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Sample records for central dopaminergic system

  1. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

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    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  2. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with bromine positron emitting isotopes for the study of dopaminergic receptors of the central nervous system using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loc'h, C.

    1988-04-01

    The in vivo study of dopaminergic receptors of the central nervous system using positron emission tomography requires the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with β + emitting isotopes. The chemical and pharmacological properties of these ligands are evaluated. Cyclotron produced 75 and 76 bromine β + emitting isotopes are incorporated into dopaminergic ligands by electrophilic substitution using peracetic acid in a no-carrier added form. Purity, lipophilicity and specific activity are analyzed. Pharmacological criteria (specificity, saturability, displacement, localization) required for ligand-receptor binding studies are evaluated in vitro on striatal membranes and in vivo in the rat. Positron emission tomographic studies show that the study of dopaminergic D2 receptors is possible using 75 and 76 bromine labelled bromospiperone and bromolisuride. These ligands are used in physiological and pharmacological studies of the central nervous system [fr

  3. Hypoactivity of the central dopaminergic system and autistic-like behavior induced by a single early prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Chaible, Lucas M; Silva, Ana C; Martins, Daniel O; Britto, Luiz R G; Dagli, Maria L Z; Torrão, Andrea S; Palermo-Neto, João; Bernardi, Maria M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral patterns associated with autism and the prevalence of these behaviors in males and females, to verify whether our model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration represents an experimental model of autism. For this, we prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on gestational day 9.5), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, because the exact mechanisms by which autism develops are still unknown, we investigated the neurological mechanisms that might underlie the behavioral alterations that were observed. Because we previously had demonstrated that prenatal LPS decreases striatal dopamine (DA) and metabolite levels, the striatal dopaminergic system (tyrosine hydroxylase [TH] and DA receptors D1a and D2) and glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR. Our results show that prenatal LPS exposure impaired communication (ultrasonic vocalizations) in male pups and learning and memory (T-maze spontaneous alternation) in male adults, as well as inducing repetitive/restricted behavior, but did not change social interactions in either infancy (play behavior) or adulthood in females. Moreover, although the expression of DA receptors was unchanged, the experimental animals exhibited reduced striatal TH levels, indicating that reduced DA synthesis impaired the striatal dopaminergic system. The expression of glial cell markers was not increased, which suggests that prenatal LPS did not induce permanent neuroinflammation in the striatum. Together with our previous finding of social impairments in males, the present findings demonstrate that prenatal LPS induced autism-like effects and also a hypoactivation of the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Imaging of dopaminergic system in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is mainly caused by dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. Several radiopharmaceutics have been developed to evaluated the integrity of dopaminergic neuronal system. In vivo PET and SPECT imaging of presynaptic dopamine imaging are already applied to Parkinson's disease and other parkinsonism, and can demonstrate the dopaminergic dysfunction. This review summarized the use of the presynaptic dopaminergic imaging in PD as biomarkers in evaluation of disease progression as well as in diagnosis of PD

  5. The dopaminergic system in the aging brain of Drosophila

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    Katherine E White

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila models of Parkinson’s disease are characterised by two principal phenotypes: the specific loss of dopaminergic neurons in the aging brain and defects in motor behavior. However, an age-related analysis of these baseline parameters in wildtype Drosophila is lacking. Here we analysed the dopaminergic system and motor behavior in aging Drosophila. Dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain can be grouped into bilateral symmetric clusters, each comprising a stereotypical number of cells. Analysis of TH>mCD8::GFP and cell type-specific MARCM clones revealed that dopaminergic neurons show cluster-specific, stereotypical projection patterns with terminal arborization in target regions that represent distinct functional areas of the adult brain. Target areas include the mushroom bodies, involved in memory formation and motivation, and the central complex, involved in the control of motor behavior, indicating that similar to the mammalian brain, dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain are involved in the regulation of specific behaviors. Behavioral analysis revealed that Drosophila show an age-related decline in startle-induced locomotion and negative geotaxis. Motion tracking however, revealed that walking activity and exploration behavior, but not centrophobism increase at late stages of life. Analysis of TH>Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic behavior, indicating that the siRNA pathway may modulate distinct dopaminergic behaviors in Drosophila. Moreover, dopaminergic neurons were maintained between early- and late life, as quantified by TH>mCD8::GFP and anti-TH labelling, indicating that adult onset, age-related degeneration of dopaminergic neurons does not occur in the aging brain of Drosophila. Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson’s disease as well as other disorders affecting dopaminergic neurons

  6. Brief debrisoquin administration to assess central dopaminergic function in children.

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    Riddle, M A; Shaywitz, B A; Leckman, J F; Anderson, G M; Shaywitz, S E; Hardin, M T; Ort, S I; Cohen, D J

    1986-03-17

    Central dopaminergic (DA) function in children was assessed by monitoring plasma-free homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels after brief (18 hour) administration with debrisoquin sulfate, a peripherally active antihypertensive agent that blocks peripheral, but not central, HVA production. Brief debrisoquin administration resulted in marked reductions in pHVA in each of six patients studied. In five of the six patients, post-debrisoquin pHVA levels remained relatively stable over the six-hour period of observation. No significant cardiovascular or behavioral side effects of debrisoquin were observed. The brief debrisoquin administration method appears to be a safe, simple, and potentially valid peripheral technique for evaluating aspects of central dopaminergic function in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to further establish this method's validity and reliability.

  7. INFLUENCE OF DOPAMINERGIC SYSTEM ON INTERNET ADDICTION

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    Jelena Jović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction is a clinical anomaly with strong negative consequences on social, work-related, family, financial, and economic function of a person. It is regarded as a serious public health issue. The basic idea of this paper is to, based on the currently available body of research work on this topic, point out to neurobiological pathos of Internet addiction, and its connection to the dopaminergic system. Dopamine contains all physiological functions of neurotransmitters and it is a part of chatecholamine family. Five dopaminergic receptors (D1 - D5 belong to the super family of receptors related to G-protein. Through these receptors, dopamine achieves its roles: regulation of voluntary movement, regulation of center of pleasure, hormonal regulation, and regulation of hypertension. In order to recognize an Internet user as an addict, he or she needs to comply with the criteria suggested by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. Phenomenological, neurobiological, and pharmacological data indicates similarities in pathopsychology of substance addiction and pathological gambling, which are indirectly related to the similarity with the Internet addiction. Responding to stimuli from the game, addicts have shown more brain activity in the nape region, left dorsolateral, prefrontal cortex, and left parachipocampal gyrus than in the control group. After the six-week bupropion therapy, desire to play Internet and video games, the total duration of playing, and induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are lowered with the addicts.

  8. The dopaminergic system in autoimmune diseases

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    Rodrigo ePacheco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their functioning and for designing novel therapeutic strategies. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in neuro-immune communications mediated by dopamine. Studies of dendritic cells (DCs revealed that they express the whole machinery to synthesize and store dopamine, which may act in an autocrine manner to stimulate dopamine receptors (DARs. Depending on specific DARs stimulated on DCs and T cells, dopamine may differentially favor CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 or Th17 inflammatory cells. Regulatory T cells can also release high amounts of dopamine that acts in an autocrine DAR-mediated manner to inhibit their suppressive activity. These dopaminergic regulations could represent a driving force during autoimmunity. Indeed, dopamine levels are altered in the brain of mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS and lupus, and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis. The distorted expression of DARs in peripheral lymphocytes of lupus and MS patients also supports the importance of dopaminergic regulations in autoimmunity. Moreover, dopamine analogs had beneficial therapeutic effects in animal models, and in patients with lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases.

  9. Hemispheric differences in the mesostriatal dopaminergic system

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    Ilana eMolochnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mesostriatal dopaminergic system, which comprises the mesolimbic and the nigrostriatal pathways, plays a major role in neural processing underlying motor and limbic functions. Multiple reports suggest that these processes are influenced by hemispheric differences in striatal dopamine (DA levels, DA turnover and its receptor activity. Here, we review studies which measured the concentration of DA and its metabolites to examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior under different conditions. Specifically, we assess evidence in support of endogenous, inter-hemispheric DA imbalance; determine whether the known anatomy provides a suitable substrate for this imbalance; examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior; and characterize the symmetry of the observed inter-hemispheric laterality in the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic DA systems. We conclude that many studies provide supporting evidence for the occurrence of experience-dependent endogenous DA imbalance which is controlled by a dedicated regulatory/compensatory mechanism. Additionally, it seems that the link between DA imbalance and animal behavior is better characterized in the nigrostriatal than in the mesolimbic system. Nonetheless, a variety of brain and behavioral manipulations demonstrate that the nigrostriatal system displays symmetrical laterality whereas the mesolimbic system displays asymmetrical laterality which supports hemispheric specialization in rodents. The reciprocity of the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior (i.e. the capacity of animal training to alter DA imbalance for prolonged time periods remains controversial, however, if confirmed, may provide a valuable noninvasive therapeutic means for treating abnormal DA imbalance.

  10. Brain dopaminergic systems : imaging with positron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J C [University of Caen/INSERM U, Caen (France). CYCERON; Comar, D [E.E.C. Concerted Action on P.E.T. Investigations of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration, Orsay (France) CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot; Farde, L [Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Martinot, J L; Mazoyer, B [CEA, 91 - Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Paris-

    1991-01-01

    Imaging of the dopaminergic system in the human brain with the in vivo use of Positron Emission Tomography emerged in the late 1980s as a tool of major importance in clinical neurosciences and pharmacology. The last few years have witnessed rapid development of new radiotracers specific to receptors, reuptake sites and enzymes of the dopamine system; the application of these radiotracers has led to major break-troughs in the pathophysiology and therapy of movement disorders and schizophrenic-like psychoses. This book is the first to collect, in a single volume, state-of-the-art contributions to the various aspects of this research. Its contents address methodological issues related to the design, labelling, quantitative imaging and compartmental modeli-sation of radioligands of the post-synaptic, pre-synaptic and enzyme sites of the dopamine system and to their use in clinical research in the fields of Parkinson's disease as well as other movement disorders, psychoses and neuroleptic receptor occupancy. The chapters were written by leading European scientists in the field of PET, gathered together in Caen (France, November 1990) under the aegis of the EEC Concerted Action on PET Investigations of Cellular Regeneration and Degeneration. This book provides a current and comprehensive overview on PET studies of the brain dopamine system which should aid and interest neurologists , psychiatrists, pharmacologists and medical imaging scientists. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  11. Renin angiotensin system and gender differences in dopaminergic degeneration

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    Rodriguez-Perez Ana I

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are sex differences in dopaminergic degeneration. Men are approximately two times as likely as premenopausal women of the same age to develop Parkinson's disease (PD. It has been shown that the local renin angiotensin system (RAS plays a prominent role in sex differences in the development of chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases, and there is a local RAS in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic cell loss is enhanced by angiotensin via type 1 (AT1 receptors. Results In the present study, we observed that intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine induced a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of male rats, which was significantly higher than the loss induced in ovariectomized female rats given estrogen implants (i.e. rats with estrogen. However, the loss of dopaminergic neurons was significantly lower in male rats treated with the AT1 antagonist candesartan, and similar to that observed in female rats with estrogen. The involvement of the RAS in gender differences in dopaminergic degeneration was confirmed with AT1a-null mice lesioned with the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP. Significantly higher expression of AT1 receptors, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and NADPH-oxidase complex activity, and much lower levels of AT2 receptors were observed in male rats than in female rats with estrogen. Conclusions The results suggest that brain RAS plays a major role in the increased risk of developing PD in men, and that manipulation of brain RAS may be an efficient approach for neuroprotective treatment of PD in men, without the feminizing effects of estrogen.

  12. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

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    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  13. Central dopaminergic circuitry controlling food intake and reward: implications for the regulation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Zivjena; Reyes, Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the treatment of obesity. Central nervous system mechanisms responsible for control of food intake have evolved to sense the nutrient and energy levels in the organism and to coordinate appropriate responses to adjust energy intake and expenditure. This homeostatic system is crucial for maintenance of stable body weight over long periods of time of uneven energy availability. However, not only the caloric and nutritional value of food but also hedonic and emotional aspects of feeding affect food intake. In modern society, the increased availability of highly palatable and rewarding (fat, sweet) food can significantly affect homeostatic balance, resulting in dysregulated food intake. This review will focus on the role of hypothalamic and mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic (DA) circuitry in coding homeostatic and hedonic signals for the regulation of food intake and maintenance of caloric balance. The interaction of dopamine with peripheral and central indices of nutritional status (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y), and the susceptibility of the dopamine system to prenatal insults will be discussed. Additionally, the importance of alterations in dopamine signaling that occur coincidently with obesity will be addressed.

  14. Assessment of central dopaminergic function using plasma-free homovanillic acid after debrisoquin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M A; Leckman, J F; Cohen, D J; Anderson, M; Ort, S I; Caruso, K A; Shaywitz, B A

    1986-01-01

    Central dopaminergic (DA) function in children and adults was assessed by monitoring plasma-free levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) before and after a single oral dose and chronic oral administration of debrisoquin. Debrisoquin inhibits peripheral metabolism of dopamine to HVA and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. By reducing peripheral formation of HVA through the use of debrisoquin, the remaining HVA in plasma more accurately reflects central DA activity. Debrisoquin administration resulted in marked reductions of pHVA in each of 12 patients studied. Eleven of the 12 subjects tolerated debrisoquin without physical or behavioral side effects. The debrisoquin administration method appears to be a safe and potentially valid technique for evaluating aspects of central dopaminergic function in children and adults.

  15. Investigations into potential extrasynaptic communication between the dopaminergic and nitrergic systems

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    Miso eMitkovski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is unconstrained by cell membranes and can therefore act along a broad distance as a volume transmitter. Spillover of nitric oxide between neurons may have a major impact on central nervous system diseases and particularly on neurodegeneration. There is evidence whereby communication between nitrergic and dopaminergic systems plays an essential role in the control of the nigrostriatal pathway. However, there is sparse information for either the coexistence or overlap of nitric oxide and dopaminergic structures. The present study used double-labeling immunofluorescent microscopy to investigate the degree of cellular co-localization between nitric oxide synthase and tyrosine hydroxylase, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of nitric oxide and dopamine, respectively, was examined in neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway regions in the rat brain. After perfusional fixation, the brains were cut and double immunostained. A proximity analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase structures was made using confocal laser scanning microscopy, in nigrostriatal regions of the rat brain. We used image acquired at the optical limit and generated binary masks at 2µm-wide margin from the respective maximum projections. Co-localization between the two antigens was infrequent (<10% in most areas examined. However, tyrosine hydroxylase labeling was particularly concentrated close to nitric oxide synthase dendrites/axons and the cell bodies. These results further substantiate an extrasynaptic substrate for interaction between nitrergic and dopaminergic systems, thereby modulating sensitivity to neural inputs and its gene expression.

