data in the......This dissertation deals with the resolution of P- and S-velocity variations in the upper mantle (down to 600 km) using teleseismic P- and S-wave arrival times. The natural laboratory is the land areas bordering the North Atlantic; the Scandinavian and East Greenland Caledonides and the Northern...... first two studies with permanent station data from the North Atlantic and Greenland, and a dense temporary profile, the East Greenland Caledonian Central Fjord Array (EGCFA). EGCFA resolves low upper-mantle velocities close to the east coast of Greenland and high mantle velocities below the high...

  19. Substantial thinning of a major east Greenland outlet glacier

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, RH; W. Abdalati; Akins, TL; Csatho, BM; Frederick, EB; Gogineni, SP; Krabill, WB; Manizade, SS; Rignot, EJ

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft laser-altimeter surveys in 1993 and 1998 over Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier in east Greenland reveal thinning, over the 5-year interim, of several meters for all surveyed areas within 70 km of the seaward ice front, rising to 50 meters in the final 5 km. Such rapid thinning is best explained by increased discharge velocities and associated creep thinning, most probably caused by enhanced lubrication of the glacier bed. The calving ice front over the past decade has occupied approximately t...

  20. Petroleum geological investigations in East greenland: project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmerik, L.; Clausen, O.R.; Larsen, M.; Piasecki, S.; Therkelsen, J. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Korstgaard, J. [Univ. of Aarhus, Geological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark); Seidler, L.; Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The multidisciplinary research project `Resources of the sedimentary basins of North and East Greenland` was initiated in 1995. The 1996 field work in East Greenland concentrated on integrated structural, sedimentological and biostratigraphical studies of the Upper Permian and Mesozoic successions. The most important new results arising from the 1996 field work are: 1) Re-interpretation of the Upper Permian Schuchert Dal Formation as a low stand turbidite unit within the Ravnefjeld Formation; 2) Recognition of Middle Jurassic deposits and thick lowermost Cretaceous sandstones on Hold with Hope; 3) Interpretation of a full spectrum of scarp-derived coarse-clastic mass movement deposits inter-bedded with Cretaceous shales on eastern Traill Oe; 4) The presence of a thick sand-rich Cretaceous turbidite succession on eastern Traill Oe; 5) Re-interpretation of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fault systems on Traill Oe and Geographical Society Oe. (EG) 24 refs.

  1. The East Greenland Coastal Current: Structure, variability, and forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, David A.; Pickart, Robert S.

    2008-07-01

    The subtidal circulation of the southeast Greenland shelf is described using a set of high-resolution hydrographic and velocity transects occupied in summer 2004. The main feature is the East Greenland Coastal Current (EGCC), a low-salinity, high-velocity jet with a wedge-shaped hydrographic structure characteristic of other surface buoyancy-driven currents. The EGCC was observed along the entire Greenland shelf south of Denmark Strait, while the transect north of the strait showed only a weak shelf flow. This observation, in conjunction with water mass considerations and other supporting evidence, suggests that the EGCC is an inner branch of the East Greenland Current (EGC) that forms south of Denmark Strait. It is argued that bathymetric steering is the most likely reason why the EGC apparently bifurcates at this location. Repeat sections occupied at Cape Farewell between 1997 and 2004 show that the alongshelf wind stress can have an influence on the structure and strength of the EGCC and EGC on timescales of 2-3 days. Accounting for the wind-induced effects, the volume transport of the combined EGCC/EGC system is roughly constant (∼2 Sv) over the study domain, from 68°N to Cape Farewell near 60°N. The corresponding freshwater transport increases by roughly 60% over this distance (59-96 mSv, referenced to a salinity of 34.8). This trend is consistent with a simple freshwater budget of the EGCC/EGC system that accounts for meltwater runoff, melting sea-ice and icebergs, and net precipitation minus evaporation.

  2. Comparison of satellite imagery and infrared aerial photography as vegetation mapping methods in an arctic study area: Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf; Mosbech, Anders

    1994-01-01

    Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland......Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland...

  3. The East Greenland Ridge - a continental sliver along the Greenland Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlings, Joanna; Funck, Thomas; Castro, Carlos F.; Hopper, John R.

    2014-05-01

    The East Greenland Ridge (EGR), situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone in the northern part of the Greenland-Norwegian Sea, is a NW-SE trending 250-km-long and up to 50-km-wide bathymetric high that separates the Greenland Basin in the south from the Boreas Basin in the north. Previous seismic work established that the EGR is primarily continental in nature. Detailed swath bathymetric data revealed a complex internal structure of the ridge with two main overstepping ridge segments. These segments were not adequately covered by the GEUS2002NEG seismic survey as the detailed structure was not known at that time. The crustal affinity of the northwestern, landward-most ridge segment, and how it is attached to the Northeast Greenland continental shelf, remained unclear. The GEUS-EAGER2011 survey was designed to address these issues and to provide further constraints on the structural development of the EGR. During the GEUS-EAGER2011 survey, additional seismic refraction and reflection data were acquired on the EGR and the Northeast Greenland shelf. The data set consists of two strike lines covering the seaward-most part of the Northeast Greenland shelf and the landward-most part of the EGR, and one cross line extending from the Boreas Basin, across the ridge and into the Greenland Basin. A total of 15 ocean bottom seismometers and 46 sonobuoys were deployed along the three seismic refraction lines. P-wave velocity models for the crust and upper mantle were derived by forward and inverse modelling of the travel times of the observed seismic phases using the raytracing algorithm RAYINVR. Seismic reflection data, coinciding with the seismic refraction data were used to guide the modelling of the sedimentary layers down to basement. The velocity models confirm that the crust has a continental nature along both ridge segments with a velocity structure that significantly differs from that of normal oceanic crust. The models also show that the crust of the EGR is linked to

  4. Shallow core drilling and petroleum geology related field work in East and North-East Greenland 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A.; Bjerager, M.; Piasecki, S.

    2009-07-15

    In 2007/2008, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) launched a major petroleum industry-sponsored project with the objective of updating and expanding our current understanding of the petroleum geology of East and North-East Greenland. The project is planned to continue for the next four to five years, and includes compilation of relevant existing data in the form of a geographic information system (GIS) product, supplemented by new data obtained from shallow core drilling and new field work. Below we give a brief overview of a range of field activities that took place in East and North-East Greenland in the summer of 2008.

  5. GJB2 (Connexin-26) mutations are not frequent among hearing impaired patients in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homoe, P.; Koch, A.; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl;

    2012-01-01

    for GJB2 sequencing from DNA, were selected from 166 East Greenlanders by specialist audiology examination, including pure-tone air and bone conduction audiometry from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Controls were 108 East- and 109 West-Greenlanders. Results: Forty-five patients with HI were included, 24 males and...

  6. Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland: Colophon, abstract, introduction, official place names in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded landing by Europeans on the coast of northern East Greenland (north of 69°N was that of William Scoresby Jr., a British whaler, in 1822. This volume includes a chronological summary of the pioneer 19th century exploration voyages made by British, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and German expeditions – all of whom reported that the region had previously been occupied by the Inuit or Eskimo; also included are brief outlines of the increasing number of government and privately sponsored expeditions throughout the 20th century, whose objectives included cartography, geology, zoology, botany, trapping and the ascent of the highest mountain summits. In 1934 the Place Name Committee for Greenland was established, the tasks of which included a review of all place names hitherto recorded on published maps of Greenland, their formal adoption in danicised form, and the approval or rejection of new name proposals. In northern East Greenland, by far the largest numbers of new place names were those proposed by scientists associated with Lauge Koch’s geological expeditions that lasted from 1926 until 1958. This volume records the location and origin of more than 3000 officially approved place names as well as about 2650 unapproved names.The author’s interest in the exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland started in 1968, when the Geological Survey of Greenland initiated a major five-year geological mapping programme in the Scoresby Sund region. Systematic compilation of names began about 1970, initially with the names given by William Scoresby Jr., and subsequently broadened in scope to include the names proposed by all expeditions to northern East Greenland. The author has participated in 16 summer mapping expeditions with the Survey to northern East Greenland. Publication of this volume represents the culmination of a lifetime working in the Arctic.

  7. Sedimentology and distribution of Upper Permian lowstand fans, Bredehorn Member, Schuchert Dal Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreiner-Moeller, M.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Permian basin of central East Greenland was characterized by shallow marine platform carbonates along the basin margins and over fault crests, and deeper water siliciclastics in the basin centres during the later stages of deposition. The basinal, siliciclastic-dominated succession includes the organic rich, source prone shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation and sandy and silty sediments of the Schuchert Dal Formation. The traditional view of these formations is that they represent discrete stages of basin evolution. However, renewed fieldwork indicates that the lower part of the sandy Bredehorn Member of the Schuchert Dal Formation is time equivalent to the upper part of the Ravnefjeld Formation. The presentation discusses the details.

  8. Seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle in central-eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Helene Anja

    . The receiver functions were jointly inverted for the velocity structure of the crust and delay times, and shapes of signals originating at the mantle transition zone discontinuities, P410s and P660s, were analysed. The crustal models show a deepening of the Moho from east to west from less than 20 km depth......Geophysical and geological knowledge of the interior of Greenland is very limited. The lack of knowledge arises mainly due to the logistical challenges related to conducting geophysical fieldwork on the up to 3400 m thick ice sheet, which covers around 80% of the land area. This PhD thesis is based...... on the very first regional passive seismic study in central-Eastern Greenland, focusing on the area between Scoresby Sund and Summit. The study aims to image the structure of subsurface Greenland starting from the crust and down to the mantle transition zone. Furthermore, the thesis links these observations...

  9. Mass balance and surface movement of the Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit, Central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, C.S.; Keller, K.; Gundestrup, N.S.;

    1997-01-01

    During the GRIP deep drilling in Central Greenland, the ice sheet topography and surface movement at Summit has been mapped with GPS. Measurements of the surface velocity are presented for a strain net consisting of 13 poles at distances of 25-60 km from the GRIP site. Some results are: The GRIP...

  10. Anomalous subglacial heat flow in central Greenland induced by the Iceland plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, Alexey G.; Rogozhina, Irina; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Johnson, Jesse; Koulakov, Ivan; Thomas, Maik

    2013-04-01

    3000 m of ice sheet thickness has ensured that central Greenland has kept it geothermal heat flow (GHF) distribution enigmatic. Some few direct ice temperature measurements from deep ice cores reveal a GHF of 50 to 60 mW/m² in the Summit region and this is noticeably above what would be expected for the underlying Early Proterozoic lithosphere. In addition, indirect estimates from zones of rapid basal melting suggest extreme anomalies 15 to 30 times continental background. Subglacial topography indicates caldera like topographic features in the zones hinting at possible volcanic activity in the past [1], and all of these observations combined hint at an anomalous lithospheric structure. Further supporting this comes from new high-resolution P-wave tomography, which shows a strong thermal anomaly in the lithosphere crossing Greenland from east to west [2]. Rock outcrops at the eastern and western end of this zone indicate significant former magmatic activity, older in the east and younger in the west. Additionally, plate modelling studies suggest that the Greenland plate passed over the mantle plume that is currently under Iceland from late Cretaceous to Neogene times, consistent with the evidence from age of magmatism. Evidence of rapid basal melt revealed by ice penetrating radar along the hypocentre of the putative plume track indicates that it continues to affect the Greenland continental geotherm today. We analyse plume-induced thermal disturbance of the present-day lithosphere and their effects on the central Greenland ice sheet by using a novel evolutionary model of the climate-ice-lithosphere-upper mantle system. Our results indicate that mantle plume-induced erosion of the lithosphere has occurred, explaining caldera-type volcanic structures, the GHF anomaly, and requiring dyke intrusion into the crust during the early Cenozoic. The residual thermo-mechanical effect of the mantle plume has raised deep-sourced heat flow by over 25 mW/m² since 60 Ma and

  11. Movements of female polar bears (Usrus maritimus) in the East Greenland pack ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiig, Øystein; Born, Erik W.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2003-01-01

    The movements of two adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in East Greenland and the Greenland Sea area were studied by use of satellite telemetry between the fall of 1994 and the summer of 1998. One female was tracked for 621 days, the other for 1,415 days. During this time the females used...... closer monitoring of the effects of this change on the East Greenland polar bear population....... movement rates varied between 0.32 and 0.76km/h. Both bears had very large home ranges (242,000 and 468,000 km(2)) within the dynamic pack ice of the Greenland Sea. The facts that the bears made extensive use of the offshore sea ice and that there is a marked reduction of the Greenland Sea ice call for a...

  12. Mid to late Holocene strengthening of the East Greenland Current linked to warm subsurface Atlantic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Lloyd, Jeremy M.; Jansen, Eystein; Stein, Rüdiger

    2015-12-01

    The relatively fresh and cold East Greenland Current (EGC) connects the Arctic with the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean. Its strength and influence on the freshwater balance in the North Atlantic affects both the Subpolar Gyre dynamics and deep convection in the Labrador Sea. Enhanced freshwater and sea-ice expansion in the subpolar North Atlantic is suggested to modify the northward heat transport within the North Atlantic Current. High-resolution palaeoceanographic reconstructions, based on planktic and benthic foraminifera assemblage data, from the central East Greenland shelf (Foster Bugt) reveal distinct centennial to millennial-scale oceanographic variability that relates to climatic changes during the mid to late Holocene (the last c. 6.3 ka BP). Our data highlight intervals of cooling and freshening of the polar surface EGC waters that accompany warming in the subsurface Atlantic waters, which are a combination of chilled Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) from the Arctic Ocean and of the Return Atlantic Current (RAC) from the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). Mid Holocene thermal optimum conditions prevailed until c. 4.5 ka BP. A thin/absent surface Polar Water layer, low drift/sea-ice occurrence and strong contribution of recirculating warm Atlantic waters at the subsurface, suggest a relatively weak EGC during this period. Subsequently, between 1.4 and 4.5 ka BP, the water column became well stratified as the surface Polar Water layer thickened and cooled, indicating a strong EGC. This EGC strengthening parallelled enhanced subsurface chilled AIW contribution from the Arctic Ocean after c. 4.5 ka BP, which culminated from 1.4 to 2.3 ka BP. This coincides with warming identified in earlier work of the North Atlantic Current, the Irminger Current, and the West Greenland Current. We link the enhanced contribution of chilled Atlantic Water during this period to the time of the 'Roman Warm Period'. The observed warming offshore East Greenland, centred at c. 1.8 ka

  13. Last Interglacial (MIS5e) hydrographic shifts linked to meltwater discharges from the East Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning A.; Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The East Greenland Current (EGC) plays a key role in transporting polar water from the Arctic to convectional sites of the Iceland and Labrador seas. Ongoing melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as well as the Arctic sea ice prompts freshening of the EGC and accumulation of low-density water in the subpolar North Atlantic, thus affecting the stabilities of water mass overturning and subsequent northward heat transfer. To assess natural eastern GIS dynamics and possible freshwater-induced regional oceanic reorganizations we analyzed several sediment sequences from the poorly investigated area along the eastern Greenland margin and the western Nordic Seas. Records span the last interglacial (LIG, MIS5e) cycle, including deglacial Termination 2 and the LIG climatic optimum. On a global scale, the latter is believed to have been warmer than present, with a higher sea level, and may, therefore, serve as a promising analogue for future hydrographic changes. Based on various proxy data (stable isotopes, planktic foraminiferal assemblages, ice-rafted debris) our reconstructions support the notion of a "two-step development" of Termination 2 which underwent severe surface freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. This is shown in extremely light oxygen isotopic values registered all along the eastern Greenland margin during early MIS5e, which are indicative for pronounced eastern/central GIS retreat and a further propagation of the resulting meltwater southward via the EGC. In addition, we find compelling evidence for at least two separate meltwater episodes in proximity of the eastern GIS during early MIS5e. The climatic episode in between is correlated with an early LIG warm peak, which may be linked to enhanced presence of Atlantic water in the central Nordic Seas (Bauch et al., 2012) and further downstream along southern Greenland (Hillaire-Marcel et al., 1994, Irvali et al., 2012). Our data, therefore, reveal a complex and variable dynamic of the EGC during MIS5e

  14. Greenland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮

    2002-01-01

    Greenland is the largest is land in the world.it is in the_____of Europe(欧洲)。Near Greenland is another island.it is small.its_____is lceland.do you think that greenland is green and warm? do you think that iceland is white with ice? if you do,you are______.

  15. Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Greenland and the European Union (EU) can best be understood by exploring the development from Danish colonialism to a future independent Greenlandic state. In 1985, Greenland became the first territory ever to leave the European Economic Community (EEC) when it opted...... in 1979 and made the 1985 withdrawal possible. On 25 November 2008, a majority of the people of Greenland voted in favour of enhanced home rule – ‘self-government’ – still within formal Danish sovereignty. Denmark and Greenland alike are preparing for a future envisioned as involving climate change......, intensive raw material extraction, new transportation corridors and new claims to sovereignty over the Arctic. Greenland uses this imagined future as a way of enhancing its subjectivity, not the least when dealing with the EU. This article analyses how the Greenlandic self-understanding as being on the way...

  16. Estimates of reproductive potential of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in East Greenland based on an update of maturity status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, James; Hedeholm, Rasmus B.; Gundersen, Agnes C.;

    2014-01-01

    twelve months. This has led to a revision of the interpretation of the maturity scale where fish which contain only a developing cohort (DC) of oocytes are considered immature. Comparisons were made of estimates of L50 of female Greenland halibut in East Greenland using the previous interpretation...... of maturity status where the leading cohort (LC) and DC oocytes are not differentiated with the new interpretation where they are. Differentiation led to an increase from 63.8 to 80.2cm and from 61.2 to 74.1cm for the northern (between 63°40′N and 67°00′N) and southern area (between 61°45′N and 62°40′N...... caught by Norwegian fishing vessels fishing in East Greenland indicate that 85 and 57% of the females caught by the trawl and longline fleet respectively in the northern area and 46% caught by the longline fleet in the southern area were immature....

  17. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Brown, Philip J., II; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Shah, Anjana; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Greenland?East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal effort. The West Greenland?East Canada Province is essentially the offshore area between west Greenland and east Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including Kane Basin. The tectonic evolution of the West Greenland?East Canada Province led to the formation of several major structural domains that are the geologic basis for the five assessment units (AU) defined in this study. The five AUs encompass the entire province. Each AU was assessed in its entirety for undiscovered, technically recoverable (assuming absence of sea ice) oil and gas resources, but the assessment results reported here are only for those portions of each AU that are north of the Arctic Circle, as that latitude defines the area of the Circum-Arctic oil and gas assessment.

  18. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...

  19. An isotope trace element study of the East Greenland Tertiary dyke swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Karen; Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    of the East Greenland margin indicates that there is no systematic compositional change with distance from the presumed proto-Icelandic plume centre. This suggests that a northward-increasing crustal thickness observed offshore may be attributed to active upwelling rather than a systematic rise in...

  20. Deshayesitid ammonites from the lower Aptian (Lower Cretaceous) of North-East Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, S.R.A.; Whitham, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Two deshayesitid ammonite assemblages are described from the Lower Cretaceous succession of the north coast of Hold with Hope, North-East Greenland, and their biostratigraphical significance is assessed. In the earlier assemblage Prodeshayesites cf. bodei and P. laeviusculus occur. The second assemb

  1. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  2. Bottom fish assemblages at the shelf and continental slope off East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Hvingel, Carsten; Møller, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    During 2006 and 2008 two bottom trawl surveys were conducted at East Greenland to 72°N covering depths down to 1500 m. In the 149 trawl hauls in total 113 fish species were recorded of which 37 were considered pelagic and excluded from the analyses. As a first step the abundance data for the 76 b...

  3. Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    the article includes updated informations regarding church-state relations in Greenland re the latest changes of the Church law......the article includes updated informations regarding church-state relations in Greenland re the latest changes of the Church law...

  4. Historical ablation rates on south-east Greenland glaciers measured in the 1933 warm summer

    OpenAIRE

    Hasholt, Bent; van As, Dirk; Knudsen, Niels Tvis

    2016-01-01

    Ice ablation rates measured on four glaciers in south-east Greenland in summer 1933 are recovered from an old field book of geologist K. Milthers. These unpublished ablation data are among the first measured in Greenland and were obtained during a warm period comparable to that of recent years. Ablation rates of up to 45 mm ice eq. d−1 were observed. Using the Tasiilaq meteorological record, we calculate degree-day factors of ca. 3–5 mm ice eq. d−1°C−1. Comparing these results with 1996–2012 ...

  5. The East Greenland Caledonides from the viewpoint of Receiver Functions, gravity and topography data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    and the subsequent major collision and orogeny (420 Ma) the Caledonian deformation included several early stages of terrain accretion along the involved continents [1]. The high topographic elevation in the Caledonides and its longevity attract special attention, but also shallow extensional features, a lower...... to 2011) 11 temporary broadband stations were deployed and maintained by Aarhus University, forming the approximately 270 km long Ella-Ø-array. The profile extends from the Greenland ice sheet to the coastline, crossing the East Greenland Caledonides at about 73° north. The data are of high quality. P...

  6. The most extensive Holocene advance in the Stauning Alper, East Greenland, occurred in the Little Ice Age

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Brenda L.; Baroni, Carlo; Denton, George H.

    2008-01-01

    We present glacial geologic and chronologic data concerning the Holocene ice extent in the Stauning Alper of East Greenland. The retreat of ice from the late-glacial position back into the mountains was accomplished by at least 11 000 cal years B.P. The only recorded advance after this time occurred during the past few centuries (the Little Ice Age). Therefore, we postulate that the Little Ice Age event represents the maximum Holocene ice extent in this part of East Greenland.

  7. Sources and fate of freshwater exported in the East Greenland Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul A.; Heywood, Karen J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto C.; Marca, Alina D.; Falkner, Kelly K.

    2009-10-01

    Monitoring the sources and fate of freshwater in the East Greenland Current (EGC) is important, as this water has the potential to suppress deep convection in the Nordic and Labrador Seas if the outflow of freshwater from the Arctic Ocean increases in response to climate change. Here, hydrographic, oxygen isotope ratio and dissolved barium concentration sections across Denmark Strait collected in 1998 and 1999 are used to determine the freshwater composition of the EGC at these times. Comparison of meltwater fluxes at Denmark Strait and Fram Strait indicates a net melting of sea ice into the EGC between these two locations, with a significant proportion of sea ice drifting into the Nordic Seas or on to the East Greenland Shelf. We conclude that the phase of freshwater exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait is important in determining its possible impact on deep water formation in the Nordic and Labrador Seas.

  8. Xenoendocrine pollutants may reduce size of sexual organs in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Páll Skuli; Dietz, Rune;

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears were examined to investigate the potential negative impact from organohalogen pollutants (OHCs). Multiple regressions normalizing for age showed a significant inverse relationship between OHCs and testis length and baculum...... decreased with increasing chlordanes, DDTs, and HCB in subadults and adults, respectively (all p inverse relationship was found between ovary length and sigma PCB (p = 0.03) and sigma CHL (p ....01) and uterine horn length and HCB (p = 0.02). The study suggests thatthere is an impact from xenoendocrine pollutants on the size of East Greenland polar bear genitalia. This may pose a riskto this polar bear subpopulation in the future because of reduced sperm and egg quality/quantity and uterus and penis size...

  9. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W;

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... SigmaCHL (p < 0.03) in subadults and for dieldrin (p < 0.002) and SigmaDDT (p < 0.02) in adult males; indications for SigmaPBDE in subadults were also found (p = 0.06). In conclusion, the strong correlative relationships suggest that disruption of the bone mineral composition in East Greenland polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  10. Size and density of East Greenland polar bear (Ursus maritimus) skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C.; Bechshøft, T.O.; Rigét, F.F.;

    2013-01-01

    density (BMD) in 87 East Greenland male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in the time period of 1892-2010. The purpose of the study was to investigate if these measures are potential candidates as indicators for stress associated with climate change and long-range transported toxic industrial...... chemicals. The analyses showed that both BMD and CBL in polar bears sampled in period 4 (1999-2010, n = 57) were significantly lower when compared with period 2 (1920-1936, n = 19) (both p <0.02). Groups of persistent organohalogen contaminants (PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls], DDT...... that BMD and body size have decreased in East Greenland polar bear males over the past 120 years and that exposure to organohalogen contaminants may explain the BMD reductions. It is, however, not entirely clear if and how climatic oscillations affected the reductions in body size and BMD mainly...

  11. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largestloilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  12. Formation of source and reservoir rocks in a sequence stratigraphic framework Jameson Land East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, S.; Dam, G.; Hansen, C.F.; Koppelhus, E.B.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentological, biostratigraphical and sequence stratigraphical analyses of East Greenland sedimentary successions with significant source and reservoir qualities have resulted in a major increase in the understanding of their depositional conditions, distribution and geometry`s. A biostratigraphical scheme of the Jurassic succession based on spores, pollen and dinoflaggelate cyst has been constructed for correlation and dating of the very detailed sequence stratigraphical units across the North Atlantic Ocean. Middle and Upper Jurassic dinoflaggelate stratigraphy is closely correlated to Boreal ammonite stratigraphy and deviations from the NW-European standard dinocyst stratigraphy have been recorded. The Upper Permian Folvik Creek Group was deposited in a marine, carbonate-dominated depositional system under arid climatic conditions. The organic-rich shales of the Ravnefjeld Formation represents highstand systems tracts. Reservoir rocks were formed by secondary dissolution of carbonates which were exposed during low relativ sea-level and as sandy turbidites deposited in lowstand systems tract. The uppermost Triassic - lowermost Jurassic Kap Stewart Group was deposited in a large rift lake. Organic-rich shales were deposited distally during lake level highstand. Deltaic reservoir sandstones were deposited in lowstand systems tracts as a respond to forced regressin induced by rapid variations in relative lake-level. The overlying marine Jurassic deposits include several sandstone units with reservoir potential representing both lowstand and high stand systems tracts. The organic rich mudstones were only developed as potential source rocks for oil when the deposition was combined with high marine organic production and basinal anoxic conditions e.g. during deposition of the Middle Jurassic Sortehat Formation and the Upper Jurassic Hareelv Formations. Several of the largest oilfields in the North Sea and on the Norwegian shelf have close analogues in the Jurassic

  13. Confirmation of right whales near a nineteenth-century whaling ground east of southern Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Mellinger, David K.; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Klinck, Karolin; Klinck, Holger; Dziak, Robert P.; Clapham, Phillip J.; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís

    2011-01-01

    North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) were found in an important nineteenth century whaling area east of southern Greenland, from which they were once thought to have been extirpated. In 2007–2008, a 1-year passive acoustic survey was conducted at five sites in and near the ‘Cape Farewell Ground’, the former whaling ground. Over 2000 right whale calls were recorded at these sites, primarily during July–November. Most calls were northwest of the historic ground, suggesting a broade...

  14. Late Permian carbonate concretions in the marine siliciclastic sediments of the Ravnefjeld Formation, East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J.K. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hanken, N.M. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Geology, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-07-01

    The investigation of carbonate concretions from the Late Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland forms part of the multi-disciplinary research project Research of the Sedimentary Basins of North and East Greenland (TUPOLAR). The TUPOLAR project focuses on investigations and evaluation of potential hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Upper Permian - Mesozoic sedimentary basins. In this context, the Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation occupies a pivotal position because it contains local mineralization and has source rock potential for hydrocarbons adjacent to potential carbonate reservoir rocks of the partly time-equivalent Wegener Halvoe Formation. A better understanding of the sedimentary facies and diagenesis of the Ravnefjeld Formation is therefore crucial for an evaluation of the economic evaluation of East Greenland. The original fieldwork was carried out in 1998, when sampling was undertaken of representative carbonate concretions and surrounding beds from a limited number of well-exposed sections in the Ravnefjeld Formation. The sampled material was subsequently investigated by a combination of petrography and stable isotope chemistry to decipher the relationships between the diagenetic development of the carbonate concretions and the mineralization in the sequence. The sequential precipitation of the cement generations was analysed in cement-filled primary voids in gastropods because these showed the most complete development of the different cement generations. The geochemistry of stable isotopes was also studied. During the petrographic work, we became aware of a hitherto unrecognised biota dominated by calcispheres. The well-developed cement generations in primary cavities in skeletal material were used to elucidate the diagenesis. (BA)

  15. Quotas on narwhal (Monodon monoceros) hunting in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    /hunter; and suggest southwest- bound migration, implying potential immigration from non-hunted populations that was not considered in quota setting. The implementation of quotas without local consultations and legal basis in the relevant executive order is therefore in our opinion inappropriate. Conservation......This study evaluates the introduction of quotas on narwhal hunting in East Greenland with respect to effects on Inuit culture and based on trends in narwhal killed per hunter and assessment of migration patterns. Cultural aspects were assessed through group discussions and comparison between East...

  16. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... women. Adjusted for BMI, age and Inuit heritage waist circumference decreased with Westernization (among women), while hip circumference did not change. The differences were particularly pronounced for migrants compared with residents of Greenland. CONCLUSION: BMI and central fat patterning decrease...

  17. Palynostratigraphy and vegetation history of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, L.; Kürschner, W. M.; McElwain, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Plant macrofossils from East Greenland provide vital information on the response of terrestrial vegetation to major environmental change at the Triassic-Jurassic transition (Tr-J; 200 Ma). However, owing to the lack of a robust stratigraphic correlation between the exact horizons containing plant macrofossils in East Greenland ('plant beds') and Tr-J boundary sections in well-studied areas such as Europe, it is difficult to fit the results of palaeoecological investigations in East Greenland into the wider picture of Tr-J biotic change. Recent work has highlighted major differences in the types of plants represented in sporomorph assemblages and macrofossil assemblages from the plant beds in East Greenland, but the taphonomic processes responsible for these differences remain poorly explained. Additionally, the exact nature of Tr-J vegetation change as recorded by sporomorphs from the plant beds is somewhat unclear. In order to address these issues we have undertaken a palynological study of a Tr-J boundary section at Astartekløft, East Greenland. We have generated an updated palynostratigraphic scheme and vegetation history for this locality and have integrated these with existing carbon isotope records. Samples for palynological analysis were collected from precisely the same stratigraphic horizons as plant macrofossils from Astartekløft, allowing the results of palaeoecological analyses based on macrofossils at this locality to be directly compared with palaeoecological analyses of other fossil organisms in different regions. Our analyses highlight four local sporomorph assemblage zones that are compositionally distinct from each other at Astartekløft. The extremely low abundance of Classopollis pollen in all samples, and the pronounced decline in Ricciisporites tuberculatus in the Late Rhaetian are particularly striking features of the sporomorph record of Tr-J vegetation at Astartekløft. Plants with small stature that do not shed fronds by abscission, such

  18. The north-east Baffin Bay region, offshore Greenland - a new frontier petroleum exploration region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregersen, U. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    In recent years the Arctic has come into focus for hydrocarbon exploration, and areas offshore both West and East Greenland have been evaluated as promising frontier hydrocarbon provinces. Seven hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation licenses were awarded in 2007-2008 offshore the Disko-Nuussuaq region, and two more have been awarded in the open-door region offshore south-western Greenland. In 2007, an extensive amount of new seismic and aero-magnetic data was acquired by the TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company in the north-eastern Baffin Bay region. Geophysical mapping has been initiated by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) in the Melville Bugt region offshore North-West Greenland with the purpose of evaluating the hydrocarbon prospectivity. Initial interpretation of seismic and gravity data suggests the presence of deep sedimentary basins separated by structural highs. Geological information on source rock, reservoir rock and seal intervals from surrounding regions suggest that the Melville Bugt region is likely to have a significant petroleum potential. The study is based on public domain magnetic and gravity data, and all proprietary and public 2-D seismic data acquired before 2003. Seismic horizons from the 'seismic basement' to 'base Quaternary' are being interpreted regionally. Based on the seismic interpretation, a structural element map, depth-structure maps and isopach maps will be produced in order to assess the prospectivity of the Melville Bugt region. (au)

  19. The Mantle Transition Zone in Central-Eastern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, H. A.; Thybo, H.; Vinnik, L. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of a Receiver Function (RF) study of the mantle transition zone (TZ) in Central-Eastern Greenland. The base of this study is data from 19 broad-band seismometers, which were temporarily installed from 2009 to 2012 in the region between Scoresbysund and Summit (~ 70º N) plus 5 permanent stations from the GLISN network. One half of these stations were installed on the ice, the other half on bedrock.Our analysis is based on low frequency PRF, which use the difference in travel times between converted and not converted phasesat discontinuities. Most of our RFs show clear signals for P410s and P660s. Their delay times suggest a surprisingly thin mantle transition zone for most parts of the study area in comparison to standard Earth models, and much thinner than below other continental shield and platform areas. This could indicate a fairly recent heating of the TZ. Another observation is an M-shaped signal around the 410 km - discontinuity at some of the stations mainly in the western part around Summit. This observation is contrary to the expected simple negative signal. It may indicate a thin low velocity layer between 410 km and 520 km, as it has previously been observed in several settings based on converted waves and also explosion data. Most of our stations show positive travel time anomalies for the upper mantle, which again is contrary to simple models of old continental shields.

  20. Gyrfalcon diet in central west Greenland during the nestling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We studied food habits of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) nesting in central west Greenland in 2000 and 2001 using three sources of data: time-lapse video (3 nests), prey remains (22 nests), and regurgitated pellets (19 nests). These sources provided different information describing the diet during the nesting period. Gyrfalcons relied heavily on Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and arctic hares (Lepus arcticus). Combined, these species contributed 79-91% of the total diet, depending on the data used. Passerines were the third most important group. Prey less common in the diet included waterfowl, arctic fox pups (Alopex lagopus), shorebirds, gulls, alcids, and falcons. All Rock Ptarmigan were adults, and all but one arctic hare were young of the year. Most passerines were fledglings. We observed two diet shifts, first from a preponderance of ptarmigan to hares in mid-June, and second to passerines in late June. The video-monitored Gyrfalcons consumed 94-110 kg of food per nest during the nestling period, higher than previously estimated. Using a combination of video, prey remains, and pellets was important to accurately document Gyrfalcon diet, and we strongly recommend using time-lapse video in future diet studies to identify biases in prey remains and pellet data.

  1. Historical ablation rates on south-east Greenland glaciers measured in the 1933 warm summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Hasholt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice ablation rates measured on four glaciers in south-east Greenland in summer 1933 are recovered from an old field book of geologist K. Milthers. These unpublished ablation data are among the first measured in Greenland and were obtained during a warm period comparable to that of recent years. Ablation rates of up to 45 mm ice eq. d−1 were observed. Using the Tasiilaq meteorological record, we calculate degree-day factors of ca. 3–5 mm ice eq. d−1°C−1. Comparing these results with 1996–2012 observations at one of Milthers’ glaciers (Mittivakkat, we find that ablation rates and degree-day factors are significantly higher (61±50% in recent years. We speculate this to be due to a reduction in surface albedo, and perhaps the retreat of the glaciers out of the cold maritime inversion layer. Our findings suggest that using a temperature-index method that assumes constant degree-day factors may produce inaccurate long-term ablation estimates for south-east Greenland glaciers, further emphasizing the value of the rare 1933 measurements for validation of ablation models.

  2. Spatial and temporal melt variability at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, and its effect on ice dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. L.; Larsen, T. B.; Nettles, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of large outlet glaciers draining the Greenland Ice Sheet is critical for assessing the impact of climate change on sea level rise. The flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers is partly governed by calving-related processes taking place at the terminus but is also...... influenced by the drainage of surface runoff to the bed through moulins, cracks, and other pathways. To investigate the extent of the latter effect, we develop a distributed surface-energy-balance model for Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, to calculate surface melt and thereby estimate runoff. The model...... is driven by data from an automatic weather station operated on the glacier during the summers of 2007 and 2008, and calibrated with independent measurements of ablation. Modeled melt varies over the deployment period by as much as 68% relative to the mean, with melt rates approximately 77% higher...

  3. Holocene environmental evolution of the SE Greenland Shelf North and South of the Denmark Strait: Irminger and East Greenland current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, A.; Andrews, J.; Wilson, L.

    2011-04-01

    Holocene climatic and paleoceanographic development of the SE Greenland Shelf is studied from cores MD99-2317 and MD99-2322, at sites north and south of the Denmark Strait, respectively. Lithofacies, IRD counts, calcium carbonate percentages, benthic and planktic foraminiferal assemblages and oxygen isotope analyses, and summer SSTs reveal significant climate variations in the Holocene driven by declining solar insolation and its interaction with waning continental ice sheets, and changing atmospheric pressure patterns. Large changes in the East Greenland and Irminger Currents and the Greenland Ice Sheet are manifested as a 4-part division of the Holocene. An early Holocene cold interval dominated by melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Polar Front retreat extends from 11.8 to 9.5 cal kyr BP. A cold interval from 9.5 to 8.1 cal kyr BP involved episodic cooling of the Irminger Current resulting from the last phases of Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation and delayed the Holocene optimum off East Greenland by 3 kyr relative to peak summer solar insolation, which likely helped to limit the early Holocene melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The period 8.1-3.5 cal kyr BP represents a climatic optimum interval of maximum Greenland Ice Sheet retreat and strong Irminger Current inflow to the Denmark Strait. Between 6.8 and 3.5 cal kyr BP, the Irminger Current penetrated further North into the Nordic Seas than has been observed in recent decades. This signal is consistent with diminished northerly winds, a weaker Greenland High and contracted subpolar gyre. By 5 cal kyr BP, periods of increased Polar Water and decreasing salinity in the Irminger Current suggest a transition toward expansion of the subpolar gyre and increased Polar Water in the EGC. The Neoglacial interval from 3.5 to 0.2 cal kyr BP was cold and variable with increased freshwater forcing from the Arctic Ocean, advance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and southward advance of the Polar Front. Enhanced northerly

  4. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob;

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable “virtual world” of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines...

  5. Roughhead grenadier (Macrourus berglax) in the waters off East Greenland: Distribution and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossen, Inge; Jørgensen, Ole A; Gundersen, Agnes C.

    2003-01-01

    The study focuses on distribution, catch rates and biological parameters of roughhead grenadier (Macrourus berglax) at East Greenland based on data from trawl surveys, longline surveys and commercial catches from the period 1994-2000. Roughhead grenadier was recorded at most fished stations at...... surveys and between 800 and 1 200 m in the trawl surveys. In both types of surveys the length distributions were dominated by a modal peak around 20 cm (PAF). Sex ratio changed with depth and length of 50% maturity (L50) was estimated to be at 16 and 29.5 cm for males and females, respectively. Estimate...

  6. The last glacial cycles in East Greenland, an overVIew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    Marine, fluvial and glacigcnc sediments exposed in coastal cliffs and stream-cllt sections in East Greenland between latitudes 69° and 78°N display a record of Quaternary climatic and environmental change going back to prc-SaaJian times (> 240 ka), but with main emphasis on the last interglacial...... ( ~ Eemian) the advection of warm Atlantic water was higher than during the Holocene, and the terrestrial flora and insect faullas show that summer temperatures were 3-4"C higher than during the Holocene optimum. There is no unambiguous evidence for cooling in the sediments from this interval. Later...

  7. Geophysical investigations of the East Greenland Caledonides using receiver functions, gravity and topography data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    The present-day topography and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides are a product of various events, including the Caledonian orogeny, lithospheric extensional collapse, continental breakup and erosional processes. The topographic elevation appears high in this region, still after...... crustal structures related to extensional basin formation, a lower crustal high velocity layer and a crustal root have to be considered. A profile of 11 temporary broadband stations was deployed and maintained by Aarhus University for a period of 2 years (2009 – 2011). The approximately 270 km long Ella Ø...

  8. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  9. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Buelowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)]. E-mail: csh@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wiig, Oystein [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172 Blindern, N-0562 Oslo (Norway); Kirkegaard, Maja [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears.

  10. Oxygen and carbon isotope composition of Quaternary bivalve shells as a water mass indicator: Last interglacial and Holocene, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelson, C.; Buchardt, Bjørn; Funder, S.V.;

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen and carhon isotope composition of arctic bivahe shells are used in an attempt to reCO'1struct -.urface water temperature and salinities in Scoresby Sund. East Greenland. The oxygen i:;otope compositions or .1,tw mllicuf£!. Hialclla arctica and Tridmlla hOl'm!is han~ been compared with pres......Oxygen and carhon isotope composition of arctic bivahe shells are used in an attempt to reCO'1struct -.urface water temperature and salinities in Scoresby Sund. East Greenland. The oxygen i:;otope compositions or .1,tw mllicuf£!. Hialclla arctica and Tridmlla hOl'm!is han~ been compared...

  11. Crustal structure of the Central-Eastern Greenland: results from the Topo Greenland refraction profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Until present, seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coasts of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up. We present the deep seismic structure of the crust of the interior of Greenland, based on the new and the only existing so far seismic...... developed an automatic routine to check the amplitudes and spectra of the selected seismic phases and to check the differences/challenges in making seismic experiments on ice and the effects of ice on data interpretation. Using tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modelling we have obtained the two...... result from past collision tectonics or, alternatively, may be related to the speculated passage of the Iceland mantle plume. Comparison of our results with the new receiver function studies (Kraft et al., personal communication) suggests the possibility for a massive underplating along the profile...

  12. Freshwater fluxes in the East Greenland Current: A decade of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.; Gerdes, R.; Karcher, M.; Fahrbach, E.; Holfort, J.

    2009-12-01

    Over a decade of mooring measurements in the western Fram Strait at 78°50‧N shows that the annual mean liquid freshwater flux (FWF) in the East Greenland Current is relatively constant at -1274 ± 453 km3 yr-1 (-40.4 ± 14.4 mSv) despite the fact that the annual mean total volume transport of the EGC has more than doubled since 2001. This is shown to be due to an increase of the transport in the deeper ocean and the fact that the largest FW content is present on the East Greenland shelf and not in the core of the EGC. In order to capture the FWF on the shelf modeling results of NAOSIM are included showing that a mean contribution of FWF on the shelf of at least -807 ± 357 km3 yr-1 (-25.6 ± 11.3 mSv) should be added to the FWF obtained for the EGC. When compared to the extra input of freshwater required to account for the 1960-1990 freshening of the northern North Atlantic, the observed variations in the 1998-2008 EGC liquid freshwater fluxes are small.

  13. Temporal Trends of Hexabromocyclododecane, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Ringed Seals from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Riget, Frank Farsø; Bossi, Rossana;

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a signifi......Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed...... on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which...... also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding...

  14. A Comparison of Geoid Undulations for West Central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Daniel R.; Csatho, Beata; Jezek, Kenneth C.; Thomas, Robert H.; Krabill, William B.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Forsberg, Rene

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model-derived geoid undulations were compared to independently determined undulations found by differencing the elevations from Global Positioning System controlled airborne laser altimetry and optical leveling surveys. Differences between the two sets of undulations were less than +/- 6 cm RMS. The comparison improved (+/- 5 cm RMS) when GEOID94A undulations were adjusted by local gravity observations also acquired at the site. Our comparisons demonstrate that GEOID94A adequately models the long to intermediate wavelengths of the gravity field. We conclude that GEOID94A constitutes a reliable reference model for studies of Greenland's gravity field.

  15. Multi-decadal record of ice dynamics on Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, East Greenland, from satellite imagery and terrestrial measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stearns, L.A.; Hamilton, G.S.; Reeh, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The history of ice velocity and calving front position of Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, a large outlet glacier in East Greenland, is reconstructed from field measurements, aerial photography and satellite imagery for the period 1950-2001. The calving terminus of the glacier has remained in approxima...

  16. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Legacy organochlorine contaminants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Of 19 major legacy contaminants and congeners (ΣPCB, 4 PCB congeners (CB153, 180, 170/190), ΣDDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p' -DDD...

  17. Extended correlation of the Paleogene Faroe Islands and East Greenland plateau basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2008-01-01

    /204Pb = 17.59-18.30 while the High-Ti3 group has 206Pb/204Pb = 18.88-19.12. The three Faroese lava groups can be correlated with the East Greenland syn-breakup basalt formations using their geochemistry, lava morphology and phenocryst contents. The High-Ti1 group correlates with the Milne Land...... away from the Faroe Islands during the last stages of volcanism. Pb-isotope ratios indicate that the High-Ti1, High-Ti2, Milne Land Formation and Geikie Plateau Formation have the same mantle source while the High-Ti3 and Rømer Fjord Formation also contain material from another mantle component. High...

  18. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate...... chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE...... and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2...

  19. Partial eclogitization of the Ambolten gabbro-norite, north-east Greenland Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilotti, J.A.; Elvevold, S.

    1998-01-01

    Partially eclogitized igneous bodies composed of gabbro, leucogabbro, anorthosite and cross-cutting diabase dikes are well represented in the North-East Greenland Eclogite Province. A 200 x 100 meter intrusive body on Ambolten Island (78?? 20' N, 19?? 15' W) records a prograde transition from gabbro-norite to eclogite facies coronitic metagabro-norite surrounded by hydrated margins of undeformed to strongly foliated amphibolite. Igneous plagioclase + olivine + enstatite + augite + oxides convert to eclogite facies assemblages consisting of garnet, omphacite, diopside, enstatite, kyanite, zoisite, rutile and pargasitic amphibole through several coronitic reactions. Relict cumulus plagioclase laths are replaced by an outer corona of garnet, an inner corona of omphacite and an internal region of sodic plagioclase, garnet, kyanite, omphacite and zoisite. Olivine and intercumulus pyroxene are partly replaced by metamorphic pyroxenes and amphibole. The corona structures, zoning patterns, diversity of mineral compositions in a single thin section, and preservation of metastable asemblages are characteristic of diffusion-controlled metamorphism. The most extreme disequilibrium is found in static amphibolites, where igneous pyroxenes, plagioclase domains with eclogite facies, assemblages, and matrix amphibole coexist. Complete eclogitization was not attained at Ambolten due to a lack of fluids needed to drive diffusion during prograde and retrograde metamorphism. The P-T conditions of the high-pressure metamorphism are estimated at ??? 750??C and > 18 kbar. Well-equilibrated, foliated amphibolites from the margin of the gabbro-norite supports our contention that the entire North-East Greenland Eclogite Province experienced Caledonian high-pressure metamorphism, even though no eclogite facies assemblages have been found in the quartzofeldspathic host gneisses to date.