  16. Dopaminergic modulation of the human reward system: a placebo-controlled dopamine depletion fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Figee, Martijn; Abeling, Nico; Hasler, Gregor; van der Meer, Johan; Nederveen, Aart; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Reward related behaviour is linked to dopaminergic neurotransmission. Our aim was to gain insight into dopaminergic involvement in the human reward system. Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging with dopaminergic depletion by α-methylparatyrosine we measured dopamine-related brain activity

  17. Chronic Hypergravity Induces Changes in the Dopaminergic Neuronal System in Drosophila Melanogaster

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    Pelos, Andrew; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Upon atmospheric exitre-entry and during training, astronauts are subjected to temporary periods of hypergravity, which has been implicated in the activation of oxidative stress pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal degeneration. The pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease and other neurodegenerative disorders is associated with oxidative damage to neurons involved in dopamine systems of the brain. Our study aims to examine the effects of a hypergravitational developmental environment on the degeneration of dopaminergic systems in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies (Gal4-UAS transgenic line) were hatched and raised to adulthood in centrifugal hypergravity (97rpm, 3g). The nuclear expression of the reporter, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is driven by the dopaminergic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, allowing for the targeted visualization of dopamine producing neurons. After being raised to adulthood and kept in hypergravity until 18 days of age, flies were dissected and the expression of TH was measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy. TH expression in the fly brains was used to obtain counts of healthy dopaminergic neurons for flies raised in chronic hypergravity and control groups. Dopaminergic neuron expression data were compared with those of previous studies that limited hypergravity exposure to late life in order to determine the flies adaptability to the gravitational environment when raised from hatching through adulthood. Overall, we observed a significant effect of chronic hypergravity exposure contributing to deficits in dopaminergic neuron expression (p 0.003). Flies raised in 3g had on average lower dopaminergic neuron counts (mean 97.7) when compared with flies raised in 1g (mean 122.8). We suspect these lower levels of TH expression are a result of oxidative dopaminergic cell loss in flies raised in hypergravity. In future studies, we hope to further elucidate the mechanism by which hypergravity

  18. Effects of Chronic Hypergravity on the Dopaminergic Neuronal System in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelos, Andrew; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Upon atmospheric exitre-entry and during training, astronauts are subjected to temporary periods of hypergravity, which has been implicated in the activation of oxidative stress pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal degeneration. The pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease and other neurodegenerative disorders is associated with oxidative damage to neurons involved in dopamine systems of the brain. Our study aims to examine the effects of a hypergravitational developmental environment on the degeneration of dopaminergic systems in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies (Gal4-UAS transgenic line) were hatched and raised to adulthood in centrifugal hypergravity (97rpm, 3g). The nuclear expression of the reporter, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is driven by the dopaminergic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, allowing for the targeted visualization of dopamine producing neurons. After being raised to adulthood and kept in hypergravity until 18 days of age, flies were dissected and the expression of TH was measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy. TH expression in the fly brains was used to obtain counts of healthy dopaminergic neurons for flies raised in chronic hypergravity and control groups. Dopaminergic neuron expression data were compared with those of previous studies that limited hypergravity exposure to late life in order to determine the flies adaptability to the gravitational environment when raised from hatching through adulthood. Overall, we observed a significant effect of chronic hypergravity exposure contributing to deficits in dopaminergic neuron expression (p 0.003). Flies raised in 3g had on average lower dopaminergic neuron counts (mean 97.7) when compared with flies raised in 1g (mean 122.8). We suspect these lower levels of TH expression are a result of oxidative dopaminergic cell loss in flies raised in hypergravity. In future studies, we hope to further elucidate the mechanism by which hypergravity

  19. Finasteride inhibited brain dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats.

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    Li, Li; Kang, Yun-Xiao; Ji, Xiao-Ming; Li, Ying-Kun; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Cui, Hui-Xian; Shi, Ge-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Because androgen regulates dopaminergic system in the brain, it could be hypothesized that finasteride may inhibit dopaminergic system. The present study therefore investigates the effects of finasteride in adolescent and early developmental rats on dopaminergic system, including contents of dopamine and its metabolites (dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid) and tyrosine hydroxylase expressions both at gene and protein levels. Meanwhile, open-field behaviors of the rats are examined because of the regulatory effect of dopaminergic system on the behaviors. Open-field behaviors were evaluated by exploratory and motor behaviors. Dopamine and its metabolites were assayed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real-time qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. It was found that in adolescent male rats, administration of finasteride at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days dose dependently inhibited open-field behaviors, reduced contents of dopamine and its metabolites in frontal cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and down-regulated tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expressions in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, there was no significant change of these parameters in early developmental rats after finasteride treatment. These results suggest that finasteride inhibits dopaminergic system and open-field behaviors in adolescent male rats by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, and imply finasteride as a potential therapeutic option for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with hyperactivities of dopaminergic system and androgen. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

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    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  1. Relations between Three Dopaminergic System Genes, School Attachment, and Adolescent Delinquency

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    Fine, Adam; Mahler, Alissa; Simmons, Cortney; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic variation, particularly in genes responsible for the dopaminergic system such as "DRD4," "DRD2," and "DAT1" ("SLC6A3"), affect adolescent delinquency. The school context, despite its developmental importance, has been overlooked in gene-environment research. Using data…

  2. Imaging of the dopaminergic neurotransmission system using single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography in patients with parkinsonism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.; Tissingh, G.; Winogrodzka, A.; van Royen, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    Parkinsonism is a feature of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. The results of post-mortem studies point to dysfunction of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in patients with parkinsonism. Nowadays,

  3. The dopaminergic system in patients with functional dyspepsia analysed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and an alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braak, Breg; Klooker, Tamira K.; Booij, Jan; Wijngaard, Rene M.J. van den; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic condition characterized by upper abdominal symptoms without an identifiable cause. While the serotonergic system is thought to play a key role in the regulation of gut physiology, the role of the dopaminergic system, which is important in the regulation of visceral pain and stress, is under-studied. Therefore, this study investigated the dopaminergic system and its relationship with drinking capacity and symptoms in FD patients. In FD patients and healthy volunteers (HV) the dopaminergic system was investigated by in-vivo assessment of central dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with [ 123 I]IBZM SPECT and by an acute, but reversible, dopamine depletion alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test. A nutrient drink test was performed to investigate the association between maximal ingested volume, evoked symptoms, and D2Rs. The HV subjects comprised 12 women and 8 men (mean age 31 ± 3 years), and the FD patients comprised 5 women and 3 men (mean age 39 ± 5 years). The FD patients had a lower left plus right average striatal binding potential (BP NP ) for the caudate nucleus (p = 0.02), but not for putamen (p = 0.15), which in the FD patients was correlated with maximal ingested volume (r = 0.756, p = 0.03). The D2R BP NP in the putamen was correlated with nausea (r = 0.857, p = 0.01). The acute dopamine depletion test, however, failed to reveal differences in prolactin release between the FD patients and the HV subjects. These preliminary data suggest that chronic rather than acute alterations in the dopaminergic system may be involved in the pathogenesis of FD. Further studies are required to reproduce our novel findings and to evaluate to what extent the dopaminergic changes may be secondary to abnormalities in serotonergic pathways. (orig.)

  4. The dopaminergic system in patients with functional dyspepsia analysed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and an alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braak, Breg; Klooker, Tamira K. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wijngaard, Rene M.J. van den [Academic Medical Center, Tytgat Institute of Liver and Intestinal Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boeckxstaens, Guy E.E. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Hospital Leuven, Catholic University Leuven, Department of Gastroenterology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic condition characterized by upper abdominal symptoms without an identifiable cause. While the serotonergic system is thought to play a key role in the regulation of gut physiology, the role of the dopaminergic system, which is important in the regulation of visceral pain and stress, is under-studied. Therefore, this study investigated the dopaminergic system and its relationship with drinking capacity and symptoms in FD patients. In FD patients and healthy volunteers (HV) the dopaminergic system was investigated by in-vivo assessment of central dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) with [{sup 123}I]IBZM SPECT and by an acute, but reversible, dopamine depletion alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) challenge test. A nutrient drink test was performed to investigate the association between maximal ingested volume, evoked symptoms, and D2Rs. The HV subjects comprised 12 women and 8 men (mean age 31 {+-} 3 years), and the FD patients comprised 5 women and 3 men (mean age 39 {+-} 5 years). The FD patients had a lower left plus right average striatal binding potential (BP{sub NP}) for the caudate nucleus (p = 0.02), but not for putamen (p = 0.15), which in the FD patients was correlated with maximal ingested volume (r = 0.756, p = 0.03). The D2R BP{sub NP} in the putamen was correlated with nausea (r = 0.857, p = 0.01). The acute dopamine depletion test, however, failed to reveal differences in prolactin release between the FD patients and the HV subjects. These preliminary data suggest that chronic rather than acute alterations in the dopaminergic system may be involved in the pathogenesis of FD. Further studies are required to reproduce our novel findings and to evaluate to what extent the dopaminergic changes may be secondary to abnormalities in serotonergic pathways. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of the dopaminergic neurotransmission system using single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography in patients with parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Tissingh, G.; Winogrodzka, A.; Royen, E.A. van

    1999-01-01

    Parkinsonism is a feature of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. The results of post-mortem studies point to dysfunction of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in patients with parkinsonism. Nowadays, by using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) it is possible to visualise both the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the striatal dopamine D 2 receptors in vivo. Consequently, SPET and PET imaging of elements of the dopaminergic system can play an important role in the diagnosis of several parkinsonian syndromes. This review concentrates on findings of SPET and PET studies of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in various parkinsonian syndromes. (orig.)

  6. Acrolein acts as a neurotoxin in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat: involvement of ?-synuclein aggregation and programmed cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Hui-Ching; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Huang, Hui-Ju; Lo, Yu-Li; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Maan-Yuh Lin, Anya

    2017-01-01

    Clinical studies report significant increases in acrolein (an ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde) in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson?s disease (PD). In the present study, acrolein-induced neurotoxicity in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was investigated by local infusion of acrolein (15, 50, 150?nmoles/0.5??l) in the SN of Sprague-Dawley rats. Acrolein-induced neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was delineated by reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) leve...

  7. Clinical Investigation of the Dopaminergic System with PET and FLUORINE-18-FLUORO-L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Terrence Rayford

    1995-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a tool that provides quantitative physiological information. It is valuable both in a clinical environment, where information is sought for an individual, and in a research environment, to answer more fundamental questions about physiology and disease states. PET is particularly attractive compared to other nuclear medicine imaging techniques in cases where the anatomical regions of interest are small or when true metabolic rate constants are required. One example with both of these requirements is the investigation of Parkinson's Disease, which is characterized as a presynaptic motor function deficit affecting the striatum. As dopaminergic neurons die, the ability of the striatum to affect motor function decreases. The extent of functional neuronal damage in the small sub-structures may be ascertained by measuring the ability of the caudate and putamen to trap and store dopamine, a neurotransmitter. PET is able to utilize a tracer of dopamine activity, ^ {18}F- scL-DOPA, to quantitate the viability of the striatum. This thesis work deals with implementing and optimizing the many different elements that compose a PET study of the dopaminergic system, including: radioisotope production; conversion of aqueous ^{18}F ^-into [^ {18}F]-F2; synthesis of ^{18}F- scL -DOPA; details of the PET scan itself; measurements to estimate the radiation dosimetry; accurate measurement of a plasma input function; and the quantitation of dopaminergic activity in normal human subjects as well as in Parkinson's Disease patients.

  8. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia.

  9. Pharmacologic and radioimmunologic studies on the role of the dopaminergic system in the brain for the regulation of adenohypophyseal adrenocorticotropic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhieva, N; Milkov, V; Milanov, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya

    1990-01-01

    The studies were performed in three experimental setups after single and repeated (5, 10, 20 and 30 times daily) application of dopamine agonists and antagonists (levodopa, bromcryptine, apomorphine hydrochloride, levodopa + carbidopa combination and haloperidol) for determining the changes in the serum ACTH level in rats. In stress-free conditions and in the presence of stress effects dopamine agonists were shown to exert inhibiting effect on ACTH release. The independent role of the brain dopaminergic system was studied on combined application of agents (obsidan, phentolamine and piperoxan) blocking the central alpha- and beta-receptors and dopamine agonists and antagonists, accordingly under stress-free conditions and after cold-induced stress. The results pointed out the participation of the dopaminergic system in the complex neuro-meditary mechanism of controlling the production and release of ACTH from the adenohypophysis both under stress-free and stress conditions. A hypothesis is advanced that the brain dopaminergic system is implicated in the regulation of the adrenocorticotropic function in suppressed adrenergic system. 3 figs, 7 refs.

  10. Pharmacologic and radioimmunologic studies on the role of the dopaminergic system in the brain for the regulation of adenohypophyseal adrenocorticotropic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhieva, N.; Milkov, V.; Milanov, S.

    1990-01-01

    The studies were performed in three experimental setups after single and repeated (5, 10, 20 and 30 times daily) application of dopamine agonists and antagonists (levodopa, bromcryptine, apomorphine hydrochloride, levodopa + carbidopa combination and haloperidol) for determining the changes in the serum ACTH level in rats. In stress-free conditions and in the presence of stress effects dopamine agonists were shown to exert inhibiting effect on ACTH release. The independent role of the brain dopaminergic system was studied on combined application of agents (obsidan, phentolamine and piperoxan) blocking the central alpha- and beta-receptors and dopamine agonists and antagonists, accordingly under stress-free conditions and after cold-induced stress. The results pointed out the participation of the dopaminergic system in the complex neuro-meditary mechanism of controlling the production and release of ACTH from the adenohypophysis both under stress-free and stress conditions. A hypothesis is advanced that the brain dopaminergic system is implicated in the regulation of the adrenocorticotropic function in suppressed adrenergic system. 3 figs, 7 refs

  11. Effects of zoxazolamine and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, R T; McMillen, B A; Speciale, S G; Jarrah, H; Shore, P A; Sanghera, M K; Shepard, P D; German, D C

    1984-05-01

    The effects of zoxazolamine (ZOX) and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on striatal dopamine (DA) metabolism and turnover, and substantia nigra zona compacta DA neuronal impulse flow were studied in rats. ZOX, chlorzoxazone and mephenesin, but not meprobamate, chloral hydrate, diazepam, pentobarbital, ethanol or dantrolene, decreased striatal DA metabolism without affecting striatal DA concentrations. More specifically, ZOX, as a representative muscle relaxant, was shown to decrease striatal DA turnover without directly affecting DA synthesis, catabolism, reuptake, or release. ZOX decreased nigral DA neuronal firing rates and dramatically decreased firing rate variability (normally many of the cells fire with bursting firing patterns but after ZOX the cells often fired with a very regular pacemaker-like firing pattern). ZOX and related centrally acting muscle relaxants appear to decrease striatal DA turnover by decreasing both neuronal firing rate and firing rate variability. The possible relationships between DA neuronal activity and muscle tone are discussed.

  12. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  13. The role of system Xc- in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Duy-Khanh; Shin, Eun-Joo; Tran, Hai-Quyen; Kim, Dae-Joong; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Sato, Hideyo; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yoneda, Yukio; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2017-09-01

    The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc - , Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild type mice. xCT inhibitor [i.e., S-4-carboxy-phenylglycine (CPG), sulfasalazine] or an xCT knockout significantly protected against these oxidative burdens. MA-induced increases in Iba-1 expression and Iba-1-labeled microglial immunoreactivity (Iba-1-IR) were significantly attenuated by CPG or sulfasalazine administration or xCT knockout. CPG or sulfasalazine significantly attenuated MA-induced TUNEL-positive cell populations in the striatum of Taconic ICR mice. The decrease in excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (or glutamate transporter-1) expression and increase in glutamate release were attenuated by CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout. In addition, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout significantly protected against dopaminergic loss (i.e., decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and immunoreactivity, and an increase in dopamine turnover rate) induced by MA. However, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout did not significantly affect the impaired glutathione system [i.e., decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] induced by MA. Our results suggest that Sxc mediates MA-induced neurotoxicity via facilitating oxidative stress, microgliosis, proapoptosis, and glutamate-related toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of the regions of interest (SRI) in the SPECT semi-quantitative analysis of central dopaminergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Levilion, C.; Tranquart, F.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Chartier, J.R.; Guilloteau, D.; Autret, A.; Besnard, J.C.; Bekhechi, D.; Chossat, F.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different types of SRIs used in the SPECT semi-quantitative analysis of central dopaminergic receptors. The SPECT with 123 I iodolisuride (Cis bio international) was carried out in the same center with a Helix - Elscint double head camera with 'fan beam', one hour after injection of 123 I iodolisuride (190 ± 31 MBq). In 8 patients afflicted with Parkinson's disease (group 1) and 9 patients presenting an extra-pyramidal syndrome by striatal stretching (group 2), two approaches of SRI tracing were undertaken: 1. Geometrical and standard (circles, ellipses, rectangles) SRIs; 2. Anatomical and individual SRIs based on TDM and perfusion scintigraphy. The SRIs were placed on the entire striatum, the head of cauda nucleus, putamen, thalamus, frontal, occipital cortex and cerebellum. In total, for each patient, 31 ratios were calculated of the striatal activity and the activity of a references zone. The discriminative value of the ratios was evaluated by the p value of comparison between groups 1 and 2. A correlation has been searched for between the ratios taken 2 by 2. The most discriminative ratios were: cauda/occipital, cauda/frontal, striatum/occipital based on geometrical standard SRIs (p 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.003, respectively). A close correlation has been found between the ratios with occipital and cerebellar references (r 2 0.71) but not between the ratios with frontal or occipital reference, or frontal and cerebellum reference. In the employed conditions, the geometrical tracing of the SRIs is preferable as against an anatomic tracing. The occipital cortex is the best reference while the frontal activity can not be retained as reference. The cauda/occipital ratios allow a very good discrimination between the Parkinson's disease and other extra pyramidal syndromes investigated by 123 I iodolisuride SPECT

  15. The central noradrenergic system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-27

    Jul 27, 2006 ... recognition of a direct influence of the central noradrenergic system on peripheral ... influences on cerebral function and behavior it is impossible to imagine ... stimuli and to speed-up information processing.4. The influence of ...

  16. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  17. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  18. Dopaminergic system and dream recall: An MRI study in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Lanteri, Olimpia; Piras, Fabrizio; Scarpelli, Serena; Assogna, Francesca; Ferrara, Michele; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the role of the dopamine system [i.e., subcortical-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network] in dreaming, by studying patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a model of altered dopaminergic transmission. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were extracted by 3T-MR images of 27 PD patients and 27 age-matched controls, who were asked to fill out a dream diary upon morning awakening for one week. PD patients do not substantially differ from healthy controls with respect to the sleep, dream, and neuroanatomical measures. Multivariate correlational analyses in PD patients show that dopamine agonist dosage is associated to qualitatively impoverished dreams, as expressed by lower bizarreness and lower emotional load values. Visual vividness (VV) of their dream reports positively correlates with volumes of both the amygdalae and with thickness of the left mPFC. Emotional load also positively correlates with hippocampal volume. Beside the replication of our previous finding on the role of subcortical nuclei in dreaming experience of healthy subjects, this represents the first evidence of a specific role of the amygdala-mPFC dopaminergic network system in dream recall. The association in PD patients between higher dopamine agonist dosages and impoverished dream reports, however, and the significant correlations between VV and mesolimbic regions, however, provide an empirical support to the hypothesis that a dopamine network plays a key role in dream generation. The causal relation is however precluded by the intrinsic limitation of assuming the dopamine agonist dosage as a measure of the hypodopaminergic state in PD. Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effect of CA1 dopaminergic system on amnesia induced by harmane in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Hasanvand, Simin; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2018-05-16

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of dopaminergic drugs into the hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on harmane-induced amnesia were examined in mice. We used a single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task for the assessment of memory acquisition in adult male mice. Our data indicated that pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12 mg/kg) impaired memory acquisition. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 (0.25 µg/mouse), dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.25 µg/mouse), dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.125 and 0.25 µg/mouse) and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (0.2 and 0.4 µg/mouse) decreased the learning of a single-trial inhibitory avoidance task. Furthermore, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of sub-threshold doses of SKF38393 (0.0625 µg/mouse) or sulpiride (0.1 µg/mouse) increased pre-training harmane (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced amnesia. On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of SCH23390 (0.0625 µg/mouse) reversed amnesia induced by an effective dose of harmane (12 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, Pre-training intra-CA1 injection of quinpirole (0.0625 µg/mouse) had no effect on memory impairment induced by harmane. These findings indicate the involvement of CA1 dopaminergic system on harmane-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  20. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  1. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaiel, Afrah A.K.; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M.; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J.; Herrera, Antonio J.; Venero, José L.; Pablos, Rocío M. de

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease. - Highlights: • Metformin treatment decreases microglial activation in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease. • Metformin treatment increases the neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease, both in vivo and vitro. • Metformin treatment could be a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismaiel, Afrah A.K.; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M.; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J.; Herrera, Antonio J.; Venero, José L.; Pablos, Rocío M. de, E-mail: depablos@us.es

    2016-05-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease. - Highlights: • Metformin treatment decreases microglial activation in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease. • Metformin treatment increases the neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease, both in vivo and vitro. • Metformin treatment could be a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Central Accountability System (CLAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Central Accountability System (CLAS) is a high level accountability system that consolidates data from the site's 39 material balance areas (MBA) for reporting to Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) management, Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) in Oak Ridge, TN. Development of the system began in 1989 and became operational in April, 1991. The CLAS system enhances data accuracy and accountability records, resulting in increased productivity and time and cost savings. This paper reports that the system is in compliance with DOE Orders and meets NMMSS reporting requirements. WSRC management is provided with the overall status of the site's nuclear material inventory. CLAS gives WSRC a leading edge in accounting technology and enhances good accounting practices

  4. Signaling pathways involved in renal oxidative injury: role of the vasoactive peptides and the renal dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavina Mikusic, N L; Kravetz, M C; Kouyoumdzian, N M; Della Penna, S L; Rosón, M I; Fernández, B E; Choi, M R

    2014-01-01

    The physiological hydroelectrolytic balance and the redox steady state in the kidney are accomplished by an intricate interaction between signals from extrarenal and intrarenal sources and between antinatriuretic and natriuretic factors. Angiotensin II, atrial natriuretic peptide and intrarenal dopamine play a pivotal role in this interactive network. The balance between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide, by one side, and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system, by the other side, contributes to ensuring the normal function of the kidney. Different pathological scenarios, as nephrotic syndrome and hypertension, where renal sodium excretion is altered, are associated with an impaired interaction between two natriuretic systems as the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide that may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The aim of this review is to update and comment the most recent evidences about the intracellular pathways involved in the relationship between endogenous antioxidant agents like the renal dopaminergic system and atrial natriuretic peptide and the prooxidant effect of the renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation.

  5. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  6. IBZM- and CIT-SPECT of the dopaminergic system in Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissingh, G.; Winogradzka, A.; Wolters, E.C.; Booij, J.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    Parkinsonism is most of the time caused by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Considering the differences in therapeutic response and prognosis. in viva discrimination between IPD and 'Parkinsonism-plus' syndromes is important. Recently, ligands have become available for imaging the pre- and postsynaptic dopaminergic system by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). Visualization of postsynaptic D 2 dopamine receptors using 123 I-iodobenzamide ( 123 I-IBZM) may contribute to the differential diagnosis between IPD and 'Parkinsonism-plus' syndromes as IPD is a pure presynaptic disease. Imaging of the presynaptic dopamine transporters using [ 123 I]β-CIT (2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane) may be used as a diagnostic technique. Early disease detection in subjects suspected to be at risk for developing IPD has become possible using [ 123 I]β-CIT or other ligands for the dopamine transporter. Furthermore, with SPECT one is probably able to monitor in an objective way the efficacy of new pharmacological therapies. (author)

  7. Labelled agents for PET studies of the dopaminergic system -some quality assurance methods, experience and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.; Kensett, M.J.; Turton, D.R.; Waters, S.L.; Silvester, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Practical methods are described for the quality assurance of three labelled agents (L-6-[ 18 F]fluoro-DOPA, S-[N-methyl- 11 C]nomifensine and [O-methyl- 11 C]raclopride) now produced regularly for PET studies of the dopaminergic system in man. These include indirect methods for the initial determination of label position (e.g. 13 C-NMR spectroscopy) and also direct methods for the assessment of chiral purity (TLC and HPLC) and the routine determination of radiochemical purity, chemical purity and specific activity (HPLC). Mass spectrometry has been used to identify some impurities. L-6-hydroxy-DOPA (a precursor in vivo of the neurotoxin, L-6-hydroxydopamine) has been detected by HPLC in some preparations of L-6-[ 18 F]fluoro-DOPA. Formulated S-[N-methyl- 11 C]nomifensine has been found to be stable. Some quality assurance issues are discussed in relation to experience in the application of the described methods and the obtained results. (author)

  8. Positron emission tomography molecular imaging of dopaminergic system in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haifeng; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) is involved in drug reinforcement, but its role in drug addiction remains unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the first technology used for the direct measurement of components of the dopaminergic system in the living human brain. In this article, we reviewed the major findings of PET imaging studies on the involvement of DA in drug addiction, especially in heroin addiction. Furthermore, we summarized PET radiotracers that have been used to study the role of DA in drug addiction. To investigate presynaptic function in drug addiction, PET tracers have been developed to measure DA synthesis and transport. For the investigation of postsynaptic function, several radioligands targeting dopamine one (D1) receptor and dopamine two (D2) receptor are extensively used in PET imaging studies. Moreover, we also summarized the PET imaging findings of heroin addiction studies, including heroin-induced DA increases and the reinforcement, role of DA in the long-term effects of heroin abuse, DA and vulnerability to heroin abuse and the treatment implications. PET imaging studies have corroborated the role of DA in drug addiction and increase our understanding the mechanism of drug addiction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Age-Dependent Effects of Methylphenidate on the Human Dopaminergic System in Young vs Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clincal Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Tamminga, H.G.H.; Bouziane, C.; Bottelier, M.A.; Bron, E.E.; Mutsaerts, H.-J.M.M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Groote, I.R.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; Klein, S.; Niessen, W.J.; Opmeer, B.C.; Boer, F.; Lucassen, P.J.; Andersen, S.L.; Geurts, H.M.; Reneman, L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. Objectives: To determine whether

  10. Age-dependent effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system in young vs adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A. (Anouk); Tamminga, H.G.H. (Hyke G. H.); C. Bouziane (Cheima); Bottelier, M.A. (Marco A.); E.E. Bron (Esther); H.J.M.M. Mutsaerts (Henri J. M.); A.H. Zwinderman (Ailko); Groote, I.R. (Inge R.); S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); Lindauer, R.J.L. (Ramon J. L.); S. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); B.C. Opmeer (Brent); Boer, F. (Frits); P.J. Lucassen; Andersen, S.L. (Susan L.); H.M. Geurts (Hilde ); L. Reneman (Liesbeth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Although numerous children receivemethylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. OBJECTIVES To determine

  11. Age-Dependent Effects of Methylphenidate on the Human Dopaminergic System in Young vs Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Bouziane, Cheima; Bottelier, Marco A.; Bron, Esther E.; Mutsaerts, Henk-Jan M. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Groote, Inge R.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Klein, Stefan; Niessen, Wiro J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Boer, Frits; Lucassen, Paul J.; Andersen, Susan L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. To determine whether the effects of

  12. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Influence of the dopaminergic system, CREB, and transcription factor-κB on cocaine neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planeta, C.S.; Lepsch, L.B.; Alves, R.; Scavone, C.

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is a widely used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. Abnormalities in newborns have been demonstrated to be due to the toxic effects of cocaine during fetal development. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is complex and involves interactions of the drug with several neurotransmitter systems, such as the increase of extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulation of transcription factors. The aim of this review was to evaluate the importance of the dopaminergic system and the participation of inflammatory signaling in cocaine neurotoxicity. Our study showed that cocaine activates the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB, which regulate genes involved in cellular death. GBR 12909 (an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake), lidocaine (a local anesthetic), and dopamine did not activate NF-κB in the same way as cocaine. However, the attenuation of NF-κB activity after the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, suggests that the activation of NF-κB by cocaine is, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors. NF-κB seems to have a protective role in these cells because its inhibition increased cellular death caused by cocaine. The increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) mRNA can also be related to the protective role of both CREB and NF-κB transcription factors. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cocaine induces cell death in the brain will contribute to the development of new therapies for drug abusers, which can help to slow down the progress of degenerative processes

  14. Influence of the dopaminergic system, CREB, and transcription factor-κB on cocaine neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Neuropsicofarmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Lepsch, L.B.; Alves, R.; Scavone, C. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Cocaine is a widely used drug and its abuse is associated with physical, psychiatric and social problems. Abnormalities in newborns have been demonstrated to be due to the toxic effects of cocaine during fetal development. The mechanism by which cocaine causes neurological damage is complex and involves interactions of the drug with several neurotransmitter systems, such as the increase of extracellular levels of dopamine and free radicals, and modulation of transcription factors. The aim of this review was to evaluate the importance of the dopaminergic system and the participation of inflammatory signaling in cocaine neurotoxicity. Our study showed that cocaine activates the transcription factors NF-κB and CREB, which regulate genes involved in cellular death. GBR 12909 (an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake), lidocaine (a local anesthetic), and dopamine did not activate NF-κB in the same way as cocaine. However, the attenuation of NF-κB activity after the pretreatment of the cells with SCH 23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, suggests that the activation of NF-κB by cocaine is, at least partially, due to activation of D1 receptors. NF-κB seems to have a protective role in these cells because its inhibition increased cellular death caused by cocaine. The increase in BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) mRNA can also be related to the protective role of both CREB and NF-κB transcription factors. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cocaine induces cell death in the brain will contribute to the development of new therapies for drug abusers, which can help to slow down the progress of degenerative processes.