  20. Modeling Population-Level Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in East Greenland Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Grimm, Volker; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause endocrine disruption, cancer, immunosuppression, or reproductive failure in animals. We used an individual-based model to explore whether and how PCB-associated reproductive failure could affect the dynamics of a hypothetical polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population exposed to PCBs to the same degree as the East Greenland subpopulation. Dose-response data from experimental studies on a surrogate species, the mink (Mustela vision), were used in the absence of similar data for polar bears. Two alternative types of reproductive failure in relation to maternal sum-PCB concentrations were considered: increased abortion rate and increased cub mortality. We found that the quantitative impact of PCB-induced reproductive failure on population growth rate depended largely on the actual type of reproductive failure involved. Critical potencies of the dose-response relationship for decreasing the population growth rate were established for both modeled types of reproductive failure. Comparing the model predictions of the age-dependent trend of sum-PCBs concentrations in females with actual field measurements from East Greenland indicated that it was unlikely that PCB exposure caused a high incidence of abortions in the subpopulation. However, on the basis of this analysis, it could not be excluded that PCB exposure contributes to higher cub mortality. Our results highlight the necessity for further research on the possible influence of PCBs on polar bear reproduction regarding their physiological pathway. This includes determining the exact cause of reproductive failure, i.e., in utero exposure versus lactational exposure of offspring; the timing of offspring death; and establishing the most relevant reference metrics for the dose-response relationship. PMID:26289812

  1. Understanding the Factors That Control Snow Albedo Over Central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P.; Bergin, M. H.; Dibb, J. E.; Domine, F.; Carmagnola, C.; Courville, Z.; Sokolik, I. N.; Lefer, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Snow albedo plays a critical role in the energy balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. In particular, the snow albedo influences the extent to which absorbing aerosols over Greenland (i.e. dust and black carbon) force climate. With this in mind the spectral snow albedo, physical snow properties, and snow chemistry were measured during May, June, and July 2011 at Summit, Greenland to investigate the variability in snow spectral albedo and its impact on aerosol direct radiative forcing. Optical and chemical properties of aerosol and aerosol optical depth were also measured as part of this study. Strellis et. al. will present a preliminary assessment of aerosol radiative forcing at Summit in summer 2011, in a separate presentation at this meeting. Spectral albedo was measured from 350-2500 nm with an ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer daily at four permanent sites and a moving fifth site where snow was sampled for characterization, as well as in more intensive diurnal and spatial surveys. Snow specific surface area (SSA), the ratio of snow crystal surface area to mass, was measured with a Dual Frequency Integrating Sphere (DUFISSS) at 1310 nm and 1550 nm, as well as with dyed and cast samples collected for stereology analysis. Snow stratigraphy, crystal size, and density were also measured on a daily basis, and snow samples will be analyzed for microstructural parameters determined from micro-CT imaging. Snow chemistry measurements include specific elements, major ions, and elemental and organic carbon. The time series of daily albedo measurements ranged from 0.88 to nearly 1.0 in visible wavelengths and from 0.42 to 0.65 in the near infrared. Changes as large as 0.1 were observed between consecutive daily measurements across the spectrum. Preliminary results show a strong correlation between variation in albedo and co-located measurements of snow specific surface area, specifically in the near infrared. By conducting our measurements near solar noon every day, and

  2. Accumulation rates from central North Greenland during the past 700 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Nanna B.; Eisen, Olaf; Nielsen, Lisbeth T.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Paden, John D.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Winter, Anna; Wilhelms, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A key variable when interpreting the evolution and mass loss from polar ice sheets is the input from the surface mass balance. While ice core records contain information on past accumulation rates, they always only provide information for a single location. Here, we present spatially distributed accumulation rates from central northern Greenland, specifically the area between the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Drilling) and NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core drill sites. The accumulation rates have been reconstructed using ice-penetrating radar, firn core measurements and inverse methods, and we are able to retrieve both spatial and temporal changes in the accumulation over an area spanning 300 km by 300 km. We investigate the stability of the accumulation pattern over the past several hundred years, and we address the question of how well the measured accumulation rates at the ice core sites capture the regional variations in accumulation. We find that while the accumulation rates at NEEM have been stable for the past 700 years, the NGRIP site has experienced fluctuations in accumulation rate. We interpret this as an indication of shifts in the dominating weather pattern over the ice divide in central North Greenland.

  3. Structure, pathways and dynamics of the East Greenland Current in eddy-resolving global ocean models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Bacon, Sheldon; Nurser, George; Coward, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The fresh and cold East Greenland Current (EGC) transports Polar waters from the Arctic Ocean southward in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic, affecting deep convection in the Nordic and Labrador Seas with potential impacts on the meridional overturning circulation. The pathways of the EGC in Fram Strait and south of it are well documented by observations and model simulations. However, neither the EGC's pathways upstream of Fram Strait nor its sources in the central Arctic Ocean are known sufficiently well to attribute variability of the Arctic outflow to atmospheric or oceanic mechanisms. A set of eddy-permitting and eddy-resolving global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) run with dye tracers and observational data have been used to examine the structure and dynamics of the EGC. The Montgomery function on pseudo-neutral surfaces has been applied to the model results to investigate dynamics of the current and its inter-annual variability. The sources of the EGC and the covariance of Arctic fresh water sinks via Fram Strait and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago are investigated. The model results are compared with observations, and mechanisms driving the EGC are suggested.

  4. Gender, Literature, and Film in Contemporary East Central European Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Imre, Anikó

    2001-01-01

    In her article, "Gender, Literature, and Film in Contemporary East Central European Culture," Anikó Imre discusses gender, literature, and film in Hungary in the context of East Central European national cultures of the 1980s and 1990s. Anikó Imre analyzes the analogous gender structures that underlie both nation and literature in these transitional cultures. She challenges both social science studies of post-communist transitions and studies of East Central European literatures and cultures ...

  5. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  6. Greenland Fracture Zone-East Greenland Ridge(s) revisited: Indications of a C22-change in plate motion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Funck, T.

    2012-01-01

    degrees difference in strike. This is suggested to relate to an early episode of transform migration and reorientation of the lithospheric stress field around Chron 22 time, i.e., shortly after the Eocene breakup in the northern NE Atlantic. These findings contradict with previous interpretations......Changes in the lithospheric stress field, causing axial rift migration and reorientation of the transform, are generally proposed as an explanation for anomalously old crust and/or major aseismic valleys in oceanic ridge-transform-ridge settings. Similarly, transform migration of the Greenland....... Interpretation of sonobuoy data and revised modeling of existing OBS data across Segment B indicate a continental composition of the segment. This interpretation is supported by magnetic anomaly data. The Segments A and B are bounded by portions of the Greenland Fracture Zone with a distinct similar to 10...

  7. Trace-element record in zircons during exhumation from UHP conditions, North-East Greenland Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Coesite-bearing zircon formed at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions share general characteristics of eclogite-facies zircon with trace-element signatures characterized by depleted heavy rare earth elements (HREE), lack of an Eu anomaly, and low Th/ U ratios. Trace-element signatures of zircons from the Caledonian UHP terrane in North-East Greenland were used to examine the possible changes in signature with age during exhumation. Collection and interpretation of age and trace-element analyses of zircon from three samples of quartzofeldspathic gneiss and two leucocratic intrusions were guided by core vs. rim zoning patterns as imaged by cathodoluminesence. Change from igneous to eclogite-facies metamorphic trace-element signature in protolith zircon is characterized by gradual depletion of HREE, whereas newly formed metamorphic rims have flat HREE patterns and REE concentrations that are distinct from the recrystallized inherited cores. The signature associated with eclogite-facies metamorphic zircon is observed in coesite-bearing zircon formed at 358 ?? 4 Ma, metamorphic rims formed at 348 ?? 5 Ma during the initial stages of exhumation, and metamorphic rims formed at 337 ?? 5 Ma. Zircons from a garnet-bearing granite emplaced in the neck of an eclogite boudin and a leucocratic dike that cross-cuts amphibolite-facies structural fabrics have steeply sloping HREE patterns, variably developed negative Eu anomalies, and low Th/U ratios. The granite records initial decompression melting and exhumation at 347 ?? 2 Ma and later zircon rim growth at 329 ?? 5. The leucocratic dike was likely emplaced at amphibolite-facies conditions at 330 ?? 2 Ma, but records additional growth of compositionally similar zircon at 321 ??2 Ma. The difference between the trace-element signature of metamorphic zircon in the gneisses and in part coeval leucocratic intrusions indicates that the zircon signature varies as a function of lithology and context, thus enhancing its ability to aid in

  8. Mid to late Holocene strengthening of the East Greenland Current paralleled by increased Atlantic Intermediate Water outflow from the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Llyod, Jeremy; Jansen, Eystein; Stein, Rüdiger

    2015-04-01

    The relatively fresh and cold East Greenland Current (EGC) connects the Arctic with the subpolar North Atlantic. Its strength and influence on the freshwater balance in the North Atlantic impacts Subpolar gyre (SPG) dynamics and deep convection in the Labrador Sea. Enhanced freshwater and sea ice expansion in the subpolar North Atlantic is suggested to modify the northward heat transport in the North Atlantic Current (NAC). High-resolution palaeoceanographic reconstructions, based on planktonic and benthic foraminifera assemblage data, from the central East Greenland shelf (Foster Bugt) reveal distinct centennial to millennial-scale oceanographic variability that relate to climatic changes during the mid to late Holocene (last c. 6.3 ka BP). Our data highlight intervals of cooling and freshening of the polar surface EGC waters that accompanies warming in the underlying subsurface Atlantic waters, which receives contribution of return Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) and of the Return Atlantic Current (RAC). Mid Holocene thermal optimum-like conditions prevailed until c. 4.5 ka BP. A relatively warm surface PW and strong contribution of subsurface RAC waters, alongside low drift/sea ice occurrence, suggest a relatively weak EGC during this period. Subsequently, from 4.5 to 1.4 ka BP, the surface PW layer freshened and cooled, and the water column became well stratified, indicating a strong EGC. This EGC strengthening is accompanied by increasing subsurface AIW contribution from the Arctic Ocean after c. 4.5 ka BP, which culminated in the time from 2.3 to 1.4 ka BP. Simultaneously to this maximum AIW contribution, distinct warming is also recognized in the NAC, the Irminger Current and the West Greenland Current. We relate this enhanced Arctic Ocean AIW contribution to the 'Roman Warm Period'; a warm phase whose origin is still a matter of debate. We suggest that the observed warming offshore East Greenland, centred at c. 2.0 ka BP, results from the interaction of i

  9. Extreme variation in basal thermal conditions of the central Greenland Ice Sheet due to anomalous lithosphere structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Petrunin, Alexey; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Koulakov, Ivan; Thomas, Maik

    2013-04-01

    At the Earth's surface, heat fluxes from the interior are generally insignificant when compared with fluxes from the sun and atmosphere; however, in areas permanently blanketed by ice these become very important. Modelling studies show that they are key to understanding the internal thermal structure of ice sheets and the distribution of melt water at their bases, information which is crucial for planning deep ice drilling campaigns and climate reconstructions. Unfortunately, the challenging conditions in ice-covered regions make measurement difficult in exactly the places where it is needed most. Until now, proxy methodologies have been considered best for determining geothermal heat flux (GHF) beneath ice sheets. Our method is to use a novel interdisciplinary approach, integrating a time-evolved climate-ice-lithosphere coupled model with a wide range of data such as direct ice-core measurements, past climate reconstructions and indirect estimates of the lithospheric thermal state. Here we show that the oldest (and thickest) part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is strongly thermally influenced by both GHF increasing from west to east and glaciation-induced perturbations of the thermal structure of the upper crust. A pronounced lateral gradient in GHF across the Summit region of the GIS is due to anomalously thin lithosphere, which has only about 25 to 66% of the thickness typical for Archaean to early Proterozoic areas. Our findings suggest that the thermal basal conditions of the present-day central GIS are characterized by surprising rapid lateral variations in ice temperatures of up to 12°C along relatively small distances of 100 to 150 km. We reveal two areas of rapid basal melt in central Greenland, only one of which was previously predicted by ice-penetrating radar measurements and age-depth relations from internal layering (Fahnestock et al. [2001]). The endothermic phase transition associated with rapid basal ice melt is found to increase subglacial heat

  10. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W;

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... and three lumbar vertebrae with skull in a subsample. We detected highly significant correlations between BMD in skull and femur (r = 0.99; p < 0.001; n = 13) and skull and vertebrae (r = 0.97; p < 0.001; n = 8). BMD in skulls sampled in the supposed pre-organochlorine/PBDE period (1892-1932) was...... significantly higher than that in skulls sampled in the supposed pollution period (1966-2002) for subadult females, subadult males, and adult males (all, p < 0.05) but not adult females (p = 0.94). We found a negative correlation between organochlorines and skull BMD for the sum of PCBs (SigmaPCB; p < 0.04) and...

  11. Sr isotopic variations in Upper Proterozoic carbonates from Svalbard and East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Louis A.; Keto, Lisette S.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Swett, Keene

    1989-01-01

    Precambrian Sr isotope stratigraphy was investigated by determining variations in Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios in the Upper Proterozoic carbonate succession from Svalbard and East Greenland. Data from this study were combined with those from literature to construct a curve of Sr-87/Sr-86 versus time for Upper Proterozoic seawater. The curve for the Upper Riphean-Vandian showed that the isotopic composition of Sr in seawater was low (Delta Sr-87 of about -500) between 900 and 650 Ma but rose rapidly to about +30 by 600 Ma (this range of long-term variation exceeds the total Phanerozoic variation). The very low values of Delta Sr-87 inferred for the Riphean require that, for this time, the submarine hydrothermal water flux was a large fraction of the Sr input to the oceans, while the rise in Delta Sr-87 in the Upper Proterozoic seawater reflects both a change in the ratio of hydrothermal and continental fluxes of Sr to the oceans, and a change in the isotopic composition of Sr from continental sources.

  12. Increased atmospheric SO₂ detected from changes in leaf physiognomy across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval of East Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Bacon

    Full Text Available The Triassic-Jurassic boundary (Tr-J; ∼201 Ma is marked by a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2, rising temperatures, and ecosystem instability. This appears to have been driven by a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle due to massive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is hypothesized that this volcanism also likely delivered sulphur dioxide (SO2 to the atmosphere. The role that SO2 may have played in leading to ecosystem instability at the time has not received much attention. To date, little direct evidence has been presented from the fossil record capable of implicating SO2 as a cause of plant extinctions at this time. In order to address this, we performed a physiognomic leaf analysis on well-preserved fossil leaves, including Ginkgoales, bennettites, and conifers from nine plant beds that span the Tr-J boundary at Astartekløft, East Greenland. The physiognomic responses of fossil taxa were compared to the leaf size and shape variations observed in nearest living equivalent taxa exposed to simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. The modern taxa showed a statistically significant increase in leaf roundness when fumigated with SO2. A similar increase in leaf roundness was also observed in the Tr-J fossil taxa immediately prior to a sudden decrease in their relative abundances at Astartekløft. This research reveals that increases in atmospheric SO2 can likely be traced in the fossil record by analyzing physiognomic changes in fossil leaves. A pattern of relative abundance decline following increased leaf roundness for all six fossil taxa investigated supports the hypothesis that SO2 had a significant role in Tr-J plant extinctions. This finding highlights that the role of SO2 in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy.

  13. Increased atmospheric SO₂ detected from changes in leaf physiognomy across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval of East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Karen L; Belcher, Claire M; Haworth, Matthew; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary (Tr-J; ∼201 Ma) is marked by a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2, rising temperatures, and ecosystem instability. This appears to have been driven by a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle due to massive volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. It is hypothesized that this volcanism also likely delivered sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. The role that SO2 may have played in leading to ecosystem instability at the time has not received much attention. To date, little direct evidence has been presented from the fossil record capable of implicating SO2 as a cause of plant extinctions at this time. In order to address this, we performed a physiognomic leaf analysis on well-preserved fossil leaves, including Ginkgoales, bennettites, and conifers from nine plant beds that span the Tr-J boundary at Astartekløft, East Greenland. The physiognomic responses of fossil taxa were compared to the leaf size and shape variations observed in nearest living equivalent taxa exposed to simulated palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. The modern taxa showed a statistically significant increase in leaf roundness when fumigated with SO2. A similar increase in leaf roundness was also observed in the Tr-J fossil taxa immediately prior to a sudden decrease in their relative abundances at Astartekløft. This research reveals that increases in atmospheric SO2 can likely be traced in the fossil record by analyzing physiognomic changes in fossil leaves. A pattern of relative abundance decline following increased leaf roundness for all six fossil taxa investigated supports the hypothesis that SO2 had a significant role in Tr-J plant extinctions. This finding highlights that the role of SO2 in plant biodiversity declines across other major geological boundaries coinciding with global scale volcanism should be further explored using leaf physiognomy.

  14. Depositional environment and organic geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ravenfjeld Formation source rock in East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L. (Geologoical Survey of Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Telnaes, N. (Norsk Hydro Research Center, Bergen (Norway))

    1993-09-01

    The Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland is composed of shales that laterally pass into carbonate buildups and platforms of the Wegener Halvo Formation. The Ravnefjeld Formation is subdivided into five units that can be traced throughout the Upper Permian depositional basin. Two of the units are laminated and organic rich and were deposited under anoxic conditions. They are considered good to excellent source rocks for liquid hydrocarbons with initial average TOC (total organic carbon) values between 4 and 5% and HI (hydrogen index) between 300 and 400. The cumulative source rocks are separated and enclosed by three units of bioturbated siltstone with a TOC of less than 0.5% and an HI of less than 100. These siltstones were deposited under relatively oxic conditions. The organic geochemistry of the source rocks is typical for marine source rocks with some features normally associated with carbonate/evaporite environments [low Pr/Ph (pristane/phytane), low CPI (carbon preference index), distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes]. The establishment of anoxic conditions and subsequent source rock deposition was controlled by eustatic sea level changes. The subenvironment (paleogeographic setting, influx of carbonate material, water depth, salinity) has some influence on a number of bulk parameters [TOC-HI relations, TOC-TS (total sulfur) relations] and, in particular, biomarker parameters such as Pr/Ph and terpane ratios. All the basal shales or shales in the vicinity of carbonate buildups of platforms are characterized by low Pr/Ph, high C[sub 23] tricyclic terpanes, and high C[sub 35] and C[sub 33] hopanes. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008–2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Skov, Henrik; Sørensen, Lise Lotte;

    2013-01-01

    , which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from Southern and Eastern......In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81° 36' N, 16° 40' W) in North East Greenland were...

  16. Exposure to mixtures of organohalogen contaminants and associative interactions with thyroid hormones in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanger, Gro D.; Jenssen, Bjørn M.; Fjeldberg, Rita R.;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the multivariate relationships between adipose tissue residue levels of 48 individual organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating thyroid hormone (TH) levels in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (1999–2001, n=62), using projection to latent structure (PLS...... influenced by biological factors such as age, sex, body size, lipid content of adipose tissue and sampling date. When controlling for biological variables, the major relationships from the PLS models for SubA, AdF_N and AdF_S were found significant in partial correlations. The most important OHCs...

  17. Central Park East Secondary School: Teaching and Learning through Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner-Mullings, Alia R.

    2012-01-01

    This article connects the theoretical perspective of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed with the teaching and learning styles of teachers and students at Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS) in East Harlem, New York. It examines some of the ways the Freireian model has worked within the public school system and considers some of the…

  18. Are liver and renal lesions in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus associated with high mercury levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Erik W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Arctic, polar bears (Ursus maritimus bio-accumulate mercury as they prey on polluted ringed seals (Phoca hispida and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus. Studies have shown that polar bears from East Greenland are among the most mercury polluted species in the Arctic. It is unknown whether these levels are toxic to liver and kidney tissue. Methods We investigated the histopathological impact from anthropogenic long-range transported mercury on East Greenland polar bear liver (n = 59 and kidney (n = 57 tissues. Results Liver mercury levels ranged from 1.1–35.6 μg/g wet weight and renal levels ranged from 1–50 μg/g wet weight, of which 2 liver values and 9 kidney values were above known toxic threshold level of 30 μg/g wet weight in terrestrial mammals. Evaluated from age-correcting ANCOVA analyses, liver mercury levels were significantly higher in individuals with visible Ito cells (p Conclusion Based on these relationships and the nature of the chronic inflammation we conclude that the lesions were likely a result of recurrent infections and ageing but that long-term exposure to mercury could not be excluded as a co-factor. The information is important as it is likely that tropospheric mercury depletion events will continue to increase the concentrations of this toxic heavy metal in the Sub Arctic and Arctic marine food webs.

  19. Age and seasonal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in free-ranging East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analysed in adipose tissue from 92 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled during 1999-2001. Mean ΣPBDE concentrations were 70 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (range: 22-192 ng/g lw) and showed no relationship with age or sex. Of the 32 analysed PBDE congeners; BDE47, BDE153, BDE99 and BDE100 dominated, and comprised 99.6% of the ΣPBDE concentration. The ΣPBDE concentration had a highly significant correlation with ΣPCB, ΣCHL, dieldrin, HCB and ΣHCH concentrations. We found a seasonal pattern of median ΣPBDE concentration with 1.2 to 1.8 times higher concentrations in March to July than the rest of the year. The seasonal variation also provides a clue to the seasonal exposure, bio-availability, toxic exposure and degradation. We suggest that future geographical PBDE data comparisons may not need corrections for sex or age, but such data sets should be corrected for seasonal variability, using the presented correctional trigonometric regression. - Mean ΣPBDE concentrations of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were 69.5 ng/g lw (range: 21.7-192 ng/g lw) and showed a seasonal pattern with no relationship with age and sex

  20. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears. PMID:25101837

  1. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Pavlova

    Full Text Available Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus. Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153 in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  2. Parasites as biological tags to track an ontogenetic shift in the feeding behaviour of Gadus morhua off West and East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Julian; Klimpel, Sven; Fock, Heino O; MacKenzie, Ken; Kuhn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Parasites, being an integral part of every ecosystem and trophically transmitted along the food webs, can provide detailed insights into the structure of food webs and can close the information gap between short-term stomach content analyses and long-term fish otolith analyses. They are useful for tracking ontogenetic shifts in the host's diet, the occurrence of specific organisms or migratory behaviour of their hosts, even in inaccessible environments. In the present study, stomach content analyses and parasitological examinations were performed on 70 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, one of the most important high-level predators of small fish in the North Atlantic, caught during one research vessel cruise from West and East Greenlandic waters. Analyses revealed significant differences in fish size with higher values for East Greenland (average total length (TL) of 50.5 cm) compared to West Greenland (average TL of 33.3 cm). Clear differences were also present in prey and parasite composition. Crustacea was the main food source for all fish (IRI = 10082.70), while the importance of teleosts increased with fish size. With a prevalence of 85 % in West Greenland and 100 % in East Greenland, Nematoda were the most abundant parasite group. The results indicate an ontogenetic shift in the diet, which are discussed in the context of the common distribution theory, stock dynamics and migratory behaviour.

  3. The Influence of Light Absorbing Aerosols on the Radiation Balance Over Central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strellis, B.; Bergin, M. H.; Sokolik, I. N.; Dibb, J. E.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic region has proven to be more responsive to recent changes in climate than other parts of the Earth. A key component of the Arctic climate is the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the potential to dramatically influence both sea level, depending on the amount of melting that occurs, and climate, through shifts in the regional radiation balance. Light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and dust sources can potentially have a significant impact on the radiation balance of the ice sheet, although at this time we lack the key measurements needed to accurately quantify aerosol forcing over the ice sheet. For this reason a field study was conducted at Summit, Greenland, from May-July of 2012. Our efforts included real-time measurements of aerosol physical and optical properties including size distribution, multi-wavelength scattering (σsp) and backscattering (σbsp) coefficients, and multi-wavelength absorption coefficient (σap), as well as measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth and spectral snow albedo. The measurements serve as inputs to a radiative transfer model to estimate the direct aerosol radiative forcing at both the surface and top of the atmosphere. Preliminary results indicate that the direct aerosol radiative forcing is often several Wm-2 and is at times greater than 10 Wm-2. The aerosol chemical composition (major ions, elements, and organic and elemental carbon compounds) was also determined through filter sampling and will be discussed in terms of the sources of light absorbing aerosols over central Greenland.

  4. Spatial Variability in Surface Elevation Changes of Central-West Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felikson, D.; Catania, G. A.; Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Stearns, L. A.; Nash, J. D.; Shroyer, E.; Sutherland, D.; Walker, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is, in part, governed by the dynamics of ocean-terminating glaciers. GRACE data reveal that along the central-west coast of the GrIS, overall ice loss has been accelerating since 2007. However, we do not know the physical processes controlling the loss here, and the changes observed are not uniform in this region; several glaciers have gone through periods of slow-down in the recent past. To address these uncertainties, we have performed ~30-year DEM differences of outlet glaciers in the region. Present-day DEMs have been created from WorldView-1 and -2 (WV) stereo imagery acquired in 2012 and 2013 using the AMES Stereo Pipeline. A 1985 DEM was created from a Greenland aerial photo survey. The DEM differences between the present-day WV DEMs and the 1985 aerial photo DEM show clearly that spatial variability in the surface elevation and terminus position changes of the glaciers in the region has been ongoing for the last ~30 years. We examine this variability in the context of ocean temperature and surface mass balance estimates to yield further insight into the external controls on these glaciers.

  5. Impact of recirculation on the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait: Results from moored current meter measurements between 1997 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.; Mauritzen, C.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Fahrbach, E.

    2014-01-01

    Transports of total volume and water masses obtained from a mooring array in the East Greenland Current (EGC) in Fram Strait are presented for the period 1997–2009. The array in the EGC was moved along isobaths from 79°N to 78°50'N78°50'N in 2002 to line up with moorings in the eastern Fram Strait.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Greenland Rift Basins Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    Northeast Greenland is the prototype for the U.S. Geological Survey's Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in the province to be approximately 31,400 MBOE (million barrels of oil equivalent) of oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.

  7. Bryophytes collected during a Dutch botanical East Greenland expedition to the Angmagsslalik area in 1966

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, de J.G.

    1968-01-01

    From a bryological point of view Greenland is not well known in detail. Unlike Siberia or Arctic America, it is not known through a few large collections, but through multitudes of mostly relatively small gatherings. In this arctic island that is almost 2000 miles long and extends from below 60° N.l

  8. Correlation of stratigraphy, structure, metamorphism and intrusion in the Caledonian allochthons of East Greenland and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, David G.

    2014-05-01

    There are two main hypotheses for the relationships between the Greenland and Svalbard Caledonides. The one regards the Svalbard "terranes" to be a natural, along-strike (via the continental shelves) continuation of the northeast Greenland allochthons, with a minor component in southwest Spitsbergen of rock units with affinities to the Ellesmerian Orogen and Pearya. The other hypothesis regards Svalbard as an assembly of lithospheric fragments that have been moved thousands of kilometres along the axis of the Caledonide Orogen from more southerly latitudes. It has long been accepted that the Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic successions in the Caledonides of northeastern Greenland and on Nordaustlandet, eastern Svalbard, are closely comparable in stratigraphy, depositional environment and structure and are unambiguous parts of the Laurentian continental margin.Their close correlation provides the foundation for the interpretation that they were deposited adjacent to each other and subsequently separated by vast (1000 km plus) displacements on orogen-parallel sinistral transcurrent faults. Studies of their underlying metamorphic complexes (the Renlandian Orogen in the Hager Berg Allochthon of northeast Greenland and the Nordaustlandet Orogen of northeastern Svalbard), demonstrated that they had very similar histories: latest Mesoproterozoic to earliest Neoproterozoic siliciclastic deposition, followed by mid Tonian deformation, HT/LP metamorphism, migmatization and syn- to post-tectonic granite intrusion (c. 950-930 Ma). On Nordaustlandet, major unconformities and some calc-alkaline volcanics, separate this late Grenvillian "basement" complex from the overlying Cryogenian succession; in northeast Greenland, unconformity is inferred, but has yet to be demonstrated. Another aspect of the geological history of these two "terranes" is that their Caledonian tectonothermal histories are also remarkably similar, with early to mid Silurian HT/LP metamorphism and

  9. Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Skov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds...... detected in the atmosphere, followed by p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. Chlordane isomers and related compounds (trans- and cis-chlordanes, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, trans-and cis-nonachlor) were also detected. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature using...... the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in order to obtain information about their transport properties. The correlation between atmospheric concentrations and temperature was not significant for endosulfan I, gamma-HCH and p,p'-DDT, which indicates that direct transport from direct sources is the dominating...

  10. LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche (LIBER is delighted to announce the LIBER/OCLC Fund for Central and East European Libraries, which is generously supported by OCLC. The Fund will offer membership of LIBER to individual libraries in Central and Eastern Europe for a period of years in order to assist them to support their membership of LIBER from their own resources at the end of the period of support from the Fund.

  11. Muskox site fidelity and group cohesion in Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing hunting pressure in Greenland demands improved knowledge on Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) biology in general and movement and grouping behaviour in specific to insure their proper management. Improving the exchange of information between hunters and managers is also necessary. Muskox site...... fidelity and group cohesion was examined over a 16-year period using 477 earmarked individuals tagged in 1982 and 1983. Combining information from scientists and hunters, observations of live individuals were primarily made from 1983 to 1990, while the latest tagged muskoxen reported shot was from 1998...... that such cooperation can provide important information for management related to muskox harvesting and monitoring....

  12. Of Images, Archives, and Anonymity: Glacier Photographs from Louise Arner Boyd's East Greenland Expeditions, 1933, 1937, and 1938

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Peschel, S. M.; Hall, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Louise A. Boyd (1887-1972) was raised to wealth and privilege in San Raphael, CA. Her inherited fortune allowed unlimited travel, and in 1924 she arrived in Spitsbergen as a tourist. Infatuated by Arctic landscapes, Boyd resolved to return north in a more assertive role and ran three "preliminary" expeditions to Greenland, in 1926, 1928, and 1931. Boyd’s expeditions to East Greenland in 1933, 1937, and 1938 were predictive of the type of campaign that after WWII would characterize government-sponsored and international scientific efforts. “Planned as a unit,” these campaigns, sponsored by the American Geographical Society (AGS), were thoroughly integrated scientific expeditions incorporating glaciology, periglacial and glacial geomorphology, bedrock geology, botany, hydrography, topographic surveys, tides and currents, and magnetic observations within representative areas. The goal of the expeditions was to provide comprehensive characterization of the physical environment. The volumes resulting from this work contain many large-scale hydrographic and topographic maps, photomosaics, glacier maps, and chapters on the geology, glacial history, botany, and hydrology of the region. Boyd received extensive publicity for her Arctic expeditions, although much of it was concerned with the novelty of expeditions to remote locations being led by a woman. Boyd’s expeditions employed scientists who eventually became highly influential in their respective fields. Boyd employed, among others, the earth scientists J.H. Bretz, R.F. Flint, and A.L. Washburn. Other important personnel on these expeditions included AGS cartographer/surveyor O.M. Miller and his assistant, W.A. Wood, who employed novel ground-based photogrammetric techniques to construct a series of glacier maps at scales as large as 1:5000. The maps featured detailed error analyses, and are probably the first large-scale maps of known accuracy to be made of the Greenland Ice Sheet’s outlet glaciers. Boyd

  13. Ocean tides modulation of flow at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, observed using GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elosegui, P.; Nettles, M.;

    Observations at high spatial and temporal resolution could be key for improving our understanding of the physical processes that govern outlet-glacier flow variations. We collected simultaneous high-rate GPS observations at several locations distributed along and across Helheim Glacier, East Gree...

  14. High-Resolution Reconstruction of Late Holocene Sea-ice Distribution and Primary Production on the East Greenland Shelf and the NW Fram Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. H.; Kolling, H. M.; Fahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has changed dramatically and much more rapidly than predicted by climate models. Based on this alarming observation, the reconstruction of natural variability of past sea-ice cover and its forcing became a major focus of international scientific research. Here, we present a high-resolution biomarker approach over the last 4 ka from the East Greenland Shelf to investigate the interrelationship between sea-ice cover, meltwater/freshwater discharge and primary productivity. The phytoplankton-derived sea-ice proxy IP25 (Belt et al., 2007) points to a late Holocene cooling trend initiated around 1.5 ka which is interrupted by a period of reduced sea-ice cover centred around 1 ka. The latter might be related to the well known Medieval Warm Period. Our new results from the East Greenland Shelf will be compared with similar records from the Fram Strait area published by Müller et al., (2012). These data give information about differences and/or similarities of sea-ice variability and changes in productivity in the area influenced by the cold East Greenland Current and the warm Westspitsbergen Current, respectively. First data suggest a time lag of the Neoglacial cooling between western (Greenland side) and eastern (Westspitsbergen-side) of Fram Strait, as also proposed by Müller et al. (2012). ReferencesBelt., S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of paleo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38, 16-27 Müller, J., Werner, K., Stein, R., Fahl, K., Moros, M., Jansen, E., 2012. Holocene cooling culminates in sea ice oscillations in Fram Strait. Quaternay Science Reviews 47, 1-14

  15. Sea-ice distribution and primary production on the East Greenland Shelf and the NW Fram Strait - a high resolution study of the last 5.2 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Henriette Marie; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decades, the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has changed dramatically and much more rapidly than predicted by climate models. Based on this alarming observation, the reconstruction of natural variability of past sea-ice cover and its forcing became a major focus of international scientific research. Here, we present a high-resolution biomarker approach over the last 4 ka from the East Greenland Shelf to investigate the interrelationship between sea-ice cover, meltwater/freshwater discharge and primary productivity. The phytoplankton-derived sea-ice proxy IP25 (Belt et al., 2007) points to a late Holocene cooling trend initiated around 1.5 ka which is interrupted by a period of reduced sea-ice cover centred around 1 ka. The latter might be related to the well known Medieval Warm Period. Our new results from the East Greenland Shelf will be compared with similar records from the Fram Strait area published by Müller et al., (2012). These data give information about differences and/or similarities of sea-ice variability and changes in productivity in the area influenced by the cold East Greenland Current and the warm Westspitsbergen Current, respectively. First data suggest a time lag of the Neoglacial cooling between western (Greenland side) and eastern (Westspitsbergen-side) of Fram Strait, as also proposed by Müller et al. (2012). References Belt., S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of paleo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38, 16-27 Müller, J., Werner, K., Stein, R., Fahl, K., Moros, M., Jansen, E., 2012. Holocene cooling culminates in sea ice oscillations in Fram Strait. Quaternay Science Reviews 47, 1-14

  16. Structural comparison of archetypal Atlantic rifted margins (Angola - Esperito Santo, Iberia - Newfoundland, mid.Norway - East Greenland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Manatschal, Gianreto; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2013-04-01

    In the last decade, a number of new geological and numerical models have been proposed to explain intriguing observations from deep margin settings that were previously not well understood. These new models, together with the increasing amount of high-quality geophysical data, now allow to compare observations from different margins. Key areas are the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugates, the North-East and South Atlantic systems. A first-order structural similarity appears between the architectures of these rifted margins, including magma-poor as well as magma-rich ones. Typical is the seawards arrangement of characteristic entities such as platforms, necking zones, ocean-continent transitions and marginal/outer highs. The arrangement appears to reflect a commonality with respect to the tectonic processes involved in rifted margin formation. The study of magma-poor and magma-rich margins notably suggests that hyper-extension does not preclude a magmatic breakup. We propose to clarify the definition of a number of terms typically used in rifted margin studies. Then we will present a review of available information from the Angola-Gabon, Iberia-Newfoundland and Norway-Greenland margins, usually referred to as the archetypes of hyper-extended, magma-poor or volcanic margins. We will discuss their similarities and differences and review the related deformation modes.

  17. Liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water characteristics in the East Greenland Current during the AO-02 Oden expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan; Björk, Göran; Rudels, Bert; Winsor, Peter; Torres, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Dynamical features of the East Greenland Current (EGC) are synthesized from a survey conducted by the Swedish icebreaker Oden during the International Arctic Ocean - 02 expedition (AO-02) in May 2002 with emphasis on the liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water. The data include hydrography and lowered acoustic doppler current profiler (LADCP) velocities in eight transects along the EGC, from the Fram Strait in the north to the Denmark Strait in the south. The survey reveals a strong confinement of the low-salinity polar water in the EGC to the continental slope/shelf-a feature of relevance for the stability of the thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean. The southward transport of liquid freshwater in the EGC was found to vary considerably between the sections, ranging between 0.01 and 0.1 Sverdrup. Computations based on geostrophic as well as LADCP velocities give a section-averaged southward freshwater transport of 0.06 Sverdrup in the EGC during May 2002. Furthermore, Oden data suggest that the liquid freshwater transport was as large north of the Fram Strait as it was south of the Denmark Strait.

  18. Relationships between stylolites and cementation in sandstone reservoirs: Examples from the North Sea, U.K. and East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Martin; Parnell, John

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir potential of hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs may be significantly reduced by compartmentation as a result of the development of stylolites. A petrographic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study was performed on sandstones containing abundant stylolites from the Buchan, Galley and Scott Fields in the Outer Moray Firth, offshore Scotland, and from a palaeo-oil bearing sequence in East Greenland. The main objective of this study was to further constrain the temperatures and burial depths at which stylolitization occurs in sandstone reservoirs. The sandstones containing abundant stylolites are also characterized by their highly cemented nature. Numerous occurrences of quartz overgrowths clearly truncated by sutured stylolites are evident in all of the samples. Fluid inclusion microthermometry reveals that quartz cementation, which is interpreted to be coeval with stylolitization, occurred at minimum temperatures of between 86 and 136 °C. Basin modelling of the Scott and Galley Fields indicates that quartz cementation and stylolite development formed at depths greater than 2.5 km which were attained during rapid Tertiary burial. The occurrence of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions within healed microfractures orientated at high angles to the stylolites suggests that these microfractures provided pathways for hydrocarbon migration in the highly cemented, low permeability zones associated with highly stylolitized sandstones.

  19. Detection and Monitoring of New-Ice in the East Greenland Sea Using the SeaWinds Scatterometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Ezraty

    2002-01-01

    Space borne radar scatterometers are primarily designed to measure the wind vector over the world ocean; yetthey also provide useful information on sea ice type and extent. In this paper, it is shown how the SeaWinds scatterometercan be used to detect new sea ice at the very beginning of its growth. Taking advantage of the very good coverage of the EastGreenland Sea by SeaWinds on board the QuikSCAT satellite it has been possible to detect the early stage of formation of thesea ice peninsula, named the Odden, and to monitor its evolution during March 2001. The early sea ice detection has beenvalidated by using RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar scenes. It is also shown that microwave radiometers, such as theSpecial Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), which are used as standard sensors for sea ice monitoring, do not detect the veryearly stage of sea ice growth and lag behind new sea ice occurrence by about twelve to twenty four hours.

  20. Response of the large-scale subglacial drainage system of North East Greenland to surface elevation changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of subglacial water on the dynamics of ice flow has been the object of increasing interest in the past decade. In this study we focus on large-scale, long-term changes in surface elevation over North East Greenland, and the corresponding changes in subglacial water routes. Our results show that over time-scales ranging from decades to millennia the area may experience redistribution of and fluctuation in subglacial water outflux under the main glacier outlets. The fluctuations in subglacial water routing occur even in the absence of external forcing. Based on these results we conclude that changes in the subglacial water routes are an intrinsic part of the drainage basin dynamics, where the subglacial system is likely always in a transient state. The results also imply that fluctuations at the margins observed at present might originate from changes several hundred kilometres upstream. Since surface elevation changes may propagate upstream over time-scales much longer than the observational period, the cause of the fluctuations may not be present in current observational records.

  1. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubail, Aurore, E-mail: aaubail@yahoo.fr [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France); Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Caurant, Florence [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2010-10-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were determined as well to provide insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from the mother to the foetus and newborn. The Hg concentrations in teeth were significantly lesser in ringed seals from central West Greenland compared to those from central East Greenland. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic values measured in the animals differed also significantly between the two regions. Increasing temporal trends of dental Hg concentrations between 1994 and 2006 were observed in ringed seals from both central West Greenland and central East Greenland. These increases were attributed to global changes in environmental Hg levels since no temporal trends in {delta}{sup 15}N values were found to support the hypothesis of a diet shift over time. Furthermore, a decreasing temporal trend in {delta}{sup 13}C values was observed in the teeth of seals from central East Greenland, and explained by a likely change over time towards more pelagic feeding habits; alternatively, the so-known Seuss effect was thought to be responsible for this decrease. Finally, it was concluded that the tooth of ringed seal was a good monitoring tissue to assess Hg trends.

  2. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubail, Aurore; Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank; Simon-Bouhet, Benoît; Caurant, Florence

    2010-10-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) were determined as well to provide insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from the mother to the foetus and newborn. The Hg concentrations in teeth were significantly lesser in ringed seals from central West Greenland compared to those from central East Greenland. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic values measured in the animals differed also significantly between the two regions. Increasing temporal trends of dental Hg concentrations between 1994 and 2006 were observed in ringed seals from both central West Greenland and central East Greenland. These increases were attributed to global changes in environmental Hg levels since no temporal trends in delta(15)N values were found to support the hypothesis of a diet shift over time. Furthermore, a decreasing temporal trend in delta(13)C values was observed in the teeth of seals from central East Greenland, and explained by a likely change over time towards more pelagic feeding habits; alternatively, the so-known Seuss effect was thought to be responsible for this decrease. Finally, it was concluded that the tooth of ringed seal was a good monitoring tissue to assess Hg trends.

  3. The mantle transition zone and the upper mantle in Central-Eastern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anja Kraft, Helene; Thybo, Hans; Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    We present a receiver function (RF) study of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) and upper mantle in central-eastern Greenland. Our results are based on data from 18 temporary broad-band seismometers and 5 additional stations from the GLISN and GLATIS networks. The stations were operating in the region between Scoresby Sund and Summit (~ 70 ° N) with half of them installed on ice, the other half on bedrock. For our analysis we calculated low frequency PRF and SRF, which use the difference in travel times between converted and not converted phases at discontinuities. We see clear signals from P410s and P660s in most of our PRF and from S410p in the SRF. Their delay times suggest a surprisingly thin MTZ for most parts of the study area with up to 25 km of thinning compared to standard Earth models. The only exception is a small region in the centre of the study area, which shows times close to standard. It is mainly the delay time for P410s, that varies, while P660s is stable throughout our study area. This indicates, that the thinning of the MTZ is mainly due to topography on the 410-discontinuity. We furthermore observe an M-shaped signal for P410s at stations in the western part around Summit. A similar, complicated signal has been observed previously in different settings and is interpreted as a thin low velocity layer between 410 km and 520 km. In addition we jointly inverted the PRF and SRF for upper mantle velocities. These results show velocities slower than IASP91 for the entire study area. Both the low velocities in the upper mantle and the thinning of the MTZ are in contrary to simple models of old continental shields and might indicate a fairly recent heating event.

  4. At-sea observations of the spring migration and pair bonding of ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea around Svalbard and East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of logistical constraints little previous information exists on ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea in the waters around Svalbard and the east coast of Greenland in late winter/early spring. The Swedish Arctic Ocean 2002 expedition investigated these areas at that time of year and in this paper I report on the observations of ivory gulls made during the expedition. The ivory gull was essentially absent from open waters but was the most common seabird in areas with pack ice, showing behavioural differences depending on local conditions. Generally, the number of ivory gulls was low when there was little plankton in the water. Ivory gulls followed the ship depending on the availability of food items in the wake and also depending on competition from other species, particularly glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus. Although ivory gulls were present in most of Fram Strait and the northern part of the East Greenland Current during 6 and 19 May, sightings were few and correlated to the amount of plankton in the water. Aggregations of several hundred were seen on the ice where copulation and other social interaction took place. A previously undescribed pair bonding behaviour during which females seemed to select between two competing males was observed north of Svalbard on 30 April–1 May. Off Scoresby Sound on 25 May, more than 700 birds were seen migrating north, while farther south along the Greenland coast on 30 May there was little indication of migration although many ivory gulls were seen.

  5. Tracing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by whole genome sequencing in a high incidence setting: a retrospective population-based study in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, K.; Soborg, B.; Koch, A.; Ladefoged, K.; Merker, M.; Lillebaek, T.; Andersen, A. B.; Niemann, S.; Kohl, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    In East Greenland, a dramatic increase of tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been observed in recent years. Classical genotyping suggests a genetically similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain population as cause, however, precise transmission patterns are unclear. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mtb isolates from 98% of culture-positive TB cases through 21 years (n = 182) which revealed four genomic clusters of the Euro-American lineage (mainly sub-lineage 4.8 (n = 134)). The time to the most recent common ancestor of lineage 4.8 strains was found to be 100 years. This sub-lineage further diversified in the 1970s, and massively expanded in the 1990s, a period of lowered TB awareness in Greenland. Despite the low genetic strain diversity, WGS data revealed several recent short-term transmission events in line with the increasing incidence in the region. Thus, the isolated setting and the uniformity of circulating Mtb strains indicated that the majority of East Greenlandic TB cases originated from one or few strains introduced within the last century. Thereby, the study shows the consequences of even short interruptions in TB control efforts in previously TB high incidence areas and demonstrates the potential role of WGS in detecting ongoing micro epidemics, thus guiding public health efforts in the future. PMID:27615360

  6. Tracing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by whole genome sequencing in a high incidence setting: a retrospective population-based study in East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, K; Soborg, B; Koch, A; Ladefoged, K; Merker, M; Lillebaek, T; Andersen, A B; Niemann, S; Kohl, T A

    2016-01-01

    In East Greenland, a dramatic increase of tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been observed in recent years. Classical genotyping suggests a genetically similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain population as cause, however, precise transmission patterns are unclear. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mtb isolates from 98% of culture-positive TB cases through 21 years (n = 182) which revealed four genomic clusters of the Euro-American lineage (mainly sub-lineage 4.8 (n = 134)). The time to the most recent common ancestor of lineage 4.8 strains was found to be 100 years. This sub-lineage further diversified in the 1970s, and massively expanded in the 1990s, a period of lowered TB awareness in Greenland. Despite the low genetic strain diversity, WGS data revealed several recent short-term transmission events in line with the increasing incidence in the region. Thus, the isolated setting and the uniformity of circulating Mtb strains indicated that the majority of East Greenlandic TB cases originated from one or few strains introduced within the last century. Thereby, the study shows the consequences of even short interruptions in TB control efforts in previously TB high incidence areas and demonstrates the potential role of WGS in detecting ongoing micro epidemics, thus guiding public health efforts in the future. PMID:27615360

  7. Caledonian eclogite-facies metamorphism of early Proterozoic protoliths from the North-East Greenland Eclogite Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, H.K.; Gilotti, J.A.; Nutman, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure metamorphic assemblages occur in mafic, ultramafic and a few intermediate rocks in a gneiss complex that covers an area of approximately 400 ?? 100 km in the North-East Greenland Caledonides. Detailed petrologic and geochronologic studies were carried out on three samples in order to clarify the P-T-t evolution of this eclogite province. Geothermobarometry yields temperature estimates of 700-800 ??C and pressure estimates of at least 1.5 GPa from an ecologite senu stricto and a high as 2.35 GPa for a garnet websterite. The eclogite defines a garnet-clinopyroxene-amphibole-whole rock Sm-Nd isochron age of 405 ?? 24 Ma (MSWSD 0.9). Isofacial garnet websterites define garnet-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-amphibole-whole rock-(biotite) ages of 439 ?? 8 Ma (MSWD = 2.1) for a coarse=grained sample and 370 ?? 12 Ma (MSWD = 0.6) for a finer-grained variety. Overgrowths on zircons from the fine-grained pyroxenite and the eclogite give a pooled 206Pb/238U SHRIMP age of 377 ?? 7 Ma (n = 4). Significantly younger Rb-Sr biotite ages of 357 ?? 8, 330 ?? 6 and 326 ?? 6 agree withyoung Rb-Sr, K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar mineral ages from the gneiss complex and indicate slow cooling of the eclogitic rocks. High-pressure metamorphism may have been at least 439 Ma old (Siluro-Ordovician) with cooling through amphibolite-facies conditions in the Devonian and continued crustal thinning and exhumation well into the Carboniferous. Sm-Nd whole rock model ages indicate the eclogite protoliths are Early Proterozoic in age, while 207Pb/206Pb SHRIMP ages of 1889 ?? 8 from an-hedral zircon cores probably reflect Proterozoic metasomatism. The samples have negative ??Nd values (-5 to -16) and elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708-0.715), consistent with field evidence that the eclogite protoliths were an integral part of the continental crust long before Caledonian metamorphism. The presence of a large Caledonian eclogite terrane in Greenland requires modification of current tectonic models that

  8. Three decades of elevation change of the Geikie Plateau ice cap, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrom, A. P.; Forsberg, René; Skourup, Henriette;

    change. In this work we will compare remotely sensed elevation data collected over more than three decades from the Geikie Ice Cap to evaluate volume change. Elevation data was obtained from aerial stereophotogrammetry based on orthophotos from 1981, spaceborne laser altimetry from ICESat over the period...... 2002-2009, aerial laser altimetry by the NASA IceBridge campaign 2010-2012 and aerial laser altimetry by the Technical University of Denmark and the Danish Geodata Agency covering 1996-2012. The comparison will facilitate an enhanced understanding of recent mass loss from ice caps and glaciers in East...