  15. Adult central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, the adult central nervous system (CNS) was regarded as relatively immune to the effects of ionising radiation, and the recognition of the CNS as a radio-vulnerable structure occurred later than was the case for many other tissues. Increasingly precise knowledge of the time-dose-volume relationships for CNS tolerance has had two important consequences: (1) it has permitted the avoidance of catastrophic and usually lethal late effects in the brain and spinal cord when these tissues are unavoidably irradiated during the treatment of adjacent non-CNS tumours, and (2) it has encouraged referral for irradiation of certain technically benign lesions which, although compatible with prolonged survival, represent a continuing threat to the patient - for example arteriovenous malformations, pituitary adenomas, and some meningiomas. Many of these can now be controlled for very long periods following radiation doses consistent with the long-term functional integrity of the CNS

  16. Interaction between the dopaminergic and opioidergic systems in dorsal hippocampus in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisi, Zahra; Haghparast, Amir; Pahlevani, Pouyan; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Haghparast, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    The hippocampus is a region of the brain that serves several functions. The dopaminergic system acts through D1- and D2-like receptors to interfere in pain modulation and the opioid receptors play major roles in analgesic processes and there are obvious overlaps between these two systems. The present study investigated the interaction between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) region for formalin-induced orofacial pain. Two guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region and morphine (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 μg/0.5 μl saline) and naloxone (0.3, 1 and 3 μg/0.5 μl saline) were used as the opioid receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. SKF-38393 (1 μg/0.5 μl saline) was used as a D1-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (2 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D2-like receptor agonist, SCH-23390 (0.5 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D1-like receptor antagonist and sulpiride (3 μg/0.5 μl DMSO) as a D2-like receptor antagonist. To induce orofacial pain, 50 μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the left side of the upper lip. Our results showed that different doses of morphine significantly reduced orofacial pain in both phases induced by formalin. Naloxone (1 and 3 μg) reversed morphine induced analgesia in CA1. SKF-38393 and quinpirole with naloxone (1 μg) significantly decreased formalin-induced orofacial pain in both phases. SCH-23390 had no effect on the antinociceptive response of morphine in both phases of orofacial pain. Sulpiride reversed the antinociceptive effects of morphine only in the first phase, but this result was not significant. Our findings suggest that there is cross-talk between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems. Opioidergic neurons also exerted antinociceptive effects by modulation of the dopaminergic system in the CA1 region of the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of Vitex agnus castus extract and its interaction with dopaminergic system on LH and testosterone in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Sima; Oryan, Shahrbano; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Amin, Gholam Reza

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of Vitex agnus castus (Vac.) on the male reproductive physiology. It is a well known fact that LH secretion from the anterior pituitary of mammals is controlled by many neurotransmiters such as dopamine. In this experiment, we have studied the effect of Vac. extract on the LH and testosterone hormones and its interaction with the dopaminergic system on male mice. In order to evaluate these effects, we used the hydroalcoholic Vac. extract (for extraction we used percolation technique) injection with the following doses: 65, 165, 265, 365 and 465 mg kg-', bromocriptine as a dopamine receptor agonist (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1)) and haloperidol as a dopamine receptor antagonist (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mg kg(-1)). To study the interaction between Vac. extract and dopaminergic system, we injected the optimum doses of Vac. with bromocriptine or haloperidol at the same time. Intraperitoneal injections were applied in all experiments, once a day for 30 days. The control group remained intact and the sham group received vehicle. After the last injection, we collected the animal blood serums for hormonal assays. LH and testosterone were measured by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA). LH and testosterone, showed significant decrease in bromocriptine group and haloperidol increased these hormones. Vac. extract decreased significantly the LH and testosterone levels. The coadministration of Vac. extract and bromocriptine decreased LH and testosterone. Coadministration of Vac. extract and haloperidol decreased LH and testosterone levels. These results suggest: dopamine regulates the gonadotroph-leydig cells axis. It appears that Vac. exertes effects through dopaminergic system and other pathways. The findings of this study show we can use Vac. extract for pathological cases of increasing LH and testosterone.

  18. Preclinical assessment of dopaminergic system in rats by MicroPET using three positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Camacho, V. M., E-mail: victormlc13@hotmail.com; Ávila-García, M. C., E-mail: victormlc13@hotmail.com; Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A., E-mail: victormlc13@hotmail.com [Unidad PET, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Different diseases associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic system such as Parkinson, Alzheimer, and Schizophrenia are being widely studied with positron emission tomography (PET) which is a noninvasive method useful to assess the stage of these illnesses. In our facility we have recently implemented the production of [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ, [{sup 11}C]-RAC, and [{sup 18}F]-FDOPA, which are among the most common PET radiopharmaceuticals used in neurology applications to get information about the dopamine pathways. In this study two healthy rats were imaged with each of those radiotracers in order to confirm selective striatum uptake as a proof of principle before to release them for human use.

  19. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  20. Omission of expected reward sensitizes the brain dopaminergic system of classically conditioned Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, M.A.; Höglund, Erik; Folkedal, O.

    in fishes. Here we show that the omission of expected reward (OER) leads to increased aggression towards conspecifics in classically conditioned Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Furthermore, in response to an acute stressor, OER fish displayed increased dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission compared to controls....... There was also a general downregulation of dopamine receptor D1 gene expression in the telencephalon of OER groups, which suggests a coping mechanism in response to unbalanced DA metabolism. These results indicate that animals subjected to unpredictable reward conditions develop a senzitation of the DA...

  1. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Obici

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive reinforcement during exercise training.

  2. Central Verification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CVS is a system managed by OPM that is designed to be the primary tool for verifying whether or not there is an existing investigation on a person seeking security...

  3. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Expression in the Developing Avian Retina: Morphological and Functional Correlation With the Dopaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia da Silva Sampaio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The avian retina has been used as a model to study signaling by different neuro- and gliotransmitters. It is unclear how dopaminergic and cannabinoid systems are related in the retina. Here we studied the expression of type 1 and 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, as well as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, the enzyme that degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, during retina development. Our data show that CB1 receptor is highly expressed from embryonic day 5 (E5 until post hatched day 7 (PE7, decreasing its levels throughout development. CB1 is densely found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and inner plexiform layer (IPL. CB2 receptor was also found from E5 until PE7 with a decrease in its contents from E9 afterwards. CB2 was mainly present in the lamination of the IPL at PE7. MAGL is expressed in all retinal layers, mainly in the IPL and OPL from E9 to PE7 retina. CB1 and CB2 were found both in neurons and glia cells, but MAGL was only expressed in Müller glia. Older retinas (PE7 show CB1 positive cells mainly in the INL and co-expression of CB1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH are shown in a few cells when both systems are mature. CB1 co-localized with TH and was heavily associated to D1 receptor labeling in primary cell cultures. Finally, cyclic AMP (cAMP was activated by the selective D1 agonist SKF38393, and inhibited when cultures were treated with WIN55, 212–2 (WIN in a CB1 dependent manner. The results suggest a correlation between the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems (DSs during the avian retina development. Activation of CB1 limits cAMP accumulation via D1 receptor activation and may influence embryological parameters during avian retina differentiation.

  4. [Behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of depressive WAG/Rij rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, A V; Razumkina, E V; Rogozinskaia, É Ia; Sarkisova, K Iu; Dybynin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it has been studied for the first time behavior and functional state of the dopaminergic brain system in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats. Offspring of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats at age of 6-16 days compared with offspring of "normal" (non-depressed) outbred rats of the same age exhibited reduced rate of pshychomotor development, lower body weight, attenuation in integration of coordinated reflexes and vestibular function (greater latency of righting reflex, abnormal negative geotaxis), hyper-reactivity to tactile stimulation, reduced motivation to contact with mother (reduced infant-mother attachment). Differences in a nest seeking response induced by olfactory stimuli (olfactory discrimination test) and in locomotor activity (tests "gait reflex" and "small open field") have not been revealed. Acute injection of the antagonist of D2-like dopamine receptors clebopride 20 min before testing aggravated mother-oriented behavior in 15-days-old pups of both "depressive" and "non-depressive" rats. However this effect was greater in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with pups of "normal" rats that may indicate reduced functional activity of the dopaminergic brain system in offspring of "depressive" rats. It is proposed that reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" WAG/Rij rats might be a consequence of maternal depression and associated with it reduced maternal care. Moreover, reduced attachment behavior in pups of "depressive" rats might be an early precursor (a marker) of depressive-like pathology which become apparent later in life (approximately at age of 3 months).

  5. Central nervous system: brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Present radiopharmaceuticals and detector systems have provided nuclear medicine physicians with tools capable of detecting a variety of brain abnormalities with little radiation exposure to pediatric patients. It is essential that the referring physician as well as the physician performing the procedure recognize both the limitations and virtues of these techniques. Appropriate selection of brain imaging procedures in each specific case must be the rule. Brain scintigraphy reliably solves certain problems, such as detecting or excluding intracranial tumors and identifying early cerebral inflammatory disease, cerebral ischemic disease, and a variety of congenital anomalies. Other situations, such as seizures without a focal neurologic deficit, acute meningitis, and hydrocephalus, are less often benefited by these studies. The role of these procedures in acute trauma and its sequelae is at the present time limited in pediatric practice. (auth)

  6. Distribution of serotonergic and dopaminergic nerve fibers in the salivary gland complex of the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnel Dana

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cockroach salivary gland consists of secretory acini with peripheral ion-transporting cells and central protein-producing cells, an extensive duct system, and a pair of reservoirs. Salivation is controled by serotonergic and dopaminergic innervation. Serotonin stimulates the secretion of a protein-rich saliva, dopamine causes the production of a saliva without proteins. These findings suggest a model in which serotonin acts on the central cells and possibly other cell types, and dopamine acts selectively on the ion-transporting cells. To examine this model, we have analyzed the spatial relationship of dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve fibers to the various cell types. Results The acinar tissue is entangled in a meshwork of serotonergic and dopaminergic varicose fibers. Dopaminergic fibers reside only at the surface of the acini next to the peripheral cells. Serotonergic fibers invade the acini and form a dense network between central cells. Salivary duct segments close to the acini are locally associated with dopaminergic and serotonergic fibers, whereas duct segments further downstream have only dopaminergic fibers on their surface and within the epithelium. In addition, the reservoirs have both a dopaminergic and a serotonergic innervation. Conclusion Our results suggest that dopamine is released on the acinar surface, close to peripheral cells, and along the entire duct system. Serotonin is probably released close to peripheral and central cells, and at initial segments of the duct system. Moreover, the presence of serotonergic and dopaminergic fiber terminals on the reservoir indicates that the functions of this structure are also regulated by dopamine and serotonin.

  7. Chapter 1. Central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planiol, T.; Veyre, A.; Plagne, R.

    1975-01-01

    The present situation with regard to explorations of the central nervous system by radioactive compounds is reviewed. For the sake of clarity the brain and cerebrospinal fluid examinations are described separately, with emphasis nevertheless on their complementarity. The tracers used in each of these examinations are listed, together with the criteria governing their choice. The different techniques employed are described. Scintigraphy is presented apart from gamma-angio-encephalography since it is not possible with rectilinear scintigraphs to observe the circulatory phase. The results are interpreted by an analysis of normal and pathological aspects of the different stages of the central nervous system [fr

  8. Unveiling the Dual Role of the Dopaminergic System on Locomotion and the Innate Value for an Aversive Olfactory Stimulus in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida-Uribe, Nicolás; Campusano, Jorge M

    2018-02-10

    The communication between sensory systems and the specific brain centers that process this information is crucial to develop adequate behavioral responses. Modulatory systems, including dopaminergic circuits, regulate this communication to finely tune the behavioral response associated to any given stimulus. For instance, the Mushroom Body (MB), an insect brain integration center that receives and processes several sensory stimuli and organizes the execution of motor programs, communicates with MB output neurons (MBONs) to develop behavioral responses associated to olfactory stimuli. This communication is modulated by dopaminergic neural systems. Here we show that silencing dopaminergic neurons increases the aversive response observed in adult flies exposed to Benzaldehyde (Bz) or octanol. We studied the contribution of two dopaminergic clusters that innervate different zones of MB, Protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) and Protocerebral posterior lateral 1 (PPL1), on the innate value to the aversive stimulus and the associated locomotor behavior. In order to do this, we manipulated the synaptic transmission of these neural clusters through the expression of Tetanus toxin, Kir2.1 and Transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TrpA1) channels. Our results show that neurons in PPL1 and PAM differentially modulate the innate value to Bz in adult flies. On the other hand, blocking neurotransmission or genetic silencing of PAM neurons results in decreased locomotor behavior in flies, an effect not observed when silencing PPL1. Our results suggest that as in mammals, specific dopaminergic pathways differentially modulate locomotor behavior and the innate value for an odorant, a limbic-like response in Drosophila. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  10. Implication of coumarins towards central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Budzyńska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are widely distributed, plant-derived, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one derivatives which have attracted intense interest in recent years as a result of their diverse and potent pharmacological properties. Particularly, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have been established. The present review discusses the most important pharmacological effects of natural and synthetic coumarins on the CNS, including their interactions with benzodiazepine receptors, their dopaminergic and serotonergic affinity, and their ability to inhibit cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases. The structure-activity relationships pertaining to these effects are also discussed. This review posits that natural or synthetic coumarins have the potential for development in the therapy of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety, epilepsy, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F. [INM Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Caroli, E. [Policlinico S. Andrea, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery

    2005-06-15

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival.

  12. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F.; Caroli, E.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  13. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior. PMID:26075223

  14. Chewing prevents stress-induced hippocampal LTD formation and anxiety-related behaviors: a possible role of the dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yumie; Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.

  15. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.

  16. LRRK2 knockout mice have an intact dopaminergic system but display alterations in exploratory and motor co-ordination behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes. PMID:22647713

  17. Smoking-specific parenting and smoking onset in adolescence: the role of genes from the dopaminergic system (DRD2, DRD4, DAT1 genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Hiemstra

    Full Text Available Although only few studies have shown direct links between dopaminergic system genes and smoking onset, this does not rule out the effect of a gene-environment interaction on smoking onset. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between smoking-specific parenting (i.e., frequency and quality of communication and house rules and smoking onset while considering the potential moderating role of dopaminergic system genes (i.e., DRD2, DRD4, and DAT1 genotypes. Data from five annual waves of the 'Family and Health' project were used. At time 1, the sample comprised 365 non-smoking adolescents (200 younger adolescents, mean age = 13.31, SD = .48; 165 older adolescents, mean age = 15.19, SD = .57. Advanced longitudinal analyses were used (i.e., logistic regression analyses, (dual latent growth curves, and cross-lagged path models. The results showed a direct effect of quality of communication on smoking onset. No direct effects were found for frequency of communication and house rules. Furthermore, no direct and moderating effects of the DRD2, DRD4, or DAT1 genotypes were found. In conclusion, the findings indicated that the effects of smoking-specific parenting on smoking are similar for adolescent carriers and non-carriers of the dopaminergic system genes.

  18. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  19. Dopaminergic receptor agents and the basal ganglia : pharmacological properties and interactions with the GABA-ergic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Wigerline

    1992-01-01

    In the present series of studies, attention was focussed particularly on dopaminergic D2 receptor compounds, with emphasis on the enantiomers of the potent and selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist N-0437. Drugs that display activity at D2 receptors are of great interest as potentially new

  20. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymorphisms in dopaminergic system genes; association with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in violent prison inmates from Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadeer

    Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute to antisocial and criminal behavior. Dopamine transporter DAT-1 (SLC6A3 and DRD2 gene for the dopamine-2 receptor are dopaminergic system genes that regulate dopamine reuptake and signaling, and may be part of the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including antisocial behaviors and traits. No previous studies have analyzed DAT-1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in convicted murderers, particularly from Indian subcontinent. In this study we investigated the association of 40 bp VNTR polymorphism of DAT-1 and Taq1 variant of DRD2 gene (rs1800479 with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in 729 subjects, including 370 men in Pakistani prisons convicted of first degree murder(s and 359 control men without any history of violence or criminal tendency. The 9R allele of DAT-1 VNTR polymorphism was more prevalent in convicted murderers compared with control samples, for either one or two risk alleles (OR = 1.49 and 3.99 respectively, P = 0.003. This potential association of DAT-1 9R allele polymorphism with murderer phenotype was confirmed assuming different genetic models of inheritance. However, no genetic association was found for DRD2 Taq1 polymorphism. In addition, a combined haplotype (9R-A2 of DAT-1 and DRD2 genes was associated with this murderer phenotype. Further, 9R allele of DAT-1 was also associated with response to verbal abuse and parental marital complications, but not with other measures pertinent to self-reported aggression. These results suggest that 9R allele, which may influence levels of intra-synaptic dopamine in the brain, may contribute to criminal tendency in this sample of violent murderers of Pakistani origin. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in other populations of murderers and see if this finding extends to other forms of violence and lesser degrees of aggression.

  2. Targeting the-Dopaminergic Nervous System: Altering Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrafish (Dania rerio) are becoming an important model system in studying the effects of environmental chemicals on behavior. In order to develop a rapid in vivo screen to prioritize toxic chemicals, we have begun assessing the acute locomotor effects of drugs that act on the do...

  3. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems on salient stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eLaricchiuta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rewarding effects have been related to enhanced dopamine (DA release in corticolimbic and basal ganglia structures. The DAergic and endocannabinoid interaction in the responses to reward is described. This study investigated the link between endocannabinoid and DAergic transmission in the processes that are related to response to two types of reward, palatable food and novelty. Mice treated with drugs acting on endocannabinoid system (ECS (URB597, AM251 or DAergic system (haloperidol were submitted to approach-avoidance conflict tasks with palatable food or novelty. In the same mice, the cannabinoid type-1 (CB1-mediated GABAergic transmission in medium spiny neurons of the dorsomedial striatum was analyzed. The endocannabinoid potentiation by URB597 magnified approach behavior for reward (food and novelty and in parallel inhibited dorsostriatal GABAergic neurotransmission. The decreased activity of CB1 receptor by AM251 (alone or with URB597 or of DAergic D2 receptor by haloperidol had inhibitory effects toward the reward and did not permit the inhibition of dorsostriatal GABAergic transmission. When haloperidol was coadministered with URB597, a restoration effect on reward and reward-dependent motor activity was observed, only if the reward was the palatable food. In parallel, the coadministration led to restoring inhibition of CB1-mediated GABAergic transmission. Thus, in the presence of simultaneous ECS activation and inhibition of DAergic system the response to reward appears to be a stimulus-dependent manner.

  4. SPECT imaging of dopaminergic system: a preliminary study of nine patients with clinically uncertain Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S. K.; Gopinath, G.; Buscombe, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Parkinsonism is the result of various neuro degenerative disorders, the common and related causes are Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). In each of these three causes, there is degeneration of presynaptic neurons in corpus striatum. Nine patients having clinically uncertain parkinsonian symptoms undergone brain SPECT imaging using the tracer (I-123 Ioflupane) that binds to dopamine transporter (DaT) in the pre-synaptic nerve terminals in basal ganglia. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake in the tail (putamen) portion of basal ganglia in five patients confirming presence of presynaptic neuro degeneration and reported as parkinsonism. Three patients revealed normal tracer uptake with one equivocal result. DaT imaging can effectively confirm parkinsonism and discriminate from normal subjects as well as other clinical simulators like essential tremor and dopa-responsive dystonia where no neuro degeneration occur.(author)

  5. The Central Nervous System Sites Mediating the Orexigenic Actions of Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B.L.; Wang, Q.; Zigman, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  6. Central nervous system in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, J P; Anderson, R E; Namiki, Hideo

    1964-03-12

    The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occurred most often in acute myelogenous leukemia and was markedly increased in patients dying with high terminal white blood cell counts. Possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia are discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were not related to leukocytosis but appeared to be influenced by marked thrombocytopenia. Leukemic infiltrates of a diffuse nature involving the meninges were paradoxically increased in patients receiving adequate chemotherapy. Meningeal tumors did not show this peculiar relationship to therapy and were not found in association with lymphatic leukemia. Infections involving the central nervous system were confined to patients receiving chemotherapy including steroids. 39 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Modification of the striatal dopaminergic neuron system by carbon monoxide exposure in free-moving rats, as determined by in vivo brain microdialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Shuichi; Kurosaki, Kunihiko; Kuriiwa, Fumi; Endo, Takahiko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Mukai, Toshiji [Department of Legal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-0015 (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in humans results in motor deficits, which resemble those in Parkinson's disease, suggesting possible disturbance of the central dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal system by CO exposure. In the present study, therefore, we explored the effects of CO exposure on the DAergic neuronal system in the striatum of freely moving rats by means of in vivo brain microdialysis. Exposure of rats to CO (up to 0.3%) for 40 min caused an increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and a decrease in extracellular levels of its major metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the striatum depending on the CO concentration. Reoxygenation following termination of the CO exposure resulted in a decline of DA to the control level and an overshoot in the recovery of DOPAC and HVA to levels higher than the control. A monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) inhibitor, clorgyline, significantly potentiated the CO-induced increase in DA and completely abolished the subsequent overshoot in the recovery of DOPAC and HVA. Tetrodotoxin, a Na{sup +} channel blocker, completely abolished both the CO-induced increase in DA and the overshoot of DOPAC and HVA. A DA uptake inhibitor, nomifensine, strongly potentiated the CO-induced increase in DA without affecting the subsequent overshoot of DOPAC and HVA. Clorgyline further potentiated the effect of nomifensine on the CO-induced increase in DA, although a slight overshoot of DOPAC and HVA appeared. These findings suggest that (1) CO exposure may stimulate Na{sup +}-dependent DA release in addition to suppressing DA metabolism, resulting in a marked increase in extracellular DA in rat striatum, and (2) CO withdrawal and subsequent reoxygenation may enhance the oxidative metabolism, preferentially mediated by MAO-A, of the increased extracellular DA. In the light of the neurotoxicity of DA per se and reactive substances, such as quinones and activated oxygen species

  8. Short post-weaning social isolation induces long-term changes in the dopaminergic system and increases susceptibility to psychostimulants in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carine; Arcego, Danusa Mar; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; Dos Santos Vieira, Aline; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Krolow, Rachel; Garcia, Emily; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Childhood and adolescence are sensitive periods of development, marked by high brain maturation and plasticity. Exposure to early life stress, such as social isolation, is able to prompt changes in sensitive brain circuitries, essentially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and increase the risk for addictive behaviors later in life. Post-weaning social isolation can stimulate the consumption of rewarding substances, like drugs of abuse and palatable foods. However, most studies analyze long periods of social isolation and very little is known about the effects of a brief social isolation in a sensitive period of development and its association with palatable food on the reward system sensitization. Furthermore, females are more susceptible to the reinforcing effect of drugs than males. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a short post-weaning social isolation combined with a free access to a chronic high sugar diet (HSD) on the dopaminergic system, oxidative status and behavioral response to an amphetamine-like drug in adulthood. We used female Wistar rats that were socially isolated from post-natal days (PD) 21 to 35 and received free access to a HSD until PD 60. On PD 65, animals were submitted to a challenge with diethylpropion (DEP), an amphetamine-like drug and different responses were analyzed: locomotor activity, immmunocontent of dopamine related proteins, and the oxidative status in the striatum, before and after the DEP challenge. We showed that a short post-weaning social isolation (SI) increased the locomotor response to DEP, when compared with previous saline administration. Social isolation also increased dopamine transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase, and decreased dopamine D2 receptor immunocontent. Additionally, SI increased the overall oxidative status parameters after the challenge with DEP. Interestingly, the exposure to a HSD prevented the SI effects on locomotor response, but did not interfere in the dopaminergic

  9. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  10. Central control system for the EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoyang; Ji Zhenshan; Wu Yicun; Luo Jiarong

    2008-01-01

    The architecture, the main function and the design scheme of the central control system and the collaboration system of EAST tokamak are described. The main functions of the central control system are to supply a union control interface for all the control, diagnoses, and data acquisition (DAQ) subsystem and it is also designed to synchronize all those subsystem. (authors)

  11. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-04

    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  12. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system in hippocampus are involved in the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced learning and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Chun-Hai; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. This study focused on the role of synaptophysin, growth-associated protein 43 and the action of the dopaminergic system in mechanisms associated with rutin protection and trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment. Cognitive learning and memory was measured by Morris Water Maze. The expression of synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 in hippocampus was analyzed by western blot. The concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and dihyroxyphenylacetic acid in hippocampus were detected using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration. These results suggest that rutin may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system may be involved in trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus.

  13. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.; Susnic, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2004-01-01

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  14. Sexually dimorphic activation of dopaminergic areas depends on affiliation during courtship and pair formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai eIwasaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For many species, dyadic interaction during courtship and pair bonding engage intense emotional states that control approach or avoidance behavior. Previous studies have shown that one component of a common social brain network (SBN, dopaminergic areas, are highly engaged during male songbird courtship of females. We tested whether the level of activity in dopaminergic systems of both females and males during courtship is related to their level of affiliation. In order to objectively quantify affiliative behaviors, we developed a system for tracking the position of both birds during free interaction sessions. During a third successive daily interaction session, there was a range of levels of affiliation among bird pairs, as quantified by several position and movement parameters. Because both positive and negative social interactions were present, we chose to characterize affiliation strength by pair valence. As a potential neural system involved in regulating pair valence, the level of activity of the dopaminergic group A11 (within the central gray was selectively reduced in females of positive valence pairs. Further, activation of non-dopaminergic neurons in VTA was negatively related to valence, with this relationship strongest in ventral VTA of females. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of fear or avoidance networks may be associated with development of close affiliation, and highlight the importance of negative as well as positive emotional states in the process of courtship, and in development of long-lasting social bonds.

  15. The NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Oliaro; J. Dong; K. Tindall; P. Sichta

    1999-01-01

    Earlier this year the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory achieved ''first plasma''. The Central Instrumentation and Control System was used to support plasma operations. Major elements of the system include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System. This paper will focus on the Process Control System. Topics include the architecture, hardware interface, operator interface, data management, and system performance

  16. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references

  17. A Tyrosine-Hydroxylase Characterization of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Honey Bee Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanus R. Tedjakumala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US. Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity (ir to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously. We found three main dopaminergic clusters, C1–C3, which had been previously described; the C1 cluster is located in a small region adjacent to the esophagus (ES and the antennal lobe (AL; the C2 cluster is situated above the C1 cluster, between the AL and the vertical lobe (VL of the mushroom body (MB; the C3 cluster is located below the calyces (CA of the MB. In addition, we found a novel dopaminergic cluster, C4, located above the dorsomedial border of the lobula, which innervates the visual neuropils of the bee brain. Additional smaller processes and clusters were found and are described. The profuse dopaminergic innervation of the entire bee brain and the specific connectivity of DA neurons, with visual, olfactory and gustatory circuits, provide a foundation for a deeper understanding of how these sensory modules are modulated by DA, and the DA-dependent value-based associations that occur during associative learning.

  18. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  19. NCPC Central Files Information System (CFIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...

  20. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício dos Santos Pereira

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours and long-term (10 days MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally, (iii to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p. presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult

  1. Role of the Dopaminergic System in the Acquisition, Expression and Reinstatement of MDMA-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Adolescent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Roger-Sánchez, Concepción; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Aguilar, María A.; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Background The rewarding effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA) have been demonstrated in conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures, but the involvement of the dopaminergic system in MDMA-induced CPP and reinstatement is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the effects of the DA D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg), the DA D2 antagonist Haloperidol (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), the D2 antagonist Raclopride (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg) and the dopamine release inhibitor CGS 10746B (3 and 10 mg/kg) on the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of a CPP induced by 10 mg/kg of MDMA were evaluated in adolescent mice. As expected, MDMA significantly increased the time spent in the drug-paired compartment during the post-conditioning (Post-C) test, and a priming dose of 5 mg/kg reinstated the extinguished preference. The higher doses of Haloperidol, Raclopride and CGS 10746B and both doses of SCH 23390 blocked acquisition of the MDMA-induced CPP. However, only Haloperidol blocked expression of the CPP. Reinstatement of the extinguished preference was not affected by any of the drugs studied. Analysis of brain monoamines revealed that the blockade of CPP acquisition was accompanied by an increase in DA concentration in the striatum, with a concomitant decrease in DOPAC and HVA levels. Administration of haloperidol during the Post-C test produced increases in striatal serotonin, DOPAC and HVA concentrations. In mice treated with the higher doses of haloperidol and CGS an increase in SERT concentration in the striatum was detected during acquisition of the CPP, but no changes in DAT were observed. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that, in adolescent mice, the dopaminergic system is involved in the acquisition and expression of MDMA-induced CPP, but not in its reinstatement. PMID:22916213

  2. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  3. Different subcellular localization of neurotensin-receptor and neurotensin-acceptor sites in the rat brain dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, A; Rostène, W; Laduron, P M

    1988-04-01

    The subcellular localization of neurotensin-receptor sites (NT2 sites) and neurotensin-acceptor sites (NT1 sites) was studied in rat caudate-putamen by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose density gradients. [3H]Neurotensin binding to NT2 sites occurred as a major peak at higher sucrose densities, colocalized with [3H]dopamine uptake, and as a small peak at a lower density; whereas binding to NT1 sites occurred as a single large peak at an intermediate density. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions of the median forebrain bundle resulted in a total loss of NT2 sites in the caudate-putamen but did not affect NT2 sites in the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle. NT1 sites were not affected. Kainic acid injections into the rat caudate-putamen led to a partial decrease of NT1 sites in this region 5 days later. After a few weeks they returned to normal. Therefore NT2 sites are probably associated with presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals in the caudate-putamen but not in the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle. A possible association of NT1 sites with glial cells is suggested.

  4. Protection of dopaminergic neurons by 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kai-Hsiang; Liou, Horng-Hui; Hour, Mann-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2013-10-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are important factors that induce neurodegeneration in age-related neurological disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the enzyme responsible for catalysing the synthesis of leukotriene or 5-HETE from arachidonic acid. 5-LOX is expressed in the central nervous system and may cause neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of the pharmacological inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)/MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal death in midbrain neuron-glia co-cultures and in mice. It was found that 5-LOX was over-expressed in astrocytes after the injection of MPTP into C57BL6 mice. MK-886, a specific inhibitor of 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP), significantly increased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake, a functional indicator of the integrity of dopaminergic neurons, in midbrain cultures or the SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic cell line following MPP(+) treatment. In addition, LTB₄, one of 5-LOX's downstream products, was increased in the striatum and substantia nigra following MPTP injection in mice. LTB₄ but not LTD₄ and 5-HETE enhanced MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in primary midbrain cultures. MK-886 administration increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the dopamine content in the striatum in MPTP-induced parkinsonian mice. Furthermore, the MPTP-induced upregulation of LTB₄ in the striatum and substantia nigra was antagonised by MK-886. These results suggest that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed as novel neuroprotective agents and LTB₄ may play an important pathological role in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  6. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  7. The role of the central ghrelin system in reward from food and chemical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Suzanne L; Egecioglu, Emil; Landgren, Sara; Skibicka, Karolina P; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2011-06-20

    Here we review recent advances that identify a role for the central ghrelin signalling system in reward from both natural rewards (such as food) and artificial rewards (that include alcohol and drugs of abuse). Whereas ghrelin emerged as a stomach-derived hormone involved in energy balance, hunger and meal initiation via hypothalamic circuits, it now seems clear that it also has a role in motivated reward-driven behaviours via activation of the so-called "cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link". This reward link comprises a dopamine projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens together with a cholinergic input, arising primarily from the laterodorsal tegmental area. Ghrelin administration into the VTA or LDTg activates the "cholinergic-dopaminergic" reward link, suggesting that ghrelin may increase the incentive value of motivated behaviours such as reward-seeking behaviour ("wanting" or "incentive motivation"). Further, direct injection of ghrelin into the brain ventricles or into the VTA increases the consumption of rewarding foods as well as alcohol in mice and rats. Studies in rodents show beneficial effects of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonists to suppress the intake of palatable food, to reduce preference for caloric foods, to suppress food reward and motivated behaviour for food. They have also been shown to reduce alcohol consumption, suppress reward induced by alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Furthermore, variations in the GHS-R1A and pro-ghrelin genes have been associated with high alcohol consumption, smoking and increased weight gain in alcohol dependent individuals as well as with bulimia nervosa and obesity. Thus, the central ghrelin signalling system interfaces neurobiological circuits involved in reward from food as well as chemical drugs; agents that directly or indirectly suppress this system emerge as potential candidate drugs for suppressing problematic over-eating that leads to obesity as well as for the

  8. Dysfunction of serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems in the antidepressant-resistant impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sho; Miyake, Yuriko; Yoshimi, Akira; Mouri, Akihiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-03-29

    Extensive studies have been performed on the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in rodents exposed to social defeat stress as adults. In the present study, we investigated the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles. Juvenile, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress for 10 consecutive days. From 1 day after the last stress exposure, desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole, were administered for 15 days. Social behaviors were assessed at 1 and 15 days after the last stress exposure. Monoamine turnover was determined in specific regions of the brain in the mice exposed to the stress. Stress exposure as juveniles induced the impairment of social behaviors in adolescent mice. In mice that showed the impairment of social behaviors, turnover of the serotonin and dopamine, but not noradrenaline was decreased in specific brain regions. Acute and repeated administration of desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole failed to attenuate the impairment of social behaviors, whereas repeated administration of a combination of sertraline and aripiprazole showed additive attenuating effects. These findings suggest that social defeat stress exposure as juveniles induces the treatment-resistant impairment of social behaviors in adolescents through dysfunction in the serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems. The combination of sertraline and aripiprazole may be used as a new treatment strategy for treatment-resistant stress-related psychiatric disorders in adolescents with adverse juvenile experiences.