  9. The interglacial-glacial record at the mouth of Scoresby Sund, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangerud, Jan; Funder, Svend Visby

    1994-01-01

    The sedimentary record around outer Scoresby Sund begins with the Scoresby Sund glaciation ( "" isotope stage 6), but is incomplete. Both at Kap Hope, seadward of the fjord mouth, and at Kikiakajik on the outer coast, there are shallow marine sediments, correlated with the Langelandselv...... stade ( "" 19-15 ka BP) when, from marine geological data, it is suggested that the Scoresby Sund glacier terminated c. 30 km east of Kap Brewster. During the Milne Land stade (c. 10 ka BP) there was a resurgence of local ice caps in the mountains both north and south of the fjord mouth, but Scoresby...

  10. Preliminary results of a geophysical study of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.;

    . Although erosion driven uplift related to fjord formation is a significant mechanism, the average topographic elevation still exceeds 1 km. This apparent longevity of topography remains matter of discussion. In this context the relationship of topography to crustal thickness and isostatic compensation...... to these issues is the interpretation of Receiver Functions in terms of crustal discontinuities and Moho depth. 11 temporary broadband stations (Ella Ø array) were deployed and maintained by Aarhus University for a period of 2 years (2009 - 2011). The profile is approximately 270 km long and crosses the East...

  11. Seismic architecture and evolution of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan, central West Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.; Nielsen, Tove; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2016-09-01

    The present study is the first to document the large-scale glacigenic evolution of a West Greenland trough-mouth fan (TMF) system, i.e. the Disko Bay TMF, from onset of shelf-based glaciation to present. We have constrained the paleo-ice sheet configuration in the Disko Bay region and determine the controlling factors of ice-stream development using 2D- and 3D-seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from two exploration wells. This has revealed three stages of the Disko Bay TMF development. The early stage, probably of Pliocene-early Pleistocene age, marks the onset of a central depocentre located below the modern mid-shelf and constructed by sediment progradation delivered through at least two erosive pathways related to fast-flowing, grounded ice. At that time, ice-stream routing in the Disko Bay shelf region was strongly controlled by the pre-glacial topography and structural boundaries associated with fracture zones and deep-seated faults. During the middle evolutionary stage, the focus of deposition shifted from the mid-shelf to two elongate areas fringing the outer margin. The marginal depocentres were not only related to glacial processes but also alongslope deposition by contour currents, which may have developed as a consequence of basin subsidence surrounding the Davis Strait High and the Kangerluk Structure. The late stage of TMF development, presumably representing the late Pleistocene to Holocene, is characterized by the marginal depocentres becoming less significant and sediment aggradation occurring over wide parts of the mid-outer shelf, while features of subglacial erosion are generally absent. In contrast to the inferred fast-flowing ice streams of the early-middle evolutionary stages, this points to the existence of a rather thin and "lightly" grounded ice sheet, i.e. at the threshold of floatation. The "lightly" grounded ice sheet scenario, applying to the late Pleistocene interval of the Disko Bay TMF, was

  12. Present conditions in Greenland and the Kangerlussuaq area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, A. B. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2010-01-15

    Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of 2.2 million square kilometres, 80 % of which is covered by the ice sheet. The climate is Arctic, but as Greenland stretches 2600 km from north to south, there is a huge variability in climate, with temperature decreasing from south to north. Due to the influence of oceanic currents, the west coast is slightly warmer than the east coast. Precipitation also decreases strongly from the south to the north, and also with distance from the coast. Kangerlussuaq is located in the dry, continental area of central west Greenland. The bedrock of Greenland is dominated by Precambrian gneisses, with sedimentary rocks occurring in some areas of East and North Greenland, and smaller areas of basalts. All of Greenland has been glaciated several times and has thus been eroded and shaped by the ice, as it still is at the ice margin. Soils are generally thin, and especially in the gneiss regions rather poor in plant nutrients. Permafrost occurs throughout the ice free areas of Greenland. It is continuous in the north, discontinuous along parts of the central east and west coast and occurs as isolated patches in the south. Kangerlussuaq is in the southernmost part of the continuous permafrost zone. The spatial variability in climate is also reflected in the vegetation zones, which range from Arctic dessert in the far north, through dwarf shrub zones with increasing plant height and density towards the south, to the arctic shrub zone in the continental parts of West Greenland and subarctic Birch forest in South Greenland. The terrestrial food chains in Greenland are generally short and with few species. Cyclic variation in population sizes has been observed in some mammal species, including lemming and caribou. Many species of mammals and birds are associated with the coastal environment, which is therefore also and important resource area for the human population. Fishery is the most economically important industry in

  13. Present conditions in Greenland and the Kangerlussuaq area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of 2.2 million square kilometres, 80 % of which is covered by the ice sheet. The climate is Arctic, but as Greenland stretches 2600 km from north to south, there is a huge variability in climate, with temperature decreasing from south to north. Due to the influence of oceanic currents, the west coast is slightly warmer than the east coast. Precipitation also decreases strongly from the south to the north, and also with distance from the coast. Kangerlussuaq is located in the dry, continental area of central west Greenland. The bedrock of Greenland is dominated by Precambrian gneisses, with sedimentary rocks occurring in some areas of East and North Greenland, and smaller areas of basalts. All of Greenland has been glaciated several times and has thus been eroded and shaped by the ice, as it still is at the ice margin. Soils are generally thin, and especially in the gneiss regions rather poor in plant nutrients. Permafrost occurs throughout the ice free areas of Greenland. It is continuous in the north, discontinuous along parts of the central east and west coast and occurs as isolated patches in the south. Kangerlussuaq is in the southernmost part of the continuous permafrost zone. The spatial variability in climate is also reflected in the vegetation zones, which range from Arctic dessert in the far north, through dwarf shrub zones with increasing plant height and density towards the south, to the arctic shrub zone in the continental parts of West Greenland and subarctic Birch forest in South Greenland. The terrestrial food chains in Greenland are generally short and with few species. Cyclic variation in population sizes has been observed in some mammal species, including lemming and caribou. Many species of mammals and birds are associated with the coastal environment, which is therefore also and important resource area for the human population. Fishery is the most economically important industry in Greenland

  14. High-Resolution Monitoring of Glacier Dynamics During Calving Events at Helheim Glacier South-East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T.; Rutt, I. C.; O'Farrell, T.; Edwards, S.; Selmes, N.; Martin, I.; James, T.; Aspey, R.; Bevan, S. L.; Loskot, P.; Baugé, T.

    2013-12-01

    By bringing together expertise in glaciology, GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technology and processing, and wireless networks we have designed, installed and operated a wireless network of GNSS sensors very close to the margin of the heavily crevassed and fast-flowing Helheim Glacier in south-east Greenland. In 2012, we undertook field trials installing 3 GNSS sensors on the glacier's flowline, and observed the dynamic effects of a major calving event. In 2013, a full 20 node wireless network was installed together with 5 oblique cameras, instrumenting an area ~16 km^2 of the glacier margin. The network will run throughout the summer months. In combination with auxiliary data, such as airborne lidar measurement of surface topography, crevasse spacing and calving rates, oblique photogrammetry, and DEMs and velocity fields from TanDEM-X satellite imagery, the network provides velocity and elevation data of unprecedented resolution in time and space for the key marginal area of the glacier, where recent changes in glacier dynamics appear to have initiated. We present data showing the glacier's dynamic and topographic response to calving events. These data will provide rich opportunities for testing calving models and to improve understanding of the controls on the contribution of these tidewater glaciers to sea-level rise. The network has low energy consumption and a novel base-station topology providing diversity and redundancy: it is also robust to the loss of nodes as the glacier calves. Such a network would also be suitable for data collection in a number of harsh environmental settings such as earthquake, landslide or volcano monitoring.

  15. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008–2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81°36' N, 16°40' W in North East Greenland were evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February 2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF and COnstrained Physical Receptor Model (COPREM was based on measurements of black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb and inorganic ions (SO2, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, NO3−, Cl−. In general, source apportionment results by PMF and COPREM showed good agreement. Five sources adequately explained the measurements, which included a Marine and a Soil source of natural origin and three additional anthropogenic sources, which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from southern and eastern origins. Another anthropogenic source was characterised by high concentrations of Pb and As, which has been historically referred to as a Combustion source at Station Nord. The impacts of large-scale industry in Siberia, Russia were evident through high Cu concentrations in both the Combustion source and an additional Cu/Ni source. Br correlated well with the anthropogenic species S and Pb though the elements are unlikely to have a common origin. More likely, sulphuric acid aerosols serve as transport containers for Br species of marine or local origin. Of particular relevance to climate, sources of black carbon were identified to be mainly anthropogenic and most probably of Siberian origin (80–98%.

  16. Comparison of northern and central Greenland ice cores records of methanesulfonate covering the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsell, U.; Hansson, M. E.; Siggaard-Andersen, M-L-;

    2007-01-01

    records, dust concentrations do not affect the MS- concentrations in the ice, whereas the deposition of sulfate probably is enhanced by high dust concentrations in the atmosphere. The MS- signal has a higher potential of being a proxy record of DMS production changes in Greenlandic compared to Antarctic...

  17. Contamination of arctic Fjord sediments by Pb-Zn mining at Maarmorilik in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Kerstin; Leipe, Thomas; Dellwig, O;

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on heavy metal contamination of arctic sediments from a small Fjord system adjacent to the Pb-Zn "Black Angel" mine (West Greenland) to investigate the temporal and spatial development of contamination and to provide baseline levels before the mines re-opening in January 2009...... illustrate this transport and spatial distribution pattern of the contaminated material....

  18. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortino, S.E. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  19. High geothermal heat flow, Basal melt, and the origin of rapid ice flow in central Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, M; Abdalati, W; Joughin, I; Brozena, J; Gogineni, P

    2001-12-14

    Age-depth relations from internal layering reveal a large region of rapid basal melting in Greenland. Melt is localized at the onset of rapid ice flow in the large ice stream that drains north off the summit dome and other areas in the northeast quadrant of the ice sheet. Locally, high melt rates indicate geothermal fluxes 15 to 30 times continental background. The southern limit of melt coincides with magnetic anomalies and topography that suggest a volcanic origin. PMID:11743197

  20. Reconstruction of sea-ice cover and primary production on the East Greenland Shelf (73°N) during the last 5200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Henriette Marie; Stein, Rüdiger; Fahl, Kirsten; Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has changed dramatically and much more rapidly than predicted by climate models. Thus, high-resolution sea-ice reconstructions from pre-anthropogenic times are useful and needed in order to better understand the processes controlling the natural sea-ice variability. Here, we present the first high-resolution biomarker (IP25, sterols) approach over the last 5.2 ka from the East Greenland Shelf (for background about the biomarker approach see Belt et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2009, 2011). This area is highly sensitive to sea-ice changes, as it underlies the pathway of the East Greenland Current, the main exporter of Arctic freshwater and sea ice that affects the environmental conditions on the East Greenland Shelf and deep-water formation/ convection in the Northern North Atlantic. After rather stable sea-ice conditions in the mid-Holocene we found a strong increase in sea ice, cumulating around 1.5 ka and associated with the Neoglacial cooling. The general trend especially during the last 1ka is interrupted by several short-lived events such as the prominent Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, characterized by minimum and maximum sea-ice extent, respectively. Using a spectral analysis, we could identify several cyclicites, e.g. a 45-year cyclicity for cold events. A comparison to similar records from the eastern Fram Strait revealed a slight time lag in the onset of the Neoglacial, but also suggesting the direct link of the East Greenland Shelf area to the Arctic sea-ice/freahwater outflow. A comparison of the biomarker data with a new foraminiferal record obtained from the same site (Perner et al., 2015) suggests that IP25 and foraminifera assemblages are probably controlled by rather different processes within the oceanographic systems, such as the sea-ice conditions and, for the foraminifera, water-mass changes and nutrient supply. References: Belt. S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M

  1. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008–2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. T. Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81° 36' N, 16° 40' W in North East Greenland were evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February 2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF and COnstrained Physical REceptor Model (COPREM was based on measurements of black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb and inorganic ions (SO2, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, NO3, Cl2−. In general, source apportionment results by PMF and COPREM showed good agreement. Five sources adequately explained the measurements, which included a Marine and a Soil source of natural origin and three additional anthropogenic sources, which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from Southern and Eastern origins. Another anthropogenic source was characterised by high concentrations of Pb and As, which has been historically referred to as a Combustion source at Station Nord. The impacts of large-scale industry in Siberia, Russia were evident through high Cu concentrations in both the Combustion source and an additional Cu/Ni source.

    Br correlated well with the anthropogenic species S and Pb though the elements are unlikely to have a common origin. More likely, sulphuric acid aerosols serve as transport containers for Br species of marine origin. Of particular relevance to climate, sources of black carbon were identified to be

  2. Polyhalogenated compounds (PCBs, chlordanes, HCB and BFRs) in four polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that swam malnourished from East Greenland to Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Walter; Gall, Vanessa; Skírnisson, Karl

    2015-11-15

    Levels of organohalogen compounds (PCBs, chlordane, PBB 153, PBDEs, HCB) were determined in adipose tissue, liver, kidney and muscle of four polar bears which swam and/or drifted to Iceland in extremely malnourished condition. Since the colonization in the 9th century polar bears have been repeatedly observed in Iceland. However, in recent years three of the animals have clearly left their natural habitat in poor condition in May or June, i.e. at the end of the major feeding season. The fourth bear is believed to have drifted with melting ice to North-Eastern Iceland in mid-winter. The concentrations of the POPs were within the range or higher than the typical concentrations measured in polar bears from the East Greenland population. In addition to the targeted compounds, we tentatively detected Dechlorane 602 and its potential hydrodechlorinated Cl11-metabolite in all samples. Moreover, a polychlorinated compound which partly co-eluted with PCB 209 was detected in all liver samples but not in adipose tissue, kidney or muscle. The mass spectrum of the potential metabolite did not allow determining its structure. Polar bears are good swimmers and can reach Iceland from the ice edge of East Greenland within a few days. Potential reasons for the swims are briefly discussed.

  3. Density-dependent variations of the along-isobath flow in the East Greenland Current from Fram Strait to Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichtholz, Pawel

    2007-12-01

    The East Greenland Current (EGC) dynamically connects the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic on the western side of the Nordic Seas. Observations show that the speed of the EGC considerably varies along the East Greenland Slope (EGS). Here it is shown, using current meter data reported in the literature and climatological hydrographic fields, that velocity and transport variations along the EGS are supported by the cross-isobath component of the density-dependent geostrophic flow relative to the bottom. The relative flow impinging on (leaving) the EGS in a northern (southern) limb of the cyclonic circulation in the Nordic Seas strengthens (weakens) the along-isobath bottom geostrophic flow. Variations of the latter are clearly associated with along-isobath bottom density gradients. Current observations indicate an increase of the along-isobath bottom velocity from 79°N to 75°N equal to about 9 and 10 cm s-1 on the upper (1000 m isobath) and lower (2000 m isobath) EGS, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on bottom density distribution along the 1000 and 2000 m isobaths are grossly consistent with the observations given above though we obtain a higher increase (13 cm s-1) at 1000 m and lower increase (6 cm s-1) at 2000 m. Considering the variability of the system and the poor resolution of the observations we find this to be a very convincing result, demonstrating the power of the geostrophic approximation for such estimates.

  4. Polyhalogenated compounds (PCBs, chlordanes, HCB and BFRs) in four polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that swam malnourished from East Greenland to Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Walter; Gall, Vanessa; Skírnisson, Karl

    2015-11-15

    Levels of organohalogen compounds (PCBs, chlordane, PBB 153, PBDEs, HCB) were determined in adipose tissue, liver, kidney and muscle of four polar bears which swam and/or drifted to Iceland in extremely malnourished condition. Since the colonization in the 9th century polar bears have been repeatedly observed in Iceland. However, in recent years three of the animals have clearly left their natural habitat in poor condition in May or June, i.e. at the end of the major feeding season. The fourth bear is believed to have drifted with melting ice to North-Eastern Iceland in mid-winter. The concentrations of the POPs were within the range or higher than the typical concentrations measured in polar bears from the East Greenland population. In addition to the targeted compounds, we tentatively detected Dechlorane 602 and its potential hydrodechlorinated Cl11-metabolite in all samples. Moreover, a polychlorinated compound which partly co-eluted with PCB 209 was detected in all liver samples but not in adipose tissue, kidney or muscle. The mass spectrum of the potential metabolite did not allow determining its structure. Polar bears are good swimmers and can reach Iceland from the ice edge of East Greenland within a few days. Potential reasons for the swims are briefly discussed. PMID:26172596

  5. Business environment and enterprise behaviour in East Germany compared to West Germany and central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Krkoska; Katrin Robeck

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines institutional differences between the former East and West Germany and four central European transition countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic). Using enterprise survey data we show that the quality of both formal and informal institutions in East Germany still differs from West Germany. In addition, central European transition countries are shown to have closed the gap in institutional quality with East Germany in many areas. We also show t...

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1982 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1982. The report contains results from sampling expeditions to East Greenland as well as West Greenland waters in 1982. Brown algae collected in East Greenland in 1969 were analysed for 90Sr. (author)

  7. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Aubail, Aurore; Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Caurant, Florence

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) were determined as well to provide insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from t...

  8. Geophysical studies of Mono Lake, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, N. D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake, California to study regional crustal structures and to aid understanding the geologic framework of Mono Lake, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Recent geophysical surveys included over 600 line-kilometers of high-resolution ship-borne magnetometer data that augmented existing airborne data, 22 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data that were collected along six traverses across Paoha Island, 56 gravity stations that were collected on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples that were collected for physical property data. Magnetic highs in the study area occur to the east and west of Mono Lake, where pre-Tertiary basement is exposed. Magnetic data indicate that Mono Lake itself is dominated by three prominent magnetic anomalies that are from west to east: a magnetic high along the northwest part of the lake associated with the moderately magnetic basalt cinder cone at Black Point, a magnetic high associated with the young volcanic centers at Paoha and Negit Islands, and a broad magnetic high along the eastern margin of the lake probably associated with moderately magnetic granitic basement rocks at depth. Because volcanic rocks exposed at the surface of Paoha and Negit Islands are only weakly magnetic, magnetic data suggest that more mafic volcanic rocks probably occur at depth and are the source of the anomaly. The linear and steep magnetic gradient across the eastern part of the lake may reflect a fault. A fault may also be imaged in the northeastern part of the lake, where a possible laterally offset magnetic anomaly may be present. Within Mono Lake, gravity station control is poor because land-based gravity stations are limited to Paoha and Negit Islands. The gravity low in the basin reflects a moderately deep sedimentary basin filled with low density lacustrine and volcanic deposits. Isostatic gravity data indicate the central

  9. Annual Patterns and Sources of Light-Absorbing Aerosols over Central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Bergin, M. H.; Dibb, J. E.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region has proven to be more responsive to recent changes in climate than other parts of the Earth. A key component of the Arctic climate is the Greenland ice sheet (GIS), which has the potential to dramatically influence sea level, depending on the amount of melting that occurs, as well as climate, through shifts in the regional radiation balance. Light-absorbing aerosols from biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and dust sources can potentially have a significant impact on the radiation balance of the GIS; however, in order to better understand their impact, it is important to first understand the annual trends of light-absorbing aerosols and their sources over the ice sheet. With this in mind, aerosol properties including the wavelength dependent aerosol light scattering and absorption coefficients have been continuously measured at Summit, Greenland since the spring of 2011. These measurements will be used to calculate the multi-wavelength single-scattering albedo (ω0) and absorption Ångström exponent, identify annual patterns of aerosols over the GIS and how they vary from year to year, detect events of high absorption, and determine the sources of the aerosols. Preliminary findings indicate that the aerosols have an absorption Ångström exponent of approximately 1, which is characteristic of black carbon (BC). Absorption and scattering coefficients are higher in the spring and summer (March-September) and consequently lower in the fall and winter (September-March). Absorption and single-scattering albedo are averaged over the sunlit months of April-August and are found to be highest and lowest, respectively, in the year of 2012, corresponding to the year of record melt extent over the GIS.

  10. 10Be dating reveals early-middle Holocene age of the Drygalski Moraines in central West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, Sandra L.; Briner, Jason P.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin on the Nuussuaq Peninsula in central West Greenland through the Holocene using lake sediment analysis and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of the prominent Drygalski Moraines. Erratics perched on bedrock outboard of the Drygalski Moraines constrain local deglaciation to ∼9.9 ± 0.6 ka (n = 2). Three Drygalski Moraine crests yield mean 10Be ages of 8.6 ± 0.4 ka (n = 2), 8.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 7.6 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the inner two moraines average 7.8 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) and are consistent with the moraine ages. Sediments from a proglacial lake with a catchment area extending an estimated 2 km beneath (inland of) the present ice sheet terminus constrain an ice sheet minimum extent from 5.4 ka to 0.6 ka. The moraine chronology paired with the lake sediment stratigraphy reveals that the ice margin likely remained within ∼2 km of its present position from ∼9.9 to 5.4 ka. This unexpected early Holocene stability, preceded by rapid ice retreat and followed by minimum ice extent between ∼5.4 and 0.6 ka, contrasts with many records of early Holocene warmth and the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum. We suggest ice margin stability may instead be tied to adjacent ocean temperatures, which reached an optimum in the middle Holocene.

  11. Vitamins A and E in liver, kidney, and whole blood of East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2008: reference values and temporal trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshoft, T.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins A (retinol) and E (α-tocopherol) are dietary vitamins, essential for, e.g., growth and development, reproduction, and immune function. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been found to be related to vitamin A and E metabolism. However, few investigations have been published...... on this health issue in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of this study was thus to provide reference values for concentrations of vitamin A in liver, kidney cortex, and whole blood and vitamin E in kidney cortex and whole blood from 166 East Greenland polar bears, as well as to assess the relationship...... between POPs and vitamin concentrations. In addition, vitamin concentrations were analyzed for temporal trends (1994–2008). Results showed vitamin A in liver to be higher in adult bears and the concentrations of vitamin E in kidney and blood to likewise be generally higher in adult bears. In addition, all...

  12. Updating the National Wetland Inventory in east-central Minnesota: Technical documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a spatially comprehensive wetland inventory for east-central Minnesota. Ducks Unlimited, Inc. and the Minnesota Department of Natural...

  13. Centrality of Event across Cultures. Emotionally Positive and Negative Events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...... negative events increased as participants grew older....

  14. Siemens: a multinational's strategy to investment in the Central-East European transformation countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Birgit

    1995-01-01

    The Central East European economies are competing for international investment capital, especially for FDI in order to support transformation. The paper explores how the Siemens AG, one of the world's largest MNCs, allocates investments towards and within Central East Europe and how they fit into its overall corporate strategy. They display strategic asset features, are targeted to cheap resources, meant to serve either national or international markets and rely on different degrees of functi...

  15. Evidence for regional cooling, frontal advances, and East Greenland Ice Sheet changes during the demise of the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvalı, Nil; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Kleiven, Helga (Kikki) F.; Galaasen, Eirik V.; Morley, Audrey; Rosenthal, Yair

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution lithic and sea surface climate records are used to portray the progression of North Atlantic climate, hydrography, and Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) activity through the peak of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e into the last glacial inception. We use Eirik Drift sediment core MD03-2664 (57°26.34‧N, 48°36.35‧W), recovered south of Greenland, strategically located to monitor fluctuations in GIS extent and iceberg calving events. Our results show that a significant amount of ice-rafted debris (IRD) was present during the early MIS 5e, until gradually tapering off by 122 kyr BP due to a diminishing GIS. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the northern subpolar gyre reached peak values early in MIS 5e coinciding with peak insolation. Regional cooling leading to the demise of the last interglacial started prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, at approximately 119 kyr BP, as summer insolation waned. This gradual cooling trend is interrupted by an abrupt and brief cooling episode at ∼117 kyr BP. Increased IRD abundance during the 117 kyr BP cooling event suggests that regional ice sheet growth occurred prior to the end of the MIS 5e benthic δ18O plateau, and the major glacial inception. SSTs south of Greenland followed a two-step cooling during the glacial inception similar to the pattern observed across much of the North Atlantic and Europe. Benthic δ18O increases in parallel, suggesting that this two-step cooling is linked to a two-phased intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  16. Melting at the base of the Greenland ice sheet explained by Iceland hotspot history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Petrunin, Alexey G.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Johnson, Jesse V.; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Calov, Reinhard; Rickers, Florian; Thomas, Maik; Koulakov, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Ice-penetrating radar and ice core drilling have shown that large parts of the north-central Greenland ice sheet are melting from below. It has been argued that basal ice melt is due to the anomalously high geothermal flux that has also influenced the development of the longest ice stream in Greenland. Here we estimate the geothermal flux beneath the Greenland ice sheet and identify a 1,200-km-long and 400-km-wide geothermal anomaly beneath the thick ice cover. We suggest that this anomaly explains the observed melting of the ice sheet’s base, which drives the vigorous subglacial hydrology and controls the position of the head of the enigmatic 750-km-long northeastern Greenland ice stream. Our combined analysis of independent seismic, gravity and tectonic data implies that the geothermal anomaly, which crosses Greenland from west to east, was formed by Greenland’s passage over the Iceland mantle plume between roughly 80 and 35 million years ago. We conclude that the complexity of the present-day subglacial hydrology and dynamic features of the north-central Greenland ice sheet originated in tectonic events that pre-date the onset of glaciation in Greenland by many tens of millions of years.

  17. Tidal Modulation of Ice Flow on Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim Glaciers, East Greenland, from High-Rate GPS Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, G. S.; Stearns, L. A.; Elosegui, P.;

    Boundary conditions at the frontal margins of tidewater glaciers provide important constraints on the balance of forces affecting ice flow and iceberg calving. For many large outlet glaciers in Greenland, the type of boundary condition (floating vs grounded ice) is not well known, owing to limite...... in Sermilik fjord, close to the terminus of Helheim Glacier. An analysis of ice vertical displacement and modeled ocean tide for Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier indicates the calving terminus was likely at near-flotation in July 2005. A tidal amplitude of ~~2.5 m produced an uplift of ~~2 m...

  18. Possible Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Organizing in Greenland is a complex matter. We have been on an arctic odyssey exploring the different aspects of the Greenlandic reality and have created a publication in which a wide range of Greenlandic and international profiles and stakeholders give their opinion and visions for the future...... development in Greenland. By creating a platform for a wide range of ideas about the Possible Greenland to be discussed now and in the future, we give Greenlanders and Greenlandic decision makers access to the greatest amount of possible solutions to the challenges they are facing. We look more closely...... at Greenland's structure, and ask some threshold questions. Which aspects of society are rooted in our human hardware? And, if we had the rare opportunity to build a new nation, what would we choose for ourselves? We hope this will inspire an open, imaginative and thoroughly human discussion about how...

  19. Envisioning Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the traditional ‘cool’ representation of Greenland as a frozen landscape devoid of people and human structures is being challenged by an emerging vision of Greenland as ‘hot’. This article presents and describes these two versions of Greenland, showing how demarcations of what is ‘nature...

  20. A new, detailed ice-age oxygen-18 record from the ice-sheet margin in central West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, Niels; Oerter, Hans; Letréguilly, Anne; Miller, Heinz; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang

    1991-10-01

    A new detailed oxygen-18 record measured on surface-ice samples from a West Greenland ice-margin location reveals the hitherto longest climatic record from the Greenland ice sheet, spanning the last c. 150,000 years. The new record implies that the Greenland deep ice-core records from Dye3 and Camp Century need to be re-interpreted. A comparison with the deuterium record from the Vostok deep ice core, Antarctica indicates that climate behaved differently in the northern and southern hemispheres during the last glacial/interglacial cycle, with major differences occurring in Emiliani isotopic stage 5.

  1. Discussion on final rifting evolution and breakup : insights from the Mid Norwegian - North East Greenland rifted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2016-04-01

    In terms of rifted margin studies, the characteristics of the distal and outer domains are among the today's most debated questions. The architecture and composition of deep margins are rarely well constrained and hence little understood. Except from in a handful number of cases (eg. Iberia-Newfoundland, Southern Australia, Red Sea), basement samples are not available to decipher between the various interpretations allowed by geophysical models. No consensus has been reached on the basement composition, tectonic structures, sedimentary geometries or magmatic content. The result is that non-unique end-member interpretations and models are still proposed in the literature. So, although these domains mark the connection between continents and oceans, and thus correspond to unique stages in the Earth's lithospheric life cycle, their spatial and temporal evolution are still unresolved. The Norwegian-Greenland Sea rift system represents an exceptional laboratory to work on questions related to rifting, rifted margin formation and sedimentary basin evolution. It has been extensively studied for decades by both the academic and the industry communities. The proven and expected oil and gas potentials led to the methodical acquisition of world-class geophysical datasets, which permit the detailed research and thorough testing of concepts at local and regional scales. This contribution is issued from a three years project funded by ExxonMobil aiming at better understanding the crustal-scale nature and evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The idea was to take advantage of the data availability on this specific rift system to investigate further the full crustal conjugate scale history of rifting, confronting the various available datasets. In this contribution, we will review the possible structural and sedimentary geometries of the distal margin, and their connection to the oceanic domain. We will discuss the definition of 'breakup' and introduce a first order conceptual

  2. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K. [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M. [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  3. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsbeek, Feiko

    2009-11-01

    opening of the North Atlantic Ocean in the late Paleocene. Sea-floor spreading was accompanied by extrusion of Palaeogene (early Tertiary plateau basalts in both central West and central–southern East Greenland. During the Quaternary Greenland was almost completely covered by ice, and the present day Inland Ice is a relic from the Pleistocene ice ages. Vast amounts of glacially eroded detritus were deposited on the continental shelves around Greenland. Mineral exploitation in Greenland has so far encompassed cryolite, lead-zinc, gold, olivine and coal. Current prospecting activities in Greenland are concentrated on gold, base metals, platinum group elements, molybdenum, iron ore, diamonds and lead-zinc. Hydrocarbon potential is confined to the major Phanerozoic sedimentary basins, notably the large basins offshore North-East and West Greenland. While reserves of oil or gas have yet to be found, geophysical data com bined with discoveries of oil seeps onshore have revealed a considerable potential for offshore oil and gas.

  4. Employment protection legislation in central and east European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Mirco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents updated indicators of employment protection legislation for several central and eastern European countries according to OECD methodology. Common patterns and outliers are identified and additional information is provided to interpret correctly the strictness of the regulatory environment. The aim is to provide some hard evidence for the debate regarding the interface between employment protection legislation and labour markets and welfare, based on the legislations apply...

  5. National innovation system dynamics in East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    . The results highlight the importance of political and economic freedom, science and education for promoting innovation. According to the principal component analyses, the best performing countries, in terms of their national innovation systems, of the East Central Europe and the Baltic Countries have......Here, the structure and dynamics of national innovation systems are explored to produce a comprehensive picture of the current, as well as the past, performance of the countries of East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia vis-à-vis their competiveness and innovative capability...... developed rapidly after the disintegration of the Soviet bloc and compare well in global rankings of innovative capabilities and competitiveness with standings above the countries of Latin America and South-East Asia. The countries under closer examination here that are members of the EU seem...

  6. Radioactivity at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedow, Helmuth; Tolbert, Gene Edward

    1952-01-01

    Investigation of radioactivity anomalies at the Copper Creek copper lode prospect, Eagle district, east-central Alaska, during 1949 disclosed that the radioactivity is associated with copper mineralization in highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These rocks are a roof pendant in the Mesozoic "Charley River" batholith. The radioactivity is probably all due to uranium associated with bornite and malachite.

  7. California avocados in Florida? Finding the perfect avocado for production in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit where most U.S. consumption is supplied using imported product. Cultivars with good fruit quality and horticultural traits may provide a useful alternative crop in east-central Florida and possibly in other locations throughout the state. A port...

  8. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  9. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  10. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  11. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

  12. Premonsoonal water characteristics and cirulation in the east central Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    The hydrographic structure in the east central Arabian Sea during premonsoon period undergoes significant temporal change in the thermal field of upper 100 m, wherein temperature rises by about 0.5 degrees C on an average from May to June. The major...

  13. Herrscherschaft and herrschersuffix in Central-East European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper resumes a topic the author approached in severa[ instances beginning with 1987: some specific terms referring to the semantic sphere Herrscherschafi. In Romanian, ban, jupîn, stăpîn and probably also cioban reflect the indigenous Thracian substratum; these forms also reflect the archaic Indo-European Herrschersujfzx -n-. In Slavic, their equivalent forms ban, župan and stopan reflect either a Late Thracian or (Proto-Romanian influence. Equally Rom. vătaf reflects the substratum influence, whereas Slavic vatah, vatak, vataš reflects the same borrowing. On the other hand, Slavic gospodƄ, belongs to the archaic Proto-Slavic core elements, while cěsaŕƄ, reflect a Germanic influence. Finally, Rom. boier is an East-Romance innovation derived from bou 'ox' and initially meant 'owner of cattle = rich man', a traditional association between cattle-owners and richness. The word had a large distribution from the early Middle Ages until late in the 20th century. In a paper written some 15 years ago (Paliga 1987, in Linguistica, Ljubljana 1 dared suggest that a series of Romanian and Slavic terms referring to social and political organisation, specifically ban (1 'master, local leader' and (2 'coin, money' (2nd sense derived from the lst one,jupîn (formerly giupîn 'a master', 'a master, a lord', cioban 'a shepherd', rather reflect a compact etymological group of Pre-Romance and Pre-Slavic origin (including cioban, incorrectly considered a Turkish influence, seemingly starting from the erroneous, but largely spread hypothesis that intervocalic -b- in Romanian would rather suggest a newer origin 1 . To these, on another occasion, I added the form vătaf,vătah (also with parallels in some Slavic languages, Paliga 1996: 34-36 and on another occasion 1 analysed the form boier, also spread in many neighbouring languages, which has often been considered either of unknown origin or again of Turkic (not Turkish, i.e. Ottoman origin (Paliga 1990

  14. Distribution of burrowing owls in east-central South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jill A; Thiele, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) populations have declined across much of western North America, particularly at the northern and eastern edges of the species’ breeding range (Martell et al. 2001, Murphy et al. 2001, Shyry et al. 2001, Skeel et al. 2001, Klute et al. 2003). In South Dakota, the burrowing owl is a summer resident that historically was relatively common throughout the state, but its range has decreased in recent decades, especially in the eastern half of the state (Whitney et al. 1978, South Dakota Ornithologists’ Union [SDOU] 1991, Peterson 1995). Tallman et al. (2002) described the species as uncommon to locally common in western South Dakota, uncommon in the north-central part of the state, and casual (i.e., not within the species’ normal range, but with 3–10 records in the past 10 years) elsewhere in the eastern half. The burrowing owl is a Species of Greatest Conservation Need (South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks [SDGFP] 2006) and a Level I Priority Species in South Dakota (Bakker 2005).

  15. Impact of recirculation on the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait: Results from moored current meter measurements between 1997 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.; Mauritzen, C.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Fahrbach, E.

    2014-10-01

    Transports of total volume and water masses obtained from a mooring array in the East Greenland Current (EGC) in Fram Strait are presented for the period 1997-2009. The array in the EGC was moved along isobaths from 79°N to 78°50‧N in 2002 to line up with moorings in the eastern Fram Strait. Analysis of the time series at the two latitudes shows that associated with the southward move, the annual mean volume transport of the EGC increased from 5.8±1.8 Sv to 8.7±2.5 Sv, mostly related with an increase in barotropic flow. This suggests a recirculation of close to 3 Sv at 78°50‧N as a consequence of the large-scale wind-driven cyclonic gyre in the Nordic Seas. In addition, the volume transport at 78°50‧N showed a clear seasonal cycle which was absent at 79°N. Estimates of the wind-driven Sverdrup transport at two different latitudes show that the difference in total volume transport and seasonality can largely be explained by the wind-stress curl. However, weak transport in 2003 was only partially related with weak Sverdrup transport and coincided also with anomalously weak northerly winds. The stronger recirculation at 78°50‧N has also consequences for the observed Atlantic Water: there is significantly more Atlantic derived water present at the southerly latitude. In addition, the warm anomaly in Fram Strait between 2005 and 2007 doubled the amount of Recirculated Atlantic Water temporarily. Finally, we estimate that close to 2.7 Sv, or 50%, of Atlantic derived water recirculates in Fram Strait.

  16. Plant co-existence patterns and High-Arctic vegetation composition in three common plant communities in north-east Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Grau

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic regions are expected to experience substantial changes in climate in the coming decades. In order to predict potential changes of Arctic vegetation, it is important to understand the distinct role of life forms of plants and of individual species in relation to plant co-existence patterns. Our aim is to investigate if three common Arctic plant patch types dominated by contrasting life forms (by the dwarf shrubs Salix arctica or Dryas octopetala×intermedia or by mosses are related (a to the co-existence of vascular plants and species richness at patch scale and (b to the floristic composition in three distinct plant communities (Salix snowbed, Dryas heath and fell-field associated with contrasting abiotic regimes. The study was conducted at Zackenberg, in north-east Greenland. Dryas patches showed a clear negative effect on small-scale plant richness and co-existence in the fell-field. Salix and moss patches showed a similar pattern in all the plant communities, although the number of individuals growing in Salix patches was lower than in moss patches. Salix and mosses in the fell-fields hosted a high number of species in spite of the much less vegetated aspect of this harsh, upper zone. The floristic composition varied between plant communities, but it did not change substantially between patch types within each community. This study provides novel background knowledge of plant co-existence patterns at patch scale and of the structure of contrasting Arctic plant communities, which will help to better assess the potential effects of varying abiotic stress regimes on Arctic vegetation.

  17. South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report is a preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of oil in the Greenland sector of the Labrador Sea and the southeast Davis Strait......This report is a preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of oil in the Greenland sector of the Labrador Sea and the southeast Davis Strait...

  18. Water Quality of a Reservoir and Its Major Tributary Located in East-Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Castilla-Hernández; María del Rocío Torres-Alvarado; José Antonio Herrera-San Luis; Norma Cruz-López

    2014-01-01

    A reservoir with ecological and economic importance and its major tributary, localized in east-central Mexico, were studied. The aim of this work was to know the physicochemical water characteristics of both water bodies and to contrast these by their different uses, and also estimate overall water quality using a Water Quality Index (WQI). Water samples from the reservoir and the tributary were obtained in different climatic seasons. In the tributary, anoxic and hypoxic conditions and high l...

  19. Positions, dispositions and practices in education policy in central and south east Europe (research in progress)

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Gaber; Živa Kos Kecojević

    2012-01-01

    In the article, we present the conceptualisation and selected results of ongoing research dealing with the particular area of top decision making in education in Central and South East Europe. Aiming at a Bourdieuian type of objectification of key agents of decision making in education – ministers – a group of researchers from the region is in the process of interviewing former ministers of education. The interviews should serve as a (frequently omitted) part of the material for a structured ...

  20. Effect of weather conditions on early potato yields in east-central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rymuza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on data on monthly air temperature and precipitation and early potato yields in 2000-2013 obtained from seven COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing stations in east-central Poland. The relationships between potato yields and average monthly air temperatures and monthly precipitation of the growing season were studied with step-wise multiple regression followed by polynomial regression. Precipitation affected early potato yields more than temperature, particularly in June and July

  1. Effect of weather conditions on early potato yields in east-central Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Rymuza; Elżbieta Radzka; Tomasz Lenartowicz

    2015-01-01

    This work is based on data on monthly air temperature and precipitation and early potato yields in 2000-2013 obtained from seven COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing) stations in east-central Poland. The relationships between potato yields and average monthly air temperatures and monthly precipitation of the growing season were studied with step-wise multiple regression followed by polynomial regression. Precipitation affected early potato yields more than temperature, particularly in...

  2. Attitudes toward Corporate Responsibilities in Western Europe and in Central and East Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer, O.F.G.; Egri, C.P.; Ralston, D.A.; Danis, W.; Reynaud, E.; Naoumova, I.; Molteni, M.; Starkus, A.; León Darder, F.; Dabic, M.; Perrinjaquet, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes toward social, economic, and environmental corporate responsibilities of 3064 current managers and business students in 8 European countries. Participants in Western European countries had significantly different perspectives on the importance of these corporate responsibilities (CR) than those in Central and East European countries. Within each country, environmental CR is perceived as most important in both CEE and Western European countries. Across cou...

  3. RECENT REFORMS OF THE URBAN HOUSING SYSTEM IN CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Thiesenhusen, William C

    2000-01-01

    The urban housing system in most of Central and East Europe (CEE) is undergoing decentralization, deregulation, and privatization together with other basic changes due to the fall of the iron curtain, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the reinstitution of democracy. In most of the CEE, the urban housing sector is economically important, accounting for 10-20% of total economic activity. In view of its implications for land use, energy consumption, waste generation, and water pollution, it al...

  4. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, P.M. (Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.

  5. CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES’ TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS AS A FACTOR OF THEIR NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan KRSTIĆ; Sonja JOVANOVIC; Tanja STANISIC

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the contribution of travel and tourism competitiveness to the global competitiveness level of the Central and East Europe (CEE) countries. The aim is to identify the correlation between the achieved travel and tourism competitiveness level (measured by the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index) and national competitiveness level on the world list (measured by the Global Competitiveness Index) in the CEE countries. Structurally, the paper is compos...

  6. Review of Universal Salt Iodation in East Central and Southern Africa (ACSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Commonwealth Regional Hearth Community Secretariat for East Central and Southern Africa, CRHCS/ECSA

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a regional position on Universal Salt Iodation (USI) intervention in 14 countries ill the East, Central and Southern Africa( ECSA) region,namely;Botswana,Kenya,Malawi,Mauritius,Mozambique,Namibia,bells,South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe The is a follow-up to a resolution on the need to develop a regional position on USI intervention which was made at the Commonwealth Regional Health Community 25th Health Ministers Conference in Port Louis, Ma...

  7. Education in a Period or Social Upheaval. Educational Theories and Concepts in Central East Europe

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The volume contains contributions from nine different Central- and East-European countries which give a total impression of the upheaval in the field of educational science in those countries. The contributions comprise three different focuses. "The first group is occupied with a review of history and the position of educational science in specific countries, in order in this way to gain prerequisites and perspectives for new pedagogical points of departure... The second group of contributors...

  8. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  9. General circulation model simulations of recent cooling in the east-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Walter A.; Reudy, Reto; Hansen, James E.

    2002-12-01

    In ensembles of retrospective general circulation model (GCM) simulations, surface temperatures in the east-central United States cool between 1951 and 1997. This cooling, which is broadly consistent with observed surface temperatures, is present in GCM experiments driven by observed time varying sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropical Pacific, whether or not increasing greenhouse gases and other time varying climate forcings are included. Here we focus on ensembles with fixed radiative forcing and with observed varying SST in different regions. In these experiments the trend and variability in east-central U.S. surface temperatures are tied to tropical Pacific SSTs. Warm tropical Pacific SSTs cool U.S. temperatures by diminishing solar heating through an increase in cloud cover. These associations are embedded within a year-round response to warm tropical Pacific SST that features tropospheric warming throughout the tropics and regions of tropospheric cooling in midlatitudes. Precipitable water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean and the tropospheric thermal gradient across the Gulf Coast of the United States increase when the tropical Pacific is warm. In observations, recent warming in the tropical Pacific is also associated with increased precipitable water over the southeast United States. The observed cooling in the east-central United States, relative to the rest of the globe, is accompanied by increased cloud cover, though year-to-year variations in cloud cover, U.S. surface temperatures, and tropical Pacific SST are less tightly coupled in observations than in the GCM.

  10. Prevalence, microphysics, and radiative properties of diamond dust, fog, and blowing snow over the central Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C. J.; Noone, D. C.; O'Neill, M.; Walden, V. P.; Shupe, M.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Miller, N.; Steffen, K.

    2014-12-01

    The surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet is modulated in part by clouds through their interactions with the hydrologic cycle and influence on the surface energy budget. Furthermore, precipitation and post-depositional processes influence the isotopic composition of the ice, which is used for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Despite these important roles, relatively little is known of the properties of clouds over Greenland. Therefore, detailed observations are needed to constrain the influence that clouds have on the ice sheet and to support climate and weather modeling. This work focuses on observations of surface-based clouds from Summit, Greenland (72N 38W 3200m), including supercooled liquid radiation fogs, diamond dust, and blowing snow. Co-located measurements from a variety of sensors are combined to report on the prevalence of these clouds, their microphysical and radiative properties, the influence they have on the isotopic ratio of surface accumulation, and the meteorological conditions under which they occur. Observations include in situ measurements from particle imaging and scattering probes as well as meteorology at 2m and 10m and remotely sensed observations made at the surface from a cloud radar, an infrared spectrometer, and a suite of broadband radiation sensors. The period of study is June 2012 through October 2013. Surface-based clouds (Nd > 1 cm-3) occur between 20% and 60% of the time, more often in winter and less in summer. Supercooled liquid is identified throughout the year and at temperatures as low as -40 C. These types of clouds exhibit a range of radiative, dynamic, and hydrologic interactions with the surface and therefore are sensitive to changes in aerosols, the presence of other cloud types, temperature, humidity, and near-surface stability.