  9. Development of clinical study and application on dopaminergic neurotransmitters and neuroreceptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongfu

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the neurotransmitter mapping has been rapidly developed from a lot of fundamental researches to the studies of clinical applications. At present, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter and receptor imaging in the central neurotransmitter mapping study are the most active area including dopaminergic receptor, dopaminergic neurotransmitter and dopaminergic transporter imaging, etc,. The nuclear medicine functional imaging technique with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography possesses potential advantages in the diagnosis and distinguished diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders and movement disorders, and in the study of recognition function

  10. The antidepressant-like effect of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine in the mouse forced swimming test is mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Mantovani, Anderson C; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-10-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like action of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a derivative of isoquinoline class, in Swiss mice. The antidepressant-like effect of FDPI was characterized in the modified forced swimming test (FST) and the possible mechanism of action was investigated by using serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and [(3)H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake were determined in prefrontal cortices of mice. The results showed that FDPI (1, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.g.) reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming time but did not alter climbing time in the modified FST. These effects were similar to those of paroxetine (8mg/kg, i.p.), a positive control. Pretreatments with p-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis), WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., 5-HT1A antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist) and SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a D1 receptor antagonist) were effective to block the antidepressant-like effect of FDPI at a dose of 1mg/kg in the FST. Ritanserin (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 and D3 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2 receptor antagonist) and propranolol (2mg/kg, i.p., a β receptor antagonist) did not modify the effect of FDPI in the FST. FDPI did not change synaptosomal [(3)H]5-HT uptake. At doses of 10 and 20mg/kg FDPI inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B activities. These results suggest that antidepressant-like effect of FDPI is mediated mostly by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  12. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  13. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  14. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our

  15. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  16. Lack of CCR5 modifies glial phenotypes and population of the nigral dopaminergic neurons, but not MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Myung Koo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive expression of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 has been detected in astrocytes, microglia and neurons, but its physiological roles in the central nervous system are obscure. The bidirectional interactions between neuron and glial cells through CCR5 and its ligands were thought to be crucial for maintaining normal neuronal activities. No study has described function of CCR5 in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In order to examine effects of CCR5 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we employed CCR5 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Immunostainings for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) exhibited that CCR5 KO mice had lower number of TH-positive neurons even in the absence of MPTP. Difference in MPTP (15mg/kg×4 times, 2hr interval)-mediated loss of TH-positive neurons was subtle between CCR5 WT and KO mice, but there was larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments and microglial activation in CCR5 deficient mice. Intriguingly, CCR5 KO brains contained higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B which was mainly localized within astrocytes. In agreement with upregulation of MAO B, concentration of MPP+ was higher in the substantia nigra and striatum of CCR5 KO mice after MPTP injection. We found remarkable activation of p38 MAPK in CCR5 deficient mice, which positively regulates MAO B expression. These results indicate that CCR5 deficiency modifies the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal system and bidirectional interaction between neurons and glial cells via CCR5 might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decoding the contribution of dopaminergic genes and pathways to autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Poudel, Manoj K; Wong, Keith; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a debilitating brain illness causing social deficits, delayed development and repetitive behaviors. ASD is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood and complex etiology. The central dopaminergic system is strongly implicated in ASD pathogenesis. Genes encoding various elements of this system (including dopamine receptors, the dopamine transporter or enzymes of synthesis and catabolism) have been linked to ASD. Here, we comprehensively evaluate known molecular interactors of dopaminergic genes, and identify their potential molecular partners within up/down-steam signaling pathways associated with dopamine. These in silico analyses allowed us to construct a map of molecular pathways, regulated by dopamine and involved in ASD. Clustering these pathways reveals groups of genes associated with dopamine metabolism, encoding proteins that control dopamine neurotransmission, cytoskeletal processes, synaptic release, Ca(2+) signaling, as well as the adenosine, glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric systems. Overall, our analyses emphasize the important role of the dopaminergic system in ASD, and implicate several cellular signaling processes in its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring System with Two Central Facilities Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caesar Firdaus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of data and information on government’s information system required proper way of defending against threat. Security aspect can be achieved by using cryptography algorithm, applying information hiding concept, and implementing security protocol. In this research, two central facilities protocol was implemented on Research and Development Center of Mineral and Coal Technology’s Cooperation Contract Monitoring System by utilizing AES and whitespace manipulation algorithm. Adjustment on the protocol by creating several rule of validation ID’s generation and checking processes could fulfill two of four cryptography objectives, consist of authentication and non-repudiation. The solid collaboration between central legitimization agency (CLA, central tabulating facility (CTF, and client is the main idea in two central facilities protocol. The utilization of AES algorithm could defend the data on transmission from man in the middle attack scenario. On the other hand, whitespace manipulation algorithm provided data integrity aspect of the document that is uploaded to the system itself. Both of the algorithm fulfill confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication.

  20. [Central nervous system control of energy homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, F; Lehnert, H

    2011-03-01

    The brain is continuously supplied with information about the distribution and amount of energy stores from the body periphery. Endocrine, autonomic and cognitive-hedonic signals are centrally integrated and exert effects on the whole organism via anabolic and catabolic pathways. The adiposity signals insulin and leptin reflect the amount of body fat and are part of a negative feedback mechanism between the periphery and the central nervous system. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the most important central nervous structure, which integrates this information. Furthermore, the CNS is able to directly measure and to respond to changes in the concentration of certain nutrients. In order to develop effective therapies for the treatment of disorders of energy balance the further elucidation of these neuro-biological processes is of crucial importance. This article provides an overview of the CNS regulation of metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Financial Crisis and the Central Bank System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPISIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  2. FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CENTRAL BANK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  3. Quantification of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies with 123I-labelled radioligands. A comparison between different imaging systems and data acquisition protocols using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, Cristina; Aguiar, Pablo; Gallego, Judith; Cot, Albert; Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domenec; Bullich, Santiago; Pareto, Deborah; Sempau, Josep; Lomena, Francisco; Calvino, Francisco; Pavia, Javier

    2008-01-01

    123 I-labelled radioligands are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system to study the dopamine transporter binding. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative capabilities of two different SPECT systems through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The SimSET MC code was employed to generate simulated projections of a numerical phantom for two gamma cameras equipped with a parallel and a fan-beam collimator, respectively. A fully 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to compensate for attenuation, the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) and scatter. A post-reconstruction partial volume effect (PVE) compensation was also developed. For both systems, the correction for all degradations and PVE compensation resulted in recovery factors of the theoretical specific uptake ratio (SUR) close to 100%. For a SUR value of 4, the recovered SUR for the parallel imaging system was 33% for a reconstruction without corrections (OSEM), 45% for a reconstruction with attenuation correction (OSEM-A), 56% for a 3D reconstruction with attenuation and PSF corrections (OSEM-AP), 68% for OSEM-AP with scatter correction (OSEM-APS) and 97% for OSEM-APS plus PVE compensation (OSEM-APSV). For the fan-beam imaging system, the recovered SUR was 41% without corrections, 55% for OSEM-A, 65% for OSEM-AP, 75% for OSEM-APS and 102% for OSEM-APSV. Our findings indicate that the correction for degradations increases the quantification accuracy, with PVE compensation playing a major role in the SUR quantification. The proposed methodology allows us to reach similar SUR values for different SPECT systems, thereby allowing a reliable standardisation in multicentric studies. (orig.)

  4. Quantification of dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies with {sup 123}I-labelled radioligands. A comparison between different imaging systems and data acquisition protocols using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Cristina; Aguiar, Pablo [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); Gallego, Judith [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Cot, Albert [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Seccio d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain); Falcon, Carles; Ros, Domenec [Universitat de Barcelona - IDIBAPS, Unitat de Biofisica i Bioenginyeria, Departament de Ciencies Fisiologiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Bullich, Santiago [Hospital del Mar, Center for Imaging in Psychiatry, CRC-MAR, Barcelona (Spain); Pareto, Deborah [CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); PRBB, Institut d' Alta Tecnologia, Barcelona (Spain); Sempau, Josep [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Lomena, Francisco [IDIBAPS, Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Calvino, Francisco [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Seccio d' Enginyeria Nuclear, Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain); Pavia, Javier [CIBER en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); IDIBAPS, Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    {sup 123}I-labelled radioligands are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the dopaminergic system to study the dopamine transporter binding. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative capabilities of two different SPECT systems through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The SimSET MC code was employed to generate simulated projections of a numerical phantom for two gamma cameras equipped with a parallel and a fan-beam collimator, respectively. A fully 3D iterative reconstruction algorithm was used to compensate for attenuation, the spatially variant point spread function (PSF) and scatter. A post-reconstruction partial volume effect (PVE) compensation was also developed. For both systems, the correction for all degradations and PVE compensation resulted in recovery factors of the theoretical specific uptake ratio (SUR) close to 100%. For a SUR value of 4, the recovered SUR for the parallel imaging system was 33% for a reconstruction without corrections (OSEM), 45% for a reconstruction with attenuation correction (OSEM-A), 56% for a 3D reconstruction with attenuation and PSF corrections (OSEM-AP), 68% for OSEM-AP with scatter correction (OSEM-APS) and 97% for OSEM-APS plus PVE compensation (OSEM-APSV). For the fan-beam imaging system, the recovered SUR was 41% without corrections, 55% for OSEM-A, 65% for OSEM-AP, 75% for OSEM-APS and 102% for OSEM-APSV. Our findings indicate that the correction for degradations increases the quantification accuracy, with PVE compensation playing a major role in the SUR quantification. The proposed methodology allows us to reach similar SUR values for different SPECT systems, thereby allowing a reliable standardisation in multicentric studies. (orig.)

  5. An overview on benzylisoquinoline derivatives with dopaminergic and serotonergic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabedo, N; Berenguer, I; Figadère, B; Cortes, D

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and serotonin are important neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) involved in numerous physiological and behavioural disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Several natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives have displayed affinity for dopamine and serotonin receptors in nanomolar or micromolar ranges. This review covers the last three decades of dopaminergic and serotonergic activities, and especially focuses on structure-activity relationships of natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives. We have included aporphines, 1-benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, bis-benzylisoquinolines, protoberberines, cularines and other structural analogues. Further molecular modelling calculations have been considered as important tools to not only obtain structural information of both neurotransmitter receptors, but to also identify their pharmacophore features. The development of selective potential ligands like benzylisoquinoline derivatives may help in the therapy of diseases related to CNS dysfunction.

  6. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mousavi, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicate that major deficiency in the levels of monoaminergic transmitters is a reason for severe depression. On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect of CT extract in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally (IP) treated with CT extract (100-400 mg/kg) 1 hr before the TST. To investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect, the mice were treated with receptor antagonists 15 min before CT extract treatment (400 mg/kg, IP) and 1 hr before the TST. Findings showed that CT extract (100-400 mg/kg, IP), dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect ( P open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, cyproheptadine, ketanserin and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of CT extract (400 mg/kg, IP), but not with prazosin and yohimbine. Co-administration of CT extract (100 mg/kg, IP) with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, IP) increased their antidepressant-like response. Our findings firstly showed that components (especially N-Hexadecanoic acid) of CT extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) systems. These findings validate the folk use of CT extract for the management of depression.

  7. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  8. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  9. Heating networks and domestic central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamler, W; Wasilewski, W

    1976-08-01

    This is a comprehensive survey of the 26 contributions from 8 European countries submitted to the 3rd International District Heating Conference in Warsaw held on the subject 'Heating Networks and Domestic Central Heating Systems'. The contributions are grouped according to 8 groups of subjects: (1) heat carriers and their parameters; (2) system of heating networks; (3) calculation and optimization of heating networks; (4) construction of heating networks; (5) operation control and automation; (6) operational problems; (7) corrosion problems; and (8) methods of heat accounting.

  10. Centralized environmental radiation monitoring system in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1993-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has continued the radiation background survey and environmental radiation monitoring to ensure the safety of the residents around the Institute. For the monitoring of β and γ radiations and α and β radioactivities in air, the centralized automatic environmental radiation monitoring system (EMS) applying a computer with monitoring stations (MS) was established. The system has been renewed twice in 1973 and 1988. In 1962, a new concept emergency environmental γ-ray monitoring system (MP) was begun to construct and completed in 1965 independent of EMS. The first renewal of the EMS was carried out by focusing on the rapid and synthetic judgement and estimation of the environmental impacts caused by radiation and radioactive materials due to the operation of nuclear facilities by centralizing the data measured at MS, MP, a meteorological station, stack monitors and drainage monitoring stations under the control of computer. Present system renewed in 1988 was designed to prevent the interruption of monitoring due to computer troubles, communication troubles and power failures especially an instant voltage drop caused by thunder by reflecting the experiences through the operation and maintenance of the former system. Dual telemeters whose power is constantly supplied via batteries (capable of 10 min. monitoring after power failure) are equipped in the monitoring center to cope with telemeter troubles, which has operated successfully without any suspension being attributable to the power failures and telemeter troubles. (J.P.N.)

  11. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders H. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women. Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN. DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients.

  12. Endorphinic neurons are contacting the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, G.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical relationships between endorphinic neurons and dopaminergic neurons were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus using a combination of immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. In the arcuate nucleus, endorphinic endings were seen making contacts with dopaminergic cell bodies and dendrites. No synapsis could be observed at the sites of contacts. These results strongly suggest that the endorphinic neurons are directly acting on dopaminergic neurons to modify the release of dopamine into the pituitary portal system

  13. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Mart?n; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste. These dopamin...