  11. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: 207Pb-206Pb dating of magnetite, monazite and allanite in the central and northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frei, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pb-isotopic data for magnetite from amphibolites in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen, central West Greenland, have been used to trace their source characteristics and the timing of metamorphism. Analyses of the magnetite define a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1726 ± 7 Ma. The magnetite is metamorphic in origin, and the 1726 Ma age is interpreted as a cooling age through the closing temperature of magnetite at ~600°C. Some of the amphibolites in this study come from the Naternaq supracrustal rocks in the northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen, which host the Naternaq sulphide deposit and may be part ofthe Nordre Strømfjord supracrustal suite, which was deposited at around 1950 Ma ago.Pb-isotopic signatures of magnetite from the Arfersiorfik quartz diorite in the central Nagssugtoqidian orogen are compatible with published whole-rock Pb-isotopic data from this suite; previous work has shown that it is a product of subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism between 1920 and 1870 Ma. Intrusion of pegmatites occurred at around 1800 Ma in both the central and the northernparts of the orogen. Pegmatite ages have been determined by Pb stepwise leaching analyses of allanite and monazite, and source characteristics of Pb point to an origin of the pegmatites by melting of the surrounding late Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic country rocks. Hydrothermal activity took place after pegmatite emplacement and continued below the closure temperature of magnetite at 1800–1650 Ma. Because of the relatively inert and refractory nature of magnetite, Pb-isotopic measurements from this mineral may be of help to understand the metamorphic evolution of geologicallycomplex terrains.

  12. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important...

  14. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer...

  15. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an...

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water...

  17. Flow field in the inner shelf along the central east coast of India during the southwest monsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.V.N.

    Current measurements collected along the inner shelf off the central east coast of India at seven stations during August-September 1988 are discussed. Data indicate a southerly flowing alongshore current, which occupies the whole of the water column...

  18. Subordinating Timor: Central authority and the origins of communal identities in East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kammen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, a mere seven years after the overwhelming vote in opposition to Indonesia's final offer of 'broad autonomy' and only four years after the restoration of independence, communal violence erupted in Dili, the capital of East Timor. This violence was framed in terms of tensions between westerners, known as kaladi, and easterners, known as firaku. This essay seeks to answer two basic puzzles. First, what are the origins of these communal labels? Second, why did these terms resonate so profoundly within East Timorese society so soon after independence? Tracing the history of these terms, this essay argues that across more than three centuries these communal labels have emerged during crucial struggles to exert central authority. In doing so, this essay highlights the relationship between regional identities and the social ecology of food.

  19. Mineral resources of the Precambrian shiled of central West Greenland (66 deg. to 70 deg. 15'N). Part 2. Mineral occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stendal, H.; Moeller Nielsen, B.; Secher, K.; Steenfelt, A.

    2004-07-01

    This report forms part of an assessment of the mineral resource potential of central West Greenland conducted by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland 2000-2003. It presents the principles applied in classifying and describing 160 compiled mineral occurrences from the region as well as an evaluation of the mineral resource potential. The assessed region is underlain by an Archaean basement of tonalitic orthogneisses with intercalated supracrustal belts representing both continental and volcanic arc environments. The basement has been variably reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian collisional orogen and has been intruded by minor volumes of arc-related magmas in the core zone of the orogen. There are no mines in the region, and previous production has been limited to graphite. Many mineral showings have been recorded by commercial companies and the Survey during exploration since the 1960s, but none have so far become economically feasible. Most of the known occurrences are located in supracrustal belts and comprise banded ironformation, semi-massive to massive sulphides, together with syn- and epigenetic gold and copper. Pyrochlore and diamonds are found within a 0.6 Ga old carbonatite-kimberlite province and some pegmatites are rich in monazite. Based on the abundance, spatial distribution, size, grade, age and genesis of the mineral occurrences it is concluded that the following types of mineral occurrences have a potential for becoming economically feasible: 1) Syn- and epigenetic gold in Archaean supracrustal rocks. 2) Graphite in Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal rocks. 3) Speciality metals in carbonatite. 4) Diamonds in kimberlitic dykes. (au)

  20. A historical perspective of the extremely hot 2013 summer in East-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Fu, Congbin; Mao, Huiting

    2016-04-01

    An extreme hot summer occurred over East-central China in 2013. Its duration of continuous, highest temperature anomalies was the longest on record for the time period of 1948-2013. Several modeling studies have attempted to identify the causes and did not obtain conclusive findings, in large part due to their limited scopes of the problem. Here, we conducted a multi-scale and multi-factor analysis of this extreme event using observational data of 600 monitoring stations over China and global reanalysis data for the period of 1981-2013. Our results suggested that the number of heatwave days (NHD) (defined as a day with daily maximum temperature ≥ 35°C) over East-central China experienced an increasing trend of 3.44 days per decade since 1981 and reached the record maximum (34.1 days) in 2013, with significant inter-annual variability superimposed on the trend. It should be noted that this increasing trend in NHD was consistent with that of the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) linked to global warming as suggested in the literature. There were also strong correlations between NHD over East-central China, WPSH, and global mean temperature (GT) on interannual scales. The extremely hot 2013 summer could not be explained by global warming and associated enhanced WPSH alone as GT and WPSH intensity were not record high in that summer. Further analysis suggested that large scale air-sea interaction over the Pacific region could have played a critical role. Specifically, enhanced convection over the Philippine Sea and along Indonesian islands in summer 2013 appeared to be strongest for the study period. This convection could cause a strong local feedback among precipitation, cloud cover, and net radiation, which could further weaken upper- and lower-level circulation via the tropical-extratropical teleconnection and Rossby wave propagation. This feedback was likely the direct cause of the extremely hot 2013 summer.

  1. The Image of the East-Central European in Rose Tremain’s The Road Home

    OpenAIRE

    Harasztos Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    In Rose Tremain’s The Road Home, the culture clash of the British and the East-Central European is portrayed through a complex symbolism centred on images of food, consumption and waste. This literary representation may shed light on British literary auto-images, as well as hetero-images of the Eastern European immigrant. The novel’s presentation of this culture shock is defined by the cultural historical and economic circumstances of the parties. Food and material provide the symbolic sphere...

  2. Studies on Phylogenetic Relationship of Sheep Population in East and South of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; GENG Rong-qing; LU Sheng-xia; DU Lei; NI Da-xing; FAN Bao-sheng; Tsunoda K

    2002-01-01

    This paper was based on the Hu sheep in China, after collecting the same data about 9 Asiasheep populations and 5 European sheep (breeds in Japan) populations. It clustered 15 populations in terms ofthe gene frequency of 10 loci and 33 allele in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The result of Hierar-chy Clustering showed that the sheep populations in the East and South of Central Asia could be classified intothree genetic groups: Mongolia sheep, South Asia sheep and European sheep, and the Hu sheep belonged toMongolia sheep.

  3. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  4. The peopling of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J;

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Greenland has a complex history shaped by population migrations, isolation and genetic drift. The Greenlanders present a genetic heritage with components of European and Inuit groups; previous studies using uniparentally inherited markers in Greenlanders have reported evidence...

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1981 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1981. Further results of the 239,240Pu and 241Am measurements on samples from the expedition to Thule in August 1979 are prsented. Brown algae collected in East Greenland in 1969 were analysed for Pu and Am. (author)

  6. The Image of the East-Central European in Rose Tremain’s The Road Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harasztos Ágnes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Rose Tremain’s The Road Home, the culture clash of the British and the East-Central European is portrayed through a complex symbolism centred on images of food, consumption and waste. This literary representation may shed light on British literary auto-images, as well as hetero-images of the Eastern European immigrant. The novel’s presentation of this culture shock is defined by the cultural historical and economic circumstances of the parties. Food and material provide the symbolic sphere where the relationship between Britain and East-Central Europe is characterized in terms of capitalist worldview as opposed to a post-communist existence. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet is the most important intertext for Tremain’s novel. Hamlet is obsessed with the vulnerability of material in light of the spiritual value attached to it in the form of human soul. Stephen Greenblatt’s ideas on food, waste and the Christian belief in divine existence residing in material objects - ideas that originate in early modern times - shed light on the motif of material and food in The Road Home. Seen through the symbolism of food and the idea of differing values being attached to matter, the narrative identity of Lev, the protagonist of Tremain’s work, experiences drastic change due to his encounter with the capitalist, British ‘other’.

  7. Nuuk, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Nuuk (or Gadthab) is the capital and largest city of Greenland. It is located at the mouth of the Nuup Kangerlua inlet on the west coast of Greenland. It has a population of about 15,000. The site has a long history of different inhabitation: first by the Inuit people around 2000 B.C., later by Viking explorers in the 10th century. Inuit and Vikings lived together for about 500 years until about 1500, when human habitation suddenly stopped, most likely due to change in climate and vegetation. The image was acquired August 2, 2004, covers an area of 22.7 x 26 km, and is located at 64.2 degrees north latitude, 51.8 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    recruitment of the West Greenland cod stock. It is also shown that cod eggs and larvae occasionally drift from Southwest Iceland across the Denmark Strait to the East Greenland shelf from where a subsequent transport and immigration of juveniles to West Greenland waters can occur. Larval transport across the...

  9. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  10. Characteristics and dynamic settings of the Central-east Asia multi-energy minerals metallogenetic domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ChiYang; QIU; XinWei; WU; BoLin; ZHAO; HongGe

    2007-01-01

    That more than 82 percent of proved sandstone-type uranium deposits coexist with proved oil-gas or coalfields in the world reflects the fact of coexistence and accumulation of multi-energy minerals including oil, gas, coal and uranium in the same basin. Especially, this phenomenon is most typical in the Central-east Asia energy basins. Across China, Mongolia and some central Asian countries, the giant Central-east Asia metallogenetic domain (CEAMD) stretches more than 6,000 km from Songliao Basin of China in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. The multi-energy minerals distribution characteristics of the domain include: their spatial distribution is complicated and ordered; the ore-bearing horizon relates closely to the geographical region; the accumulation/mineralization and localization time is the same or close; the occurrence setting and accumulation/mineralization have close correlation; and they have rich provenance for all the minerals. All of these imply that they have close relations between each other under a unified geodynamic background. The exogenetic uranium mineralization process in CEAMD can be divided into five phases using time limits of 100 Ma, (50±2) Ma, 20±(2―4) Ma, 8―5 Ma. The major mineralization periods and their differences in each primary uranium-bearing basin are identical to the oil-gas accumulation and localization periods and phases in the same basin, and are also in response to regional tectonics and controlled in general by the regional geodynamic environment. For industrial application and commercial exploitation, it is suggested that an important period for coexistence, accumulation and localization of oil, gas, coal and uranium and their interaction mainly occur in the late/last and post basin evolution. Through generalized analysis and comparison of accumulation/mineralization environment of the energy basins in CEAMD, the authors propose that the relatively stable regional tectonic background and moderate (weaker

  11. Continental Collision Structures and Post-Orogenic Geological History of the Kangerlussuaq Area in the Southern Part of the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, Central West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Engström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated continental collision sutures, formed at a depth of more than 20 km, are exposed near Kangerlussuaq, close to the Greenland ice cap, on the southern margin of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in Central West Greenland, thus offering a rare opportunity to study the tectonic deformation style of such an orogen. This paper adds new information on the tectonic history of the southern flank of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. It focuses on (1 the results of a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones revealed from remote sensing of geophysical and topographic data and aerial photo interpretation, (2 detailed geological mapping at key locations and (3 a tectonic structural model describing the geological development of the area. The area has undergone several episodes of deformation, which have been compiled into an event succession that recognizes eight tectonic events overprinting each other: Two stages of folding (F1 and F2 have been identified along with one major episode of intrusion of the Kangâmiut mafic dyke swarm (2.05 Ga into the Archaean continent. These dyke intrusions are very important, since by examining the style of deformation for these intrusions it is possible to define the transition from the North Atlantic Craton in the south to the mobile belts in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in the north. Five different types of pronounced lineaments and one less pronounced lineament post-dating the Kangâmiut dykes extending from ductile deformation shearing events to brittle deformation with extensive faulting. These lineaments cover both the collisional and post-collisional tectonic history of the area. The study focused on two types of lineaments: one semi-ductile type trending E–W with a dextral sense of shear and a second, a pronounced lineament outlining the Kangerlussuaq–Russell thrust fault. These two features are interpreted to be related to the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny, while the latter lineaments have a more brittle

  12. Oaks were the historical foundation genus of the east-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Nowacki, Gregory J.

    2016-08-01

    Foundation tree species are dominant and define ecosystems. Because of the historical importance of oaks (Quercus) in east-central United States, it was unlikely that oak associates, such as pines (Pinus), hickories (Carya) and chestnut (Castanea), rose to this status. We used 46 historical tree studies or databases (ca. 1620-1900) covering 28 states, 1.7 million trees, and 50% of the area of the eastern United States to examine importance of oaks compared to pines, hickories, and chestnuts. Oak was the most abundant genus, ranging from 40% to 70% of total tree composition at the ecological province scale and generally increasing in dominance from east to west across this area. Pines, hickories, and chestnuts were co-dominant (ratio of oak composition to other genera of United States, and thus by definition, were not foundational. Although other genera may be called foundational because of localized abundance or perceptions resulting from inherited viewpoints, they decline from consideration when compared to overwhelming oak abundance across this spatial extent. The open structure and high-light conditions of oak ecosystems uniquely supported species-rich understories. Loss of oak as a foundation genus has occurred with loss of open forest ecosystems at landscape scales.

  13. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  14. Geophysical Framework Investigations Influencing Ground-Water Resources in East-Central Nevada and West-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Ponce, David A.

    2007-01-01

    A geophysical investigation was undertaken as part of an effort to characterize the geologic framework influencing ground-water resources in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah. New gravity data were combined with existing aeromagnetic, drill-hole, and geologic data to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, estimate depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks, and further constrain the horizontal extents of exposed and buried plutons. In addition, a three-dimensional (3D) geologic model was constructed to help illustrate the often complex geometries of individual basins and aid in assessing the connectivity of adjacent basins. In general, the thirteen major valleys within the study area have axes oriented north-south and frequently contain one or more sub-basins. These basins are often asymmetric and typically reach depths of 2 km. Analysis of gravity data helped delineate geophysical lineaments and accommodation zones. Structural complexities may further compartmentalize ground-water flow within basins and the influence of tectonics on basin sedimentation further complicates their hydrologic properties. The horizontal extent of exposed and, in particular, buried plutons was estimated over the entire study area. The location and subsurface extents of these plutons will be very important for regional water resource assessments, as these features may act as either barriers or pathways for groundwater flow. A previously identified basement gravity low strikes NW within the study area and occurs within a highly extended terrane between the Butte and Confusion synclinoria. Evidence from geophysical, geologic, and seismic reflection data suggests relatively lower density plutonic rocks may extend to moderate crustal depths and rocks of similar composition may be the source of the entire basement gravity anomaly.

  15. Practices, perceptions, and implications of fertilizer use in East-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Fang, Shubo

    2015-11-01

    Face-to-face interviews (n = 553) were conducted in five counties in East-Central China to study farmers' fertilizer application behaviors, decision-making processes, attitudes towards adopting better fertilizer application technologies, and environmental consciousness. The survey results revealed widespread fertilizer misapplication and highly variable application behaviors in the study regions. The lack of scientific knowledge on fertilizers and the absence of guidance from agricultural extension services have forced the farmers to rely on personal judgment and advice from fertilizer dealers and friends to make decisions in fertilizer application. Overall, farmers have been idiosyncratic in fertilizer application with limited adoption of better fertilizer application technologies. There are great potentials for reducing pollutant load from agricultural runoff through promoting scientific fertilizer application in the regions. However, farmers' diverse preferences over agricultural extension programs necessitate an integrated approach emphasizing farmer involvement throughout the development of such programs for promoting better fertilizer application practices.

  16. Seroprevalence of East Coast fever in Central Equatoria State, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani L. Marcellino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 in different cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka localities of Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Serum samples were collected from 514 cattle of different age groups. Samples were analysed using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with commercially available polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM ELISA kits. The overall serological prevalence of Theileria parva was 70.8% (364/514. The highest rate of prevalence was observed in Mangalla (91.2% and the lowest in Juba (61.8%, with Terekeka recording 71.8%. Regarding the age groups, older cattle (over four years of age showed a significantly higher rate of prevalence (p>0.001 than calves (below one year of age. The implications of these results in the overall epidemiology of East Coast fever in South Sudan are discussed and possible recommendations for future implementation of disease control measures are outlined.

  17. Assessment of individual radionuclide distributions from the Fukushima nuclear accident covering central-east Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-ichi; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Wong, Ying-Shee; Satou, Yukihiko; Handa, Koji; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sato, Masanori; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2011-12-01

    A tremendous amount of radioactivity was discharged because of the damage to cooling systems of nuclear reactors in the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011. Fukushima and its adjacent prefectures were contaminated with fission products from the accident. Here, we show a geographical distribution of radioactive iodine, tellurium, and cesium in the surface soils of central-east Japan as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Especially in Fukushima prefecture, contaminated area spreads around Iitate and Naka-Dori for all the radionuclides we measured. Distributions of the radionuclides were affected by the physical state of each nuclide as well as geographical features. Considering meteorological conditions, it is concluded that the radioactive material transported on March 15 was the major contributor to contamination in Fukushima prefecture, whereas the radioactive material transported on March 21 was the major source in Ibaraki, Tochigi, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures and in Tokyo.

  18. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  19. Survey of soil compaction on oil and gas leases in east-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine reasons for topsoil compaction at oil and gas well-sites. A survey of 20 well-sites in east-central Alberta was was made, comparing the six methods which are commonly used to evaluate soil compaction. The methods described were: bulk density, bulk density corrected for organic matter content, total porosity, estimated hydraulic conductivity, mechanical impedance, and macro-pore volume. The survey was also used to evaluate the extent of soil compaction on well-sites with different soil types and different reclamation conditions. It was shown that about one third of the well-sites had higher mechanical impedance than the adjacent farmland soils. The probable causes for topsoils being more frequently compacted than subsoils were also described. 33 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Bridewealth, marriage and fertility in the east-central states of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiugo-abanihe, U C

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the determinants of high bridewealth in the east-central states of Nigeria, inhabited by the Igbo, and relates high bridewealth to rising age at marriage among both men and women. High and rising bridewealth in Igboland is associated with the prevailing economic situation, socio-economic status of bride's parents, raising incidence of self-selection of marital partners in place of arranged marriages, and particularly increasing female education.... Rising age at marriage in Igboland cannot be understood only on the basis of increasing urbanization, female education and employment opportunities, but also on the basis of rising bridewealth which reduces the tempo of marriage....The study ends with an investigation of the determinants of marital fertility through the use of a causal model that includes bridewealth, age at marriage and other socio-economic variables." (SUMMARY IN ITA AND FRE)

  1. From 82-year-old Musicologist to Anti-imperialist Hero: Metamorphoses of the Hungarian Tagore in East Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Bangha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tagore's reception in various countries in East Central Europe has long been the subject of academic studies. Making an attempt to observe the similarities and dissimilarities of Rabindranath's reception in these culturally very rich countries the paper investigates two understudied phases of Tagore's reception in the region, namely the initial puzzlement at the announcement of the Nobel Prize in 1913 and the repercussions of world politics on Tagore's image in the early years of Indian independence, which coincide with the early years of Communist rule in East Central Europe.

  2. Emergence of Thelazia callipaeda Infection in Dogs and Cats from East-Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, C; Catarino, A L; Almeida, B; Ramos, C; Campino, L; Cardoso, L

    2016-08-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infects domestic animals, wildlife and human beings, and is considered an emerging pathogen in Europe. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of T. callipaeda infection in dogs and cats from east-central Portugal, a region where the parasite was previously detected in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Thelazia callipaeda was found in 22 (3.8%) of 586 dogs and in four (23.5%) of 17 cats. A total of 178 adult worms (71.9% of females and 28.1% of males) were collected from the conjunctiva of the infected dogs. The number of worms collected per dog ranged from 1 to 35 (average ± standard deviation: 8.08 ± 9.49), with four dogs (18.2%) harbouring only a single parasite. Worms were gathered from dogs throughout all months of the year. A total of 17 adult worms (64.7% of females and 35.3% of males) were obtained from cats. The number of worms per cat ranged from 1 to 14 (4.3 ± 6.5), with three cats (75.0%) having a single parasite. Eyeworm infection was statistically more prevalent in pastoral and farm dogs, in those dogs with contact with other animals and in dogs with ocular manifestations. T. callipaeda is endemic in the east-central part of Portugal, reportedly infecting domestic (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores (red foxes) and evidencing a southerly dissemination. Future investigations should be focused on determining the local distribution and density of the insect vector (Phortica variegata) in this geographical area. This emergent zoonosis should be included by veterinarians, physicians and ophthalmologists in the differential diagnosis of ocular manifestations in their patients, particularly in areas where T. callipaeda is endemic. PMID:25382165

  3. Emergence of Thelazia callipaeda Infection in Dogs and Cats from East-Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, C; Catarino, A L; Almeida, B; Ramos, C; Campino, L; Cardoso, L

    2016-08-01

    The eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) infects domestic animals, wildlife and human beings, and is considered an emerging pathogen in Europe. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and risk factors of T. callipaeda infection in dogs and cats from east-central Portugal, a region where the parasite was previously detected in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Thelazia callipaeda was found in 22 (3.8%) of 586 dogs and in four (23.5%) of 17 cats. A total of 178 adult worms (71.9% of females and 28.1% of males) were collected from the conjunctiva of the infected dogs. The number of worms collected per dog ranged from 1 to 35 (average ± standard deviation: 8.08 ± 9.49), with four dogs (18.2%) harbouring only a single parasite. Worms were gathered from dogs throughout all months of the year. A total of 17 adult worms (64.7% of females and 35.3% of males) were obtained from cats. The number of worms per cat ranged from 1 to 14 (4.3 ± 6.5), with three cats (75.0%) having a single parasite. Eyeworm infection was statistically more prevalent in pastoral and farm dogs, in those dogs with contact with other animals and in dogs with ocular manifestations. T. callipaeda is endemic in the east-central part of Portugal, reportedly infecting domestic (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores (red foxes) and evidencing a southerly dissemination. Future investigations should be focused on determining the local distribution and density of the insect vector (Phortica variegata) in this geographical area. This emergent zoonosis should be included by veterinarians, physicians and ophthalmologists in the differential diagnosis of ocular manifestations in their patients, particularly in areas where T. callipaeda is endemic.

  4. Norse Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, Jette

    2015-01-01

    human agency, landscape changes, climate changes, resilience, sustainability and adaptation are key words and research has moved from local to more global perspectives. New results from research projects in recent years have diversified the discussion claiming that the Norse Greenlanders created...... a flexible and successful subsistence system that responded effectively to the major environmental challenges they faced. In a recent paper it has been argued (Dugmore et al 2012) that abandonment should be explained by a combination of external factors (climate changes; changes in European trade systems...

  5. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of upper Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, east-central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Surface mapping of the basal Mesozoic La Casita Formation (upper Upper Jurassic) in east-central Chihuahua, Mexico, indicates initial Mesozoic sedimentation occurred in a segmented, interconnected subbasin of the Chihuahua trough. La Casite Formation (1200 m thick) is a tectonostratigraphic unit resting with angular unconformity on the Lower Permian Plomosas Formation. It consists primarily of siliciclastic material with sporadic interbedded limestones. The dominant lithofacies, approximately 1000 m thick, consists of turbiditic sandstone units (10-20 m) alternating with thicker, monotonous shale sequences. In the mapped area (approximately 30 km/sup 2/), flute cast measurements indicate flows from both the northeast (N20/degree/E) and southwest (S58/degree/W). Turbiditic sandstone units appear to pinch out and/or interfinger as they extend from the north and south into the central portion of the area. The initial opening of the Chihuahua trough is often associated with Late Jurassic block faulting, related to development of the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Synrift depositional sequences of a similar age have been described in southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, and western Chiapas, Mexico. The subbasin (graben ) examined here may be ascribed a paleoposition near the western edge of the early Chihuahua trough. The western boundary of the early trough may have comprised a series of these subbasins, forming a cuspate or serrated coastline. Late Jurassic ammonites recovered from this and other localities along the length of the Chihuahua trough suggest that the subbasins were interconnected by means of an eastern continuous seaway.

  6. A TEX 86 lake record suggests simultaneous shifts in temperature in Central Europe and Greenland during the last deglaciation

    OpenAIRE

    Blaga, C. I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A. F.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution quantitative temperature records from continents covering glacial to interglacial transitions are scarce but important for understanding the climate system. We present the first decadal resolution record of continental temperatures in Central Europe during the last deglaciation (similar to 14,60010,600cal. yrB.P.) based on the organic geochemical palaeothermometer TEX86. The TEX86-inferred temperature record from Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstattersee, Switzerland) reveals typical o...

  7. Depositional features of a late Weichselian outwash fan; central East Jylland, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael

    1983-10-01

    Four major sedimentary facies are present in coarse-grained, ice-marginal deposits from central East Jylland, Denmark. Facies A and B are matrix-supported gravels deposited by subaerial sediment gravity flows as mudflows (facies A) and debris flows (facies B). Facies C consists of clast-supported, water-laid gravels and facies D are cross-bedded sand and granules. The facies can be grouped into three facies associations related to the supraglacial and proglacial environments: (1) the flow-till association is made up of alternating beds of remobilized glacial mixton (facies A) and well-sorted cross-bedded sand (facies D); (2) the outwash apron association resembles the sediments of alluvial fans in containing coarse-grained debris-flow deposits (facies B), water-laid gravel deposited by sheet floods (facies C) and cross-bedded sand and granules (facies D) from braided distributaries; (3) the valley sandur association comprises water-laid gravel (facies C) interpreted as sheet bars and longitudinal bars interbedded with cross-bedded sand and granules (facies D) deposited in channels between bars in a braided environment. The general coarsening-upward trend of the sedimentary sequences caused by the transition of bars and channel-dominated facies to debris-flow-dominated facies indicate an increasing proximality of the outwash deposits, picturing the advance and still stand of a large continental lowland ice-sheet. The depositional properties suggest that sedimentation was caused by melting along a relatively steep, active glacier margin as a first step towards the final vanishing of the Late Weichselian icesheet (the East Jylland ice) covering eastern Denmark.

  8. Abrupt change of the mid-summer climate in central east China by the influence of atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun

    Following the great flooding of summer 1998, the mid-lower Yangtze Basin further suffered from another large flooding in summer 1999. Successive droughts through 3 recent summers (1997-1999) appeared in north China in addition, leading to an abnormal summer climate pattern of "north drought with south flooding". Such southward move of the summer monsoon rainy belt in east China started in the late 1970s-early 1980s. Its main cause may not be a purely natural climate change, but the acceleration of industrialization in east China could play a major role by emitting large volumes of SO 2, especially from the rapidly growing rural factories of east China. The annual release of SO 2 in China exceeded 20 Tg during 1992-1998, so dense sulfate aerosols covered the central east China which significantly reduced the sunlight. Although present estimates for the changes of clear sky global solar radiation may include some error, they show that the negative radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols in central east China by far exceeds the effect of greenhouse warming in summer. Hence the mid-summer monsoon rainy belt of east China has a trend moving southward in 21 recent years (1979-1999), showing the very sensitive characteristic of the summer monsoon system to the change in heat equilibrium of the land surface. The occurrence rate of summer climate pattern of "north drought with south flooding" in east China during 21 recent years is the largest since AD 950; such anomalous climate has brought large losses to China. The only possible way to reverse this southward trend of summer monsoon rainy belt is to significantly reduce air pollution by using more clean energy. Recently, the PRC has paid serious attention to this problem by adopting a series of countermeasures.

  9. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [Tekno Telje (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs.

  10. Aerobiological study in east-central Iberian Peninsula: pollen diversity and dynamics for major taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Rapp, Ana; Vaquero, Consolación; Fernández-González, Federico

    2011-01-01

    A study was made of airborne pollen counts in Cuenca (east-central Iberian Peninsula, Spain), using data obtained over a 3-year period (2008-2010). This is the first such study carried out in the World Heritage city of Cuenca, situated in the large region of Castilla-La Mancha. Air monitoring was performed using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. Sampling commenced in mid- 2007, and provided the first recorded pollen-spectrum for the area. The greatest pollen-type diversity was recorded in spring, whilst the highest pollen counts (over 80 percent of the annual total) were observed between February and June. The lowest counts were found in September, November and December. The 10 leading taxa, in order of abundance, were: Cupressaceae, Quercus, Urticaceae, Pinus, Olea, Poaceae, Populus, Platanus, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago. The pollen calendar was thus typically Mediterrean, and comprised the 27 pollen types reaching 10-day mean counts of over 1 grain/m(3) of air. Maximum concentration values during the day were recorded between 12:00-20:00, coinciding with the highest temperatures and lowest humidity levels. The pollen types responsible for most allergies in the city of Cuenca, ordered by the number of days on which risk levels were reached, were: Poaceae, Urticaceae, Cupressaceae, Olea, Platanus and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. PMID:21736275

  11. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickle, D G; Jones, C A; Gallagher, G L; Young, P; Dubyk, W S

    1977-10-01

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource.

  12. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  13. Relationship between habitat type, fire frequency, and Amblyomma americanum populations in east-central Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Damien; Carter, Robert; Murdock, Chris; Blair, Benjie

    2012-12-01

    Ticks were collected from 20 sites in the Calhoun, Cherokee, and Cleburne Counties in east-central Alabama areas to determine the relationship between plant physiognomy, environmental variables, and tick populations. Sites investigated included various burning regimes, wildland-urban-interface (WUI), a college campus, and an unmanaged area. Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) dominated the tick population while Ixodes scapularis Say was not encountered. There were complex differences in tick populations among site conditions. After prescribed burning, the tick population size was small but was larger in subsequent 2- and 5-year post-burn sites. An increase in Odocoileus virginianus foraging in recently burned sites is likely responsible for this phenomenon. WUI areas had the largest tick populations likely due to Odocoileus virginianus activity in an area that provides cover, forage, and a connection to a wildlife refuge. It is possible that the likelihood of humans coming in contact with ticks and tick-borne diseases is greater in WUI areas than in unbroken contiguous forest. A. americanum showed a positive correlation with percent cover of grass and leaf litter mass and a negative relationship with pine sapling density. Variables expected to be strongly correlated with A. americanum populations such as soil moisture, canopy closure, and tree density were found to have weak correlations. PMID:23181862

  14. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  15. Unusual carbonate-rich dikes and lamprophyres in Porcupine Dome, east-central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doden, A.G.; Gold, D.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    Isolated carbonate dikes and lamprophyric plugs are exposed in Porcupine dome, a Laramide structure in east-central Montana. En echelon sets of carbonate dikes strike N70E, consistent with regional lineaments and local normal faults. Individual dikes are steeply dipping, only 30--70 cm in width, and up to 1 km in length. These dikes exhibit unequivocal magmatic characteristics, including chilled margins, flow-aligned micas, multiple intrusive stages, country rock xenoliths, and local small blows'' containing well-rounded carbonate autoliths. Spatially associated with the dikes are small plugs of olivine-phlogopite-garnet-carbonate-bearing silicate rocks and a diatreme of bedded tuffs with xenoliths of country rocks. The dikes consistent primarily of calcite and dolomite, phlogopite, and opaque oxides. Although the dikes are relatively homogeneous mineralogically along strike, some chemical variations are apparent in the vicinity of the plugs/diatreme. Phlogopites and carbonates, common to both dikes and plugs, may provide a genetic link between these spatially associated intrusions. These unusual associations of dikes, plugs and diatremes are not restricted to Porcupine dome, but extend at least as far as the Grassrange - Winnett area, 100 km to the NW. The regional distribution of these small carbonatite bodies suggests a different magmatic process from typical carbonatites and alkaline complexes. The closest analogy is the carbonate dikes in the Premier Diamond Mine, South Africa.

  16. Uranium favorability of the San Rafael Swell area, east-central Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The San Rafael Swell project area in east-central Utah is approximately 3,000 sq mi and includes the San Rafael Swell anticline and the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold monocline at Capitol Reef. Rocks in the area are predominantly sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian through Cretaceous age. Important deposits of uranium in the project area are restricted to two formations, the Chinle (Triassic) and Morrison (Jurassic) Formations. A third formation, the White Rim Sandstone (Permian), was also studied because of reported exploration activity. The White Rim Sandstone is considered generally unfavorable on the basis of lithologic characteristics, distance from a possible source of uranium, lack of apparent mineralization, and the scarcity of anomalies on gamma-ray logs or in rock, water, and stream-sediment samples. The lower Chinle from the Moss Back Member down to the base of the formation is favorable because it is a known producer. New areas for exploration are all subsurface. Both Salt Wash and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation are favorable. The Salt Wash Member is favorable because it is a known producer. The Brushy Basin Member is favorable as a low-grade resource

  17. Y chromosome STR allelic and haplotype diversity in a Rwanda population from East Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George

    2012-03-01

    We have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in a population sample of 69 unrelated male individuals of the Rwanda-Hutu population from East Central Africa using an AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ PCR amplification kit. A total of 62 unique haplotypes were identified among the 69 individuals studied. The haplotype diversity was found to be 0.9970 for this population. The gene diversity ranged from 0.1130 (DYS392) to 0.7722 (DYS385). Comparison of populations in this study with twenty-five other national and global populations using Principal Co-ordinate Analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic molecular analysis using a genetic distance matrix indicates a delineation of all the African populations from other unrelated populations. The results of population pair-wise Fst p values indicate statistically significant differentiation of the Rwandan population when compared with 25 other global populations including four African populations (p=0.0000). Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the Rwanda population with four other African populations indicated a 93% variance within populations and 7% variance among the five populations. A data base search of the 62 haplotypes yielded only one non-African haplotype match, suggesting these haplotypes are unique to the African continent. PMID:22285642

  18. THE EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS ON OATS YIELDS IN EAST-CENTRAL POLAND (1975–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Radzka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of hydrothermal conditions on oats yields produced in east-central Poland. Hydrothermal conditions were determined based on the Sielianinov’s hydrothermal coefficient for nine IMGW (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management stations located in the study area. The second data set consisted of oats yields compiled and published by the Main Statistical Office. Average yields as well as minimum and maximum yields were analysed. The relationship between oats yields and hydrothermal conditions was examined using a step-wise linear regression model. Correlation coefficients were negative in April and positive in June at all the stations. The relationships were confirmed by an analysis of regression equations. The regression equations also included coefficients for May and June which, however, were not statistically significant. Yield variation, described by regression equations of the dependence of oats yield on Sielianinov’s hydrothermal coefficient value was accounted for from 19 (Siedlce, Biała Podlaska to 50% (Ostrołeka.

  19. Cross-border cooperation: A major element in regional policy in the new East Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnock David

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Borders in East Central Europe have become much more permeable over the past ten years as formalities have been simplified and many new crossing points have opened. At the same time, cooperation in border regions has increased, thanks mainly to the EU 'Interreg' programmes, to include a range of business cultural and conservation interests. In many cases these arrangements have been formalized through Euroregions which have become an indicator of good international relations. The paper reviews these trends with reference to examples and pays particular attention to environmental projects and the joint planning initiatives being undertaken in a number of Euroregions. At a time when regional policy has been generally weak, cross-border cooperation has contributed significantly to cohesion and it is also a good indicator of stability in the region. However, the impact has been greater in the north than in the Balkans and the first round of EU eastern enlargement will have implications for cooperation across the new external borders.

  20. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  1. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    The concept of avoidable deaths suggests that certain deaths ought not occur in a given society because it is possible to prevent or treat the disease or condition. A list of avoidable deaths is time and community specific as it reflects the socioeconomic conditions, professional medical capacity...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...

  2. Adventure Learning @ Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. G.; Cox, C. J.; Hougham, J.; Walden, V. P.; Eitel, K.; Albano, A.

    2013-12-01

    Summit (ICECAPS) project (Shupe et al. 2012; http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/summit/). ICECAPS is an atmospheric observatory focused on obtaining high temporal resolution measurements of clouds from ground-based remote sensors including radar, lidar, infrared spectra and others. ICECAPS also launches radiosondes twice daily. This large suite of complementary observations are providing an important baseline understanding of cloud and atmospheric conditions over the central Greenland ice sheet and are supporting Arctic climate research on cloud processes and climate model validation. ICECAPS measures parameters that are associated with those identified in student misconceptions, for example, different types of atmospheric radiation, the effect of greenhouse gases, and climate versus weather (see also Haller et al., 2011). Thus, ICECAPS research and the AL@GL project combined to create a learning environment and educational activities that sought to increase climate literacy in high school students as well as communicate important atmospheric research to a broader audience.

  3. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Pre-Nagssugtoqidian crustal evolution in West Greenland: geology, geochemistry and deformation of supracrustal and granitic rocks north-east of Kangaatsiaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt, Gordon R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The area north-east of Kangaatsiaq features polyphase grey orthogneisses, supracrustal rocks and Kangaatsiaq granite exposed within a WSW–ENE-trending synform. The supracrustal rocks are comprised of garnet-bearing metapelites, layered amphibolites and layered, likewise grey biotite paragneisses. Their association and geochemical compositions are consistent with a metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary basin (containing both tholeiitic and calc-alkali lavas and is similar to other Archaean greenstone belts. The Kangaatsiaq granite forms a 15 × 3 km flat, subconcordant body of deformed,pink, porphyritic granite occupying the core of the supracrustal synform, and is demonstrably intrusive into the amphibolites. The granite displays a pronounced linear fabric (L or L > S. Thepost-granite deformation developed under lower amphibolite facies conditions (400 ± 50°C, and is characterised by a regular, NE–SW-trending subhorizontal lineation and an associated irregular foliation, whose poles define a great circle; together they are indicative of highly constrictional strain. The existence of a pre-granite event is attested by early isoclinal folds and a foliation within the amphibolites that is not present in the granite, and by the fact that the granite cuts earlier structures in the supracrustal rocks. This early event, preserved only in quartz-free lithologies, resulted in high-temperature fabrics being developed under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions.

  4. Establishing an Online Continuing and Professional Development Library for Nurses and Midwives in East, Central, and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Kristen N; Kalula, Alphonce; Voss, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for nurses and midwives has supported 12 countries establish national continuing and professional development frameworks and programs, linking continuing education to nursing and midwifery re-licensure through technical assistance and improvement grants. However, lack of electronic media and rural practice sites, differences in priority content, and varying legal frameworks make providing accessible, certifiable, and up-to-date online continuing education content for the more than 300,000 nurses and midwives in the 17 member countries of the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing a major challenge. We report here on how the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing, with technical assistance from an Afya Bora Fellow, developed an online continuing professional development library hosted on their Web site using data collected in a survey of nursing and midwifery leaders in the region.

  5. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  6. West-east stratigraphic cross section of Cretaceous rocks, central Rocky Mountains to east-central Great Plains, Utah, Colorado, and Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouch, T.D. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Cretaceous sedimentary strata varies in thickness from nearly 3,050 m adjacent to the western thrust belt at the westernmost end of the Uinta basin, Utah, to 1,700 m near the Colorado-Utah boundary east of the basin axis. They thicken locally to more than 2,800 m near local Late Cretaceous Laramide uplifts in the region between the Piceance and the western Denver basins, Colorado, and then to less than 600 m in the eastern Denver basin and Kansas. Depositional environments represented by the rocks include coarse-grained alluvial facies deposited directly adjacent to the western thrust belt, and finer grained fluvial-deltaic and marine facies of the basin's depositional and structural axis (generally within 50-100 km of the thrust belt). Entirely fine-grained marine siliciclastic and carbonate rocks were formed in more slowly subsiding distal parts of the basin that are as much as 1,000 km east of the depositional axis. Some thick sections represent deposition in lows created by sediment and thrust loading adjacent to local Laramide thick-skin thrusts within the limits of the overall Western interior Cretaceous basin. Depositional and geometric asymmetry of the preserved sedimentary system are the result of varied rates of regional and local subsidence due to tectonic and sediment loading. They also result from fluctuations in sea level and concomitant erosion associated with falls and from relative sediment starving of the parts of this depositional system that were far from sediment.

  7. Multi-trait Analysis of Agroclimate Variations During the Growing Season in East-Central Poland (1971-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzka, Elżbieta; Rymuza, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    The work is based on meteorological data recorded by nine stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management located in east-central Poland from 1971 to 2005. The region encompasses the North Podlasian Lowland and the South Podlasian Lowland. Average values of selected agroclimate indicators for the growing season were determined. Moreover, principal component analysis was conducted to indicate elements that exerted the greatest influence on the agroclimate. Also, cluster analysis was carried out to select stations with similar agroclimate. Ward method was used for clustering and the Euclidean distance was applied. Principal component analysis revealed that the agroclimate of east-central Poland was predominantly affected by climatic water balance, number of days of active plant growth, length of the farming period, and the average air temperature during the growing season (Apr-Sept). Based on the analysis, the region of east-central Poland was divided into two groups (areas) with different agroclimatic conditions. The first area comprized the following stations: Szepietowo and Białowieża located in the North Podlasian Lowland and Biała Podlaska situated in the northern part of the South Podlasian Lowland. This area was characterized by shorter farming periods and a lower average air temperature during the growing season. The other group included the remaining stations located in the western part of both the Lowlands which was warmer and where greater water deficits were recorded.

  8. Important Summer Concentrations of Seaducks in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    Aerial surveys for seaducks were conducted in West Greenland in July 1998 and 1999. Important concentrations of harlequin ducks, common eiders and red-breasted mergansers were located in central and southern West Greenland, while only few king eiders had yet arrived to the moulting grounds in cen...

  9. Important Crustal Growth in the Phanerozoic: Isotopic Evidence of Granitoids from East-Central Asia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bor-ming Jahn; Fuyuan Wu; Dawei Hong

    2000-03-01

    The growth of the continental crust is generally believed to have been essentially completed in the Precambrian, and the amount of juvenile crust produced in the Phanerozoic is considered insignificant. Such idea of negligible growth in the Phanerozoic is now challenged by the revelation of very large volume of juvenile crust produced in the period of 500 to 100 Ma in several orogenic belts. While appreciable volumes of juvenile terranes in North America (Canadian Cordillera, Sierra Nevada and Peninsular Range, Appalachians) have been documented based on Nd isotopic data, the mass of new crust formed in the East-Central Asian Orogenic Belt (ECAOB), eastern part of the Altaid Tectonic Collage, appears to be much greater than the above terranes combined. New and published Nd-Sr isotope data indicate that the Phanerozoic granitoids from the southern belt of the ECAOB (Xinjiang-West Mongolia-Inner Mongolia-NE China) as well as from Mongolia and Transbaikalia were generated from sources dominated by a depleted mantle component. These granitoids represent a significant growth of juvenile crust in the Phanerozoic. Although most plutons in this huge orogenic belt belong to the calc-alkaline series, the ECAOB is also characterized by the emplacement of voluminous A-type granites. The origin of these rocks is probably multiple and is still widely debated. However, the isotopic data (Sr-Nd-O) and trace element abundance patterns of A-type granites from the ECAOB clearly indicate their mantle origin. The evolution of the ECAOB and the entire Altaid Collage is most likely related to successive accretion of arc complexes. However, the emplacement of a large volume of post-tectonic A-type granites requires another mechanism, probably through a series of processes including underplating of massive basaltic magma, partial melting of these basic rocks to produce granitic liquids, followed by extensive fractional crystallization. The proportion of juvenile to recycled, as well as

  10. Coastal dynamics and submarine permafrost in shallow water of the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Pier Paul; Wetterich, Sebastian; Günther, Frank; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Grosse, Guido; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang; Makarov, Aleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Coastal erosion and flooding transform terrestrial landscapes into marine environments. In the Arctic, these processes inundate terrestrial permafrost with seawater and create submarine permafrost. Permafrost begins to warm under marine conditions, which can destabilize the sea floor and may release greenhouse gases. We report on the transition of terrestrial to submarine permafrost at a site where the timing of inundation can be inferred from the rate of coastline retreat. On Muostakh Island in the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia, changes in annual coastline position have been measured for decades and vary highly spatially. We hypothesize that these rates are inversely related to the inclination of the upper surface of submarine ice-bonded permafrost (IBP) based on the consequent duration of inundation with increasing distance from the shoreline. We compared rapidly eroding and stable coastal sections of Muostakh Island and find permafrost-table inclinations, determined using direct current resistivity, of 1 and 5 %, respectively. Determinations of submarine IBP depth from a drilling transect in the early 1980s were compared to resistivity profiles from 2011. Based on borehole observations, the thickness of unfrozen sediment overlying the IBP increased from 0 to 14 m below sea level with increasing distance from the shoreline. The geoelectrical profiles showed thickening of the unfrozen sediment overlying ice-bonded permafrost over the 28 years since drilling took place. We use geoelectrical estimates of IBP depth to estimate permafrost degradation rates since inundation. Degradation rates decreased from over 0.4 m a-1 following inundation to around 0.1 m a-1 at the latest after 60 to 110 years and remained constant at this level as the duration of inundation increased to 250 years. We suggest that long-term rates are lower than these values, as the depth to the IBP increases and thermal and porewater solute concentration gradients over depth decrease. For the

  11. Holocene climate dynamics in the central part of the East European plain (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the broad-leaved forest zone of the central part of the East European plain have been reconstructed on the base of pollen, plant macrofossil, testate amoebae and radiocarbon data from the mire Klukva (N 53.834812, E 36.252488), located in the kast depression in the Upper Oka River basin (Tula region, European Russia). The reconstruction of main parameters of past climate (the mean annual temperature precipitation) was carried out by the "Best Modern Analog" approach. Reconstructions of vegetation show that in the early Holocene the territory was occupied mainly by birch and pine-birch forests. Significant changes in the plant cover of the Upper Oka River basin are attributed to the 7.5 cal kyr BP). The climatic conditions were favorable for development of the broad-leaved forests those persisted in this area up to industrial period. In the 17th century, when the population density greatly increased and watersheds were ploughed, natural vegetation communities were gradually destroyed and transformed into agricultural landscapes. According to obtained climatic reconstructions the period 10-8.5 cal kyr BP was relatively cold and wet, when the mean annual temperature was in 3°C lower and precipitation was in 50-100 mm higher then nowadays. The significant climate warming occurred in about 7.0-5.0 cal kyr BP (The Holocene thermal maximum): the mean annual temperature in 2°C exceeded the modern value and precipitation was close to that. The environment conditions were drier due to decrease of effective moisture. In the second part of the Holocene the sequence of second-, and even third-order climatic oscillations expressed against the background of the overall slight trend towards cooling have been determined. The most pronounced cool and wet intervals were reconstructed in 2.5-2.0 cal kyr BP and 1.5-1.3 cal kyr BP. The mean annual temperature decreased in 1.5-2 °C and precipitation rose in 200 mm in compare to modern

  12. Molecular genome tracking of East, Central and South African genotype of Chikungunya virus in South-east Asia between 2006 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Yong Poovorawan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of the East, Central and South African(ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya virus(CHIKV)in terms of emerging and re-emerging infections, this study has been aimed at investigating the evolutionary parameters, genomic signatures and molecular tracking of theCHIKV ECSA genotype in South-east Asia and coastal areas of the Indian Ocean between 2006 and 2009 by using phylogenetic analysis and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) evolutionary estimation.Methods: Nearly complete genome sequences of53 CHIKV isolates from all genotypes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary parameter estimation. The amino acids of67of ECSA genotype during2006 to2009 were compared for finding molecular signature tracking. The ECSA genotype signatures were visualized to find the possible transmission root was projected onto a geographic map.Results:Phylogenetic analysis showed theECSA genotype was divided into2 groups. The first group comprises viruses from India and Southeast Asian countries. The second group consists of strains typically circulating in Sri Lanka in2008. The evolutionary parameters of these groups depicted the time of the most recent common ancestor at approximately 7.5years ago. The genomic signatures revealed the positions of amino acid variation in each group.Conclusions:The molecular evolution projected onto a geographical map showed the routes ofCHIKVtransmission from 2006 to2009. Molecular tracking will assist in understanding transmission routes, epidemiology and molecular evolution ofCHIKV.