  14. Effects of chronic fructose overload on renal dopaminergic system: alteration of urinary L-dopa/dopamine index correlates to hypertension and precedes kidney structural damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M; Del Mauro, Julieta S; Cao, Gabriel; Trida, Verónica; Gironacci, Mariela M; Puyó, Ana M; Toblli, Jorge E; Fernández, Belisario E; Choi, Marcelo R

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet has been associated to hypertension and renal damage. The aim of this work was to assess alterations in the urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio over three time periods in rats with insulin resistance induced by fructose overload and its correlation with blood pressure levels and the presence of microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression as markers of renal structural damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: control (C) (C4, C8 and C12) with tap water to drink and fructose-overloaded (FO) rats (FO4, FO8 and FO12) with a fructose solution (10% w/v) to drink for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A significant increase of the urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio was found in FO rats since week 4, which positively correlated to the development of hypertension and preceded in time the onset of microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression observed on week 12 of treatment. The alteration of this ratio was associated to an impairment of the renal dopaminergic system, evidenced by a reduction in renal dopamine transporters and dopamine D1 receptor expression, leading to an overexpression and overactivation of the enzyme Na + , K + -ATPase with sodium retention. In conclusion, urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio alteration in rats with fructose overload positively correlated to the development of hypertension and preceded in time the onset of renal structural damage. This is the first study to propose the use of the urinary L-dopa/dopamine index as marker of renal dysfunction that temporarily precedes kidney structural damage induced by fructose overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Central configurations, periodic orbits, and Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Llibre, Jaume; Simó, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The notes of this book originate from three series of lectures given at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. The first one is dedicated to the study of periodic solutions of autonomous differential systems in Rn via the Averaging Theory and was delivered by Jaume Llibre. The second one, given by Richard Moeckel, focusses on methods for studying Central Configurations. The last one, by Carles Simó, describes the main mechanisms leading to a fairly global description of the dynamics in conservative systems. The book is directed towards graduate students and researchers interested in dynamical systems, in particular in the conservative case, and aims at facilitating the understanding of dynamics of specific models. The results presented and the tools introduced in this book include a large range of applications.

  16. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Centralized vs decentralized lunar power system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Kenneth; Harty, Richard B.; Perronne, Gerald E.

    1991-09-01

    Three power-system options are considered with respect to utilization on a lunar base: the fully centralized option, the fully decentralized option, and a hybrid comprising features of the first two options. Power source, power conditioning, and power transmission are considered separately, and each architecture option is examined with ac and dc distribution, high and low voltage transmission, and buried and suspended cables. Assessments are made on the basis of mass, technological complexity, cost, reliability, and installation complexity, however, a preferred power-system architecture is not proposed. Preferred options include transmission based on ac, transmission voltages of 2000-7000 V with buried high-voltage lines and suspended low-voltage lines. Assessments of the total cost associated with the installations are required to determine the most suitable power system.

  18. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  19. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J.; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore

  20. Increased dopamine D1 receptor binding in the human mesocortical system following central cholinergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedi, M.; Berkovic, S.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Reutens, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The interaction between the cholinergic and dopaminergic system has been implicated in many pathological processes including, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Little is known about the control of dopamine (DA) release following central cholinergic activation in humans, but experimental studies suggest that endogenously released Acetylcholine (ACh) achieved by the administration of cholinesterase inhibitors, can increase dopamine efflux in different regions of the brain. This leads to the activation of different types of post-synaptic dopaminergic receptors which belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A common paradigm of the GPCRs desensitization is that agonist-induced receptor signaling is rapidly attenuated by receptor internalisation. Several experiments have shown that the activation of Dl receptors in acute conditions leads, within minutes, to translocation of the receptor from the surface of the neurons to the endosomal compartment in the cytoplasm and increased receptor turnover. To assess changes in Dl receptor density following an intravenous infusion of the selective cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine salicylate (PHY), we studied eleven normal subjects (10 male and 1 female, mean age 36.1 and 61617; 9.9) using [11C]-SCH23390 and PET The binding potential (BP) for SCH23390 was significantly (p 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between baseline and physostigmine Kl ratio (p>0.05) suggesting that BP changes observed were not secondary to regional blood flow changes or to an order effect of the scans. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists. ... including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). ... Keywords: Brain, influence, riders, substances ...

  2. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system....

  3. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  4. [Tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. A relatively minor proportion of primary CNS tumors occur in the context of hereditary syndromes. The purpose of this review is to analyze the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of CNS tumors with particular emphasis in the putative risk factors mentioned above.

  5. Vitamin D and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wrzosek, Michał; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Matsumoto, Halina; Piątkiewicz, Paweł; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Wojnar, Marcin; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is formed in human epithelial cells via photochemical synthesis and is also acquired from dietary sources. The so-called classical effect of this vitamin involves the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Apart from this, non-classical effects of vitamin D have recently gained renewed attention. One important yet little known of the numerous functions of vitamin D is the regulation of nervous system development and function. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin D is associated with its influence on neurotrophin production and release, neuromediator synthesis, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and prevention of oxidative damage to nervous tissue. Clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of disease of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the neonatal period seems to be crucial in terms of prevention of these diseases.

  6. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko

    1989-01-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author)

  7. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  8. Centralized environmental radiation monitoring system in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, H.; Kobalyashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    JAERI has continued the environmental radiation background survey and monitoring to ensure the safety of the peoples around the institute since one year before the first criticality of JRR-1 (Japan Research Reactor No.1) in August 1957. Air absorbed doses from β and γ radiation, α and β radioactivity in air and the radioactivities in environmental samples were the monitoring items. For the monitoring of β and γ radiation and α and β radioactivity in air, monitoring station and the centralized automatic environmental radiation monitoring system applying a computer were established as a new challenging monitoring system for nuclear facility, which was the first one not only in Japan but also in the would in 1960 and since then the system has been renewed two times (in 1973 and 1988) by introducing the latest technology in the fields of radiation detection and computer control at each stage. Present system renewed in 1988 was designed to prevent the interruption of monitoring due to computer troubles, communication troubles and power failures especially an instant voltage drop arisen from thunder by reflecting the experiences through the operation and maintenance of the former system. Dual telemeters whose power is constantly supplied via batteries (capable of 10 min monitoring after power failure) are equipped in the monitoring center to cope with telemeter troubles, which has operated successfully without any suspension being attributable to the power failures and telemeter troubles

  9. Examination of the presynaptic dopaminergic system using positron emission tomography in a family with autosomal dominant parkinsonism and dementia due to pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPNO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Wszolek, Z.K.; Pfeiffer, R.F.; Calne, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    We report positron emission tomography (PET) examinations of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in a large family with an autosomal dominant neuro-degenerative disorder characterized pathologically by pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration, and clinically by parkinsonism, dystonia, paresis of conjugate gaze, apraxia of eyelid opening and closing, pyramidal tract dysfunction, and urinary incontinence. Dopaminergic function was studied and quantified with [ 18 F[-L-6-fluorodopa (6 FD) and PET in five affected patients, 13 individuals at-risk, and 15 similarly aged controls. The rate constant K i (mL/striatum/min) for 6 FD was decreased in all patients. None of the individuals at risk had reduced 6 FD uptake. In fact, three of them had increased values. Repeat scans have revealed a fall in 6 FD uptake in two out of the three with initially high constants. This may reflect a preclinical stage of involvement, but longer observation is necessary. (orig.) [de

  10. Bilastine and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Sastre, J; Bartra, J; Jáuregui, I; del Cuvillo, A; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines have been classifed as first or second generation drugs, according to their pharmacokinetic properties, chemical structure and adverse effects. The adverse effects of antihistamines upon the central nervous system (CNS) depend upon their capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and bind to the central H1 receptors (RH1). This in turn depends on the lipophilicity of the drug molecule, its molecular weight (MW), and affinity for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (CNS xenobiotic substances extractor protein). First generation antihistamines show scant affinity for P-gp, unlike the second generation molecules which are regarded as P-gp substrates. Histamine in the brain is implicated in many functions (waking-sleep cycle, attention, memory and learning, and the regulation of appetite), with numerous and complex interactions with different types of receptors in different brain areas. Bilastine is a new H1 antihistamine that proves to be effective in treating allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. The imaging studies made, as well as the objective psychomotor tests and subjective assessment of drowsiness, indicate the absence of bilastine action upon the CNS. This fact, and the lack of interaction with benzodiazepines and alcohol, define bilastine as a clinically promising drug with a good safety profile as regards adverse effects upon the CNS.

  11. Update on the TRIUMF Central Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouat, M.M.; Diel, D.A.; Grant, P.A.; Klassen, E.; Lee, K.S.; Ludgate, G.A.; Richards, J.E.; Yogendran, P.J.; Kadantsev, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The continuing evolution of the TRIUMF Central Control System is currently subject to three major influences. Most imperative is the need to replace the obsolete Nova computers that still handle much of the routine cyclotron operation. Smooth integration of a number of isolated control systems into the CCS is another focus. The third major force arises from the requirements of developing new projects in a system that has reached serious expansion constraints. The plan for phasing out the Novas, integrating the orphaned systems and allowing expansion of the CCS in a smooth fashion is discussed. This is a conservative approach, relying on the strengths of the present hardware configuration, the substantial financial investment in existing equipment, and the expertise of available personnel, while meeting the present and future requirements. Details of the modified and expanded hardware configuration are described. This review also briefly mentions new support for device access, X-window displays, database usage, and plans for one of the upcoming projects, namely an eye cancer proton therapy treatment facility. ((orig.))

  12. Dopaminergic profile of new heterocyclic N-phenylpiperazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine constitutes about 80% of the content of central catecholamines and has a crucial role in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression and schizophrenia. Several dopaminergic drugs are used to treat these pathologies, but many problems are attributed to these therapies. Within this context, the search for new more efficient dopaminergic agents with less adverse effects represents a vast research field. The aim of the present study was to report the structural design of two N-phenylpiperazine derivatives, compound 4: 1-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1H-4-pyrazolylmethyl]-4-phenylhexahydropyrazine and compound 5: 1-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethyl]-4-phenylhexahydropyrazine, planned to be dopamine ligands, and their dopaminergic action profile. The two compounds were assayed (dose range of 15-40 mg/kg in three experimental models: 1 blockade of amphetamine (30 mg/kg, ip-induced stereotypy in rats; 2 the catalepsy test in mice, and 3 apomorphine (1 mg/kg, ip-induced hypothermia in mice. Both derivatives induced cataleptic behavior (40 mg/kg, ip and a hypothermic response (30 mg/kg, ip which was not prevented by haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg, ip. Compound 5 (30 mg/kg, ip also presented a synergistic hypothermic effect with apomorphine (1 mg/kg, ip. Only compound 4 (30 mg/kg, ip significantly blocked the amphetamine-induced stereotypy in rats. The N-phenylpiperazine derivatives 4 and 5 seem to have a peculiar profile of action on dopaminergic functions. On the basis of the results of catalepsy and amphetamine-induced stereotypy, the compounds demonstrated an inhibitory effect on dopaminergic behaviors. However, their hypothermic effect is compatible with the stimulation of dopaminergic function which seems not to be mediated by D2/D3 receptors.

  13. Imaging of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.Z., E-mail: yenzhitang@doctors.net.uk [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Booth, T.C.; Bhogal, P.; Malhotra, A.; Wilhelm, T. [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) comprises 5% of all primary brain tumours. PCNSL demonstrates a variety of well-documented imaging findings, which can vary depending on immune status and histological type. Imaging features of PCNSL may overlap with other tumours and infection making definitive diagnosis challenging. In addition, several rare variants of PCNSL have been described, each with their own imaging characteristics. Advanced imaging techniques including 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and {sup 11}C positron-emission tomography (PET), {sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and MR perfusion, have been used to aid differentiation of PCNSL from other tumours. Ultimately, no imaging method can definitively diagnose PCNSL, and histology is required.

  14. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  15. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  16. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  17. [Primary central nervous system lymphoma mimicking ventriculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shiro; Nagano, Seiji; Shibata, Sumiya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Imai, Yukihiro; Kohara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with deteriorated bradykinesia, gait disturbance, disorientation, and urinary incontinence for three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilatation of the ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination demonstrated lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevation of protein levels, and decreased of glucose levels. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed lesions in the ventricular wall and choroid plexus, mimicking ventriculitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, or viral infections were observed in the CSF. Flow cytometry of CSF showed predominance of CD20+, λ+ cells. PCR examination of CSF revealed positive IgH gene rearrangement, suggesting B cell lymphoma. Endoscopic brain biopsy showed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. As the patient had no evidence of lymphoma in the other organs, we made a diagnosed of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A limited intraventricular spread of PCNSL is rare but important as one of differential diagnosis of ventriculitis.

  18. Fragmentation in central collisions of heavy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, G.; Doss, K.G.R.; Ferguson, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the goals of heavy ion reaction studies is to understand the fragmentation of hot nuclei. The LBL/GSI Plastic Ball detector system has been used to achieve a very high solid angle for detection of light and medium-heavy fragments emitted in 200 Mev/A Au + Au and Au + Fe reactions. The simultaneous measurement of almost all of the nucleons and nuclei resulting from each collision allows an estimation of the total charged particle multiplicity and hence the impact parameter. By choosing subsets of the data corresponding to a peripheral or central collision, the assumptions inherent in various models of nuclear fragmentation can be tested. 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  20. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  1. Systemic administration of valproic acid and zonisamide promotes the survival and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell–derived dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eYoshikawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell replacement therapy using embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs is a promising strategy for the treatment of neurologic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, a limiting factor for effective cell transplantation is the low survival rate of grafted cells, especially neurons. In this study, we modified the host environment and investigated whether the simultaneous administration of soluble factors can improve the survival and differentiation of murine iPSC-derived dopaminergic (DA neurons in host brains. With the goal of applying this technology in clinical settings in the near future, we selected drugs that were already approved for clinical use. The drugs included two commonly used anticonvulsants, valproic acid (VPA and zonisamide (ZNS, and estradiol (E2, also known as biologically active estrogen. Following neural induction of murine iPSCs, we collected neural progenitor cells by sorting PSA-NCAM+ cells, then treated the PSA-NCAM+ cells with drugs for four days. An immunofluorescence study revealed that 0.01 mM and 0.1 mM of VPA and 10 nM of E2 increased the percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase+ (TH: a DA neuron marker cells in vitro. Furthermore, 0.1 mM of VPA increased the percentage of TH+ cells that simultaneously express the midbrain markers FOXA2 and NURR1. Next, in order to determine the effects of the drugs in vivo, the iPSC-derived NPCs were transplanted into the striata of intact SD rats. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of one of the drugs for four weeks, then were subjected to an immunofluorescence study. VPA administration (150 mg/kg/daily increased the number of NeuN+ postmitotic neurons and TH+ DA neurons in the grafts. Furthermore, VPA (150 mg/kg/daily and ZNS (30 mg/kg/daily increased the number of TH+FOXA2+ midbrain DA neurons. These results suggest that the systemic administration of VPA and ZNS may improve the efficiency of cell replacement therapy using i

  2. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Annika Højrup Runegaard; Jensen, Kathrine L; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M

    2017-01-01

    assessment of the dopaminergic system in hemizygous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Our data show that TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice...

  3. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  4. The central noradrenergic system: an overview | Viljoen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central noradrenergic system belongs to a group of brainstem neuromodulatory systems previously referred to as the ascending reticular activating system. In this article a heuristic model is presented of the central noradrenergic system depicting the major projections to other cerebral areas, its interactions with other ...