  13. Geodetic measurement of deformation east of the San Andreas fault in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Lisowski, Michael; Solomon, Sean C.

    fault decreases to 4 mm/yr near Bitter. To distinguish between different models that describe the distribution of strike-slip and compressive displacements within the southern Coast Ranges we compared the findings of regional geologic and geodetic studies with predictions from kinematic plate models. Such comparisons support the view that the fault-parallel component of the San Andreas "discrepancy vector" may be accommodated by strike-slip motions on the Rinconada as well as the San Gregorio fault. Geological and seismicity data, as well as our geodetic results, suggest that northeast-southwest compression in the Coast Ranges of central California may be localized to two regions, the 30-km-wide zone spanned by the triangulation and trilateration network of this study and a second zone to the west of the Rinconada fault. The inferred shortening to the east of the San Andreas fault may represent a significant component of the fault-normal compression predicted by the discrepancy vector.

  14. Popular music from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Andreas Roed

    Popular music from Greenland – Globalization, nationalism and performance of place. This thesis is based on fieldwork done within the popular music scene in Greenland from 2008 to 2014. It engages with the question of how music and conceptions of the nation (Greenland) affect each other in social...... spaces, and analyses on how popular music can be used to construct senses of place and situate individuals within these places. The thesis is centered on four articles that engage with Greenlandic popular music from different perspectives. The first article looks at the historical development in inducing...... a sense of place in popular music. The second probes different strategies for co-branding popular music and Greenland. The third is concerned with music consumption patterns among Greenlandic youth. And the fourth article engages with an alternative form of nationalism found within the Nuuk underground...

  15. Inuit health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, T; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    2003-01-01

    During 1997-2001 a population survey was carried out amongst Greenland Inuit living in Denmark and West Greenland (Nuuk, Sisimiut, Qasigiannguit and four villages in Uummannaq municipality). Data collection comprised an interview, a questionnaire, clinical examinations and sampling of biological...... specimens (blood, urine, subcutaneous fat tissue). The clinical examinations included anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test, ECG, ultrasound of thyroid gland and carotid arteries, a skin prick test, and lung function. The data collection areas in Greenland ranged from the westernized...

  16. Decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam modulated by the East Pacific–North Pacific (EP–NP) teleconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autumn precipitation over Central Vietnam is associated with an increase in the occurrence of tropical cyclones that lead to frequent flooding and pose a significant threat to lives and property. The present analyses reveal a pronounced decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam within the 8–11 year frequency band that is modulated by the East Pacific–North Pacific (EP–NP) teleconnection. The negative phase of the EP–NP pattern is associated with a positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the South China Sea (SCS) that induces low-level convergence, enhances convection, and increases precipitation over Central Vietnam and adjacent islands including Hainan (China) and the Philippines. This circulation feature around the SCS is embedded in a large-scale circulation associated with SST anomalies across the Pacific Ocean—i.e., cooling in the Eastern and Central tropical Pacific sandwiched by warming in the North and South Pacific as well as the Western Pacific Ocean. The positive phase of the EP–NP features opposite SST and circulation anomalies, with the result being reduced rainfall in Central Vietnam. This out-of-phase relationship and shared decadal spectral coherence between the EP–NP index and autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam might be useful for future climate predictions and flood management. (letter)

  17. Decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam modulated by the East Pacific-North Pacific (EP-NP) teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Truong, L. H.; Cho, C.

    2015-02-01

    Autumn precipitation over Central Vietnam is associated with an increase in the occurrence of tropical cyclones that lead to frequent flooding and pose a significant threat to lives and property. The present analyses reveal a pronounced decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam within the 8-11 year frequency band that is modulated by the East Pacific-North Pacific (EP-NP) teleconnection. The negative phase of the EP-NP pattern is associated with a positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the South China Sea (SCS) that induces low-level convergence, enhances convection, and increases precipitation over Central Vietnam and adjacent islands including Hainan (China) and the Philippines. This circulation feature around the SCS is embedded in a large-scale circulation associated with SST anomalies across the Pacific Ocean—i.e., cooling in the Eastern and Central tropical Pacific sandwiched by warming in the North and South Pacific as well as the Western Pacific Ocean. The positive phase of the EP-NP features opposite SST and circulation anomalies, with the result being reduced rainfall in Central Vietnam. This out-of-phase relationship and shared decadal spectral coherence between the EP-NP index and autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam might be useful for future climate predictions and flood management.

  18. Effects of controlled burning of chaparral on streamflow and sediment characteristics, East Fork Sycamore Creek, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Hjalmarson, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of controlled burning of part of a chaparral-covered drainage basin on streamflow and sediment characteristics were studied in the upper reaches of the Sycamore Creek basin in central Arizona. A paired-watershed method was used to analyze data collected in two phases separated by the controlled burning of 45 percent of the East Fork Sycamore Creek drainage basin by the U.S. Forest Service on October 31, 1981. Statistically significant increases in streamflow in East Fork occurred from October 26, 1982, through August 25, 1984. Streamflow for August 26, 1984, through the end of data collection for the study on May 31, 1986, was generally at or less than preburn levels. An increase in the percentage of time that flow occurred in East Fork was noted for water years 1983 and 1984. No increase in the magnitude of instantaneous peak flows as a result of the burn was discernable at statistically significant levels. Suspended-sediment yields computed for data collected during water year 1983 were significantly greater in the East Fork drainage basin, 546 tons per square mile, than in the West Fork drainage basin, 22.6 tons per square mile. Suspended-sediment yields computed for East Fork and West Fork for water year 1985, 38.3 and 13.3 tons per square mile, respectively, were much closer in yield. These more uniform yields indicate a possible return to preburn conditions. Data collection did not begin until 11 months after the burn; therefore, the largest increases in streamflow and sediment yields, which commonly occur during the year after a burn, may not have been measured. During the second through fourth years after the burn, smaller increases in stream- flow and sediment yields were found in this study than were found in similar studies in this region.

  19. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    The Greenland development is a story about: Having a hinterland position in relation to the global development. An indigenous people achieving more political influence. How conflicts and discussions on power and ownership of the subsurface resources between a state and an autonomy (Home Rule) can...... Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  20. Diachronous retreat of the Greenland ice sheet during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, G.; Carlson, A. E.; Mix, A. C.; Lecavalier, B. S.; Milne, G.; Mathias, A.; Buizert, C.; DeConto, R.

    2016-08-01

    The last deglaciation is the most recent interval of large-scale climate change that drove the Greenland ice sheet from continental shelf to within its present extent. Here, we use a database of 645 published 10Be ages from Greenland to document the spatial and temporal patterns of retreat of the Greenland ice sheet during the last deglaciation. Following initial retreat of its marine margins, most land-based deglaciation occurred in Greenland following the end of the Younger Dryas cold period (12.9-11.7 ka). However, deglaciation in east Greenland peaked significantly earlier (13.0-11.5 ka) than that in south Greenland (11.0-10 ka) or west Greenland (10.5-7.0 ka). The terrestrial deglaciation of east and south Greenland coincide with adjacent ocean warming. 14C ages and a recent ice-sheet model reconstruction do not capture this progression of terrestrial deglacial ages from east to west Greenland, showing deglaciation occurring later than observed in 10Be ages. This model-data misfit likely reflects the absence of realistic ice-ocean interactions. We suggest that oceanic changes may have played an important role in driving the spatial-temporal ice-retreat pattern evident in the 10Be data.

  1. Dynamics of the Seismogenic Layer for Deforming Zones in Central and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    at over 2500 GPS locations. Preliminary models defined with fault friction values of μ = 0.025 for the Burma region, μ = 0.10 - 0.25 for the Tibetan Plateau region, and μ > 0.6 for the megathrust system as well as for north central and far east Asia achieve optimal fit to Quaternary deformation indicators. Successful models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within Burma and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The dynamic stress and strain rate tensor fields and the dynamic velocity field each are acutely sensitive to the intrinsic mechanical properties of the faults, the density of available fault fabric, and perhaps to contributions from horizontal basal tractions. We test our models of the seismogenic layer, which do not account for contributions from basal tractions, to the effect of deeper lithospheric loads. Initial results indicate that such loads are generally smaller than the stresses associated with our models of the seismogenic layer. Stresses associated from deeper sources together with stresses from the seismogenic layer yield dynamical model output that may enhance the fit to deformation indicators.

  2. Fracture network of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, east-central Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fracture network at the outcrop of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale was studied to gain an understanding of the tectonic history of the region and to contribute data to studies of gas and water transmissivity related to the occurrence and production of coal-bed methane. About 1900 fracture readings were made at 40 coal outcrops and 62 sandstone outcrops in the area from Willow Springs Wash in the south to Farnham dome in the north of the study area in east-central Utah.Two sets of regional, vertical to nearly vertical, systematic face cleats were identified in Ferron coals. A northwest-striking set trends at a mean azimuth of 321??, and a northeast-striking set has a mean azimuth of 55??. Cleats were observed in all coal outcrops examined and are closely spaced and commonly coated with thin films of iron oxide.Two sets of regional, systematic joint sets in sandstone were also identified and have mean azimuths of 321?? and 34??. The joints of each set are planar, long, and extend vertically to nearly vertically through multiple beds; the northeast-striking set is more prevalent than the northwest-striking set. In some places, joints of the northeast-striking set occur in closely spaced clusters, or joint zones, flanked by unjointed rock. Both sets are mineralized with iron oxide and calcite, and the northwest-striking set is commonly tightly cemented, which allowed the northeast-striking set to propagate across it. All cleats and joints of these sets are interpreted as opening-mode (mode I) fractures. Abutting relations indicate that the northwest-striking cleats and joints formed first and were later overprinted by the northeast-striking cleats and joints. Burial curves constructed for the Ferron indicate rapid initial burial after deposition. The Ferron reached a depth of 3000 ft (1000 m) within 5.2 million years (m.y.), and this is considered a minimum depth and time for development of cleats and joints. The Sevier orogeny produced southeast

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartzite cobbles from the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2012-01-01

    luminescence characteristics. The variation in the natural OSL signal with depth below the cobble surface using intact slices from two different cobbles shows that both were bleached to a depth of at least similar to 2?mm before deposition. A model of the variation of dose with depth fitted to data from one......The burial age of an alluvially deposited cobble pavement at the Tapada do Montinho archaeological site (east-central Portugal) is investigated using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Measurements on the cobbles (quartzite clasts) were carried out on intact slices and large aliquots...

  4. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kunlun fault, east-central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, part of the Kunlun fault in northern Tibet. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.The area covered is the western part of the Kunlun fault, at the north edge of east-central Tibet. The sharp line marking the southern edge of the mountains, running left to right across the scene represents s strike-slip fault, much like California's San Andreas Fault, which is more than 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) long. The most recent earthquake on the Kunlun fault occurred on November 14, 2001. At a magnitude of 8.1, it produced a surface break over 350 kilometers (217 miles) long. Preliminary reports indicate a maximum offset of 7 meters (23 feet) in the central section of the break. This five-kilometer (three mile) high area is uninhabited by humans, so there was little damage reported, despite the large magnitude. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission maps of active faults in Tibet and other parts of the world provide geologists with a unique tool for determining how active a fault is and the probability of future large earthquakes on the fault. This is done by both measuring offsets in topographic features and using the SRTM digital map as a baseline for processing data from orbiting satellites using the techniques of radar interferometry. Based on geologic evidence, the Kunlun fault's long-term slip rate is believed to be about 11 millimeters per year (0.4 inches per year). The Kunlun fault and the Altyn Tagh fault, 400 kilometers (249 miles) to the north, are two major faults that help accommodate the ongoing collision between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates.In contrast with the wealth of detail visible in the

  5. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  6. Health expectancy in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, K M; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    Mortality and disease patterns in Greenland have greatly changed since the 1950s. Infectious diseases have decreased markedly; chronic diseases, suicides and violent deaths have increased.......Mortality and disease patterns in Greenland have greatly changed since the 1950s. Infectious diseases have decreased markedly; chronic diseases, suicides and violent deaths have increased....

  7. Banking Ssystems, central banks and international reserve accumulation in East Asian economies

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Prakash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the balance sheets of the banking system in five East Asian economies which were affected by the 1997 Asian Crisis. These countries have persistently accumulated international reserves since the crisis. This paper estimates the impact of reserve accumulation on some important balance sheet variables such as liquid assets, credit and deposits of the banking system by applying panel data techniques. Estimates using data from Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, Philip...

  8. Banking systems, central banks and international reserve accumulation in East Asian economies

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Prakash Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the balance sheets of the banking system in five East Asian economies which were affected by the 1997 Asian Crisis. These countries have persistently accumulated foreign currency reserves since the crisis. This paper estimates the impact of reserve accumulation on some important balance sheet variables such as liquid assets, credits and deposits of the banking system by applying panel data techniques. Estimates using data from Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, Ph...

  9. What are the effects of climate change on agriculture in North East Central Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Eulenstein, Frank; Willms, Matthias; Schindler, Uwe; Muller, Lothar; Mirschel, Wilfried; Dalchow, Claus; Augustin, Jurgen; Wiggering, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Global and climate changes influence the basic conditions for agriculture and so there is not only a demand for a consequent climate protection but also for an adaptation of agriculture to these global changing conditions. For the whole "Maerkisch-Oderland" district (60x40 km) within the moraine landscape of North-East-Germany mainly used for agriculture water balance, nitrogen and sulphur loads as well as crop yields are calculated for two land use and climate scenarios. The comparison betwe...

  10. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirousek, Martin, E-mail: machozrut@mail.muni.c [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Hajek, Michal [Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Bragazza, Luca [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Site Lausanne, Station 2, Case Postale 96, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Ecological Systems - ECOS, Batiment GR, Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Biology and Evolution, University of Ferrara, Corso Ercole I d' Este 32, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m{sup -2} year{sup -1} in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. - Research highlights: Despite high atmopsheric nitrogen deposition, Sphagnum mosses still have rather low N:P ratio. Regional climate and landscape management can enhance P and K availability in bogs. Sphagnum species of the Cuspidata section were characterised by lower N:P ratio. - Regional climate and local forestry practices are expected to alter nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum mosses at high atmospheric N deposition in Central-East Europe.

  11. Correlation of Radiocarbon Dating on Surowono Temple to Other Temples in Central Java and East of Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating on charcoal sample have been carried out from Surowono Temple sites, Canggu village, Pare district, Kediri East Java Province. Sampling carried out by excavation on a few location with 5 test holes, that is LU1, LU2, LU3. LU4, LU5. Laboratorium analysis on significant charcoal sample only gained from LU3 test hole. After being processed and prepared to be benzene by using Benzene Synthesizer and counted by Liquid Scintillation Counter Packard 2000CA/LL, was found that age of radiocarbon dating is 885 ± 51.46 BP or 1052.61 ± 51.46 BP. Correction result tree ring correction resulting confidence level 68.3 % : 1052 - 1245 AD while confidence level on 95.4 % : 1038 - 1262 AD. Compare to recent research shows that radiocarbon dating result on Surowono temple and other temples in East of Java around 13th - 15th century and other temples in Southern of Central Java around 10th century, while other temples in Northern of Central Java around 8'th century. (author)

  12. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  13. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    assessed based on data from reproductive organs and was estimated to be 8–9 years for females and 12–20 years for males. Pregnancy rates for East and West Greenland were estimated to be 0.38–0.42 and 0.38, respectively. Maximum life span expectancy was found to be approximately 100 years. A population......Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007...

  14. The Greenland Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  15. Social context of human immunodeficiency virus transmission in Africa: historical and cultural bases of east and central African sexual relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A

    1989-01-01

    The literature relating to the social context of sexual relations in East and Central Africa has several implications for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Colonially created cities in the region still discriminate economically and socially against women. Rapid urbanization is occurring, but migrants maintain strong ties with rural areas. Traditional attitudes towards marriage and sexuality affect urban behavior in the extent of marital stability, the frequency of polygyny, and the emotional bond between spouses. Ethnic groups in Kampala and Nairobi exemplify the cultural foundations of two forms of sexual relations found in the region, one characterized by prostitution and the other by small circles of interchanging lovers. The first results in a more rapid spread of HIV through the urban population and outwards into rural areas. Each pattern exerts unique constraints on behavioral change and requires different prevention campaigns. PMID:2682946

  16. Estimation of source parameters according to microseismic monitoring of the central part of the East-European platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedina, Alina

    2016-04-01

    Microseismic monitoring of active fault allows one to quickly assess the seismicity of the study area. In platform conditions it requires more time to accumulate of representative data of occurrence of seismic endogenous events. The graphics repeatability, based on data from microseismic monitoring, correlate well with the dependence obtained during long-term regional observations. The focal parameters are assessed for sources of weak seismicity of the central part of East-European platform with the help of small-aperture array. Sensor bandwidth limitations can lead to underestimation of radiated seismic energy due to losses in high-frequency part of signal. Seismometers with enhance amplitude-frequency response in high-frequency part of the spectrum allow avoiding this instrumental problem. This provides records seismic oscillations from events with Mw ~ -2 - 1 and more correct estimation of seismic source parameters. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 16-35-00508).

  17. Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented

  18. Future energy consumption and emissions in East-, Central- and West-China: Insights from soft-linking two global models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Hancheng; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    China's role in the global economy and energy markets is expanding, however many uncertainties with regards to the country's future energy consumption and emissions remain. Large regional disparities between China's provinces exist. Scenario analysis for different sub-regions of China will be...... useful for an improved understanding of China's potential future development and associated global impacts. This study soft-links a global dynamic CGE model and a global technology-rich energy system model. Both models are expanded to include East-, Central-, and West-China. This study shows that soft......-linking affects the China-specific reference scenario results in the CGE model considerably. Energy consumption and emissions are decreasing in China until 2050 while regional differences within China remain high....

  19. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  20. Cool or hot Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    In a current stage of ‘Arctic fever’, former representations of Greenland as ‘cool’ are increasingly joined by ‘hot’ scenarios based on an assumption of the nation as a ‘climate winner’. Using examples from the exhibition ‘Possible Greenland’ at the Venice Architectural Biennale of 2012, this paper...... shows how a Greenland of the future is portrayed and branded as a sustainable nation and destination through future scenarios. The performative approach to the exhibition and its scenarios displays how issues related to all three sides of sustainability e people, planet and profit e are enrolled...... in an attempt to brand Greenland, but also to motivate and carry out decisions. Two scenarios from the exhibition are used to show howdiverging strategies are deployed in order to envision Greenland as sustainable. Where one seeks to embrace disagreement and complexity in its inclusive approach, the other...

  1. Late Caledonian Ductile Thrusting Deformation in the Central East Kunlun Belt, Qinghai, China and Its Significance: Evidence from Geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guocan; CHEN Nengsong; ZHU Yunhai; ZHANG Kexin

    2003-01-01

    A high-angle ductile thrusting deformation with top-to-the-north movement penetratively developed in theProterozoic-Early Paleozoic metamorphic rocks along the Central East Kunlun belt. The deformed rocks suffered epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. On the basis of our previous study, we present more data in this paper to further supportthat the ductile thrust deformation occurred in the later Caledonian and more detailed information about the deformation.A zircon U-Pb concordant age of 446±2.2 Ma of a deformed granodiorite in the ductile thrust zone was obtained and can beinterpreted as the lower limit of the deformation. A syntectonically crystallized and also strongly deformed hornblende Ar/Ar dating gives an Ar/Ar plateau age of 426.5±3.8 Ma, which represents the deformation age. A strongly orientatedmuscovite gives an Ar/Ar plateau age of 408±1.6Ma, representing the cooling age after the peak temperature, constrainingthe upper limit of the ductile thrust deformation. This ductile thrust deformation can be interpreted as the result of theclosing of the Central East Kunlun archipelago ocean. To the north, Ar/Ar plateau ages of 382.9±0.2 Ma and 386.8±0.8 Maof muscovite in the deformed Xiaomiao Group represent the uplift cooling ages of deeper rocks after the thrustingmovement. The original thrusting foliation has a low angle. A rotation model was put forward to explain the developmentof the foliation from the original low-angle to present high-angle dipping.

  2. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen;

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  3. The Greenland Ramsar Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

    The eleven Ramsar sites in Greenland are reviewed in terms of their status as habitats for waterbirds and other fauna. Management and monitoring is proposed, as well as revisions of their boundaries. A number of potential new Ramsar sites are described......The eleven Ramsar sites in Greenland are reviewed in terms of their status as habitats for waterbirds and other fauna. Management and monitoring is proposed, as well as revisions of their boundaries. A number of potential new Ramsar sites are described...

  4. Development of Harvesting Machines for Willow Small-Sizes Plantations in East-Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trzepieciński, Tomasz; Stachowicz, Feliks; Niemiec, Witold; Kępa, Leszek; Dziurka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The production of plant biomass in small farms within the Central and Eastern European countries requires the application of agricultural machines adjusted to the scale of production. In the article, new machines for small-sized plantations of energy crops have been presented. Furthermore, the results of strength analysis of three-point linkage mower frame are presented by finite element method. The advantage of the proposed solutions is their simple construction, which is connected with low ...

  5. Spatial distribution of upwelling off the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.V.N.

    Rao indicates coastal upwelling. Until recently, differences in the surface temperatures of inshore and oceanic waters have been used as a criterion of coastal up- welling intensity, and this has led to conflicting con- of coastal upwelling... matter in the western Arabian Sea. Deep Sea Research 12, 199–209. Smed, J. 1982 The Oceanographic data base for the Cooperative Investigations of the Northern part of the Eastern Central Atlantic (CINECA) region. Rapport et Proces-Verbeaux des Reun- ions...

  6. Greenland ice core evidence of the 79 AD Vesuvius eruption

    OpenAIRE

    C. Barbante; N. M. Kehrwald; P. Marianelli; B. M. Vinther; Steffensen, J. P.; Cozzi, G; C. U. Hammer; Clausen, H. B.; M.-L. Siggaard-Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic tephra are indepenent age horizons and can synchronize strata of various paleoclimate records including ice and sediment cores. Before such paleoclimate records can be synchronized, it is essential to first confidently identify individual independent marker horizons. The Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) ice core from Central Greenland is often used as a "golden spike" to synchronize Northern Hemisphere paleoclimte records. The Holocene section of the GRIP ice core is dated by multi-...

  7. Has Aeshna viridis EVERSMANN, 1836 (Odonata: Aeshnidae really disappeared from southern Poland (East-Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczyński Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 50-100 years ago the southern boundary of the distribution area of Aeshna viridis ran through southern Poland. However, no records of this species from this area have been reported since then. The species is therefore considered as having retreated northwards. The present research disclosed three new sites of A. viridis on the edge of or just beyond its historical distribution area: one in south-western Poland (Trestno: 51°04’N, 17º08’E and two in the south-east of the country (Krasiczyn: 49º46’N, 22º38’E, Bolestraszyce: 49º49’N, 22º51’E. All the sites were anthropogenic. This demonstrates the survival of a number of populations and the formation of new ones in water bodies formed de novo or to which Stratiotes aloides was introduced artificially. This suggests that the conservation of A. viridis is possible in this region.

  8. Mercury in the snow and firn at Summit Station, Central Greenland, and implications for the study of past atmospheric mercury levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous Elemental Mercury (Hg° or GEM was investigated at Summit Station, Greenland, in the interstitial air extracted from the perennial snowpack (firn at depths ranging from the surface to 30 m, during summer 2005 and spring 2006. Photolytic production and destruction of Hg° were observed close to the snow surface during summer 2005 and spring 2006, and we observed dark oxidation of GEM up to 270 cm depth in June 2006. Photochemical transformation of gaseous elemental mercury resulted in diel variations in the concentrations of this gas in the near-surface interstitial air, but destruction of Hg° was predominant in June, and production was the main process in July. This seasonal evolution of the chemical mechanisms involving gaseous elemental mercury produces a signal that propagates downward through the firn air, but is unobservably small below 15 m in depth. As a consequence, multi-annual averaged records of GEM concentration should be well preserved in deep firn air at depths below 15 m, and available for the reconstruction of the past atmospheric history of GEM over the last decades.

  9. First Younger Dryas moraines in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Linge, Henriette; Möller, Per; Schomacker, Anders; Fabel, Derek; Kjær, Kurt H.; Xu, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Over the Greenland ice sheet the Younger Dryas (YD) cold climate oscillation (12.9-11.7 kaBP) began with up to 10°C drop in temperatures and ended with up to 12°C abrupt warming. In the light of the present warming and melting of the ice sheet, and its importance for future climate change, the ice sheet's response to these dramatic changes in the past is of great interest. However, even though much effort has gone into charting YD ice margin behaviour around Greenland in recent years, no clear-cut signal of response to the oscillation has been uncovered. Here we show evidence to suggest that three major outlets from a local ice cap at Greenland's north coast advanced and retreated synchronously during YD. The evidence comprises OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) dates from a marine transgression of the coastal valleys that preceded the advance, and exposure ages from boulders on the moraines, formed by glaciers that overrode the marine sediment. The OSL ages suggest a maximum age of 12.4 ±0.6 kaBP for the marine incursion, and 10 exposure ages on boulders from the three moraines provide an average minimum age of 12.5 ±0.7 kaBP for the moraines, implying that the moraines were formed within the interval 11.8-13.0 kaBP. Elsewhere in Greenland evidence for readvance has been recorded in two areas. Most notably, in the East Greenland fjord zone outlet glaciers over a stretch of 800 km coast advanced through the fjords. In Scoresby Sund, where the moraines form a wide belt, an extensive 14C and exposure dating programme has shown that the readvance here probably culminated before YD, while cessation of moraine formation and rapid retreat from the moraine belt did not commence until c. 11.5 kaBP, but no moraines have so far been dated to YD. Readvance is also seen in Disko Bugt, the largest ice sheet outlet in West Greenland. However, here the advance and retreat of the ice stream took place in mid YD times, and lasted only a few hundred years, while YD in

  10. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  11. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  12. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  13. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  14. A closer investigation of associations between Autumn Arctic sea ice and central and east Eurasian winter climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoyin; Liu, Jiping

    2016-04-01

    Whether recent Arctic sea ice loss is responsible for recent severe winters over mid-latitude continents has emerged as a major debate among climate scientists owing to short records of observations and large internal variability in mid- and high-latitudes. In this study, we divide the evolution of autumn Arctic sea ice extent during 1979-2014 into three epochs, 1979-1986 (high), 1987-2006 (moderate) and 2007-2014 (low), using a regime shift identification method. We then compare the associations between autumn Arctic sea ice and winter climate anomalies over central and eastern Eurasia for the three epochs with focus not only on the mean state, but also the extreme events. The results show robust and detectable signals of sea ice loss in weather and climate over western Siberia and East Asia. For the mean state, anomalous low sea ice extent is associated with a strengthening of the Siberian high pressure, a weakening of westerly winds over north Asia, leading to cold anomalies in central Asia and northern China. For the extreme events, the latitude (speed) of the jet stream shifts southward (reduces), the wave extent amplifies, blocking high events increase over Ural Mountains, leading to increased frequency of cold air outbreaks extending from central Asia to northeast China. These associations bear a high degree of similarity to the observed atmospheric anomalies during the low sea ice epoch. By contrast, the patterns of atmospheric anomalies for the high sea ice epoch are different from those congruent with sea ice variability, which is related to the persistent negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation. We also found that the ENSO plays a minor role in the determination of the observed atmospheric anomalies for the three epochs. Support for these observational analysis is largely corroborated by independent atmospheric model simulations.

  15. Time and Space Variability of Rainfall in Central-East Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepper, Carlos M.; Scian, Beatriz V.; Pierini, Jorge O.

    1989-01-01

    Climatic variability of monthly rainfall data over a period of 30 yr is analyzed. Twenty-three precipitation locations of the central pampa region of Argentina were used. They are spread over the transition zone between wet and dry pampa. The variance contribution for three frequency bands were emphasized using spectral analysis. They include interannual, annual and intraannual variability. Temporal variability for high frequency (that of periods up to 5 months) accounts for 60% of the total variance. Space variability for monthly, three-month, seasonal, and annual periods are analyzed by empirical orthogonal functions. An axis of maximum mean monthly rainfall variability is found oriented from Sierra de la Ventana towards the NE. Spectral contributions for the monthly temporal coefficients of the first two eigenvalues show main peaks with 12-, 6- and 7-month periods.

  16. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  17. Stratigraphic framework of Holocene volcaniclastic deposits, Akutan Volcano, east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, but until recently little was known about its history and eruptive character. Following a brief but sustained period of intense seismic activity in March 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory began investigating the geology of the volcano and evaluating potential volcanic hazards that could affect residents of Akutan Island. During these studies new information was obtained about the Holocene eruptive history of the volcano on the basis of stratigraphic studies of volcaniclastic deposits and radiocarbon dating of associated buried soils and peat. A black, scoria-bearing, lapilli tephra, informally named the 'Akutan tephra,' is up to 2 m thick and is found over most of the island, primarily east of the volcano summit. Six radiocarbon ages on the humic fraction of soil A-horizons beneath the tephra indicate that the Akutan tephra was erupted approximately 1611 years B.P. At several locations the Akutan tephra is within a conformable stratigraphic sequence of pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits that are all part of the same eruptive sequence. The thickness, widespread distribution, and conformable stratigraphic association with overlying pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits indicate that the Akutan tephra likely records a major eruption of Akutan Volcano that may have formed the present summit caldera. Noncohesive lahar and pyroclastic-flow deposits that predate the Akutan tephra occur in the major valleys that head on the volcano and are evidence for six to eight earlier Holocene eruptions. These eruptions were strombolian to subplinian events that generated limited amounts of tephra and small pyroclastic flows that extended only a few kilometers from the vent. The pyroclastic flows melted snow and ice on the volcano flanks and formed lahars that traveled several kilometers down broad, formerly glaciated valleys, reaching the coast as thin, watery, hyperconcentrated flows or water floods. Slightly

  18. Coastal morphodynamic impacts induced by main storm phenomena on the Central East Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Bonamano, Simone; Scanu, Sergio; Martellucci, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The coastal area is a major dynamic systems of the Earth and in particular the sandy beaches are very sensitive to waves energy variation which mainly force morphological changes. Waves drive beaches morphological changes particularly when they exceed a determined threshold. In a short term (from hours to days) of storm conditions, intense erosion phenomena occur. They generate overwash, dunal erosion, loss of lands, damage to engineering structures and coastal ownerships. Several hazardous weather events take place every year in the Mediterranean region and cause relevant economic losses. The western Mediterranean Sea is an area subjected to cyclonic activity. In winter and during the negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), cyclonic activity generates extreme events as intense precipitation, the highest waves, landslides and surges. The study area is the Latium coast, eastern side of Central Tyrrhenian Sea.Wave data were measured by three wave buoys. In order to obtain a better spatial coverage useful to take into account the waves variability over the study area, wave data also has been calculated by WAM model. On the basis of storms events selected by a threshold criteria of events greater than 2 m for a period more than 6 hour, the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) field was analysed through Empirical Orthogonal Function and cluster analysis obtaining 3 classes of barometric events. The storms are always induced by the lows of Gulf of Genoa to be formed in the Mediterranean region triggered from the middle latitude storms which center is located in the northern atlantic and scandinavian region. The different classes, with a probability of 28%, 23% and 49%, generate different circulation driving waves from different directions. The classes of storms show spatial differences in terms of main directions but show similar behavior in terms of distribution of wave direction. In this study the wave and wind field induced by the different barometric condition

  19. Tectonics of the Central Anatolia Plateau between the Black Sea and the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Fernandez-Blanco, David; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    The Central Anatolia Plateau, focus point of the TopoEurope Vertical Anatolia Movement Project, is an elevated area (ca. 1.5km) with fairly smooth topography bounded to the N and to the S by mountain ranges (Pontides and Taurus) and flanked by marine domains (Black Sea and Cilicia Basin-Eastern Mediterranean). Towards the south the Cilicia Basin passes to the Island of Cyprus and eventually to the Cyprus subduction zone and African plate. To constrain the evolution of the CAP from its birth in the Miocene to present, we present the evolution of an upper crustal section stretching from the Black Sea to Cyprus with particular focus on a 350km long segment from the central part of the Plateau (Tüz Gölü) to the Cilicia Basin. This entire area occupies an upper plate position with respect to the Cyprus subduction zone. Tectonics from Early to Late Miocene times were fairly simple and characterized by a gently southward dipping basement experiencing generalized subsidence. Depositional environments gradually changed from continental in the north to shallow marine in the south. The overall tectonic regime during this stage is poorly constrained. In the Late Miocene the entire area of the future CAP began moving upward. At the same time, subsidence continued in the Cilicia basin. Uplift above sea level in the south is nicely recorded by the termination of marine sedimentation and the onset of erosion. Dominant tectonic structures during this stage are associated with N-S shortening. The largest structures caused the formation of the large S-dipping monocline characteristics of S Turkey. The coexistence of upward and downward movements (in the CAP and in the Cilicia basin respectively) as well as the dominant contractional regime suggest that the development of the CAP is related to dynamic changes in the Cyprus subduction zone. We validate this hypothesis with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled models. We demonstrate that the growth of the upper plate forearc basin system

  20. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  1. STRATIGRAPHY AND PALYNOLOGY OF THE UPPER TRIASSIC NAYBAND FORMATION OF EAST-CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONETTA CIRILLI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A palynological study of the Nayband Formation (central eastern Iran has been carried out in order to review and update its stratigraphic framework. In its type locality the formation crops out on the southern flank of Nayband Mountain, about 200 km south of Tabas. It consists of a thick, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sequence subdivided into four members; in ascending order: the Gelkan Member (mainly shales and silstones, the Bidestan Member (marls, siltstones with minor sandstones and fossiliferous limestones, the Howz-e-Sheikh Member (sandstones and siltstones, and the Howz-e-Khan Member (sponge and coral dominated reefs alternating with marls and sandstones. Three palynological assemblages have been recognised; in ascending order: a an assemblage characterised by the presence of Annulispora folliculosa and A. microannulata which allows the Gelkan Member and most of the Bidestan Member to be assigned an early Norian age; (b an assemblage marked by the first occurrence of Polycingulatisporites mooniensis, which indicates the upper part of the Bidestan Member is mid-late Norian; c an assemblage containing Classopollis chateaunovi in association with Retitriletes austroclavatidites, Gliscopollis meyeriana, Limbosporites lundbladii, Rugaletes awakinoensis and Callialasporites dampieri that allows the Howz-e-Sheikh Member to be assigned a Rhaetian age. The presence of some Eurasian and/or cosmopolitan forms in the Rhaetian microflora reflects the position of the Iranian plate on the southern margin of Eurasia.   

  2. Acid rain monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, B. C.; Kheoh, T.; Hinkle, C. R.; Dreschel, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at both locations. The weighted average pH at each site is 4.58; however, annual weighted average pH has been equal to or above the 12 year average during six of the past eight years. Nitrate concentrations have increased slightly during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 12 year weighted average during six of the past seven years. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 20 to 50 meg/(m(exp 2) year) and 100 to 180 cm/year, respectively. Sea salt comprises at least 25 percent of the total ionic composition.

  3. Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, A; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Salto, C; Signorini, M

    2014-08-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the major threats for worldwide apiculture. Damage caused by varroa mite includes body weight loss, malformation and weakening of the bees. It was also suggested as the main cause associated with colony winter mortality and as an important vector for several honey bee viruses. Little is known about multiple factors and their interaction affecting V. destructor prevalence in apiaries from South America. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with V. destructor prevalence in east-central Argentina. Parasitic mite infestation level and colony strength measures were evaluated in 63 apiaries distributed in 4 different regions in east-central Argentina in a cross sectional study. Data regarding management practices in each apiary were collected by means of a questionnaire. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was constructed to associate management variables with the risk of achieving mite infestation higher than 3%. Colonies owned by beekeepers who indicated that they did not monitor colonies after mite treatment (OR=2.305; 95% CI: 0.944-5.629) nor disinfect hives woodenware material (OR=2.722; 95% CI: 1.380-5.565) were associated with an increased risk of presenting high intensity infestation with V. destructor (>3%). On the other hand, beekeepers who reported replacing more than 50% of the queens in their operation (OR=0.305; 95% CI: 0.107-0.872), feeding colonies protein substitute containing natural pollen (OR=0.348; 95% CI: 0.129-0.941) and feeding colonies High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (OR=0.108; 95% CI: 0.032-0.364), had colonies that were less likely to have V. destructor infestations above 3%, than beekeepers who did not report using these management practices. Further research should be conducted considering that certain management practices were associated to mite infestation level in order to improve the sanitary condition in the colonies. Epidemiological studies provide key information to

  4. Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, A; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Salto, C; Signorini, M

    2014-08-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the major threats for worldwide apiculture. Damage caused by varroa mite includes body weight loss, malformation and weakening of the bees. It was also suggested as the main cause associated with colony winter mortality and as an important vector for several honey bee viruses. Little is known about multiple factors and their interaction affecting V. destructor prevalence in apiaries from South America. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with V. destructor prevalence in east-central Argentina. Parasitic mite infestation level and colony strength measures were evaluated in 63 apiaries distributed in 4 different regions in east-central Argentina in a cross sectional study. Data regarding management practices in each apiary were collected by means of a questionnaire. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was constructed to associate management variables with the risk of achieving mite infestation higher than 3%. Colonies owned by beekeepers who indicated that they did not monitor colonies after mite treatment (OR=2.305; 95% CI: 0.944-5.629) nor disinfect hives woodenware material (OR=2.722; 95% CI: 1.380-5.565) were associated with an increased risk of presenting high intensity infestation with V. destructor (>3%). On the other hand, beekeepers who reported replacing more than 50% of the queens in their operation (OR=0.305; 95% CI: 0.107-0.872), feeding colonies protein substitute containing natural pollen (OR=0.348; 95% CI: 0.129-0.941) and feeding colonies High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (OR=0.108; 95% CI: 0.032-0.364), had colonies that were less likely to have V. destructor infestations above 3%, than beekeepers who did not report using these management practices. Further research should be conducted considering that certain management practices were associated to mite infestation level in order to improve the sanitary condition in the colonies. Epidemiological studies provide key information to

  5. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Gao, J.; Wang, T.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l.), located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo), a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research), an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory) and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific). High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88) were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5) concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5) derived from the ECOC analyzer). While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C) tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were recorded when the NOx/NOy ratio was low, implying

  6. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were

  7. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day Greenlandic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Crawford, Jacob E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E; Grarup, Niels; Gulløv, Hans Christian; Linneberg, Allan; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed ∼200,000 SNPs from more than 10% of the adult Greenlandic population (n = 4,674). We found that recent gene flow from Europe has had a substantial impact on the population: more than 80% of the Greenlanders have some European ancestry (on average ∼25% of their genome). However, we also found that the amount of recent European gene flow varies across Greenland and is far smaller in the more historically isolated areas in the north and east and in the small villages in the south. Furthermore, we found that there is substantial population structure in the Inuit genetic component of the Greenlanders and that individuals from the east, west, and north can be distinguished from each other. Moreover, the genetic differences in the Inuit ancestry are consistent with a single colonization wave of the island from north to west to south to east. Although it has been speculated that there has been historical admixture between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who lived in Greenland before the Inuit.

  8. Accumulation rates in Northwest Greenland from continuous GPR profiling along the Greenland Inland Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. L.; Courville, Z.; Kehrl, L. M.; Lutz, E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Overly, T. B.; Wong, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Snow accumulation is one of the fundamental parameters governing the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. While many point measurements of accumulation exist from shallow and deep ice cores, there are few spatially extensive and continuous records of accumulation in Greenland, particularly in the northwest quadrant. In April and May 2011, the Greenland Inland Traverse traveled via tractor train from Thule Air Base in northwest Greenland to Summit Station, at the center of the ice sheet. The science team on the traverse collected both point and profile measurements along the route. Kinematic GPS and 400 MHz GPR profiles provide geolocated subsurface stratigraphy. Density measurements from snowpits and shallow cores on the profile allow us to determine the true depth of radar reflecting horizons, commonly interpreted to be isochrons. We use three ice cores collected at the beginning, the end, and roughly the middle of the route to date horizons. We traced strong reflecting horizons along the entire route. From the combination of dated, traced horizons, density measurements, and position measurements, we determine accumulation rates continuously along the traverse route. We find our traverse route begins in a high-accumulation area, and accumulation decreases as we cross to the east side of the summit ridge. Accumulation then climbs again as we approach summit (directly on the summit ridge). We compare our accumulation rates with previous studies, both measurements (traverse and point measurements) and models.

  9. An early Holocene Greenland whale from Melville Bugt, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Radiocarbon age determination of a Greenland whale ( Balaena mysticetus) vertebra from Melville Bugt in northwestern Greenland yields an age of 9259-8989 cal yr BP. The margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet in Melville Bugt was situated behind its AD 1950-2000 position in the early Holocene, at a similar position to that being reached following rapid retreat in recent years. Such an early deglaciation of areas close to the Greenland Ice Sheet is unusual. This probably reflects the unique glaciological setting resulting from the narrow fringe of ice-free islands and peninsulas and offshore waters with deep areas that characterize this part of Greenland. The timing of Greenland Ice Sheet retreat to its present margin varies significantly around Greenland.

  10. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in Central East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, C.; Zhuang, G.; Huang, K.; Li, J.; Zhang, R.; Wang, Q.; Liu, T.; Sun, Y.; Guo, Z.; Fu, J. S.; Wang, Z.

    2011-07-01

    PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT) (1534 m a.s.l.) in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, and Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6-287.6 μg m-3 and 17.2-235.7 μg m-3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, PO43-, NO2-, CH3COO-, CH2C2O42-, C2H4C2O42-, HCOO-, MSA, C2O42-, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+), and 19 elements of all samples were measured. SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.50 % and 72.65 % of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006) and 0.49(2007) in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc.) showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most of the pollution species (SO42-, NO3-, K+, NO2-, NH4+, Cl-, organic acids, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr) from local/regional anthropogenic emissions or secondary formation presented higher concentration in summer. The ratio of Ca/Al suggested the impact of Asian dust from the western deserts on the air quality in this region. The high concentration of K+ in PM2.5 (4.41 μg m-3) and its good correlation with black carbon (r = 0.90) and oxalic acid (r = 0.87) suggested the severe pollution from biomass burning, which was proved to be a main source of fine particles over central eastern China in summer. The contribution of biomass

  11. Driving forces in the Greenlandic urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    . This centralization has left geographical regions with limited livelihood and at the same time a lack of utilization of local resources and trade opportunities. Additionally the Greenlandic so called larger cities are ended in an un-sustainable economical situation manly depending on public financed jobs or social...... support and with limited export oriented value creation. It will be disused how the previous and present urbanization interact with a sustainable development and what is the core prerequisites for sustainable towns and settlements....

  12. Fundamental Flaws in the Architecture of the European Central Bank: The Possible End of the Euro Zone and its Effects to East African Community (EAC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothando Moyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries embarked on a European integration programme that saw the formation of the Euro, which has emerged as a major currency (Blair, 1999 that was introduced in 1998. With the Euro, came the establishment of the European Central Bank. Thus this study seeks to investigate the flaws in the formation of the European Central Bank that surfaced during the major economic crisis in Europe. The crisis revealing the gaps in the formation and structure of the European central bank have created major challenges for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. Through an extant review of literature the study will examine the East African Community Countries, investigating the ties they have to the euro zone to analyse how the crisis has affected them. Furthermore, the study will analyse what would happen to the growth patterns of the East African Countries and the various prospects they may have should the Eurozone come to an end.

  13. How Greenland melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Broeke M.R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimetry and gravimetry show that the Greenland ice sheet has been losing volume and mass since the beginning of this century. However, from these short time series of direct measurements we cannot infer what the causes of the mass loss are, i.e. ice dynamics or surface processes, or that maybe the ice sheet returns to normal after a period of volume increase and mass gain. By modelling and observing the individual components of the ice sheet mass balance, i.e. snowfall, meltwater runoff and iceberg production, we are able to identify the processes that led to the recent mass loss. We conclude that the Greenland ice sheet is significantly out of balance. Acceleration of outlet glaciers and increased runoff have contributed equally to recent Greenland mass loss. The potential for mass loss by surface processes, however, was three times greater than actually observed, due to refreezing and enhanced snowfall.

  14. Greenland climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Swingedouw, Didier; Landais, Amaëlle;

    2012-01-01

    Climate archives available from deep-sea and marine shelf sediments, glaciers, lakes and ice cores in and around Greenland allow us to place the current trends in regional climate, ice sheet dynamics, and land surface changes in a broader perspective. We show that during the last decade (2000s...... during the last 10 000 years, highlighting the role of soil dynamics in past vegetation changes, and stressing the growing anthropogenic impacts on soil erosion during recent decades. Furthermore, past and present changes in atmospheric and oceanic heat advection appear to severely influence both...... regional climate and ice sheet dynamics. The magnitude and rate of future changes in Greenland temperature, in response to increasing greenhouse gas emissions, may be faster than any past abrupt events occurring under interglacial conditions. Projections indicate that within one century Greenland may...

  15. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level fluctuations are a dominant and dynamic mechanism that control coastal environmental through time. This is especially the case for the successive regressions and transgressions over the last interglacial cycle, which have shaped the deposition, preservation and erosion patterns of unconsolidated sediments currently submerged on continental shelves. The current study focuses on an integrated high-resolution marine and terrestrial litho-stratigraphic and geophysical framework of the north-central Mediterranean coastal zone of Israel. The interpretation enabled the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. A multi-disciplinary approach was applied by compiling existing elevation raster grids, bathymetric charts, detailed lithological borehole data-sets, a dense 110 km long sub-bottom geophysical survey and seven continuous boreholes sediment records. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, observed geometries, and reflective appearances, six bounding surfaces and seven seismic units were identified and characterized. Meanwhile, the chronostratigraphy of the terrestrial side was constructed through integration of magnetic susceptibility, sedimentological and geochemical analysis with 17 new OSL ages. The seismic units were correlated with the available terrestrial borehole data and then associated to the retrieved terrestrial chronostratigraphy to produce a 4D reconstruction model of the paleo-landscape. The entire unconsolidated sequence overlies a calcareous aeolianite (locally named Kurkar unit) dated from ˜131 - ˜104 ka, which represents the top of the last interglacial cycle dune sediments. The lower unconsolidated unit consists of a red silty loam dated to ˜71 ka. This Red-Paleosol unit is overlaid by a dark brown clayey silty loam This Brown-Paleosol unit dates to ˜58 - ˜36 ka and is overlaid by a dark silty clay wetland deposit dated to ˜21 - ˜10 ka. The wetland unit is topped by a quartz sand dated to ˜6.6 - 0.1 ka

  16. Transitive Business Model of Management in Central Europe – Torn between East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur K. MODLIŃSKI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to present the internal and external model of management and how it is connected to the political system and national culture among the Visegrad countries.  The  paper  presents  several  examples  of  transitive models of management. It aims to indicate which advantages and disadvantages can be  identified  in  the  transitive  groups,  how  they  can  influences  the  international investment potential and image of the company. Qualitative research on asample of Polish, German and Ukrainian companies combined with secondary data. Polish business culture can be regarded as transitive –the influence of two bordering civilization (Western and Orthodox is noticeable. This phenomenon has shaped the business values and it is still present in the international context. The  transitive  business  model  of  management allows  to  predict  and  avoid  the  problems  occurring  in  the  internal  and  external relationships  in  the  companies  from  Central  Europe  who  are  involved  into international projects. The  paper  enables  the  clarification  of  the  transitive management  culture;  the  juxtaposition  of  differences  and  similarities  and  their impacts  of  the  internal  and  external  business  relationships;  the  explicitness  of dichotomy and its influence on international business image of Visegrad countries.

  17. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  18. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in Central East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, and Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–287.6 μg m−3 and 17.2–235.7 μg m−3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of all samples were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.50 % and 72.65 % of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most of the pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  19. Multilingual Maps of the Terrestrial Planets and their Moons: the East and Central European Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.; Berczi, Sz.

    A series of Multilingual planetary maps has been published by the Cosmic Materials Space Research Group of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) with consultations by Russian and German colleagues. The maps are a result of a cooperation of MIIGAiK (which offered the base maps), ELTE, the Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno, the Zagreb Astronomical Observatory, the Jagellonian University Observatory, the Tectonics and Geological Cartography Section of the Faculty of Geology at Warsaw University and the University of Architecture, Civil Engeneering and Geodesy in Sofia. The series has been initiated by the International Cartographic Association (ICA), Commission on Planetary Cartography (Shingareva et al. 2006). The now complete series has been published from 2001 to 2006: Mars (2001), Venus (2003), Moon (2003), Mercury (2004) and Phobos and Deimos (2006). (Hargitai et al 2001-2006) These maps are more than outreach posters but less than maps for scientific purposes. These give a good overview of the topography and geology of the planets in a global to regional scale. They contain multilingual information concerning planetary science results and specific characteristics of the planetary body relief, placed on the lower margins of the front sides of the maps and the whole back side (geography, geology, stratigraphy, history of discovery and full index of names). These texts appear in Czech, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Croatian, Polish and English. In some cases it was the first time that a particular term (and its definition) was translated into one of these Central European languages. After compiling the first four maps it can be concluded that such work can effectively draw the attention of earth scientists to the specific features - and the mere existence - of other planetary bodies by simply discussing the translation of their terminology. Apart from circulating the maps in classrooms, this might be the most important scientific result of this

  20. Long-term landscape development: a perspective from the southern Buenos Aires ranges of east central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Zarate, M.; Rabassa, J.

    2005-06-01

    Traditionally, the long-term landscape evolution of the southern Buenos Aires ranges of east central Argentina has been related to the influence of the Andean orogeny. We describe the large-scale morphological units and associated weathering products in the Tandilia and Ventania ranges. Two main planation surfaces are encountered at varying altitudes in different sectors of these ranges. The lower surface is characterized by roots of kaolinized weathering profiles in the Tandil area and silicified conglomerates around Sierra de La Ventana. In an interpretative model linking the range morphogenesis to the tectonosedimentary evolution of the bordering Salado and Colorado Basins, we suggest that the main morphogenetic stages are related to the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous south Atlantic rifting and Miocene tectonic reactivation induced by the Andean orogeny. Thus, the uplifted surfaces appear much older than commonly believed: pre-Cretaceous and Paleogene. Although they contradict recent results of apatite fission-track studies along the South America and South Africa passive margins, the implied low denudation rates (˜4 m/My) can be explained by the limited Meso-Cenozoic uplift suffered by the southern Buenos Aires ranges. The discussion also shows the limits of the comparison that can be made with the South African planation surfaces.

  1. Pan-African granulites of central Dronning Maud Land and Mozambique: A comparison within the East-African-Antarctic orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engvik, A.K.; Elevevold, S.; Jacobs, J.; Tveten, E.; de Azevedo, S.; Njange, F.

    2007-01-01

    Granulite-facies metamorphism is extensively reported in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Palaeozoic time during formation of the East-African-Antarctic orogen (EAAO). Metamorphic data acquired from the Pan-African orogen of central Dronning Maud Land (cDML) are compared with data from northern Mozambique. The metamorphic rocks of cDML are characterised by Opx±Grt-bearing gneisses and Sil+Kfs-bearing metapelites which indicate medium-P granulite-facies metamorphism. Peak conditions, which are estimated to 800-900ºC at pressures up to 1.0 GPa, were followed by near-isothermal decompression during late Pan-African extension and exhumation. Granulite-facies lithologies are widespread in northern Mozambique, and Grt+Cpx-bearing assemblages show that high-P granulite-facies conditions with PT reaching 1.55 GPa and 900ºC were reached during the Pan-African orogeny. Garnet is replaced by symplectites of Pl+Opx+Mag indicating isothermal decompression, and the subsequent formation of Pl+amphibole-coronas suggests cooling into amphibolite facies. It is concluded that high-T metamorphism was pervasive in EAAO in Late Neoproterozoic/Early Paleozoic time, strongly overprinting evidences of earlier metamorphic assemblages.

  2. Novel early flood warning in the Huaihe River basin in east-central China using the TIGGE database

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; Cloke, H.; Li, Z.; Wetterhall, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2009-04-01

    Flooding is a wide spread and devastating natural disaster worldwide. Floods that took place in the last decade in China were ranked the worst amongst recorded floods worldwide in terms of the number of human fatalities and economic losses (Munich Re-Insurance). Rapid economic development and population expansion into low lying flood plains has worsened the situation. The last decade has seen an increase in flood preparedness across all levels of society in China. Current conventional flood prediction systems in China are neither suited to the perceptible climate variability nor the rapid pace of urbanization sweeping the country. Flood prediction systems from short-term (a few hours) to medium-term (a few days) need to be revisited and adapted to changing socio-economic and hydro-climatic realities. The latest technology requires implementation of multiple numerical weather prediction systems. The availability of a number of global ensemble weather prediction systems through the ‘THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble' (TIGGE) offers a good opportunity for an effective state-of-the-art early forecasting system. A prototype of a Novel Flood Early Warning System (NEWS) using the TIGGE database is tested in the Huai River basin located in east-central China. It is the first early flood warning system in China that uses the massive TIGGE database cascaded with river catchment models, the Xinanjiang model and a 1-D hydraulic model, to predict river discharge and flood inundation. Results from selected flood events will be presented.

  3. Wavelet analysis of low-frequency variability in oak tree-ring chronologies from east Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Asok K.; Kern, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the low-frequency (interannual and longer period) variability in three hydroclimatic records from east Central Europe. Two of these records consist of climate proxies derived from oak-tree rings in Bakta forest, and Balaton Highlands in Hungary, for the time interval 1783-2003. The third record consists of homogenized instrumental precipitation data from Budapest, Hungary, from 1842 to 2003. Using wavelet analysis, the three time series are analyzed and compared with one another. It is found that all three time series exhibit strong interannual variability at the 2-4 years timescales, and these variations occur intermittently throughout the length of each record. Significant variability is also observed in all the records at decadal timescales, but these variations persist for only two to three cycles. Wavelet coherence among the various time series is used to explore their time-varying correlation. The results reveal significant coherence at the 2-4 years band. At these timescales, the climatic variations are correlated to the tree-ring signal over different time intervals with changing phase. Increased (decreased) contribution of large-scale stratiform precipitation offers a potential explanation for enhanced (faded) coherence at the interannual timescale. Strong coherence was also observed occasionally at decadal timescales, however these coherences did not appear uniformly. These results reinforce the earlier assertion that neither the strength nor the rank of the similarity of the local hydroclimate signals is stable throughout the past two centuries.

  4. Wavelet analysis of low-frequency variability in oak tree-ring chronologies from east Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Asok K.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the low-frequency (interannual and longer period variability in three hydroclimatic records from east Central Europe. Two of these records consist of climate proxies derived from oak-tree rings in Bakta forest, and Balaton Highlands in Hungary, for the time interval 1783-2003. The third record consists of homogenized instrumental precipitation data from Budapest, Hungary, from 1842 to 2003. Using wavelet analysis, the three time series are analyzed and compared with one another. It is found that all three time series exhibit strong interannual variability at the 2-4 years timescales, and these variations occur intermittently throughout the length of each record. Significant variability is also observed in all the records at decadal timescales, but these variations persist for only two to three cycles. Wavelet coherence among the various time series is used to explore their time-varying correlation. The results reveal significant coherence at the 2-4 years band. At these timescales, the climatic variations are correlated to the tree-ring signal over different time intervals with changing phase. Increased (decreased contribution of large-scale stratiform precipitation offers a potential explanation for enhanced (faded coherence at the interannual timescale. Strong coherence was also observed occasionally at decadal timescales, however these coherences did not appear uniformly. These results reinforce the earlier assertion that neither the strength nor the rank of the similarity of the local hydroclimate signals is stable throughout the past two centuries.

  5. Sources and transportation modes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits on the central east Japan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Purna Sulastya; Nishimura, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yugo; Yulianto, Eko

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated sediment sources of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits along a 4500 m inland transect from the central east Japan coast, using grain size, mineralogy and foraminifera analyses. The tsunami run-up height in our study area was 13 to 20 m near the coastline, 1.4 to 2.8 m in the middle of the valley and 1.3 m around the inundation limit. The inundation distance was around 4800 m. The deposits are composed of sand and mud and show a fining and thinning trend. Mineral composition of the tsunami deposits was similar to that of coastal dune and beach deposits, indicating that most of the tsunami sediment originated from there. A minor foraminifera population in the deposit (≤ 15 specimens per 5 g of sample compared with ≥ 100 specimens per 1 g for typical marine sediment) indicates that marine sediment source was not dominant. Topography played an important role in sediment transport process and deposit distribution. The run-up wave accelerated faster in concave topography, became more erosive, and resulted in a thin deposit in topographic lows. We infer that the deposits up to 2300 m from the coastline were deposited by bedload and suspension, whereas suspension was responsible for deposits farther inland.

  6. Community Knowledge and Acceptance of Larviciding for Malaria Control in a Rural District of East-Central Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard E. G. Mboera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microbial larvicides, a form of larval source management, is a less commonly used malaria control intervention that nonetheless has significant potential as a component of an integrated vector management strategy. We evaluated community acceptability of larviciding in a rural district in east-central Tanzania using data from 962 household surveys, 12 focus group discussions, and 24 in-depth interviews. Most survey respondents trusted in the safety (73.1% and efficacy of larviciding, both with regards to mosquito control (92.3% and to reduce malaria infection risk (91.9%. Probing these perceptions using a Likert scale provides a more detailed picture. Focus group participants and key informants were also receptive to larviciding, but stressed the importance of sensitization before its implementation. Overall, 73.4% of survey respondents expressed a willingness to make a nominal household contribution to a larviciding program, a proportion which decreased as the proposed contribution increased. The lower-bound mean willingness to pay is estimated at 2,934 Tanzanian Shillings (approximately US$1.76 per three month period. We present a multivariate probit regression analysis examining factors associated with willingness to pay. Overall, our findings point to a receptive environment in a rural setting in Tanzania for the use of microbial larvicides in malaria control.

  7. Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) during the past century

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Nijampurkar; D K Rao; H B Clausen; M K Kaul; A Chaturvedi

    2002-03-01

    The depth profiles of electrical conductance, 18O, 210Pb and cosmogenic radio isotopes 10Be and 36Cl have been measured in a 30 m ice core from east Antarctica near the Indian station, Dakshin Gangotri. Using 210Pb and 18O, the mean annual accumulation rates have been calculated to be 20 and 21 cm of ice equivalent per year during the past ∼150 years. Using these acumulation rates, the volcanic event that occurred in 1815 AD, has been identified based on electrical conductance measurements. Based on 18O measurements, the mean annual surface air temperatures (MASAT) data observed during the last 150 years indicates that the beginning of the 19th century was cooler by about 2°C than the recent past and the middle of 18th century. The fallout of cosmogenic radio isotope 10Be compares reasonably well with those obtained on other stations (73° S to 90°S) from Antarctica and higher latitudes beyond 77°N. The fallout of 36Cl calculated based on the present work agrees well with the mean global production rate estimated earlier by Lal and Peters (1967) The bomb pulse of 36Cl observed in Greenland is not observed in the present studies a result which is puzzling and needs to be studied on neighbouring ice cores from the same region.

  8. Implications of East Asian summer and winter monsoons for interannual aerosol variations over central-eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xugeng; Zhao, Tianliang; Gong, Sunling; Xu, Xiangde; Han, Yongxiang; Yin, Yan; Tang, Lili; He, Hongchang; He, Jinhai

    2016-03-01

    Air quality change is generally driven by two factors: pollutant emissions and meteorology, which are difficult to distinguish via observations. To identify the contribution of meteorological factor to air quality change, an aerosol simulation from 1995 to 2004 with the global air quality model GEM-AQ/EC was designed without year-to-year changes in the anthropogenic aerosol (including sulfate and organic and black carbon) emissions over the 10-year span. To assess the impact of interannual variations of East Asian monsoon (EAM) on air quality change in China, this modeling study focused on the region of central-eastern China (CEC), a typical East Asian monsoon (EAM) region with high anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The simulation analysis showed that the interannual variability in surface aerosols over CEC was driven by fluctuation in meteorological factors associated with EAM changes. Large amplitudes of interannual variability in surface aerosol concentrations reaching 20-30% relative to the 10-year averages were found over southern CEC in summer and over northern CEC in winter. The weakened near-surface winds of EAMs in both summer and winter were significantly correlated with aerosol increases over most areas of CEC. The summer and winter monsoon changes enhance the surface aerosol concentrations with increasing trend rates exceeding 30% and 40% over the southern and northern CEC region, respectively, during the 10 years. The composite analyses of aerosol concentrations in weak and strong monsoon years revealed that positive anomalies in surface aerosol concentrations during weak summer monsoon years were centered over the vast CEC region from the North China Plain to the Sichuan Basin, and the anomaly pattern with "northern higher" and "southern lower" surface aerosol levels was distributed over CEC in weak winter monsoon years. Aerosol washout by summer monsoon rainfall exerted an impact on CEC aerosol distribution in summer; aerosol dry depositions in

  9. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...

  10. China and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    More thorough analysis and outreach on facts about Chinese activities in the Arctic are highly needed, not least in view of the almost alarmist response in Danish political debate to the prospects of growing Chinese interest in the Arctic in general and especially in Greenland...

  11. Commentary: Future Greenland 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørst, Lill Rastad

    2015-01-01

    Every second year the Greenlandic Business Association host the two-day conference “Future Greenland” in Nuuk. The main theme of this year conference was “Growth and welfare – scenarios for the development of Greenland”. The conference had more than 400 participants - mostly from Denmark and Gree...

  12. APISSEQ Sisimiut – Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin

    This report summarizes the very first survey of the engineering dormitory Apisseq in Sisimiut, Greenland. The dormitory was inaugurated in August 2010 and the survey was performed in March 2011. The experienced problems and their possible causes are explained in the report. Furthermore possible...

  13. Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in males from Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Tomas, Carmen; Simonsen, Bo; Morling, Niels

    2009-09-01

    A total of 272 males from Greenland were typed for 11 Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 with the PowerPlex Y System (Promega). A total of 146 different haplotypes were observed and the haplotype diversity was 0.9887. The number of haplotypes seen once was 108 and the most common haplotype was observed in 12 males. A significant F(ST) value was observed (F(ST)=0.012, P<0.00001) when comparing the population of 15 locations in Greenland assigned to 7 groups. The significance could mainly be attributed to the subpopulation of males from Tasiilaq (East of Greenland). The R(ST) value was not statistically significant (R(ST)=0.016, P=0.15). PMID:19647703

  14. A TEX86 lake record suggests simultaneous shifts in temperature in Central Europe and Greenland during the last deglaciation

    OpenAIRE

    Blaga, C. I.; G. J. Reichart; Lotter, A. F.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution quantitative temperature records from continents covering glacial to interglacial transitions are scarce but important for understanding the climate system. We present the first decadal resolution record of continental temperatures in Central Europe during the last deglaciation (similar to 14,60010,600cal. yrB.P.) based on the organic geochemical palaeothermometer TEX86. The TEX86-inferred temperature record from Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstattersee, Switzerland) reveals typical o...

  15. Tectonic Map of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformation belts on Svalbard, North Greenland and the Queen Elizabeth Islands (Canadian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepjohn, Karsten; von Gosen, Werner; Tessensohn, Franz; Reinhardt, Lutz; McClelland, William C.; Dallmann, Winfried; Gaedicke, Christoph; Harrison, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The tectonic map presented here shows the distribution of the major post-Ellesmerian and pre-Eurekan sedimentary basins, parts of the Caledonian Orogen, the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, structures of the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and areas affected by the Eurekan overprint. The present continental margin of North America towards the Arctic Ocean between the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Northeast Greenland and the present west margin of the Barents Shelf are characterized by the Paleozoic Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and, in parts, the Caledonian Orogen. In many areas, the structural trends of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformations are more or less parallel, and often, structures of the Ellesmerian Orogeny are affected or reactivated by the Eurekan deformation. While the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt is dominated by orthogonal compression and the formation of wide fold-and-thrust zones on Ellesmere Island, North Greenland and Spitsbergen, the Eurekan deformation is characterized by a complex network of regional fold-and-thrust belts (Spitsbergen, central Ellesmere Island), large distinct thrust zones (Ellesmere Island, North Greenland) and a great number of strike-slip faults (Spitsbergen, Ellesmere Island). The Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt was most probably related to the approach and docking of the Pearya Terrane (northernmost part of Ellesmere Island) and Spitsbergen against the north margin of Laurasia (Ellesmere Island/North Greenland) in the earliest Carboniferous. The Eurekan deformation was related to plate tectonic movements during the final break-up of Laurasia and the opening of Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay west, the Eurasian Basin north, and the Norwegian/Greenland seas east of Greenland. The tectonic map presented here shows the German contribution to the Tectonic Map of the Arctic 1:5,000,000 (TeMAr) as part of the international project "Atlas of geological maps of Circumpolar Arctic at 1

  16. The influence of Asian dust outflow on particle microphysical and optical properties at Mt. Tai in central east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, T. T.; Wang, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Fan, R. X.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, D. Z.

    2016-10-01

    An in-situ measurement of the particle number size distribution and optical properties (scattering and absorption coefficients) of PM2.5 was conducted at Mt. Tai, a mountain top station in central east China in the spring of 2011. It was found that the particle size distribution, mass concentration, as well as the optical properties have been modified during the dust periods. The mean mass concentration of PM2.5 during the dust periods was nearly twice of that during the non-dust period. The number and volume size distribution showed a higher concentration in the size range of 0.5-2.5 μm during the dust period, which were identified as dust particles. The absorption coefficient increased by ∼40%, while the scattering coefficient did not show much difference. The single scattering albedo of 0.85 during dust period was also comparable with the value of 0.89 during non-dust period. The Mie model was applied to simulate the aerosol optical properties and validated through a closure study for an intensive dust event. This study quantitatively demonstrated that dust particles contributed to nearly 63% of the scattering coefficient, while the remainder was mainly due to anthropogenic particles on dust days. The dust particles took a lower portion to the absorption, about 40%, indicating the anthropogenic particles still played a more dominant role in absorbing. This study also indicated that although there were only a few tens of dust particles during dust period, they could influence in particle optical properties significantly.

  17. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black mov...

  18. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: experiences with a capacity assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Jessani, Nasreen; Lewy, Daniela; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant investments in health systems research (HSR) capacity development, there is a dearth of information regarding how to assess HSR capacity. An alliance of schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa developed a tool for the self-assessment of HSR capacity with the aim of producing institutional capacity development plans. Methods Between June and November 2011, seven SPHs across the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, an...

  19. Temporal Trends and Future Predictions of Mercury Concentrations in Northwest Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Born, E.W.; Riget, Frank Farsø;

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafterHg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly......-2008 concentrations ofHg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call...

  20. Quantifying the Jakobshavn Effect: Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, compared to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hughes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jakobshavn Effect is a series of positive feedback mechanisms that was first observed on Jakobshavn Isbrae, which drains the west-central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet and enters Jakobshavn Isfjord at 69°10'. These mechanisms fall into two categories, reductions of ice-bed coupling beneath an ice stream due to surface meltwater reaching the bed, and reductions in ice-shelf buttressing beyond an ice stream due to disintegration of a laterally confined and locally pinned ice shelf. These uncoupling and unbuttressing mechanisms have recently taken place for Byrd Glacier in Antarctica and Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland, respectively. For Byrd Glacier, no surface meltwater reaches the bed. That water is supplied by drainage of two large subglacial lakes where East Antarctic ice converges strongly on Byrd Glacier. Results from modeling both mechanisms are presented here. We find that the Jakobshavn Effect is not active for Byrd Glacier, but is active for Jakobshavn Isbrae, at least for now. Our treatment is holistic in the sense it provides continuity from sheet flow to stream flow to shelf flow. It relies primarily on a force balance, so our results cannot be used to predict long-term behavior of these ice streams. The treatment uses geometrical representations of gravitational and resisting forces that provide a visual understanding of these forces, without involving partial differential equations and continuum mechanics. The Jakobshavn Effect was proposed to facilitate terminations of glaciation cycles during the Quaternary Ice Age by collapsing marine parts of ice sheets. This is unlikely for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, based on our results for Byrd Glacier and Jakobshavn Isbrae, without drastic climate warming in high polar latitudes. Warming would affect other Antarctic ice streams already weakly buttressed or unbuttressed by an ice shelf. Ross Ice Shelf would still protect Byrd Glacier.

  1. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  2. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  3. Arctic Ocean UNCLOS Article 76 Work for Greenland Starts on Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Jensen, T.; Marcussen, C.; Jackson, R.; Voss, P.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most lonely and desolate stretches of coastline on the planet has become the target for UNCLOS article 76 related research. The Danish Continental Shelf Project has launched a work program to investigate the possibilities for Greenland to claim an area outside the 200 nm limit in the Arctic Ocean. The role of the Lomonosov Ridge as a Natural Prolongation of Greenland/Canada is an important issue, and in order to better evaluate the connection between Greenland and the Lomonosov Ridge the nature of not only the ridge but also of Northern Greenland is the target of deep crustal investigations. The North Greenland Fold belt covers the ice-free part of North Greenland and continues west in the Canadian Arctic. The foldbelt was formed during the Ellesmerian orogeny, where sediments from the Franklinian Basin where compressed and deformed. The deep structure of basin and its subsequent closure are broadly unknown. Three broad band earthquake seismological stations where installed in North Greenland to supplement the existing stations at Alert (Canada) and Station Nord to the east, and the first data was available summer 2005. Crustal thickness data from these first results are presented. Plans for the spring 2006 consist of wide-angle acquisition on the sea ice from the Greenland-Canadian mainland out onto the Lomonosov Ridge, a joint Danish - Canadian project with a 400 km long profile over difficult ice conditions, 18 tons of explosives, three helicopters, a Twin Otter and about 30 participants.

  4. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Bryne and Lulu Formations, Middle Jurassic, northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andsbjerg, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Bryne and Lulu Formations of the Søgne Basin (northern part of the Danish Central Graben consist of fluvially-dominated coastal plain deposits, overlain by interfingering shoreface and back-barrier deposits. Laterally continuous, mainly fining-upwards fluvial channel sandstones that locally show evidence for tidal influence dominate the alluvial/coastal plain deposits of the lower Bryne Formation. The sandstones are separated by units of fine-grained floodplain sediments that show a fining-upwards - coarsening-upwards pattern and locally grade into lacustrine mudstones. A regional unconformity that separates the lower Bryne Formation from the mainly estuarine upper Bryne Formation is defined by the strongly erosional base of a succession of stacked channel sandstones, interpreted as the fill of a system of incised valleys. Most of the stacked channel sandstones show abundant mud laminae and flasers, and rare herringbone structures, suggesting that they were deposited in a tidal environment, probably an estuary. Several tens of metres of the lower Bryne Formation may have been removed by erosion at this unconformity. The estuarine channel sandstone succession is capped by coal beds that attain a thickness of several metres in the western part of the Søgne Basin, but are thin and poorly developed in the central part of the basin. Above the coal beds, the Lulu Formation is dominated by various types of tidally influenced paralic deposits in the western part of the basin and by coarsening-upwards shoreface and beach deposits in central parts. Westwards-thickening wedges of paralic deposits interfinger with eastwards-thickening wedges of shallow marine deposits. The Middle Jurassic succession is subdivided into nine sequences. In the lower Bryne Formation, sequence boundaries are situated at the base of laterally continuous fluvial channel sandstones whereas maximum flooding surfaces are placed in laterally extensive floodplain

  5. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.;

    2011-01-01

    by the presence of an up to 4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering the largest part of the land mass. Hence previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where little information about the continental part of the crust could be gained. To get...... insight into crustal thickness and composition below the Greenland ice sheet, the TopoGreenland project collects the first ever seismic data onshore Greenland. Wide-angle data was acquired along an EW-trending profile, extending 350 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby...

  6. The lakes of Central Queen Maud Land (East Antarctica): Their recent isotope hydrologic characteristics, origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978, from the German Democratic Republic base in the Schirmacher Oasis (71 degrees S, 12 degrees E) our group has studied the lakes of Central Queen Maud Land. Analysis of stable isotope composition of lake waters combined with conventional hydrogeochemical studies have proved to be a valuable tool in deciphering -the Holocene climatic and glacial evolution of the area; -the fractionation of isotopic water molecules during freezing and evaporation under the climatic conditions of a polar desert. Up to now 30, representatives of the more than 100 lakes, ponds and pools of the region have been investigated. All water bodies are of freshwater type. However, their salt content is relatively high (up to about 500 mg/L) compared with that of the regional snow and ice which feed the lakes. Local differences in salt concentration and chemical type of water are due to evaporation of drainless lakes and geochemical peculiarities of the different catchment areas, respectively. The mean isotope data of the large drained lakes of the Schirmacher Oasis are within the range of values for Holocene precipitations accumulated in its glacial surroundings: δ2HSMOW = -210 ... -240 per mille, δ18OSMOW = around -30 per mille. Some lakes are predominantly fed by the Pleistocene basal layer of the regional ice cover, which is characterized by δ2H around -320 per mille. The isotopic composition of water in shallow lakes and pools is clearly determined by non-equilibrium evaporation taking place from the open water surface during the austral summer. In some pools the lake water becomes enriched in 2H and 18O by a maximum of 60 per mille and 15 per mille, respectively, which is typical of water bodies evaporating under the arid conditions prevailing in the Schirmacher Oasis. The heavy water isotope content of the large drainless ice-covered lakes is mainly determined by the seasonal thickening of the ice cover through freezing of water on its under-side. The depletion in 2H and 18O

  7. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  8. Comparison of Source Time Functions Retrieved from Various Regional Waves and Coda Using Moderate Earthquakes in East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Torpey, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Source time functions may vary with various P and S wave types. Regional Lg waves have been used to estimate radiated energy and apparent stress. In nuclear explosion seismology, the practice of discriminating Earthquake and explosions using regional wave spectra and spectral ratios relies on a fundamental assumption that Earthquakes and explosions excite various regional waves in a systematically-different manner. We have been carrying out a systematic study to retrieve source time functions (STFs) from seismic sources using the empirical Green's function (EGF) approach. In phase 1 of the study, we focus on retrieving STFs from moderate earthquakes in east and central Asia using regional Lg, Pg, Lg coda, and Sn and Pn waves to see whether or not the shape of the STFs varies with the wave type. We explored various methods to reduce the noise in the deconvolved STFs which tend to be higher for the relatively weaker Pg, Sn, Pn and coda waves. For example, an array-stacking method is used to enhance source pulses and reduce the level of side-lobes. Preliminary results suggest that Lg and Lg coda STFs may be similar, as generally believed. Pg STF is less similar to Lg STF. For example, when a stacked Lg STF is clearly asymmetric with a sharp-rise time, the stack Pg STF seems to be fairly symmetric. In general, our confidence on this kind of dissimilarity is still limited by the non-diminishing deconvolution noise in the retrieved Pg STFs, and by the small number of events studied. We are trying to further reduce the deconvolution noise for each regional wave, and find and analyze more moderate events. We will present newly-retrieved STFs from each of the various regional waves and coda, and compare the pulse widths and shapes of the STFs from different waves. We will also present estimates of source-radiated energy and apparent stresses using the estimated Lg STFs without using various simplified source models and Q corrections.

  9. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations by the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that the BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. This range is significant, but is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP instrument and the PSAP instrument equipped with a heated inlet (400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two possibilities. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC

  10. Three-Dimensional Observations of H_2 Emission around Sgr A East - I. Structure in the Central 10 Parsecs of Our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sungho; Choi, Minho; Davis, Christopher J; Geballe, T R; Herrnstein, Robeson M; Ho, Paul T P; Minh, Y C; Lee, Sang-Gak

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained velocity-resolved spectra of the H_2 v=1-0 S(1) (lambda = 2.1218 micron) emission line at 2 arcsec angular resolution (or 0.08 pc spatial resolution) in four regions within the central 10 pc of the Galaxy where the supernova-like remnant Sgr A East is colliding with molecular clouds. To investigate the kinematic, physical, and positional relationships between the important gaseous components in the center, we compared the H_2 data cube with previously published NH_3 data. The projected interaction-boundary of Sgr A East is determined to be an ellipse with its center offset 1.5 pc from Sgr A* and dimensions of 10.8 pc X 7.6 pc. This H_2 boundary is larger than the synchrotron emission shell but consistent with the dust ring which is believed to trace the shock front of Sgr A East. Since Sgr A East is driving shocks into its nearby molecular clouds, we can determine their positional relationships using the shock directions as indicators. As a result, we suggest a revised model for the three-dim...

  11. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.;

    2002-01-01

    Levels of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) were determined in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic region and the North Sea. The sample consisted of muscle tissue from 135 minke whales caught in 1998 in 7 different areas: West Greenland, n = 44; East G...

  12. Vegetation of the Angmagssalik District Southeast Greenland. I. Littoral vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, de J.G.

    1974-01-01

    The present study deals with a part of the results of observations made during expeditions in 1968 and 1969 to the Angmagssalik District, the central and largest deglaciated area on the Southeast coast of Greenland; which journeys were preceded by a reconaissance in 1966. The Angmagssalik District i

  13. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  14. Middle and Late Holocene hunter-gatherers in East Central Europe: changing paradigms of the ‘non-Neolithic’ way of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nowak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional views, the main reason for ‘demesolithisation’ in East Central Europe was the spread of the Neolithic oecumene, particularly from c. 4000 BC. Simultaneously, the disintegrated Late Mesolithic world gradually underwent typological unification, and finally reached the stage that is sometimes described as pre-Neolithic. However, we definitely have to bear in mind that as a matter of fact we deal only with the ‘history’ of archaeological artefacts that are treated as typical attributes of hunter-gatherers. The analyses of chronological, technological, settlement, economic, and social data referring to foragers of East Central Europe demonstrate that the quantitative decrease and changes of their archaeological attributes in the fifth, fourth, and third millennia were not connected with a profound reorientation of their spatial and ideological existence. It was rather a continuation of previous patterns, even though territories settled by farming societies were steadily growing in size. The final disappearance of Central European hunter-gatherers – but only in a strictly typological dimension – took place in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age.

  15. Temperature and conductivity data collected by CTDs on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2008-07 to 2009-08 (NODC Accession 0123217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  16. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J. [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  17. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  18. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Døssing, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony; Nielsen, Tove; Jokat, Wilfried; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone - East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic unconformity (IMU), which marks the termination of syn-rift deposition in the deep-sea basins and onset of: (i) thermo-mechanical coupling across the GFZ, (ii) basin compression, and (iii) contourite deposition, north of the EGR. The onset of coupling across the GFZ is constrained by results of 2-D flexural backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf-progradation on the NE Greenland margin. Given an estimated middle-to-late Miocene (~15-10 Ma) age of the IMU, we speculate that the event is synchronous with uplift of the East and West Greenland margins. The correlation between margin uplift and plate-motion changes further indicates that the uplift was triggered by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.

  19. Conceptualizing and contextualizing food insecurity among Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, B.; Molcho, M.; Arnfjord, S.;

    2013-01-01

    security among Inuit in Arctic regions was found to be very similar and connected to a westernization of the diet and contamination of the traditional diet. The major challenges are contamination, economic access to healthy food and socio-demographic differences in having a healthy diet. The literature...... on outcomes related to food insecurity in children in Western societies was reviewed and grouped based on 8 domains. Using data from the Greenlandic HBSC data from 2010, the item on food security showed negative associations on central items in all these domains. Focus group interviews with children revealed......OBJECTIVE: To review the context of food insecurity in Greenlandic children, to review and compare the outcomes related to food insecurity in Greenlandic children, in other Arctic child populations and in other western societies, and to explore the measure used by the Health Behaviour in School...

  20. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizert, Christo; Gkinis, Vasileios; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; He, Feng; Lecavalier, Benoit S; Kindler, Philippe; Leuenberger, Markus; Carlson, Anders E; Vinther, Bo; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; White, James W C; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Brook, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    Greenland ice core water isotopic composition (δ(18)O) provides detailed evidence for abrupt climate changes but is by itself insufficient for quantitative reconstruction of past temperatures and their spatial patterns. We investigate Greenland temperature evolution during the last deglaciation using independent reconstructions from three ice cores and simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model. Contrary to the traditional δ(18)O interpretation, the Younger Dryas period was 4.5° ± 2°C warmer than the Oldest Dryas, due to increased carbon dioxide forcing and summer insolation. The magnitude of abrupt temperature changes is larger in central Greenland (9° to 14°C) than in the northwest (5° to 9°C), fingerprinting a North Atlantic origin. Simulated changes in temperature seasonality closely track changes in the Atlantic overturning strength and support the hypothesis that abrupt climate change is mostly a winter phenomenon.

  1. Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jihyung Hong,1 Diego Novick,1 Tamás Treuer,2 William Montgomery,3 Virginia S Haynes,4 Shenghu Wu,5 Josep Maria Haro61Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, US; 5Eli Lilly China, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 6Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD from Central Europe and East Asia.Patients and methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and East Asia. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE. Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI, changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE.Results: Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in East Asia were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from East Asia was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In East Asia, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional

  2. On the origin of multidecadal to centennial Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kobashi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH] over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH; polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]. The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3–4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31–35% of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO. Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  3. On the Origin of Multidecadal to Centennial Greenland Temperature Anomalies Over the Past 800 yr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Kodera, K.; Box, J. E.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH]) over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH) temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH); polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]). The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3-4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31-35%of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  4. Snapshots of the Greenland ice sheet configuration in the Pliocene to early Pleistocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anne M.; Reeh, Niels; Japsen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of the ice sheets during the Pliocene to early Pleistocene is not well constrained. Here we apply an ice-flow model in the study of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) during three extreme intervals of this period constrained by geological observations and climate reconstructions. We study...... from the deposits of the Kap Kobenhavn Formation, North Greenland. Our experiments show that no coherent ice sheet is likely to have existed in Greenland during the Mid-Pliocene Warmth and that only local ice caps may have been present in the coastal mountains of East Greenland. Our results illustrate...... the variability of the GIS during the Pliocene to early Pleistocene and underline the importance of including independent estimates of the GIS in studies of climate during this period. We conclude that the GIS did not exist throughout the Pliocene to early Pleistocene, and that it melted during interglacials even...

  5. Overview of coralline red algal crusts and rhodolith beds (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) and their possible ecological importance in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Halfar, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    of the Arctic and subarctic photic zone. This article gives a first overview of the distribution of coralline red algal crusts and rhodolith (free-living coralline red algal nodules) grounds in Greenland and the first report of rhodoliths in East Greenland. Museum data and recent sampling information have been...... compiled to develop a distribution map of coralline genera and rhodolith communities. The depth range of coralline red algae in Greenland has been extended by 27 m, from 50 to 77 m depth. In addition, rhodoliths of the normally crust-forming species Clathromorphum compactum are described for the first time...... from a sheltered Greenland fjord. Based on the data compiled here, it becomes clear that rhodolith communities are a widespread feature of the Greenland shallow shelf areas. Gaining a better understanding of the distribution of these hitherto poorly understood high-latitude ecosystems is essential due...

  6. Greenland Telescope (GLT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The GLT project is deploying a new submillimeter (submm VLBI station in Greenland. Our primary scientific goal is to image a shadow of the supermassive black hole (SMBH of six billion solar masses in M87 at the center of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. The expected SMBH shadow size of 40-50 μas requires superbly high angular resolution, suggesting that the submm VLBI would be the only way to obtain the shadow image. The Summit station in Greenland enables us to establish baselines longer than 9,000 km with ALMA in Chile and SMA in Hawaii as well as providing a unique u–v coverage for imaging M87. Our VLBI network will achieve a superior angular resolution of about 20 μas at 350 GHz, corresponding to ∼ 2.5 times of the Schwarzschild radius of the supermassive black hole in M87. We have been monitoring the atmospheric opacity at 230 GHz since August. 2011; we have confirmed the value on site during the winter season is comparable to the ALMA site thanks to high altitude of 3,200 m and low temperature of −50°C. We will report current status and future plan of the GLT project towards our expected first light on 2015–2016.

  7. Upper-mantle velocity structure and its relation to topography across the Caledonides in Greenland and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the upper-mantle P- and S-wave velocity structure as well as structure in the VP/VS ratio across the high topography areas of north Atlantic Caledonides, integrating data from a new East Greenland Caledonide Central Fjord Array (EGCFA) with results of recent studies of the...... Igneous Belt and further north along the Norwegian coast. This boundary stands out clearly in the P-velocity and even clearer in the S-velocity. Compositional difference between the Baltic Shield and adjacent units is indicated by consistent VP/VS ratio anomalies. The new EGCFA profile reveals a similar...... three other regions bordering the North Atlantic. This result challenges the hypothesis of widespread Late Cenozoic uplift in this region....

  8. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  9. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...

  10. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ahmad A; Canguven, Onder; Raidh, Talib A

    2015-01-01

    Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ± 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%), 83 (5%) patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture. PMID:26229311

  11. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  12. Setting the scene in Nuuk: Introducing the cast of characters in Greenlandic foreign policy narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2016-01-01

    cultural traditions with envisioned future independence. Hence, the chapter introduces the central members of the cast of characters in the most important narratives, which Greenland is telling about its place in the world. The analysis shows how narratives about indigenous identity combines...... international politics and foreign policy as driven by narratively structured discourses constructing nation state identities in relation to Others....... policy strategy; “It is important that the interest in the Arctic and Greenland is converted into concrete opportunities for the Greenlandic people and its development as a nation” (2011:3). This chapter investigates how Greenland’s foreign policy supports the national self-image in combining indigenous...

  13. Relations between Municipal Water Use and Selected Meteorological Parameters and Drought Indices, East-Central and Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.

    2009-01-01

    Water-use data collected between 1992 and 2006 at eight municipal water-supply utilities in east-central and northeast Florida were analyzed to identify seasonal trends in use and to quantify monthly variations. Regression analyses were applied to identify significant correlations between water use and selected meteorological parameters and drought indices. Selected parameters and indices include precipitation (P), air temperature (T), potential evapotranspiration (PET), available water (P-PET), monthly changes in these parameters (Delta P, Delta T, Delta PET, Delta(P-PET), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Selected utilities include the City of Daytona Beach (Daytona), the City of Eustis (Eustis), Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU), Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA), Orange County Utilities (OCU), Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC), Seminole County Utilities (SCU), and the City of St. Augustine (St. Augustine). Water-use rates at these utilities in 2006 ranged from about 3.2 million gallons per day at Eustis to about 131 million gallons per day at JEA. Total water-use rates increased at all utilities throughout the 15-year period of record, ranging from about 4 percent at Daytona to greater than 200 percent at OCU and SCU. Metered rates, however, decreased at six of the eight utilities, ranging from about 2 percent at OCU and OUC to about 17 percent at Eustis. Decreases in metered rates occurred because the number of metered connections increased at a greater rate than did total water use, suggesting that factors other than just population growth may play important roles in water-use dynamics. Given the absence of a concurrent trend in precipitation, these decreases can likely be attributed to changes in non-climatic factors such as water-use type, usage of reclaimed water, water-use restrictions, demographics, and so forth. When averaged for the eight utilities, metered water-use rates depict a clear

  14. Dust flux estimates for the Last Glacial Period in East Central Europe based on terrestrial records of loess deposits: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Varga, György; Raucsik, Béla; Marković, Slobodan B.

    2010-11-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences are significant records of the mineral dust cycle of glacial-interglacial periods. As dust particles give rise to direct and indirect radiative forcing, obtaining a reliable picture of the global and regional patterns of mineral dust fluxes during glacial periods can lead to a better understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to past climate changes. Recent progress in absolute dating of loess deposits in the Carpathian Basin in East Central Europe made it possible to provide correct aeolian flux estimates for the Last Glacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 2. Mass accumulation rates (MARs) from chronological data of 33 loess sites exhibited a wide range of values, from 150 to 1422 g m -2 a -1, centered around median and mean values of 338 and 417 g m -2 a -1. MAR and MAR estimates have been also calculated using grain size measurements of many loess samples and loess MARs in order to facilitate comparison with models, and since particles larger than 10 μm have a negligible radiative effect. Here we show that some previous model simulations of the dust cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) significantly underestimated the real aeolian flux (ranges of our estimates: MAR=34-324 and MAR=9.3-88.2 g m a) in East Central Europe. For this reason, some simulations of dust-induced direct radiative forcing of the LGM climate failed to yield reliable results for this mid-latitude region as they have been based on three-dimensional dust field models that are not capable of estimating the real aeolian fluxes in Central Europe. A recent global model of top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing by mineral aerosols at the LGM that has been based on more realistic parameterization of dust sources, transport, and deposition revealed zonally averaged surface cooling of -2 °C for the latitudes of our study area. This surface cooling and TOA radiative forcing (-2 to -3 W m -2) are greater than recognized in other models and draws our

  15. Enhancement of volcanism and geothermal heat flux by ice-age cycling: A stress modeling study of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nathan T.; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.

    2016-08-01

    Ice-age cycling of the Greenland ice sheet likely contributed to locally elevated subglacial geothermal heat fluxes (GHFs), based on recent thermal modeling. Borehole and geophysical data indicate higher GHF in some areas than suggested by current knowledge of underlying geology, particularly at the head of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. Changes in lithospheric loading during ice-sheet growth and decay cycles produce large and geologically rapid changes in the effective stress state beneath and near the ice sheet. Oscillations in melt fraction from cyclic loading through multiple ice-age cycles will enhance upward magma migration through the nonlinear increase of melt migration velocity with melt fraction. We simulate periodic ice-sheet loading scenarios along an east-west transect across central Greenland on an Elastic Lithosphere, Relaxed Asthenosphere Earth model. Under likely parameter ranges, deviatoric stresses in the elastic lithosphere across widespread regions are sufficiently high to meaningfully enhance dike emplacement and also allow vug-wave propagation in some scenarios. Stress patterns migrate laterally in response to ice-sheet dynamics, favoring multistage magma ascent. If melt occurs at depth, our modeling suggests that ice-age cycling could help it migrate upward to shallow depth or erupt, contributing to the high observed GHF. Furthermore, shallow magma emplacement might feed hydrothermal systems exploiting enhanced faulting or fracturing from ice-age cycling, adding to elevated GHF. The preglacial passage of the Iceland-Jan Mayen hot spot could have sourced such magmas. Direct observations of these lithospheric processes needed to further constrain our models are limited, highlighting the value of more targeted geophysical studies informing future modeling.

  16. Why is Transparency Greenland Necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland is facing significant changes in the composition of its economy, and is moving rapidly in the direction of becoming a commodities economy. Studies conducted by Transparency International in other parts of the world suggest that oil exploration and mining are among the areas of economic...... activity, which carry the greatest risk of corruption. It is therefore important that Greenlandic society is prepared for the new economic players, and the risks this may entail....

  17. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...... alternative could be to use small and simple biogas plants, followed by dewatering of the degassed biomass, either by utilizing possible surplus of energy from the biogas plant or natural freezing, which might be a more cost-effective way. After dewatering the liquid part can be treated by filtration...

  18. The Implementation of Performance Management in European Central Governments: More a North-South than an East-West Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschmid Gerhard; Löffler Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the first country-comparative evidence on the importance and use of performance management in European central governments, based on an executive survey conducted in 17 countries. The data confirm that performance management has made its way into European central governments and continues to constitute a major reform trend. At the organizational level of ministries and agencies we find a consistently strong use of strategic planning, performance appraisal and management ...

  19. Investigating the past and recent δ18O-accumulation relationship seen in Greenland ice cores

    OpenAIRE

    Buchardt, S. L.; Clausen, H. B.; Vinther, B. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal means of δ18O and accumulation rates from 52 ice core locations in Greenland are presented. The accumulation rates are derived from annual layers determined in the δ18O curve. Investigation of the δ18O-accumulation relationship across the ice divide reveals a significant Foehn effect with anticorrelation of δ18O and accumulation rate on the lee side of the divide in Southern Greenland, while no effect is seen in Central Greenl...

  20. Greenlandic adoptees' psychiatric inpatient contact. A comparative register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 (CI 95% 1.8 - 6.6). The most frequent diagnosis is ‘Inherent or acquired brain suffering'. The findings open up possibilities for new hypotheses as to reasons for adoptees' reverse health outcomes in the Western world. Epidemiological and medical contact recording do not exist outside central hospital...... level in Greenland, therefore, in order to put psychiatric contact patterns into perspective, in depth field studies are required in close collaboration with the local Greenlandic population...

  1. Topography and Penetration of the Greenland Ice Sheet Measured with Airborne SAR Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Keller, K.;

    2001-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of the Geikie ice sap in East Greenland has been generated from interferometric C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired with the airborne EMISAR system. GPS surveyed radar reflectors and an airborne laser altimeter supplemented the experiment. The accur...

  2. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Nielsen, S.P.;

    2004-01-01

    . The concentrations are expected to increase in the future, especially in East Greenland. The Bylot Sound at the Thule Airbase (Pituffik) in North-West Greenland was contaminated with plutonium and enriched uranium in a weapons accident in 1968. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium efficiently...... into the new sediments resulting in continued high surface sediment concentrations three decades after the accident. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low-and lower than observed in the Irish Sea. This is supposed to be caused by the physico-chemical form of the accident plutonium. A recent study...... indicates that 'hot particles' hold considerably more plutonium than previously anticipated and that the Bylot Sound sediments may account for the major part of the un-recovered plutonium after the accident, i.e. approximately 3 kg. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. On the origin of multi-decadal to centennial Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kobashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies associated with accelerating sea level rise. However, the causes of multi-decadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine the causes of the Greenland temperature variability, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA(G-NH over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardised NH temperature from the standardised Greenland temperature. It decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH; Polar amplification; and Regional variability (GTA(G-NH. The Central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio = Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3–4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA explains 31–35% of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multi-decadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. Another orthogonal component of the Greenland and NH temperatures, GTP(G+NH (Greenland temperature plus = standardized Greenland temperature + standardized NH temperature exhibited the multi-decadal variations that were likely induced by large volcanic eruptions, increasing greenhouse gasses, and internal variation of climate. We found that the GTA(G-NH has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO. Climate modelling indicates that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC and to associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  4. Origin and time-space distribution of hydrothermal systems in east-central Australian sedimentary basins: Constraints from illite geochronology and isotope geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, I. Tonguç

    2016-04-01

    Some well-known precious mineral deposits and hydrocarbon resources occur extensively in east-central Australian sedimentary Basins. The metal occurrences are abundant in northwestern and eastern part of Queensland, whereas no significant deposits are known in large areas further south, which may, however, be hidden beneath the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary basins. Important hydrocarbon resources exist within the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks at relatively shallow depths, of which the distribution represent zones of high paleo-geothermal gradients. This study examines the time-space distribution in relation to the regional tectonic history of concealed metal deposits and areas of high paleo-geothermal gradient leading to hydrocarbon maturation. To this end, authigenic illitic clay minerals representing various locations and stratigraphic depths in east-central Australia were investigated, of which the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar geochronology and stable isotope geochemistry assist in delineating zones of hydrothermal systems responsible for hydro-carbon maturation/migration and potentially ore deposition. The Late Carboniferous - Early Permian crustal extension that affected large areas of eastern Australia and led to the epithermal mineralisations (e.g., the Drummond Basin) is also recorded in northern South Australia and southwest Queensland. A Late Triassic - Early Jurassic tectonic event being responsible for coal maturation and gas generation in the Bowen Basin and the epithermal mineralisation in the North Arm goldfield in SE Queensland likewise affected the areas much further west in Queensland. Some illites from the basement in outback Queensland and fault gouges from the Demon Fault in NE New South Wales yield younger Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar ages indicating the effect of hydrothermal processes as a result of a Middle-Upper Jurassic tectonic event. The majority of illite samples from the crystalline basement rocks, Permian Cooper Basin, and Jurassic

  5. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  6. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  7. Problems concerning musk oxen in Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the range of muskox in Greenland. The predominant habitat of the muskox is in northern and northeastern Greenland; however, it has appeared...

  8. Evolution of the East African Rift System With Special Emphasis on the Central Rift of Kenya: A new Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East African rift system has been of immense interest to geoscientist since its first account was given by Gregory (1896). Several recent views have followed, showing continuing interest in its evolution Baker et al. 19971; Baker et al. 1972; Baker and Wohlenberg 1971; McConnell 1972; Nyabok 1983; Williams and Truckle 1980; Williams, MacDonald and Leat 1983). This interest is being refueled by modern views which are emerging from our better understanding of plate tectonic processes. The major tectonic events took place during the Miocene and late Pliocene with the attendant volcanism which continued into the late Pleistocene. The late Pleistocene volcanism provided the heat source for the long on-going geothermal activity in the rift zone

  9. 20th Session of the East, Central and South-East Europe Division of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names; Working Group on Toponymic Data Files and Gazetteers; EuroGeographics – EuroGeoNames Workshop, Zagreb, February 9–11, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Hećimović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conferences on geographical name standardization were organized by the State Geodetic Administration and held in Zagreb from February 9 to 11, 2011: 20th Session of the East Central and South-East Europe Division of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (ECSEED of UNGEGN, Working Group on Toponymic Data Files and Gazetteers (WG TDFG and EuroGeoGraphics – EuroGeoNames Workshop (EGN.

  10. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  11. Structural development of the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC): An update of its role during the rift transition from the Ægir Ridge to the Kolbeinsey Ridge, and effects on the formation of the Greenland-Iceland-Faroe ridge complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blischke, Anett; Gaina, Carmen; Hopper, John R.; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Brandsdóttir, Bryndis; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Erlendsson, Ögmundur

    2016-04-01

    This study presents results of an ongoing PhD research project and proposes a revision of the Jan Mayen microcontinent's Cenozoic evolution with a special emphasis on the structural relationship to the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex. Recently acquired and publicly available geophysical and borehole data collected offshore Iceland since the early 1970s, facilitate a thorough review of Tertiary rift systems and their association with the Jan Mayen microcontinent, updating recent kinematic modelling that details the timing of the North Atlantic opening along the Jan Mayen transfer systems, and the Iceland-Faroe-Greenland transfer system bordering the Greenland-Iceland Faroe ridge complex, which covers a large area of thick crust that stretches across the North Atlantic Ocean between the central East Greenland and the North-West European margins. The established regional reflection seismic dataset interpretations and plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the microcontinent may represent the southern extension of the East Greenland Jameson Land basin, suggesting a similar structural trend as the Faroe-Shetland basin. The Cenozoic structural evolution of the Jan Mayen microcontinent and surrounding oceanic crust includes six main phases that correlate to several major unconformities and related structures. Important events include the pre-break-up unconformity, the break-up to drift phase, a drifting phase and establishment of the Ægir Ridge seafloor spreading during the early Eocene, oblique seafloor spreading direction east of JMMC during mid-Eocene caused the formation of transform systems and uplift along the southern flank Jan Mayen microcontinent forming the Iceland Plateau Rift (Brandsdóttir et al. 2015), accompanied by igneous activity along the northeastern margin of the Blosseville Kyst (Larsen et al. 2014), ridge relocation via a southeast to northwest en-echelon ridge system transition from the southern extent of the microcontinent during the

  12. Epidemiology and medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the central-east of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M S; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Trabelsi, A; Sfar, M T; Harbi, A; Gueddiche, M N; Farhat, E Ben

    2015-08-01

    Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients cost data were collected retrospectively using an activity-based costing method from the medical records of the children who were positively diagnosed with rotavirus. The average cost of care per child was TD 433 (SD 134). This is a significant economic burden in Tunisia, where a safe and effective vaccine is available but not yet introduced to the immunization schedule. PMID:26446530

  13. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  14. Spatio-temporal variations of optical properties of aerosols in East Asia measured by MODIS and relation to the ground-based mass concentrations observed in central Korea during 2001˜2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Chung, Yong-Seung; Kim, Joon-Tae

    2014-02-01

    Long-term variations and trends of atmospheric aerosols in the East Asian region were analyzed by using aerosol optical depth (AOD or τ), and ångström exponent (AE or α) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2001 to 2010. The increased emission of anthropogenic fine aerosols in east China resulted in the high AOD in this region during summer. The steady increasing emission of anthropogenic fine aerosols caused an increasing trend of AOD in east China, and the large-scale transport of sandstorms and smoke plume caused by forest fires affected intense inter-annual variations of AOD in the East Asian region. While in the central part of South Korea, located in the lee side of the East Asian continent, AE tended to rise to a level higher than in east China, the ground-based mass concentrations continued to decline. A noticeable decrease of PM10 mass concentration in spring and winter in central Korea is most likely attributable to decreases in sandstorms in the source region of East Asia. However, the ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration to PM10 increases overall with a high level in summer. Aerosol types were classified into dust, smoke plume, and sulphate by using satellite data over Cheongwon in central Korea. The columnar AOD, with different aerosol types, was compared with the ground-based mass concentrations at Cheongwon, and the relatively high level of the correlations presented between PM2.5 and AOD produced in sulphate. Growth and increases of fine hygroscopic aerosols generated as gas-to-particle conversion particularly in summer contribute to increases of columnar AOD in the East Asian region.

  15. The Implementation of Performance Management in European Central Governments: More a North-South than an East-West Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammerschmid Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first country-comparative evidence on the importance and use of performance management in European central governments, based on an executive survey conducted in 17 countries. The data confirm that performance management has made its way into European central governments and continues to constitute a major reform trend. At the organizational level of ministries and agencies we find a consistently strong use of strategic planning, performance appraisal and management objectives, along with only a partial institutionalization of a performance-management logic. Scepticism towards measurement and the difficulty of acting upon performance information are persistent challenges. We also find that performance-management implementation is significantly stronger in agencies and larger organizations, and that it varies strongly between different countries. Implementation is substantially higher in Scandinavian countries and Anglo-Saxon countries than in Continental and Southern European countries, with a rather varied pattern for Central and Eastern European countries. The findings thereby confirm the need for a more context-sensitive understanding of performance management, along with the need for more extensive research and evidence to further develop this cross-comparative European perspective.

  16. Conodonts, stratigraphy, and relative sea-level changes of the tribes hill formation (lower ordovician, east-central New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, E.D.; Westrop, S.R.; Knox, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tremadocian onlap is recorded by the Tribes Hill Formation. The formation is a lower Lower Ordovician (upper conodont Fauna B Interval(?)- Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence that unconformably overlies the Upper Cambrian Little Falls Formation. Depositional environments and stratigraphy indicate that the Tribes Hill was deposited on a wave-, not tide-, dominated shelf and that a uniform, 'layer-cake' stratigraphy is present. The deepening-shoaling sequence of the Tribes Hill includes the: 1) Sprakers Member (new; peritidal carbonate and overlying tempestite limestone and shale); 2) Van Wie Member (new; subtidal shale and limestone); 3) Wolf Hollow Member (revised; massive carbonates with thrombolitic cap); and 4) Canyon Road Member (new; glauconitic limestone and overlying evaporitic dolostone). The shoaling half-cycle of the Tribes Hill is older than a shoaling event in western Newfoundland, and suggests epeirogenic factors in earliest Ordovician sea-level change in east Laurentia. Conodont and trilobite biofacies track lithofacies, and Rossodus manitouensis Zone conodonts and Bellefontia Biofacies trilobites appear in the distal, middle Tribes Hill Formation. Twenty-four conodont species are illustrated. Ansella? protoserrata new species, lapetognathus sprakersi new species, Leukorhinion ambonodes new genus and species, and Laurentoscandodus new genus are described.

  17. Insect-Based Holocene (and Last Interglacial?) Paleothermometry from the E and NW Greenland Ice Sheet Margins: A Fly's-Eye View of Warmth on Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Y.; Bigl, M.; Carrio, C.; Corbett, L. B.; Francis, D. R.; Hall, B. L.; Kelly, M. A.; Levy, L.; Lowell, T. V.; Osterberg, E. C.; Richter, N.; Roy, E.; Schellinger, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present new paleotemperature reconstructions based upon insect (Chironomidae) assemblages and other proxies from lake sediment cores recovered in east Greenland at ~71° N near Scoresby Sund and in northwest Greenland at ~77° N near Thule/Qaanaaq. In east Greenland, Last Chance Lake (informal name) is a small, non-glacial lake situated ~90 km east of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin. The lake preserves a sedimentary record of the entire Holocene (Levy et al. 2013). Chironomids from Last Chance Lake record cold summer temperatures (and establishment of a cold-climate fauna including abundant Oliveridia and Pseudodiamesa) during the late Holocene, preceded by summer temperatures estimated to have been 3 to 6°C warmer during the first half of the Holocene (when summer insolation forcing was greater than today). In northwest Greenland, Delta Sø and Wax Lips Lake (informal name) both preserve Holocene sediments. Here we discuss the late Holocene chironomid record from Delta Sø, whereas from Wax Lips Lake (a small, non-glacial lake situated ~2 km west of the ice sheet margin) we present a longer sedimentary and biostratigraphic record. The deeper portions of cores from Wax Lips Lake yield pre-Holocene and nonfinite radiocarbon ages, suggesting that this lake preserves sediments predating the Last Glacial Maximum. Abundant chironomids in the pre-glacial sediments appear to record interglacial conditions, and we infer that these sediments may date to the Last Interglacial (Eemian). The preservation of in situ Last Interglacial lacustrine sediments so close to the modern ice sheet margin suggests a minimally erosive glacierization style throughout the last glacial period, like that inferred for other Arctic locales such as on Baffin Island (Briner et al. 2007), ~750 km southwest of our study site. Our study sites are situated nearby key ice core sites (including NEEM, Camp Century, Agassiz and Renland) and very close to the ice sheet margin. These chironomid

  18. Ice stream retreat following the LGM and onset of the west Greenland current in Uummannaq Trough, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John T.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The deglacial history and oceanography of Uummannaq Trough, central West Greenland continental shelf, was investigated using foraminiferal, sedimentological, and bathymetric records together with a radiocarbon chronology, providing a timeline for the retreat of glacial ice after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To map ice stream retreat, data were collected from cores from the outer (JR175-VC45 and JR175-VC43) and inner (JR175-VC42) Uummannaq Trough. A large ice stream, fed by confluent glaciers draining the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet, extended across the outer shelf during the LGM and was in retreat by 15.0 cal kyr BP. Foraminiferal data indicate that the 'warm' West Greenland Current (WGC) was established prior to 14.0 cal kyr BP, which is the hitherto earliest record of Atlantic Water found on the West Greenland shelf. For each of the cores, foraminifera indicate that ice sheet retreat was followed quickly by incursion of the WGC, suggesting that the warm water may have enhanced ice retreat. Prior to the Younger Dryas cold event, the radiocarbon chronology indicates that the ice sheet retreated to the mid-shelf, where it subsequently stabilised and formed a large grounding-zone wedge (GZW). After the Younger Dryas, around 11.5 cal kyr BP, the ice retreated rapidly from the GZW and into the fjords.

  19. Development of cross-border transmission lines in Poland and their significance for the Central East Europeam energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruszkiewicz, Jerzy

    2010-09-15

    This publication presents the existing cross-border transmission lines connecting Poland with neighbouring countries and their use in the currently applied mechanisms for making available the transfer capacities. The prospects and the considered options of development in cross-border interconnections were presented, taking into account their role in the integration of the European market and of the trade relations with neighbouring counties other than members of the European Community. The role of the planned interconnections in solving the problems of central European countries connected with the implementation of European strategy that reduce CO2 emissions in the area of electricity generation was discussed.

  20. POSSIBLE LATE MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ORGANIC CARBON ISOTOPE EXCURSION: EVIDENCE FROM ORDOVICIAN OILS AND HYDROCARBON SOURCE ROCKS, MID-CONTINENT AND EAST-CENTRAL UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Witzke, Brian J.; Risatti, J. Bruno; Anders, Donald E.; Watney, W. Lynn; Newell, K. David; Vuletich, April K.

    1987-01-01

    Oils generated by Middle Ordovician rocks are found throughout the Mid-Continent and east-central regions of the United States. Gas chromatographic characteristics of these oils include a relatively high abundance of n-alkanes with carbon numbers less than 20, a strong predominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes between C//1//0 and C//2//0, and relatively small amounts of branched and cyclic alkanes. The wide ranges in delta **1**3C for oils and rock extracts reflect a major, positive excursion(s) in organic matter delta **1**3C in late Middle Ordovician rocks. This excursion has at least regional significance in that it can be documented in sections 480 mi apart in south-central Kansas and eastern Iowa. The distance may be as much as 930 mi. The parallel shifts in organic and carbonate delta **1**3C in core samples from 1 E. M. Greene well, Washington County, Iowa, imply changes in the isotope composition of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir. These and other aspects of the subject are discussed.

  1. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  2. Temperature and conductivity, and water currents data collected by CTDs and current meters on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2010-08 to 2011-08 (NODC Accession 0123282)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  3. Temperature, conductivity, and water currents data collected by CTDs and current meters on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2011-08-20 to 2012-09-16 (NODC Accession 0126772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  4. Water Temperature, conductivity, and currents data collected by CTDs and current meters on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2012-09-18 to 2013-08-20 (NCEI Accession 0127325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  5. Land use change and carbon cycle in arid and semi-arid lands of East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Togtohyn; Chuluun; Dennis; Ojima

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic changes in land use have occurred in arid and semi-arid landsof Asia during the 20th century. Grassland conversion into croplands and ecosystem degradation is widespread due to the high growth rate of human population and political reforms of pastoral systems. Rangeland degradation made many parts of this region vulnerable to environmental and political changes. The collapse of the livestock sector in some states of central Asia, expansion of livestock inChina and intensive degradation of grasslands in China are examples of the responses of pastoral systems to these changes over the past decades. Carbon dynamics in this region is highly variable in space and time. Land use/cover changes with widespread reduction of forest and grasslands increased carbon emission from the region.

  6. Brief communication: Getting Greenland's glaciers right - a new data set of all official Greenlandic glacier names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, A. A.; Kruse, L. M.; Michaelsen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Place names in Greenland can be difficult to get right, as they are a mix of Greenlandic, Danish, and other foreign languages. In addition, orthographies have changed over time. With this new data set, we give the researcher working with Greenlandic glaciers the proper tool to find the correct name for glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and to locate glaciers described in the historic literature with the old Greenlandic orthography. The data set contains information on the names of 733 glaciers, 285 originating from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and 448 from local glaciers and ice caps (LGICs).

  7. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  8. The Braconidae (Hymenoptera) of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty species belonging to 16 genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera) are reported from Greenland. Seven are new species described and illustrated below: Dacnusa groenlandica spec. nov.; Aphidius tarsalis spec. nov.; Praon brevistigma spec. nov.; Blacus (B.) groenlandicus spec. nov.; Cotesia

  9. The Pedagogical Situation in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Bent

    The history of Greenland's educational activities began in 1721 with the work of a missionary who encouraged the people to learn to read and write. A century later, higher education became available. In 1905, legislation was enacted that served as a milestone of progress for the growth of education. Separation from Denmark, which was leading…

  10. Health and society in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldsen, Anne B,

    2005-01-01

    Greenland is the largest island in the world covering 2,2 mill sq kilometers of which 90 % is covered by ice and 10 % is a narrow strip of land along the coastline.(Int J Circumpolar Health 2005; 64(3):257-259)

  11. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Middle Jurassic of western and northern Europe: its subdivisions, geochronology and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callomon, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic settings of Denmark and East Greenland during the Middle Jurassic are outlined. They lay in the widespread epicontinental seas that covered much of Europe in the post-Triassic transgression. It was a period of continuing eustatic sea-level rise, with only distant connections to world oceans: to the Pacific, via the narrow Viking Straits between Greenland and Norway and hence the arctic Boreal Sea to the north; and to the subtropical Tethys, via some 1200 km of shelf-seas to the south. The sedimentary history of the region was strongly influenced by two factors: tectonism and climate. Two modes of tectonic movement governed basinal evolution: crustal extension leading to subsidence through rifting, such as in the Viking and Central Grabens of the North Sea; and subcrustal thermal upwelling, leading to domal uplift and the partition of marine basins through emergent physical barriers, as exemplified by the Central North Sea Dome with its associated volcanics. The climatic gradient across the 30º of temperate latitude spanned by the European seas governed biotic diversity and biogeography, finding expression in rock-forming biogenic carbonates that dominate sediments in the south and give way to largely siliciclastic sediments in the north. Geochronology of unrivalled finesse is provided by standard chronostratigraphy based on the biostratigraphy of ammonites. The Middle Jurassic saw the onset of considerable bioprovincial endemisms in these guide-fossils, making it necessary to construct parallel standard zonations for Boreal, Subboreal or NW European and Submediterranean Provinces, of which the NW European zonation provides the primary international standard. The current versions of these zonations are presented and reviewed.

  12. Rapid response of Helheim Glacier in Greenland to climate variability over the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla Snowman; Straneo, Fiammetta; Ribergaard, Mads Hvid;

    2012-01-01

    During the early 2000s the Greenland Ice Sheet experienced the largest ice-mass loss of the instrumental record(1), largely as a result of the acceleration, thinning and retreat of large outlet glaciers in West and southeast Greenland(2-5). The quasi-simultaneous change in the glaciers suggests...... a common climate forcing. Increasing air(6) and ocean(7,8) temperatures have been indicated as potential triggers. Here, we present a record of calving activity of Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, that extends back to about AD 1890, based on an analysis of sedimentary deposits from Sermilik Fjord, where...... Helheim Glacier terminates. Specifically, we use the annual deposition of sand grains as a proxy for iceberg discharge. Our record reveals large fluctuations in calving rates, but the present high rate was reproduced only in the 1930s. A comparison with climate indices indicates that high calving activity...

  13. Characterization and evaluation of acid rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1987: Ten year summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Brooks C.; Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1989-01-01

    Rainfall was collected on the University of Central Florida (UCF) campus near Orlando since July 1977 and at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida since August 1977. Since November 1983, the KSC site has been affiliated with the National Atmospheric Deposition Network. Annual volume weighted pH was slightly above the 10 year mean of 4.58 during four of the past five years. Nitrate concentrations have risen somewhat during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 10 year mean during four of the past years. These observations hold for both the UCF and KSC data. The distribution of individual sample pH was nearly identical at UCF and KSC. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion, and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 30 to 50 meq/m2-yr and 100 to 180 cm/yr, respectively. Sea salt comprises about 25 percent (UCF) and greater than 50 percent (KSC) of total ionic composition.

  14. The Tunas Formation (Permian) in the Sierras Australes foldbelt, east central Argentina: evidence for syntectonic sedimentation in a foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gamundi, O. R.; Conaghan, P. J.; Rossello, E. A.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1995-04-01

    The Tunas Formation, extensively exposed in the Sierras Australes foldbelt of eastern central Argentina, completes the sedimentation of the Gondwanan (Late Carboniferous-Permian) sequence, locally known as the Pillahuincó Group. The underlying units of the Group show an integrated depositional history which can be explained in terms of glaciomarine sedimentation (Sauce Grande Formation) and postglacial transgression (Piedra Azul and Bonete Formations). This succession also has a rather uniform quartz-rich, sand-sized composition indicative of a cratonic provenance from the Tandilia Massif to the northeast. Early to Late Permian deformation folded and thrusted the southwestern basin margin (Sierras Australes) and triggered the deposition of a 1,500 m — thick, synorogenic prograding wedge, the Tunas Formation, in the adjacent foreland basin (Sauce Grande or Claromecó Basin). Sandstone detrital modes for the Tunas deposits show moderate to low contents of quartz and abundant lithics, mostly of volcanic and metasedimentary origin. Paleocurrents are consistently from the SW. Tuffs interbedded with sandstones in the upper half of Tunas Formation (Early — early Late? Permian) are interpreted as being derived from volcanic glass-rich tuffs settled in a body of water. Extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region during that period. The age constraints and similarities in composition between these volcanics and the tuffaceous horizons present in the Sauce Grande, Parana and Karoo Basins suggest a genetic linkage between these two episodes. The intimate relationship between volcanic activity inboard of the paleo-Pacific margin, deformation in the adjacent orogenic belt and subsidence and sedimentation in the contiguous foreland basin constitutes a common motif in the Sauce Grande and Karoo Basins of southwestern Gondwana.

  15. Effects of partial throughfall exclusion on the phenology of Coussarea racemosa (Rubiaceae) in an east-central Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo; Ray, David; Nepstad, Daniel; Cardinot, Gina; Curran, Lisa M; Oliveira, Rafael

    2006-11-01

    Severe droughts may alter the reproductive phenology of tropical tree species, but our understanding of these effects has been hampered by confounded variation in drought, light and other factors during natural drought events. We used a large-scale experimental reduction of throughfall in an eastern-central Amazon forest to study the phenological response to drought of an abundant subcanopy tree, Coussarea racemosa. We hypothesized that drought would alter the production and the timing of reproduction, as well as the number of viable fruits. The study system comprised two 1-ha plots in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil: a dry plot where 50% of incoming precipitation (80% throughfall) was diverted from the soil during the six-month wet season beginning in January 2000, and a wet plot that received natural rainfall inputs. Fruit production of C. racemosa was quantified every 15 days using 100 litter traps (0.5 m(2)) in each plot. The production of new leaves and flowers was recorded monthly for C. racemosa individuals. Soil water, pre-dawn leaf water potential and solar radiation were measured to help interpret phenological patterns. Over the approximately 3.5-year period (April 2000 through December 2003), total fruit production remained similar between plots, declining by 12%. In 2003, production was four times higher in both plots than in previous years. In the dry plot, fruit fall shifted 40 and 60 days later into the dry season in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Total fruit fall dry mass production was variable across the study period. Foliage and flower production coincided with peak irradiance early in the dry season until delays in flowering appeared in the dry plot in 2002 and 2003. Plant water stress, through its influence on leaf developmental processes and, perhaps, inhibition of photosynthesis, appears to have altered both the timing of fruit fall and the quality and number of seeds produced. PMID:16955290

  16. The Greenland Analogue Project, Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. The project includes three sub-projects (A-C) with specific individual objectives, which collectively aim at contributing knowledge and input to the overall project aim. Three field campaigns were carried out in SPA during 2009. These campaigns focused on: (1) deployment and maintenance of AWS and GPS stations and to test the deep-look radar equipment; (2) investigating the hydrological processes and feedbacks and testing of passive seismic equipment; (3) downloading of weather station data and GPS data and winterizing the equipment. An extensive archive of real-time satellite remote sensing datasets has been obtained to be able to better constraint the surface elevation and dynamics of basal hydrological mechanisms. From this archive it has been possible to obtain Russell Glacier Cachment (RGC)-wide constraints on annual, seasonal and specific temporal snapshots of surface speed, initial lake and moulin distribution, drainage and network connections along with the temporal

  17. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  18. Rock magnetic and geochemical proxies for iron mineral diagenesis in a tropical lake: Lago Verde, Los Tuxtlas, East Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Beatriz; Caballero, Margarita; Lozano, Socorro; Vilaclara, Gloria; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2006-10-01

    inferred are in concordance with the glacial advances recorded in central Mexico. Higher erosion rates reflect destruction of the rainforest over the last 40 years.

  19. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in the middle of central east China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in spring 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–276.9 μg/m3 and 17.2–235.7 μg/m3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of 176 samples from MT were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.5% and 73.8% of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  20. Groundwater and surface-water interaction and effects of pumping in a complex glacial-sediment aquifer, phase 2, east-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Carlson, Carl S.

    2015-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Framingham, Massachusetts, has investigated the potential of proposed groundwater withdrawals at the Birch Road well site to affect nearby surface water bodies and wetlands, including Lake Cochituate, the Sudbury River, and the Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in east-central Massachusetts. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey developed a Phase 1 numerical groundwater model of a complex glacial-sediment aquifer to synthesize hydrogeologic information and simulate potential future pumping scenarios. The model was developed with MODFLOW-NWT, an updated version of a standard USGS numerical groundwater flow modeling program that improves solution of unconfined groundwater flow problems. The groundwater model and investigations of the aquifer improved understanding of groundwater–surface-water interaction and the effects of groundwater withdrawals on surface-water bodies and wetlands in the study area. The initial work also revealed a need for additional information and model refinements to better understand this complex aquifer system.

  1. Characterization and Evaluation of Acid Rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1995 and Evaluation of Some Chromatographic/Spectroscopic Results from Leachate Samples from CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of monitoring the chemical composition of rain in east-central Florida have shown that the rain is moderately acid. The measured acidity of rain is less than that observed in other regions of the U. S., however, it does suggest that the level of acidity is substantial. The annual chemical composition of rain at UCF and at KSC has shown moderate variability. Extreme daily and monthly variations are observed, however these variations are not addressed here. The total ionic composition of rain collected at FL99 is greater than that for rain collected at UCF, however this can be accounted for by site proximity to the ocean with the accompanying marine influence. Difference in acidity data collected from the UCF and FL99 sites which are separated by 50 km may be due in part to the differences that have been observed between laboratory and field pH measurements. Trend assessment for precipitation composition requires evaluation of data that covers some minimum time period. In fact, the subdivision of the multi-year UCF record into individual 10 year records as described above can lead to the conclusion that a significant increase, a significant decrease or no trend exists for acidity depending upon the time period chosen for evaluation. Trend evaluation has also been accomplished by linear and nonlinear regression analysis using monthly volume weighted average concentrations and deposition using the UCF data set and some of the Florida NADP data set.

  2. Stratigraphy, fossils, and age of sediments at the upper pit of the Lost Chicken gold mine: new information on the late Pliocene environment of east central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John V., Jr.; Westgate, J. A.; Ovenden, Lynn; Carter, L. David; Fouch, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    The "upper pit" at the Lost Chicken placer gold mine in east central Alaska contains fossils that provide information on the flora and insect fauna of interior Alaska just before the onset of global cooling at 2.5 myr. Fossils come from sediments interbedded with the Lost Chicken tephra (dated at 2.9 ± 0.4 myr—early Late Pliocene) and portray the floodplain and valley of a small creek within a region dominated by a coniferous forest richer in genera and species than the present one. Climate was wetter and less continental, and there was probably little or no permafrost. At least one other Pliocene tephra (the Fortymile tephra) occurs at the site and is also associated with plant and insect fossils. Among these fossils are extinct plants and insects like those found at other Tertiary sites in northern Canada and Alaska. The Lost Chicken sequence is the same age as the Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, more than 1000 km to the north. Like Lost Chicken, Meighen Island sediments contain fossils representing a diverse boreal environment. This shows that the latitudinal climate gradient during early Late Pliocene time was shallower than at present and the boreal forest had a far greater latitudinal span than now.

  3. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  4. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  5. Role of wind and thermal forcing in the formation of the water circulation variability in the Japan/East Sea Central Basin in 1958-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diansky, N. A.; Stepanov, D. V.; Gusev, A. V.; Novotryasov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the numerical experiment on simulation of the Japan/East Sea (JES) water circulation response to the atmospheric forcing for 1958-2006, the analysis is made of its long-term variability in the JES Central Basin (CB). It was found that during the climatic year, the circulation remains cyclonic, strengthening in spring and weakening in autumn. The analysis of mean relative vorticity (MRV) at intermediate depths in the JES CB showed one that the spectrum of its interannual variability is formed mainly by oscillations of periods ˜2, ˜4 and ˜5 years, and in the decadal range with ˜10 and ˜14 years. Along the depth, the spectral composition of MRV variability does not change, but there is a noticeable weakening of decadal variability amplitude, which does not occur with the 4- and 5-year oscillations. Using SVD-analysis, the connection is established between MRV variability, wind stress curl (WSC), as well as sensible heat flux. The strong connection between MRV and WSC is revealed in the range of 4-5 years, and in the decadal range (period is 10 years) the significant connection is with both WSC and air-sea temperature as a result of winter cooling and following deep convection.

  6. Carbonate cementation as related to the diagenesis of clay in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system: Examples from the Centerfield biostrome, east central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, C.D. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation consists of siliciclastic and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediment packages that pulse in and out of the stratigraphy. The formation crops out in several places throughout the folded rocks of eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland. The Centerfield Member is one of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate packages in the Mahantango Fm. This member crops out in east central Pennsylvania. The Centerfield Mbr. has been interpreted as a series of biostromes and contain abundant rugosan corals, crinoids, bryozoans, and brachiopods. The biostromes have undergone a complex diagenetic history. Illite, smectite, chlorite and muscovite have been found with the use of powder x-ray diffraction and petrographic analysis. The smectite and some of the illite are depositional clays, while, the remaining illite, chlorite and muscovite represent recrystallization of the depositional clays. There are six phases of cement in the biostrome. The paragenetic sequence of the cements is as follows: non-ferroan low magnesian calcite (LMC), intermediate ferroan LMC, ferroan LMC, non-ferroan dolomite, ferroan baroque dolomite, and quartz cement in the form of chert and blocky cement. Staining shows that the iron content of the cement changes within individual crystals and between cement phases. Preliminary data suggest that the cements may be directly related to the steady release of ions during the diagenesis of the surrounding clays in the shale.

  7. Effects of May through July 2015 storm events on suspended sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storage loss in the reservoir resulting from sedimentation has been estimated to be 765 acre-feet per year for 1964–2014. The 1964–2014 sedimentation rate was almost 90 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of about 40 percent of the original (1964) conservation (multi-purpose) pool storage capacity. To help maintain storage in the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office has implemented more than two dozen stream bank erosion control projects to reduce the annual sediment load entering the reservoir and initiated a dredging project to restore nearly 2,000 acre-feet of storage near the dam to provide additional water supply to downstream water users. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. Initially, flood waters were held back in the reservoir in order to decrease downstream flooding in Oklahoma. Later, retained reservoir flood waters were released at high rates (up to 25,400 acre-feet per day, the maximum allowed for the reservoir) for extended periods.

  8. Overview of the Mount Tai Experiment (MTX2006 in Central East China in June 2006: studies of significant regional air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an intensive field campaign at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l., Shandong Province, located at the center of Central East China, during the period 28 May to 30 June 2006, to study seasonal maxima of regional air pollution with respect to ozone (O3 and aerosols. The specific objectives, campaign design, and major findings are summarized. High concentrations of O3 and its precursors, and aerosols, were detected and studied in the context of annual variations. Most importantly, we identified that emissions from regional-scale open crop residue burning after the harvesting of winter wheat, together with photochemical aging, strongly increased the concentrations of O3, aerosols, and primary species relevant to air quality in this month of the year. Studies of in-situ photochemical activity, regional source attribution of O3, O3-aerosol interactions, validation of satellite observations of tropospheric NO2, behaviors of volatile organic compounds, organic/inorganic aerosol species, loss rates of black carbon (BC, and instrument inter-comparisons are also summarized. The observed BC levels must have a strong impact on the regional climate.

  9. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  10. Peralkaline- and calc-alkaline-hosted volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield District, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Foley, Nora K.; Slack, John E.; Koenig, Alan E.; Oscarson, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au deposits of the Bonnifield mining district formed during Late Devonian-Early Mississippian magmatism along the western edge of Laurentia. The largest deposits, Dry Creek and WTF, have a combined resource of 5.7 million tonnes at 10% Zn, 4% Pb, 0.3% Cu, 300 grams per tonne (g/t) Ag, and 1.6 g/t Au. These polymetallic deposits are hosted in high field strength element (HFSE)- and rare-earth element (REE)-rich peralkaline (pantelleritic) metarhyolite, and interlayered pyritic argillite and mudstone of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist Formation. Mystic Creek metarhyolite and alkali basalt (Chute Creek Member) constitute a bimodal pair that formed in an extensional environment. A synvolcanic peralkaline quartz porphyry containing veins of fluorite, sphalerite, pyrite, and quartz intrudes the central footwall at Dry Creek. The Anderson Mountain deposit, located ~32 km to the southwest, occurs within calc-alkaline felsic to intermediate-composition metavolcanic rocks and associated graphitic argillite of the Wood River assemblage. Felsic metavolcanic rocks there have only slightly elevated HFSEs and REEs. The association of abundant graphitic and siliceous argillite with the felsic volcanic rocks together with low Cu contents in the Bonnifield deposits suggests classification as a siliciclastic-felsic type of VMS deposit. Bonnifield massive sulfides and host rocks were metamorphosed and deformed under greenschist-facies conditions in the Mesozoic. Primary depositional textures, generally uncommon, consist of framboids, framboidal aggregates, and spongy masses of pyrite. Sphalerite, the predominant base metal sulfide, encloses early pyrite framboids. Galena and chalcopyrite accompanied early pyrite formation but primarily formed late in the paragenetic sequence. Silver-rich tetrahedrite is a minor late phase at the Dry Creek deposit. Gold and Ag are present in low to moderate amounts in pyrite from all of

  11. Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in

  12. Transfer of mercury in the marine food web of West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigét, F; Møller, P; Dietz, R; Nielsen, T G; Asmund, G; Strand, J; Larsen, M M; Hobson, K A

    2007-08-01

    Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) and carbon (delta(13)C) were measured in three invertebrate, five fish, three seabird and three marine mammal species of central West Greenland to investigate trophic transfer of mercury in this Arctic marine food web. The food web magnification factor (FWMF) estimated as the slope of the regression between the natural logarithm of THg or MeHg concentrations (mg kg(-1) dw) and tissue delta(15)N ( per thousand) was estimated to 0.183 (SE = 0.052) for THg and 0.339 (SE = 0.075) for MeHg. The FWMFs were not only comparable with those reported for other Arctic marine food webs but also with quite different food webs such as freshwater lakes in the sub-Arctic, East Africa and Papua New Guinea. This suggests similar mechanisms of mercury assimilation and isotopic (delta(15)N) discrimination among a broad range of aquatic taxa and underlines the possibility of broad ecosystem comparisons using the combined contaminant and stable isotope approach. PMID:17671670

  13. Residence times for surface waters in altered granite area: Example of the 'Furan' water catchment, East French Massif Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The topic of this study is to understand the behaviour of surface waters in a small catchment area (c.a. 3300 ha - altitudes ranging from 550m to 1300m). Six springs located in the southern part of the French Massif Central have been studied for two years. The 'Furan' watershed composed of metric arena overlays in a granitic and gneissic basement. Oxygen and Hydrogen stable isotope ratios were determined routinely. Tritium, carbon isotopes as well as alkalinity were punctually determined. Cations and anions were quantified using ICP-AES and ion chromatography. Further more, to better understand stable isotopes catchment's behavior, three years of daily rainwater sampling provide a well define local meteoric water line (collection at 400m asl). Moreover, two other LMWL were established, at 770m and 1100m to quantify spatial and altitudinal changes. Cations and anions content of springs are enriched regarding precipitation compositions (few mg/L), and the chemical content refers to low temperature reactions. Total dissolved ions range between 30 mg/L and 130 mg/L. Few alkalinity values were measured, from 1 to 7 mg/L as bicarbonate alkalinity, but there is no clear evidence that they match real values, sulphate content being higher. Ionic mass balance, based on pe redox equilibrium, were made using PhreeQC and appears to be good for half of the springs (4+ content might be related to agricultural impact. Inverse modelling suggests interaction with minerals such as kaolinite, chlorite, K-feldspar, underlining reactions between percolating water and altered granites. From rainwater isotopic records, altitudinal variations are too small to modify both slope and D-excess of the LMWL. So the monthly mean of three years record is taken as representative of local rains and leads to δD=7.4δ18O+3.8 (r2=0.96). During the year 2003 occurred a 40% decrease of pluviometry/mean annual pluviometry: high isotopes values recorded for these summer months lead to a

  14. The South Greenland uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of the reconnaissance phase of the SYDURAN Project which was initiated in 1st. December 1978 to outline areas of increased uranium potential where more detailed prospection would be warranted. Districts and smaller zones in South Greenland which have the potential for containing economically exploitable uranium occurrences were defined using airborne gamma-spectroscopic, reconnaissance geochemical and geological methods. Other districts and areas have been shown to have no uranium potential and can be eliminated. The three promising districts are: 1. a 2000 square kilometre sub-circular district surrounding Ilimaussaq complex in which there are small high grade pitchblende occurences in faults and fractures in the surrounding granite. 2. the eastern area of the Motzfeldt Centre where large parts of the centre is mineralised and may give rise to exploitable, large tonnage, low grade uranium ore with associated niobium and rare earth elements in extractable quantities. 3. uraniferous rich districts or zones associated with the migmatitic supracrustal units in the area between Kap Farvel and Lindenows Fjord. The areas which were eliminated from having any uranium potential include: the Ketilidian supracrustal unit. the Nunarssuit alkaline complex. The uranium mineralisation in South Greenland is confined to two Proterozoic episodes: a) a late phase of granitisation and migmatisation with the formation of disseminated uraninite in the Migmatite Complex in the south of the project area between 1700-1800 m.y. and, b) hydrothermal activity associated with Gardar magmatic events between 1090-1170 m.y. in the central Granite Zone. Future work should be directed towards the definition and location of drilling targets. (EG)

  15. Petrology and geochemistry of Cenozoic intra-plate basalts in east-central China: Constraints on recycling of an oceanic slab in the source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Qing; Ma, Chang-Qian; Robinson, Paul T.

    2016-10-01

    Cenozoic mafic rocks in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces, east-central China are chiefly basanites and alkali olivine basalts with subordinate tholeiites, which were erupted in three stages; Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary. The rocks become increasingly alkaline as they become younger. On a primitive mantle-normalized multi-element plot, these lavas exhibit typical OIB-like trace element patterns, including enrichment in most incompatible elements (LILE and HFSE) and negative K and Pb anomalies. The compositions of the mafic rocks indicate that they were derived from a mantle source mainly containing clinopyroxene and garnet, most probably a mixture of pyroxenite/eclogite and peridotite. A mineral equilibrium projection shows that all the mafic magmas were produced at pressures of 3-4 GPa, implying an asthenospheric origin. Their positive Ba and Sr anomalies and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggest derivation from an EM1-type mantle source. However, poor correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd indicate an isotopically heterogeneous source for the magmas, including DMM, EM1 and EM2, representing mantle peridotite, recycled ancient oceanic crust and seafloor sedimentary rocks, respectively. Variable correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios, CaO-MgO contents and Eu/Eu* and Ce/Ce* anomalies with rock type imply that marine sediments (plus variable amounts of oceanic crust) and peridotites were the dominant source lithologies of the basanites, whereas recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite/eclogite) was the main source of the weakly alkaline basalts. This hypothesis is supported by seismic tomographic images of the mantle beneath the region, which show the presence of a stagnant subducted slab in the mantle transition zone. Thus, we propose a petrological model in which a hybrid magma column originated from the mantle transition zone and assimilated some of the overlying peridotite during upwelling, to become the parental magmas of these mafic rocks

  16. Joint Science Education Project: Learning about polar science in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee Reed, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    their states, regions, and countries with one another. A subset of the Field School students continue their polar science exploration by traveling to and experiencing science at the top of the Greenlandic ice sheet, as participants in Arctic Science Education Week. They launched weather balloons, took measurements of reflectivity to learn more about albedo, studied glaciers and ice sheets and created hands-on models to study their flow, shadowed the Summit science technicians on their rounds, practiced taking clean snow samples, examined a back-lit snow pit to observe the differences between seasonal snows and ice formation, and assisted researchers by taking samples from the snow pit for isotope analysis. Lastly, I will share one group multi- and interdisciplinary activity used at JSEP which illustrates how to combine mathematics and science with global studies. As noted in the Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013 initiative: "The challenges facing our planet and our civilization are multidisciplinary and multifaceted, and the mathematical sciences play a central role in the scientific effort to understand and to deal with these challenges." In particular, this group activity uses mathematical modeling and data representation to spark a discussion of civic engagement and to raise awareness that the polar regions are critically important to the global system.

  17. Spatial and temporal oxygen isotope variability in northern Greenland – implications for a new climate record over the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Weißbach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time all 12 δ18O records obtained from ice cores drilled in the framework of the North Greenland Traverse (NGT between 1993 and 1995 in northern Greenland between 74 to 80° N, 36 to 49° W and 2000 to 3200 m a.s.l. The cores cover an area of 680 km × 317 km, ~200 000 km2 or 10 % of the area of Greenland. Depending on core length (100–175 m and accumulation rate (90–200 kg m−2 a−1 the records reflect an isotope-temperature history over the last 500–1100 years. The δ18O signal in northern Greenland is influenced by temperature, accumulation and the topography of the North Greenland ice sheet between 72 and 80° N. About 12 % of the variability can be attributed to the position of the single drill sites in relation to the ice sheet topography. Lowest δ18O mean values occur north of summit and east of the main divide. In general, ice cores drilled on the main ice divide show different results than those drilled east of the main ice divide that might be influenced by secondary regional moisture sources. A stack of all 12 NGT records and the NGRIP record is presented with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This stack represents the mean δ18O signal for northern Greenland that is interpreted as proxy for temperature. Our northern Greenland δ18O stack indicates isotopically enriched periods compared to their average during medieval times, about 1420 ± 20 AD and from 1870 AD onwards. The period between 1420 AD and 1850 AD was isotopically depleted compared to the average for the entire millennium and represents the Little Ice Age. The 20th century has isotopic values higher than the 1000 years mean and is comparable to the medieval period but lower than about 1420 AD.

  18. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F Viergever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for

  19. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. PMID:27298428

  20. Rates and regimes of photochemical ozone production over Central East China in June 2006: a box model analysis using comprehensive measurements of ozone precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An observation-based box model approach was undertaken to estimate concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals and the net photochemical production rate of ozone at the top of Mount Tai, located in the middle of Central East China, in June 2006. The model calculation was constrained by the measurements of O3, H2O, CO, NO, NO2, hydrocarbon, HCHO, and CH3CHO concentrations, and temperature and J values. The net production rate of ozone was estimated to be 6.4 ppb h−1 as a 6-h average (09:00–15:00 CST, suggesting 58±37 ppb of ozone is produced in one day. Thus the daytime buildup of ozone recorded at the mountain top as ~23 ppb on average is likely affected by in situ photochemistry as well as by the upward transport of polluted air mass in the daytime. On days with high ozone concentrations (hourly values exceeding 100 ppb at least once, in situ photochemistry was more active than it was on low ozone days, suggesting that in situ photochemistry is an important factor controlling ozone concentrations. Sensitivity model runs for which different NOx and hydrocarbon concentrations were assumed suggested that the ozone production occurred normally under NOx-limited conditions, with some exceptional periods (under volatile-organic-compound-limited conditions in which there was fresh pollution. We also examined the possible influence of the heterogeneous loss of gaseous HO2 radicals in contact with aerosol particle surfaces on the rate and regimes of ozone production.

  1. Glacial flutings in bedrock, an observation in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1978-01-01

    Large scale glacial flutings cover an area of 4 x 1.5 km on the northern shore of Harefjord in the interior Scoresby Sund fjord complex. The flutings are modelled in coarse sandstone and conglomerates, a few small features are probably composed of till. The ridges measure up to' 2000 m in length...... and 5 m in height and occur between 50 and 250 m above sea level inthe gently sloping lowland area adjacent to the fjord. They were probably formed beneath the lateral part of the former Harefjord-Glacier which receded rapidly in the fjord and exposed the area at c. 7500 years BP. Large scale glacial...

  2. Rethinking bilingualism : a sociolinguistic analysis of language planning and education legislation in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ivalu Søvndahl

    2009-01-01

    Many indigenous peoples’ languages in the world are endangered. But the special case in Greenland is the fact that Greenlandic is not an endangered language, even though less than 56,000 people speak Greenlandic. In fact, Greenlandic is spreading in Greenlandic society. The challenge in Greenland is rather how to educate Greenlanders to become functionally bilingual in Greenlandic and Danish, considering the vast varieties of bilingual skills that exist. Greenland has been a Danish colon...

  3. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert;

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eid...

  4. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen;

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial...

  5. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health resea...

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1978 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Tritium was determined in samples of drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1978. (author)

  7. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  8. The Greenlandic Economy – Structure and Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    Greenland is a vast country with a small and geographically dispersed population. These conditioning factors pose a particular challenge for a natural resource-based economy. Greenland is thus in many respects unique and yet has to find a way to ensure a self-sustaining economy. This requires an ...

  9. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  10. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  11. Studying health in Greenland: Obligations and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions...... in Denmark and Greenland have conducted health research in Greenland for many years in cooperation with, among others, researchers in Canada and Alaska. National and international cooperation is supported by the Danish/Greenlandic Society for Circumpolar Health, the International Union for Circumpolar Health...

  12. Active predation by Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julius; hedeholm, Rasmus; Simon, Malene;

    2013-01-01

    Dansk Havforskermøde 2013 Julius Nielsen, Rasmus Hedeholm, Malene Simon og John Fleng Steffensen The Greenland shark is ubiquitous in the northern part of the North Atlantic ranging from eastern Canada to northwest Russia . Although knowledge is scarce it is believed to be abundant and potentially...... important part of the ecosystem. Whether Greenland sharks in general should be considered opportunistic scavengers or active predators is therefore important in understanding ecosystem dynamics. Due to its sluggish appearance and a maximum reported swimming speed of 74 cm per second scavenging seems...... the most likely feeding strategy. However, recent studies suggest that Greenland sharks in some areas feed actively upon seals . Feeding ecology is poorly described in Greenland waters. In this study we provide information on feeding habits of 29 sharks caught in Greenland waters in the summer 2012...

  13. Constructing a centre on the periphery: urbanization and urban design in the island city of Nuuk, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both islands and cities are often conceptualized in terms of centre-periphery relationships. Scholarly attempts to nuance popular associations of islands with peripherality and cities with centrality reflect awareness of underlying power relationships. Drawing upon island studies and urban studies knowledge, the case of Nuuk, Greenland, is used to explore how centring and peripheralizing processes play out in an island city. Greenland as a whole came to be regarded as a peripheral region under Danish colonialism, but since the 1950s, Danes and Greenlanders have sought to transform Greenland into its own centre. Nuuk grew into a city and a political, administrative and economic centre relative to Greenland’s small settlements, which came to be seen as central to Greenlandic culture. Nuuk’s rapid growth – dependent on imported Danish designs, materials, technologies, policies and labour – has resulted in an island city of immense contrasts, with monumental modern buildings standing alongside dilapidated 1960s apartment blocks and with strongly differentiated neighbourhoods. Nuuk is both at the centre and on the periphery, enmeshed in power relationships with other Greenlandic settlements and with Denmark. Nuuk is a result of urban design processes that are conditioned by both infrastructural systems and a confluence of spatio-temporal factors.

  14. Reconstructing the last interglacial at Summit, Greenland: Insights from GISP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Audrey M; Bender, Michael L; Robinson, Alexander; Brook, Edward J

    2016-08-30

    The Eemian (last interglacial, 130-115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3-5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ(18)O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores. The δ(18)Oice, δ(15)N of N2, and total air content for samples dating discontinuously from 128 to 115 ka indicate a warming of ∼6 °C between 127-121 ka, and a similar elevation history between GISP2 and NEEM. The reconstructed climate and elevation histories are compared with an ensemble of coupled climate-ice-sheet model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet. Those most consistent with the reconstructed temperatures indicate that the Greenland ice sheet contributed 5.1 m (4.1-6.2 m, 95% credible interval) to global eustatic sea level toward the end of the Eemian. Greenland likely did not contribute to anomalously high sea levels at ∼127 ka, or to a rapid jump in sea level at ∼120 ka. However, several unexplained discrepancies remain between the inferred and simulated histories of temperature and accumulation rate at GISP2 and NEEM, as well as between the climatic reconstructions themselves. PMID:27528680

  15. Reconstructing the last interglacial at Summit, Greenland: Insights from GISP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Audrey M.; Bender, Michael L.; Robinson, Alexander; Brook, Edward J.

    2016-08-01

    The Eemian (last interglacial, 130-115 ka) was likely the warmest of all interglacials of the last 800 ka, with summer Arctic temperatures 3-5 °C above present. Here, we present improved Eemian climate records from central Greenland, reconstructed from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core. Our record comes from clean, stratigraphically disturbed, and isotopically warm ice from 2,750 to 3,040 m depth. The age of this ice is constrained by measuring CH4 and δ18O of O2, and comparing with the historical record of these properties from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) and North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice cores. The δ18Oice, δ15N of N2, and total air content for samples dating discontinuously from 128 to 115 ka indicate a warming of ˜6 °C between 127-121 ka, and a similar elevation history between GISP2 and NEEM. The reconstructed climate and elevation histories are compared with an ensemble of coupled climate-ice-sheet model simulations of the Greenland ice sheet. Those most consistent with the reconstructed temperatures indicate that the Greenland ice sheet contributed 5.1 m (4.1-6.2 m, 95% credible interval) to global eustatic sea level toward the end of the Eemian. Greenland likely did not contribute to anomalously high sea levels at ˜127 ka, or to a rapid jump in sea level at ˜120 ka. However, several unexplained discrepancies remain between the inferred and simulated histories of temperature and accumulation rate at GISP2 and NEEM, as well as between the climatic reconstructions themselves.

  16. Greenland temperature response to climate forcing during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizert, C.; Gkinis, V.; Severinghaus, J. P.; He, F.; Lecavalier, B.; Kindler, P.; Leuenberger, M.; Carlson, A. E.; Vinther, B.; White, J. W.; Liu, Z.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Brook, E.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the regional and global climate variability during the last glacial termination (19-11 ka BP) can be explained as the superposition of two distinct modes (1, 2); a spatially uniform increase in global temperature correlated with greenhouse gas forcing, and a redistribution of heat associated with variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength. The latter mode is expressed most clearly in the abrupt climate shifts recorded in the precipitation isotopic composition (δ18O) of Greenland ice cores, which are now widely used as a template for abrupt change in the northern hemisphere. Greenland δ18O is influenced by many factors, including source temperature, moisture transport and origin, and precipitation seasonality, complicating reconstruction of past temperatures. Here we use three non-δ18O temperature reconstructions from three ice cores and a general circulation model (GCM) to elucidate the (often abrupt) Greenland surface temperature response to external (insolation) and internal (CO2, AMOC, ice topography) climate forcings during the last termination. Our reconstructions are based on δ15N (NEEM, GISP2) and water isotope diffusion (NGRIP), both of which depend on physical processes in the firn column. The GCM and our reconstructions show excellent agreement on several key features. First, we find that the Younger Dryas (YD) period was 4-6oC warmer than the Oldest Dryas (OD) period in response to increased summer insolation and CO2 forcing. By contrast, δ18O-based reconstrucions from Greenland summit suggest the YD to be the colder of the two periods. Our finding is consistent with non-ice core NH proxy reconstructions, as well as with East Greenland deglacial moraine sequences that suggest only a modest glacial re-advance during the YD. Second, the YD-OD temperature difference shows a polar amplification signal, with warming being greatest at the northernmost NEEM site. By isolating different forcings in the GCM, we

  17. Ocean surface conditions on the SE Greenland shelf during the last millennium - from abrupt changes to centennial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Arto; Divine, Dmitry; Husum, Katrine; Koç, Nalan; Jennings, Anne

    2016-04-01

    possible. The regional influence of the Greenland ice sheet can be prominent in specific conditions, as seen during the early MCA. Because these oceanic changes can have a global impact through their potential influence on the AMOC, this highlights the importance of Greenland ice sheet and the neighboring ocean with its major surface current, the East Greenland Current, under the present warming conditions.

  18. Holocene climate change in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Jason P.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Axford, Yarrow; Bennike, Ole; Bradley, Raymond S.; de Vernal, Anne; Fisher, David; Francus, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Gajewski, Konrad; Jennings, Anne; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford; Rouston, Cody; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    This synthesis paper summarizes published proxy climate evidence showing the spatial and temporal pattern of climate change through the Holocene in Arctic Canada and Greenland. Our synthesis includes 47 records from a recently published database of highly resolved Holocene paleoclimate time series from the Arctic (Sundqvist et al., 2014). We analyze the temperature histories represented by the database and compare them with paleoclimate and environmental information from 54 additional published records, mostly from datasets that did not fit the selection criteria for the Arctic Holocene database. Combined, we review evidence from a variety of proxy archives including glaciers (ice cores and glacial geomorphology), lake sediments, peat sequences, and coastal and deep-marine sediments. The temperature-sensitive records indicate more consistent and earlier Holocene warmth in the north and east, and a more diffuse and later Holocene thermal maximum in the south and west. Principal components analysis reveals two dominant Holocene trends, one with early Holocene warmth followed by cooling in the middle Holocene, the other with a broader period of warmth in the middle Holocene followed by cooling in the late Holocene. The temperature decrease from the warmest to the coolest portions of the Holocene is 3.0 ± 1.0 °C on average (n = 11 sites). The Greenland Ice Sheet retracted to its minimum extent between 5 and 3 ka, consistent with many sites from around Greenland depicting a switch from warm to cool conditions around that time. The spatial pattern of temperature change through the Holocene was likely driven by the decrease in northern latitude summer insolation through the Holocene, the varied influence of waning ice sheets in the early Holocene, and the variable influx of Atlantic Water into the study region.

  19. Timing of the Little Ice Age in southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Vinther, Bo; Andresen, Camilla S.; Long, Antony J.; Woodroffe, Sarah A.; Steen Hansen, Eric; Olsen, Jesper

    2013-04-01

    Northern hemisphere temperatures reached their Holocene minimum and most glaciers reached their maximum during The Little Ice Age (LIA), but the timing of specific cold intervals is site-specific. In southern Greenland, we have compiled data from organic matter incorporated in LIA sediments, used as a signal for ice-free terrain being overridden by LIA glacier advances, and data from threshold lakes showing the onset of glacier-fed lakes, thus revealing the advance-maximum phase initiating the LIA. Finally, we have compiled lichenometry results indicating the onset of bedrock vegetation succeeding ice retreat. Our results show that the advance of glaciers during the LIA occurs early after the Medieval Warm Period terminating soon after 1200 AD and culminates c. 1500-1600 AD. Historical maps also show that many glaciers on the western coast occupy a still-stand near the LIA maximum until 1900 AD before retreat commence. Thus in southern Greenland, we define LIA as the period between the first signs of Late Holocene glacier readvance and the latest onset of retreat - i.e. from ca. 1200 to c. 1900. During this period northern hemisphere annual mean temperatures, although fluctuating, were generally below the 1961-1990 average, with the coldest interval between c. 1600 and 1800. Even though winter temperatures may have dominated the cooling, also the summer temperatures which are most closely correlated with glacier mass balances, dropped, to c. 0.6° below the average in the northern hemisphere including the Arctic. Furthermore, the glacier response seems to be mirrored by a oceanic cooling between 500-1000 AD, followed by onset of the LIA at 1150-1250 AD as seen in the relative strength of warm subsurface water and the influence of the East Greenland Current.

  20. Greenland mass balance from GRACE

    OpenAIRE

    Velicogna, I.; Wahr, J.

    2005-01-01

    We use 22 monthly GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) gravity fields to estimate the linear trend in Greenland ice mass during 2002-2004. We recover a decrease in total ice mass of 82 ± 28 km3 of ice per year, consistent with estimates from other techniques. Our uncertainty estimate is dominated by the effects of GRACE measurement errors and errors in our post glacial rebound (PG) correction. The main advantages of GRACE are that it is sensitive to the entire ice sheet, and that i...

  1. The Greenland Ice Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joughin, I.; Smith, B.; Howat, I. M.; Moon, T. A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous glaciers in Greenland have sped up rapidly and unpredictably during the first part of the 21st Century. We started the Greenland Ice Mapping Project (GIMP) to produce time series of ice velocity for Greenland's major outlet glaciers. We are also producing image time series to document the advance and retreat of glacier calving fronts and other changes in ice-sheet geometry (e.g., shrinking ice caps and ice shelves). When the project began, there was no digital elevation model (DEM) with sufficient accuracy and resolution to terrain-correct the SAR-derived products. Thus, we also produced the 30-m GIMP DEM, which, aside from improving our processing, is an important product in its own right. Although GIMP focuses on time series, complete spatial coverage for initializing ice sheet models also is important. There are insufficient data, however, to map the full ice sheet in any year. There is good RADARSAT coverage for many years in the north, but the C-band data decorrelate too quickly to measure velocity in the high accumulation regions of the southeast. For such regions, ALOS data usually correlate well, but speckle-tracking estimates at L-band are subject to large ionospheric artifacts. Interferometric phase data are far less sensitive to the effect of the ionosphere, but velocity estimates require results from crossing orbits. Thus, to produce a nearly complete mosaic we used data from multiple sensors, beginning with ERS-1/2 data from the mid 1990s. By using a primarily phase-only solution for much of the interior, we have reduced the velocity errors to ~1-3 m/yr. For the faster moving ice-sheet margin where phase data cannot be unwrapped, we used speckle-tracking data. In particular, we have relied on TerraSAR-X for many fast-moving glaciers because the ionosphere far less affects X-band data. This pan-Greenland velocity map as well as many of the time series would not have been possible without an extensive archive of data collected using six

  2. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  3. Phenology and reproductive traits of peaches and nectarines in Central-East Argentina Fenologia e comportamento reprodutivo de pêssego no centro-leste da Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Francisco Gariglio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Santa Fe, the central-east area of Argentina, the expansion of fruit tree crops requires the introduction and evaluation of low chilling varieties. The aims of this study was to characterize the phenological behaviour and the reproductive traits of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch and nectarine varieties with chilling requirements ranging from 150 to 650 chilling hours (CH. Low chilling varieties (500 CH. The phenology of high chilling requirement varieties had the advantage that blooming and fruit set happened after the period of late frost occurrence. However, they did not satisfy their chilling requirement, showing an inadequate vegetative and reproductive behaviour. Low chilling varieties began to sprout during July, and the period of full bloom occurred from July 14th to August 4th. Fruit harvest was initiated on October 19th with the cv. 'Flordastar' and it extended for 58 days. However, on low chilling varieties the harvest time was reduced in ten days. Flower density, fruit set and fruit yield showed a negative relationship with the chilling requirement of the variety.Na região centro-leste do estado de Santa Fé, Argentina, para a expansão dos frutais é preciso introduzir variedades de baixo requerimento de frio. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o comportamento durante as fases de crescimento e frutificação de variedades de pêssego (Prunus persica L. Batsch e nectarina com requerimentos de frio que variam entre 150-650 horas de frio (CH. As variedades de pêssego de baixa necessidade de frio (500 CH. As variedades de maior necessidade de frio tiveram a vantagem da floração, e o estabelecimento dos frutos aconteceu depois do período de risco de geadas. Porém, essas variedades não têm satisfeita sua necessidade de frio, apresentando comportamento vegetativo e reprodutivo inadequado. As variedades de baixa necessidade de frio brotaram entre 4 a 31 de julho e o período de plena floração aconteceu entre 14 de julho a

  4. Climate reconstruction for the last two millennia in central Iberia: The role of East Atlantic (EA), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their interplay over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, G.; Hernández, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Trigo, R. M.; Toro, M.; Granados, I.; Sáez, A.; Masqué, P.; Pueyo, J. J.; Rubio-Inglés, M. J.; Giralt, S.

    2016-10-01

    A multi-proxy characterization of the uppermost sedimentary infill of an Iberian alpine lake (Cimera, 2140 m a.s.l.) was performed to establish the climatic and environmental conditions for the Iberian Central Range (ICR) over the last two millennia. This multi-proxy characterization was used to reconstruct the intense runoff events, lake productivity and soil erosion in the lake catchment and interpret these factors in terms of temperature and precipitation variability. The Roman Period (RP; 200 BCE - 500 CE) beginning was characterized by an alternation between cold and warm periods as indicated by short-lived oscillations of intense runoff conditions and soil erosion, although warm conditions dominated the end of the period and the Early Middle Age (EMA; 500-900 CE) onset in the ICR. A noticeable decrease in intense runoff events and a progressive decrease in soil erosion during the late EMA indicated a shift to colder temperatures. In terms of precipitation, both the RP and EMA climate periods displayed a transition from dry to wet conditions that led to a decrease in lake productivity. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900-1300 CE) was characterized by warm and dry conditions with frequent intense runoff episodes and increases in lake productivity and soil erosion, whereas the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1300-1850 CE) showed the opposite characteristics. The Industrial Era (1850-2012 CE) presented an increase in lake productivity that likely demonstrates the influence of global warming. The spatio-temporal integration of the Cimera record with other Iberian reconstructions has been used to identify the main climate drivers over this region. During the RP and EMA, N-S and E-W humidity gradients were dominant, whereas during the MCA and LIA, these gradients were not evident. These differences could be ascribed to interactions between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic (EA) phases. During the RP, the general warm conditions and the E-W humidity

  5. Arboreal forage lichen response to partial cutting of high elevation mountain caribou range in the Quesnel Higland of east-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela J. Waterhouse

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Group selection silvicultural systems have been recommended for managing mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat in high elevation Engelmann spruce – subalpine fir forests in east-central British Columbia. We measured the response of arboreal lichen (a key winter forage to harvesting of 30% of the forested area using three partial cutting treatments, which created small (0.03 ha, medium (0.13 ha, and large (1.0 ha openings, and a no-harvest treatment. Treatments were replicated on four sites, and monitored over a ten year post-harvest period. The short-term loss of lichen associated with removal of approximately one third of the trees was partially offset by a significant (P=0.01 increase in lichen abundance on trees in the caribou feeding zone (up to 4.5 m in the three partial cutting treatments relative to trees in the uncut forest. Differences among treatments in the change in lichen composition, as measured by the percentage of Alectoria sarmentosa and Bryoria spp., were marginally significant (P=0.10. The partial cutting treatments showing a greater likelihood of shifting towards more Bryoria spp. than no-harvest treatment (P=0.04. In the year of harvest (1993, larger trees were found to hold more lichen than smaller trees (P=0.04, and live trees supported more lichen than dead trees (P=0.01, but lichen loading was similar among tree species (P=0.51. Tree fall rates were similar among treatments, based on the ten year average (0.6–0.8% of sample trees per year. The results indicate that caribou foraging habitat is maintained in the residual forest when group selection systems that remove only 30% of the trees are applied. Information on the distribution of lichen is useful for developing stand level prescriptions. Providing lichen bearing habitat meets just one of the needs of caribou. A comprehensive approach that considers all factors and their interactions is essential to maintain and recover the threatened mountain

  6. Global Warming and the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, P. [Space and Remote Sensing Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop D436, Los Alamos, NM 87545, and Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Box, J.E. [Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lesins, G. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Greenland coastal temperatures have followed the early 20th century global warming trend. Since 1940, however, the Greenland coastal stations data have undergone predominantly a cooling trend. At the summit of the Greenland ice sheet the summer average temperature has decreased at the rate of 2.2C per decade since the beginning of the measurements in 1987. This suggests that the Greenland ice sheet and coastal regions are not following the current global warming trend. A considerable and rapid warming over all of coastal Greenland occurred in the 1920s when the average annual surface air temperature rose between 2 and 4C in less than ten years (at some stations the increase in winter temperature was as high as 6C). This rapid warming, at a time when the change in anthropogenic production of greenhouse gases was well below the current level, suggests a high natural variability in the regional climate. High anti correlations (r = -0.84 to -0.93) between the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) index and Greenland temperature time series suggest a physical connection between these processes. Therefore, the future changes in the NAO and Northern Annular Mode may be of critical consequence to the future temperature forcing of the Greenland ice sheet melt rates.

  7. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  8. Bowhead whale springtime song off West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Moore, Sue E; Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, M P

    2008-11-01

    Three songs were recorded from bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Disko Bay, West Greenland, during 59 h of recordings via sonobuoys deployed on seven days between 5 and 14 April 2007. Song elements were defined by units following the protocol of previous description of bowhead whale song. The two most prominent songs were loud, complex, and repeated in long bouts on multiple recording days while the third song was much simpler and recorded on only one day. Bowhead whale simple calls and faint song elements were also recorded using digital audio tape recorders and a dipping hydrophone deployed from the sea ice approximately 100-150 km southwest of Disko Bay on three separate days suggesting that song is also produced in the central portion of Baffin Bay in winter. Songs recorded in Disko Bay are from an area where approximately 85% of the whales have been determined to be adult females. Although it is not known which sex was singing, we speculate that, as in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), male bowhead whales may sing to mediate sexual competition or mate selection behaviors. This is the first detailed description of springtime songs for bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic. PMID:19045814

  9. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Elevation at Summit, Greenland: 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, E.; Hawley, R. L.; Herring, T.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying surface elevation change is essential for ice sheet mass balance estimates. We assessed surface elevation and elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet at a range of spatial scales using six years of monthly GPS surveys conducted near Summit between 8/2007 and 3/2013. The ~11 km route consists of 15 transects that run parallel and orthogonal to IceSat's groundtrack 412 and includes 121 repeat locations spatially distributed along the route (Figure 1). Horizontal velocities and velocity gradients derived from base station and transect positions agree closely with previous studies. At the survey scale, no significant linear elevation trend is evident over the study period. However, local- and transect-scale time series revealed significant elevation increases of 1--2 cm per year in the central and southern regions of the survey that spatially and temporally may correlate with wind transport events from Summit station. This finding illustrates how sample scale (e.g., density, location and extent) affects surface elevation estimates critical to remote sensing validation and mass balance estimation. Spectral time series analysis showed that the expected annual elevation cycle was dwarfed by a two-year periodicity that dominated nearly all time series. The elevation maximum of Winter 2012-2013 fell short of the expected elevation peak, possibly due to accelerated compaction forced by high temperatures in the preceding Summer of 2012. We also highlight spatial comparisons with elevation products from three NASA altimeters, including the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS), and the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experiment Lidar (MABEL). This unique long-term GPS dataset is valuable for assessing ice sheet elevation change at a range of spatial-temporal scales, and for validating remote sensing products. With continued effort this survey will provide invaluable ground-based observations linking ICESat, IceBridge and ICESat

  10. Atlantic water variability on the SE Greenland continental shelf and its relationship to SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Straneo, F.; Rosing-Asvid, A.; Stenson, G.; Davidson, F. J.; Hammill, M.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of warm, Atlantic-origin water (AW) and colder, polar origin water (PW) advecting southward in the East Greenland Current (EGC) influences the heat content of water entering Greenland's outlet glacial fjords. Here we use depth and temperature data derived from deep-diving seals to map out water mass variability across the continental shelf and to augment existing bathymetric products. We find two dominant modes in the vertical temperature structure: a cold mode, with the typical AW/PW layering observed in the EGC, and a warm mode, where AW is present throughout the water column. The prevalence of these modes varies seasonally and spatially across the continental shelf, implying distinct AW pathways. In addition, we find that satellite sea surface temperatures (SST) correlate significantly with temperatures in the upper 50 m (R=0.54), but this correlation decreases with depth (R=0.22 at 200 m), and becomes insignificant below 250 m. Thus, care must be taken in using SST as a proxy for heat content, as AW mainly resides in these deeper layers. Regional map showing the location of all seal tracks originating from Canada and Greenland (stars). Tracks passing inside (red) or outside (blue) the SE Greenland region (black) were subdivided into continental shelf regions (green boxes) near Sermilik Fjord (SF), Cape Farewell (CF) and Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord (KG). GEBCO bathymetry is contoured at 200, 1000, 2000, and 3000 m.

  11. Oceanic Transport of Surface Meltwater from the Southern Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Castelao, Renato M.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Bracco, Annalisa; Yager, Patricia L.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has undergone accelerating mass losses during recent decades. Freshwater runoff from ice melt can influence fjord circulation and dynamic1 and the delivery of bioavailable micronutrients to the ocean. It can also have climate implications, because stratification in the adjacent Labrador Sea may influence deep convection and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Yet, the fate of the meltwater in the ocean remains unclear. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that only 1-15% of the surface meltwater runoff originating from southwest Greenland is transported westwards. In contrast, up to 50-60% of the meltwater runoff originating from southeast Greenland is transported westwards into the northern Labrador Sea, leading to significant salinity and stratification anomalies far from the coast. Doubling meltwater runoff, as predicted in future climate scenarios, results in a more-than-double increase in anomalies offshore that persists further into the winter. Interannual variability in offshore export of meltwater is tightly related to variability in wind forcing. The new insight that meltwaters originating from the west and east coasts have different fates indicates that future changes in mass loss rates and surface runoff will probably impact the ocean differently, depending on their Greenland origins.

  12. Oceanic transport of surface meltwater from the southern Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Castelao, Renato M.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Bracco, Annalisa; Yager, Patricia L.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-07-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has undergone accelerating mass losses during recent decades. Freshwater runoff from ice melt can influence fjord circulation and dynamics and the delivery of bioavailable micronutrients to the ocean. It can also have climate implications, because stratification in the adjacent Labrador Sea may influence deep convection and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Yet, the fate of the meltwater in the ocean remains unclear. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that only 1-15% of the surface meltwater runoff originating from southwest Greenland is transported westwards. In contrast, up to 50-60% of the meltwater runoff originating from southeast Greenland is transported westwards into the northern Labrador Sea, leading to significant salinity and stratification anomalies far from the coast. Doubling meltwater runoff, as predicted in future climate scenarios, results in a more-than-double increase in anomalies offshore that persists further into the winter. Interannual variability in offshore export of meltwater is tightly related to variability in wind forcing. The new insight that meltwaters originating from the west and east coasts have different fates indicates that future changes in mass loss rates and surface runoff will probably impact the ocean differently, depending on their Greenland origins.

  13. Homicide in Greenland 1985-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin R; Thomsen, Asser H; Høyer, Christian B;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Homicide in Greenland has not often been investigated. The latest published study documented a dramatic rise in the homicide rate from around 1/100,000 inhabitants to more than 23/100,000 inhabitants from 1946 to 1984. The aim of our study was to characterize homicides in Greenland from...... dominated homicide methods (41 and 29 % respectively), with sharp force deaths increasing throughout the investigation period. Altercations were the main motive (49 %). Alcohol-related homicides decreased in our study period. CONCLUSIONS: While the Greenlandic homicide rate has decreased, it is markedly...

  14. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions. Study design. Cross-sectional population survey. Methods. A total of 2,247 Inuit aged 18+ from 15 towns and villages in West Greenland (25% of all communities) were interviewed about their diet as part of a general health survey. A 67-i...

  15. Precise dating of East-Asian-Monsoon D/O events during 95―56 ka BP: Based on stalagmite data from Shanbao Cave at Shennongjia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ZhiFeng; KONG XingGong; JIANG XiuYang; CHENG Hai

    2007-01-01

    Based on 23 U/Th analyses and 532 oxygen isotopic data, an averaged 80-a stalagmite oxygen isotopic composition series was established through 95 to 56 thousand years before present (ka BP) from two speleothems in Shanbao Cave, Shennongjia, central China. Shanbao Cave record (referred to as SB record) replicates well with Hulu Cave record, extending the characteristics of millennial oscillations in East-Asian-Summer-Monsoon (EASM) to the past 95 ka. The trend of the SB record generally follows mid-July solar insolation at 65°N, suggesting that mid-high northern latitude insolation, in the first order, controls changes of EASM intensity. Millennial oscillations of EASM recorded in the stalagmites are well related to the Greenland interstadials referred to as Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events from 1 to 22, indicating that rapid ocean-atmosphere reorganization in North Atlantic has a remote effect in EASM. The well-dated D/O events by stalagmites probably provide an absolute calibration for chronologies of Greenland ice cores. The timings of D/O events in the SB record are different variously from those in Greenland ice cores. For D/O 19 and 20, the age offsets between the stalagmites' and the Greenland ice cores' record are significant, larger than the uncertainties of uranium-series dating. The two events in the SB record are younger than those in North GRIP time scale by 1―2 ka, and older than the counterparts in GISP2 by approximately 3―4 ka. A comparison between the SB and Brazil stalagmite record shows an anti-phase relation in millennial-scale monsoon precipitation between the two localities. This supports a mode for the coupled ocean-atmosphere "See-saw".

  16. Precise dating of East-Asian-Monsoon D/O events during 95―56 ka BP: Based on stalagmite data from Shanbao Cave at Shennongjia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on 23 U/Th analyses and 532 oxygen isotopic data, an averaged 80-a stalagmite oxygen isotopic composition series was established through 95 to 56 thousand years before present (ka BP) from two speleothems in Shanbao Cave, Shennongjia, central China. Shanbao Cave record (referred to as SB record) replicates well with Hulu Cave record, extending the characteristics of millennial oscillations in East-Asian-Summer-Monsoon (EASM) to the past 95 ka. The trend of the SB record generally follows mid-July solar insolation at 65°N, suggesting that mid-high northern latitude insolation, in the first or- der, controls changes of EASM intensity. Millennial oscillations of EASM recorded in the stalagmites are well related to the Greenland interstadials referred to as Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events from 1 to 22, indicating that rapid ocean-atmosphere reorganization in North Atlantic has a remote effect in EASM. The well-dated D/O events by stalagmites probably provide an absolute calibration for chro- nologies of Greenland ice cores. The timings of D/O events in the SB record are different variously from those in Greenland ice cores. For D/O 19 and 20, the age offsets between the stalagmites’ and the Greenland ice cores’ record are significant, larger than the uncertainties of uranium-series dating. The two events in the SB record are younger than those in North GRIP time scale by 1―2 ka, and older than the counterparts in GISP2 by approximately 3―4 ka. A comparison between the SB and Brazil stalag- mite record shows an anti-phase relation in millennial-scale monsoon precipitation between the two localities. This supports a mode for the coupled ocean-atmosphere "See-saw".

  17. Analyses of Water-Level Differentials and Variations in Recharge between the Surficial and Upper Floridan Aquifers in East-Central and Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louis C.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous (daily) water-level data collected at 29 monitoring-well cluster sites were analyzed to document variations in recharge between the surficial (SAS) and Floridan (FAS) aquifer systems in east-central and northeast Florida. According to Darcy's law, changes in the water-level differentials (differentials) between these systems are proportional to changes in the vertical flux of water between them. Variations in FAS recharge rates are of interest to water-resource managers because changes in these rates affect sensitive water resources subject to minimum flow and water-level restrictions, such as the amount of water discharged from springs and changes in lake and wetland water levels. Mean daily differentials between 2000-2004 ranged from less than 1 foot at a site in east-central Florida to more than 114 feet at a site in northeast Florida. Sites with greater mean differentials exhibited lower percentage-based ranges in fluctuations than did sites with lower mean differentials. When averaged for all sites, differentials (and thus Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) recharge rates) decreased by about 18 percent per site between 2000-2004. This pattern can be associated with reductions in ground-water withdrawals from the UFA that occurred after 2000 as the peninsula emerged from a 3-year drought. Monthly differentials exhibited a well-defined seasonal pattern in which UFA recharge rates were greatest during the dry spring months (8 percent above the 5-year daily mean in May) and least during the wetter summer/early fall months (4 percent below the 5-year daily mean in October). In contrast, differentials exceeded the 5-year daily mean in all but 2 months of 2000, indicative of relatively high ground-water withdrawals throughout the year. On average, the UFA received about 6 percent more recharge at the project sites in 2000 than between 2000-2004. No statistically significant correlations were detected between monthly differentials and precipitation at 27 of the

  18. Airborne ICESat-2 simulator (MABEL) results from Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, T.; Markus, T.; Brunt, K. M.; Walsh, K.; Hancock, D.; Cook, W. B.; Brenner, A. C.; Csatho, B. M.; De Marco, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is a next-generation laser altimeter designed to continue key observations of sea ice freeboard, ice sheet elevation change, vegetation canopy height, earth surface elevation and sea surface heights. Scheduled for launch in mid-2016, ICESat-2 will collect data between 88 degrees north and south using a high-repetition rate (10 kHz) laser operating at 532nm, and using a photon-counting detection strategy. Our airborne simulator, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL) uses a similar photon-counting measurement strategy, operates at 532nm (16 beams) and 1064 nm (8 beams) to collect similar data to what we expect for ICESat-2. The comparison between frequencies allows for studies of possible penetration of green light into water or snow. MABEL collects more spatially-dense data than ICESat-2 (2cm along-track vs. 70 cm along track for ICESat-2, and has a smaller footprint than ICESat-2 (2m nominal diameter vs. 10m nominal diameter for ICESat-2) requiring geometric and radiometric scaling to relate MABEL data to simulate ICESat-2 data. We based MABEL out of Keflavik, Iceland during April 2012, and collected ~ 100 hours of data from 20km altitude over a variety of targets. MABEL collected sea ice data over the Nares Strait, and off the east coast of Greenland, the later flight in coordination with NASA's Operation IceBridge, which collected ATM data along the same track within 90 minutes of MABEL data collection. MABEL flew a variety of lines over Greenland in the southwest, Jakobshavn region, and over the ice sheet interior, including 4 hours of coincident data with Operation IceBridge in southwest Greenland. MABEL flew a number of calibration sites, including corner cubes in Svalbard, Summit Station (where a GPS survey of the surface elevation was collected within an hour of our overflight), and well-surveyed targets in Iceland and western Greenland. In this presentation, we present an overview of

  19. Spatial and temporal oxygen isotope variability in northern Greenland - implications for a new climate record over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißbach, S.; Wegner, A.; Opel, T.; Oerter, H.; Vinther, B. M.; Kipfstuhl, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present for the first time all 12 δ18O records obtained from ice cores drilled in the framework of the North Greenland Traverse (NGT) between 1993 and 1995 in northern Greenland. The cores cover an area of 680 km × 317 km, 10 % of the Greenland ice sheet. Depending on core length (100-175 m) and accumulation rate (90-200 kg m-2 a-1) the single records reflect an isotope-temperature history over the last 500-1100 years. Lowest δ18O mean values occur north of the summit and east of the main divide as a consequence of Greenland's topography. In general, ice cores drilled on the main ice divide show different results than those drilled east of the main ice divide that might be influenced by secondary regional moisture sources. A stack of all NGT records and the NGRIP record is presented with improved signal-to-noise ratio. Compared to single records, this stack represents the mean δ18O signal for northern Greenland that is interpreted as proxy for temperature. Our northern Greenland δ18O stack indicates distinctly enriched δ18O values during medieval times, about AD 1420 ± 20 and from AD 1870 onwards. The period between AD 1420 and AD 1850 has depleted δ18O values compared to the average for the entire millennium and represents the Little Ice Age. The δ18O values of the 20th century are comparable to the medieval period but are lower than that about AD 1420.

  20. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  1. Physical activity in Greenland - a methodological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger

    Title: Physical activity in Greenland - a methodical perspective Inger Dahl-Petersen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose:   The present study is the first population-based study in Greenland with information on physical activity using The International Physical...... expenditure used on physical activity. However the total energy expenditure in Greenland estimated by IPAQ is surprisingly high, in particular for respondents living in villages, indicating some methodological challenges when applying IPAQ in a non-European setting. Validation of IPAQ by an objective measure...... Participants in a cross-sectional population survey representative of towns and villages in West Greenland completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about their physical activity. The long version of The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure time spent on physical...

  2. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards......BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...

  3. Alcohol in Greenland 1951-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fluctuations in alcohol consumption in Greenland have been extreme since alcohol became available to the Greenland Inuit in the 1950s, increasing from low levels in the 1950s to very high levels in the 1980s about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption...... has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices. Objective. Description of historical trends and possible causal connections of alcohol prices, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Greenland 1951......-2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy. Design. Time series for Greenland 1951-2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding...

  4. Developing renewable energy in discontiguous Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructural Urbanism’s advocacy of creating synergies between technological, economical, and ecological processes holds great potential for guiding domestic energy planning in a transforming Greenland. However, the movement has largely been conceived in the context of regional paradigms very...

  5. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  6. IceBridge BedMachine Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains bed topography beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet based on mass conservation derived from airborne radar tracks and satellite radar. The data...

  7. Land Ice: Greenland & Antarctic ice mass anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica (left chart) has been...

  8. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Volgian–Ryazanian ‘hot shales’ of the Bo Member (Farsund Formation in the Danish Central Graben, North Sea: stratigraphy, facies and geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybkjær, Karen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Upper Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous marine mudstones represent the most significant source of hydrocarbons in the Central and Northern North Sea. Of particular importance in the Danish sector of the Central Graben is a succession of radioactive ‘hot shales’ referred to the Bo Member, in the upper levels of the Farsund Formation (Kimmeridge Clay Formation equivalent. This mudstone-dominated succession is typically 15–30 m thick and has a total organic carbon (TOC content of 3–8%, though locally exceeding 15%. Although truncated on some structural highs, the Bo Member is a persistent feature of the Danish Central Graben. Lateral variation in boththickness and organic richness is attributed to intrabasinal structural topography and to the location of sediment input centres.Detailed study of the dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of 10 wells indicates that the onset of enhanced organic carbon burial began in the middle–late Middle Volgian in this portion of theCentral Graben. The Bo Member, representing the peak of organic carbon enrichment, is largely of Early Ryazanian age. Core data (Jeppe-1, E-1 wells indicate that the organic-rich shales of theBo Member are not wholly of hemipelagic origin, as commonly assumed, but may locally be dominated by fine-grained turbidites. Absence of bioturbation, well-preserved lamination and high TOC values suggest that bottom waters were predominantly anoxic although the presenceof in-situ benthic bivalves at discrete horizons in the E-1 well suggests that suboxic conditions prevailed on occasion. The Bo Member is a good to very good source rock, showing very highpyrolysis yields (10–100 kg HC/ton rock and Hydrogen Index (HI values in the range 200–600. In particular, the Bo Member is characterised by an abundance of 28,30 bisnorhopane (H28, acompound that is indicative of anoxic environments. These new data from the Danish sector of the Central Graben are compatible with the model of Tyson et

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1979 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1979. Provisional results of the 239,240Pu and 241Am measurements on samples from the expedition to Thule in August 1979 are presented. (author)

  10. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: A lead isotope study of an Archaean gold prospect in the Attu region, Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Stendal, Henrik; Frei, Robert; Stensgaard, Bo Møller

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a lead isotope investigation of a gold prospect south of the village Attu in the northern part of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in central West Greenland. The Attu gold prospect is a replacement gold occurrence, related to a shear/mylonite zone along a contact between orthogneissand amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian orogenic belt. The mineral occurrence is small, less than 0.5 m wide, and can be followed along strike for several hundred metres. The mineral assemblage is ...

  11. A new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section and possible tectonic overpressure in the Penninic Adula Nappe (Central Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleuger, J.; Podladchikov, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Adula Nappe in the eastern Central Alps is one of the four units in the Alps from which ultrahigh-pressure rocks have been reported. Several very different models for its tectonic history have been published but none of these models is fully satisfactory. In the models of Schmid et al. (1996) and Engi et al. (2001), the main mechanism of exhumation is assumed to be extrusion. The extrusion models require top-to-the-hinterland, i.e. top-to-the-south faulting in the hanging wall of the exhuming nappe for which there is no evidence. Froitzheim et al. (2003) proposed a scenario with two different subduction zones, an internal one in which the South Penninic and Briançonnais domains were subducted, and an external one in which the North Penninc domain and the European margin, including the Adula nappe, were subducted. In this model, the exhumation of the Adula nappe results from the subduction of the overlying sub-Briançonnais and sub-South-Penninic mantle in the internal subduction zone. The Adula nappe would then have been exhumed from below into a top-to-the-north shear zone also affecting the overriding Briançonnais units. The main shortcoming of this model is that otherwise there is little evidence for two Alpine subduction zones. All the models cited above are based on the conversion of peak pressures obtained from geobarometry to depth by assuming lithostatic pressures. This results in a much greater burial depth of the Adula Nappe with respect to the surrounding units which poses major problems when trying to reconcile maximum burial depths of the Penninic nappes with their structural record. We performed a new restoration of the NFP20-East cross section (Schmid et al. 1996) without applying a lithostatic pressure-to-depth conversion but a purely geometrical restoration of deformation events in the Penninic nappe stack. The major constraints on these reconstructions are given by strain estimates for the major deformation phases in the units overlying the

  12. Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages of marble-hosted ruby deposits from Central and South-east Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, V.; Giuliani, G.; Maluski, H.; Ohnenstetter, D.; Deloule, E.

    2003-04-01

    zircons from the Karakorum batholith (95 Ma). Asian marble-hosted ruby deposits are directly linked with the tectonometamorphic activity of Cenozoic structures resulting from deformation of the Asian plate during India-Asia collision. Geochemical studies evidence that these rubies have a metamorphic origin and thus dating of these deposits provide an essential clue to decipher the timing of continental collision in Central and South-east Asia.

  13. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... information on changes in shrub cover, and a long and complex land use history has to be taken into account. In this thesis a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches are used to investigate: I. Whether landscape scale shrub expansion occurred in SW Greenland, and to what extend it is influenced...

  14. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP). Literature review of hydrogeology/ hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallroth, Thomas; Lokrantz, Hanna; Rimsa, Andrius (Bergab Consulting Geologists, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report is produced as part of the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), carried out as a collaboration project with the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Posiva Oy and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The overall aim of the project is to improve the current understanding of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with continental-scale glacial periods including with the presence of permafrost and the advance/retreat of ice sheets. The project will focus on studying how an ice sheet affects groundwater flow and water chemistry around a deep geological repository in crystalline bedrock. The Greenland Analogue Project consists of three active sub-projects (A-C) with individual objectives. Field studies are conducted in the Kangerlussuaq region, in central Western Greenland. Sub-projects A and B collectively aim at improving the understanding of ice sheet hydrology by combining investigations on surface water processes with ice sheet drilling and instrumentation. In sub-project C, the penetration of glacial melt water into the bedrock, groundwater flow and the chemical composition of water will be studied. Main planned activities in sub-project C include drilling of a deep borehole in front of the ice sheet, in which different downhole surveys, sampling and monitoring will be carried out. The primary aim of this report is to review available information about hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry in central Western Greenland, with special emphasis on the area around Kangerlussuaq. The relevant information about this area is however very limited, and it was decided to extend the review to briefly include studies made in other regions with similar conditions in terms of geology, climate and glaciology. The number of published studies made in other areas with glaciers, ice sheets or permafrost is very large, and the review and list of references in this report is far from complete. It is also obvious that both

  15. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP). Literature review of hydrogeology/ hydrogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is produced as part of the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), carried out as a collaboration project with the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Posiva Oy and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The overall aim of the project is to improve the current understanding of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with continental-scale glacial periods including with the presence of permafrost and the advance/retreat of ice sheets. The project will focus on studying how an ice sheet affects groundwater flow and water chemistry around a deep geological repository in crystalline bedrock. The Greenland Analogue Project consists of three active sub-projects (A-C) with individual objectives. Field studies are conducted in the Kangerlussuaq region, in central Western Greenland. Sub-projects A and B collectively aim at improving the understanding of ice sheet hydrology by combining investigations on surface water processes with ice sheet drilling and instrumentation. In sub-project C, the penetration of glacial melt water into the bedrock, groundwater flow and the chemical composition of water will be studied. Main planned activities in sub-project C include drilling of a deep borehole in front of the ice sheet, in which different downhole surveys, sampling and monitoring will be carried out. The primary aim of this report is to review available information about hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry in central Western Greenland, with special emphasis on the area around Kangerlussuaq. The relevant information about this area is however very limited, and it was decided to extend the review to briefly include studies made in other regions with similar conditions in terms of geology, climate and glaciology. The number of published studies made in other areas with glaciers, ice sheets or permafrost is very large, and the review and list of references in this report is far from complete. It is also obvious that both

  16. Small mammals in barn owl, Tyto alba, pellets from central-east Sardinia / Dati sui micromammiferi da borre di barbagianni, Tyto alba, di un sito della Sardegna centro-orientale

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Di Russo

    1987-01-01

    Abstract During May 1985, Barn Owl pellets were collected in a central-east Sardinia localities (M. Albo-Nuoro), near the natura1 cave called "Sa conca manna de Loccoli". Pellets contained 208 preys (2.48 per pellets) of which 73% was represented by 4 species of rodents and 25% by 2 insectivore species. Diversity index of the diet was 1.36 (Shannon), 0.70 (Gini-Simpson). The most common rodent prey was Apodemus sylvaticus (40%), while for ins...

  17. The HIV epidemic in Greenland - a slow spreading infection among adult heterosexual Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn-Mortensen, Karen; Ladefoged, Karin; Obel, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to characterise the HIV epidemic in Greenland and to determine incidence, prevalence, mortality rates (MR) and specific causes of deaths.......We aimed to characterise the HIV epidemic in Greenland and to determine incidence, prevalence, mortality rates (MR) and specific causes of deaths....

  18. Shoreline changes and its impact on activities in the coastal zone in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Bendixen, M.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all coastal environments in Greenland are developed in high-relief areas, along fjords, or hard-rock cliffs. The sedimentary shores often fringe these areas and a large number of small deltas (areal delta surface temperatures, ice and snow. There is a seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and frozen rivers in winter. The coastal processes by waves and tides are thus often limited to summer and early fall. Nowadays, global climate changes induce many changes along the arctic coasts. Global sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses, while ice coverage of the coastal waters decreases and the open water periods in summer extend. However, it is still unknown if the extra input of fluvial sediments can cope with increased erosion rates at the shores. Besides, the rate of actual sea-level rise in West Greenland is probably less than the local rate of isostatic uplift, leading to local relative sea level fall.The focus in this presentation is on shoreline changes and its impact on two coastal environments in Greenland: the Young Sound area (fjord environment in North-East Greenland), and the southern shore of Disko Island (open sea embayment in West Greenland). These coastal environments exhibit a wide variety of coastal landforms like deltas, spits, barriers, etc. The coastal landforms were mapped and aerial images, orthogonal photos, and satellite images were used to digitize successive shorelines. The shoreline changes were estimated using the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) of the USGS. The spatial variability of accumulation and erosion patterns was detected and shows a surprising thread for ancient settlements and present-day activities in the coastal zone. The same patterns are finally discussed in terms of coastal risk assessment.

  19. Mineral magnetism and other characteristics of sediments from a sub-alpine lake (3080 m a.s.l.) in central east China and their implications on environmental changes for the last 5770 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongya; Song, Yaqiong; Cheng, Ying; Luo, Yao; Zhang, Cai'na; Gao, Yishen; Qiu, An'an; Deng, Lei; Liu, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    A sediment sequence (SQC07) was recovered from Sanqing Chi, a small sub-alpine lake (3080 m a.s.l.) on Taibai (3767 m a.s.l.), the highest mountain in east mainland China (east of 105°). The Mountain is also the highest part and central massif of the Qinling Mountain Range functioning as the boundary between the warm temperate climate zone to the north and sub-tropical climate zone to the south in east China. Soils and debris were also sampled from the catchment of Sanqing Chi. SQC07 was AMS 14C dated. Mineral magnetism was measured for the sediment sequence and catchment samples. Particle-size, TOC and TN analysis were undertaken on SQC07, while pollen analysis was made for the sediment sequence and surface-soil samples. With the mineral magnetism of the catchment materials, the magnetic and other characteristics of SQC07 indicate the environmental changes occurring on the high altitudes of Taibai Mountain during the past 5770 years. Environments were still moderately warm and wet over 5770-5100 cal. yr BP around this sub-alpine lake. Then cold and dry conditions persisted in the period of 5100-4000 cal. yr BP. Local environments began to ameliorate from 4000 cal. yr BP onwards and were thus generally warm and wet over 4000-1200 cal. yr BP. The warmth and wetness culminated in 1200-800 cal. yr BP. During the period of 800-400 cal. yr BP, cold and arid conditions again predominated. Environments have subsequently become warm and humid since ∼400 cal. yr BP. The overall trend of the changes is coincident with what have been identified at several other sites in east mainland China and Taiwan. Presumably, the deterioration over 5100-4000 cal. yr BP marks the termination of the Holocene optimum, corresponds to or encompasses Holocene event 3, while the deterioration occurring in 800-400 cal. yr BP may correspond to LIA cooling. However, they appear to have commenced earlier than the aforementioned sites at relatively low altitudes in east mainland China or even

  20. Geophysical Investigations of Saline Permafrost at Ilulissat, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Butzbach, Rune;

    2008-01-01

    The technical properties and general state of permafrost in Greenland is not well documented. A new coordinated investigation has been initiated, for ground temperature measurements and permafrost mapping in Greenlandic towns in sporadic, discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones. We present ...