  5. Examination of the presynaptic dopaminergic system using positron emission tomography in a family with autosomal dominant parkinsonism and dementia due to pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPNO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, M. [Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wszolek, Z.K. [Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Section of Neurology, Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Pfeiffer, R.F. [Section of Neurology, Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Calne, D.B. [Neurodegenerative Disorders Centre, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    We report positron emission tomography (PET) examinations of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in a large family with an autosomal dominant neuro-degenerative disorder characterized pathologically by pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration, and clinically by parkinsonism, dystonia, paresis of conjugate gaze, apraxia of eyelid opening and closing, pyramidal tract dysfunction, and urinary incontinence. Dopaminergic function was studied and quantified with [{sup 18}F]-L-6-fluorodopa (6 FD) and PET in five affected patients, 13 individuals at-risk, and 15 similarly aged controls. The rate constant K{sub i} (mL/striatum/min) for 6 FD was decreased in all patients. None of the individuals at risk had reduced 6 FD uptake. In fact, three of them had increased values. Repeat scans have revealed a fall in 6 FD uptake in two out of the three with initially high constants. This may reflect a preclinical stage of involvement, but longer observation is necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir berichten ueber Untersuchungen der praesynaptischen dopaminergen Funktion mit der Positronenemissionstomographie bei einer grossen Familie mit autosomal-dominant vererbtem Parkinsonismus und Demenz. Die Erkrankung ist pathologisch-anatomisch gekennzeichnet durch eine pallido-ponto-nigrale Degeneration. Klinisch bestehen ein Parkinsonismus, Dystonien, eine Apraxie der Augenoeffnung und -schliessung, pyramidale Dysfunktionen und eine Harninkontinenz. Die praesynaptische dopaminerge Funktion wurde untersucht und quantifiziert mittels [{sup 18}F]-L-6-Fluorodopa (6FD) PET bei fuenf erkrankten Patienten, 13 Risikopatienten und 15 Kontrollpersonen vergleichbaren Alters. Die Transportkonstante K{sub i} (ml/Striatum/min) fuer die striatale Aufnahme des Radiotracers war bei allen erkrankten Patienten erniedrigt. Von den 13 Risikopatienten hatte keiner eine reduzierte Aufnahme von 6FD. Drei Risikopatienten zeigten sogar Werte fuer K{sub i}, die oberhalb des Referenzbereiches der Kontrollpersonen lagen

  6. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  7. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  8. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.)

  9. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, A; Dons, K; Eskesen, V; Kruse-Larsen, C; Blatt Lyon, B; Arlien Soeborg, P; Jensen, N O; Praestholm, J [Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology

    1991-09-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.).

  10. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, D.; Oliaro, G.; Roney, P.; Sichta, P.; Tindall, K.

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  11. Characterization of D1 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest an association of central nervous system dopaminergic systems in the etiology of the schizophrenia. Interest in the role of D 1 dopamine receptors has revived with the advent of selective drugs for this dopamine receptor, particularly the D 1 dopamine receptor antagonists, SCH23390. [ 3 H]SCH23390 represents a superior radioligand for labeling the two-state striatal D 1 dopamine receptor in that its high percent specific binding makes it especially suitable for detailed mechanistic studies of this receptor. Striatal D 1 dopamine receptors have been shown to mediate the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity via a guanine nucleotide regulatory subunit. Forskolin acts in a synergistic manner with dopamine agonists, guanine nucleotides or sodium fluoride to potentiate the stimulation of rat striatal adenylate cyclase activity mediated by these reagents. By using the aforementioned reagents and the irreversible receptor modifying reagent N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2,-dihydroquinoline, we demonstrated that the D 1 dopamine receptor population in rat striatum is not a stoichiometrically-limiting factor in agonist stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity

  12. The role of the dopaminergic system in mood, motivation and cognition in Parkinson's disease: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled experimental challenge with pramipexole and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijgers, Rosa L; Verhey, Frans R J; Tissingh, Gerrit; van Domburg, Peter H M F; Aalten, Pauline; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2012-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway is implied in the pathophysiology of several non-motor symptoms related to mood, motivation and cognition. Insight in the pathophysiology of these syndromes may pave the way for more rational treatments. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design with three arms, we studied the effects of a direct dopaminergic challenge with the dopamine 2 receptor agonist pramipexole, an indirect challenge with the dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate, and placebo on measures of mood, motivation and cognition in 23 agonist-naïve PD patients and 23 healthy controls. Acute challenge with pramipexole had a negative effect on mood and fatigue in both patients and controls. In addition, challenge with pramipexole led to increased anger, fatigue, vigor and tension in healthy control subjects, but not in PD patients. Challenge with methylphenidate had a positive effect on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients. Due to its side effects after a single administration, pramipexole is probably less suitable for acute challenge studies. The acute effects of a methylphenidate challenge on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients make this drug an interesting choice for further studies of the treatment of mood and motivational disorders in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  14. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gy in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales

  15. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathoGyomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gn in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales. 140 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  17. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  18. Conceptual design of centralized control system for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A centralized control system for a fusion experimental machine is discussed. A configuration whereby a number of complete and uniform local systems are controlled by a central computer, a timer and an interlock system is appropriate for the control system of the Large Helical Device (LHD). A connection among local systems can be made by Ethernet, because a faster transmission of control data is processed by a specific system. (author)

  19. Central and peripheral nervous systems: master controllers in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Liu, Dan; Yang, Zhengyan; Guo, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Central and sympathetic nervous systems govern functional activities of many organs. Solid tumors like organs are also innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerve fibers can modulate biological behaviors of tumor cells. Multiple physiologic processes of tumor development may be dominated by central and sympathetic nervous systems as well. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of central and sympathetic nervous systems and disorder of the hormone network induced by psychological stress may influence malignant progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of immune system, regulating metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, and inducing interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines by tumors may aggravate emotional disorder, triggering the vicious cycles in tumor microenvironment and host macroenvironment. It is reasonable to hypothesize that cancer progression may be controlled by central and sympathetic nervous systems. In this review, we will focus on the recent information about the impacts of central and sympathetic nervous systems on tumor invasion and metastasis.

  20. Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Boyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemic neurologic events and neuropsychiatric disorders occur in approximately 70% of patients with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The CT and MR findings in adults with central nervous system (CNS) SLE have been described, but to the authors' knowledge no pediatric series has been reported. The MR and CT findings in four children with CNS SLE are compared with those reported in adults. Large infarcts are less frequent in children than in adults with CNS SLE, while multiple small infarctions and white matter lesions are more common. These findings in children who have no obvious source of emboli, intracardiac shunt, or history of trauma should raise the suspicion of SLE

  1. A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways. (author)

  2. Financial regulation and financial system architecture in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B

    At the beginning of the transition, advice to Central European countries with respect to how to set up their financial systems was based on models used in western economies. This paper analyzes the experiences to set up a financial system in Central Europe. The experience in the first transition

  3. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  4. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  5. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W. [Vienna Univ., Institute of Risk Research, IRR (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  6. Reorganization of the human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalow, G; Zäch, G A

    2000-10-01

    The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior. The theory of self-organization and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems is explicitly related to our measurements of the natural firing patterns of sets of identified single neurons in the human spinal premotor network and re-learned coordinated movements following spinal cord and brain lesions. Therapy induced cell proliferation, and maybe, neurogenesis seem to contribute to the host of structural changes during the process of re-learning of the lesioned CNS. So far, coordinated functions like movements could substantially be improved in every of the more than 100 patients with a CNS lesion by applying coordination dynamic therapy. As suggested by the data of our patients on re-learning, the human CNS seems to have a second integrative strategy for learning, re-learning, storing and recalling, which makes an essential contribution of the functional plasticity following a CNS lesion. A method has been developed by us for the simultaneous recording with wire electrodes of extracellular action potentials from single human afferent and efferent nerve fibres of undamaged sacral nerve roots. A classification scheme of the nerve fibres in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be set up in which the individual classes of nerve fibres are characterized by group conduction velocities and group nerve fibre diameters. Natural impulse patterns

  7. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  8. Pharmacological imaging as a tool to visualise dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrantee, A; Reneman, L

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine abnormalities underlie a wide variety of psychopathologies, including ADHD and schizophrenia. A new imaging technique, pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), is a promising non-invasive technique to visualize the dopaminergic system in the brain. In this review we explore the clinical potential of phMRI in detecting dopamine dysfunction or neurotoxicity, assess its strengths and weaknesses and identify directions for future research. Preclinically, phMRI is able to detect severe dopaminergic abnormalities quite similar to conventional techniques such as PET and SPECT. phMRI benefits from its high spatial resolution and the possibility to visualize both local and downstream effects of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In addition, it allows for repeated measurements and assessments in vulnerable populations. The major challenge is the complex interpretation of phMRI results. Future studies in patients with dopaminergic abnormalities need to confirm the currently reviewed preclinical findings to validate the technique in a clinical setting. Eventually, based on the current review we expect that phMRI can be of use in a clinical setting involving vulnerable populations (such as children and adolescents) for diagnosis and monitoring treatment efficacy. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, I.; Martinez, G.; Lopez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  10. Functional neuroanatomy of the central noradrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabadi, Elemer

    2013-08-01

    The central noradrenergic neurone, like the peripheral sympathetic neurone, is characterized by a diffusely arborizing terminal axonal network. The central neurones aggregate in distinct brainstem nuclei, of which the locus coeruleus (LC) is the most prominent. LC neurones project widely to most areas of the neuraxis, where they mediate dual effects: neuronal excitation by α₁-adrenoceptors and inhibition by α₂-adrenoceptors. The LC plays an important role in physiological regulatory networks. In the sleep/arousal network the LC promotes wakefulness, via excitatory projections to the cerebral cortex and other wakefulness-promoting nuclei, and inhibitory projections to sleep-promoting nuclei. The LC, together with other pontine noradrenergic nuclei, modulates autonomic functions by excitatory projections to preganglionic sympathetic, and inhibitory projections to preganglionic parasympathetic neurones. The LC also modulates the acute effects of light on physiological functions ('photomodulation'): stimulation of arousal and sympathetic activity by light via the LC opposes the inhibitory effects of light mediated by the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus on arousal and by the paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity. Photostimulation of arousal by light via the LC may enable diurnal animals to function during daytime. LC neurones degenerate early and progressively in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, leading to cognitive impairment, depression and sleep disturbance.

  11. Differential alteration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Wilson's disease investigated with [123I]ss-CIT and high-resolution SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.; Sorger, D.; Kluge, R.; Kuehn, H.-J.; Wagner, A.; Hermann, W.

    2001-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a copper deposition disorder which can result in a number of extrapyramidal motoric symptoms such as parkinsonism. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate, for the first time, nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in WD in relation to different courses and severity of the disease. Using high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) after administration of 2ss-carbomethoxy-3ss-(4[ 123 I]iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]ss-CIT), striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) were imaged in 43 WD patients and a control group of ten subjects. From the SPET images, specific [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios were obtained for the caudate heads, putamina and entire corpus striatum. In addition, to evaluate a putative dissociation between the caudate and putaminal [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios, the ratio between these binding ratios was calculated (CA/PU ratio). The SPET data were compared with clinical data on the course of the disease (CD), the severity of neurological symptoms and the degree of hepatic alteration. Whereas the specific regional [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios in patients with asymptomatic/hepatic CD did not differ from those in the control group (e.g. striatal ratios: 13.4±3.0 vs 11.7±2.8), in patients with neurological CD the ratios were significantly reduced for all striatal substructures (P=0.003 after one-factor ANOVA). For the different subgroups a tendency was detected towards a stepwise decrease in the specific [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios from pseudo-sclerosis CD (9.4±2.3), through pseudo-parkinsonian CD (9.1±2.1) to arrhythmic-hyperkinetic CD (8.5±1.6). However, these group differences reached significance only for the comparison with asymptomatic/hepatic CD (P=0.02). The CA/PU ratio was significantly higher in WD than in the control group (1.30±0.19 vs 1.11±0.08; P=0.003). Severity of neurological symptoms was significantly correlated with all specific regional [ 123 I]ss-CIT binding ratios (r=-0.49 to -0

  12. Pharmacotherapy for Adults with Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Schor, Nina F.

    2008-01-01

    Tumors of the adult central nervous system are among the most common and most chemoresistant neoplasms. Malignant tumors of the brain and spinal cord collectively account for approximately 1.3% of all cancers and 2.2% of all cancer-related deaths. Novel pharmacological approaches to nervous system tumors are urgently needed. This review presents the current approaches and challenges to successful pharmacotherapy of adults with malignant tumors of the central nervous system and discusses novel...

  13. CT diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koreaki

    1980-01-01

    In the diagnosis of central nervous system congenital anomalies, understanding of embryology of the central nervous system and pathophysiology of each anomaly are essential. It is important for clinical approach to central nervous system congenital anomalies to evaluate the size of the head and tention of the anterior fontanelle. Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies depends on a correlation of CT findings to clinical pictures. Clinical diagnosis of congenital anomalies should include prediction of treatability and prognosis, in addition to recognition of a disease. (author)

  14. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  15. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  16. Central nervous system infections in heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Patel, Robin; Daly, Richard C.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study central nervous system infections after heart transplantations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cardiac Transplant Program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Patients Three hundred fifteen consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from January 1988

  17. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  18. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  19. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  20. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolyszewski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Allometric Scaling and Central Source Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, Olaf

    2001-01-01

    Allometric scaling relations abound in nature. Examples include the power law relating the metabolic rate of animals and plants to their masses and the power law describing the dependence of the size of the drainage basin of a river on the total amount of water contained in that river. The exponent is of the form D/D+1 , where D is the dimension of the system. We show that this scaling exponent is simply a consequence of the source distribution of the systems considered and requires no further assumptions. To demonstrate the wide range of validity of the result we present a simple experiment that shows the predicted behavior in one dimension

  2. Centralization and Decentralization in the TRIUMF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, D.A.; Gurd, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Distributed control is characterized by a number of different concepts relating to hardware, software, data bases, and control stations. Although some control system designs are more centralized than others, all contain elements of both approaches. In particular, the TRIUMF system contains a unique blend of centralized and distributed attributes, deriving primarily from the multi-sourced CAMAC and memory systems at its executive node. The increased demands of an expanding accelerator laboratory have made it timely to consider strategies for expansion of the TRIUMF Control System. These requirements have led to reflections on one of the major themes of this conference - centralized vs distributed digital control systems for accelerators. This paper discusses the way in which the TRIUMF system successfully combines elements of both approaches

  3. La Hague environment centralized control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalimbadjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show what we are doing in the area of environmental monitoring and control in accordance with the basic principles we set out for ourselves. As we have seen, our objectives are twofold; first, to monitor the installations under normal operating conditions in accordance with the rules and within the imposed limits and, secondly, in the event of an accident involving any of the material at the plant, to determine the foreseeable consequences in order to provide the relevant authorities, who have to take the necessary measures to protect the personnel and the population, with all the help they need. Normal operation is guaranteed by effective control of liquid and gaseous discharges, by knowing the precise origin and nature of the radio-elements released and also the means of transfer leading to humans. This knowledge relies upon the interpretation of the systematic measurements which have been carried out, which can only be done by centralising and computerising the data involved. The use of third-generation radio protection equipment in combination with highly-developed computer systems has made it possible to set up a centralised environmental control station. In the event of abnormal occurrences, the software used to show the transfer of radio-elements in the air, the water, or the ground, along with the use of systematic measurements, makes it possible to determine the foreseeable consequences and to design a system of predictive monitoring. It has been possible to set up the centralised control system because of the development in computerised equipment and systems, but it has only been possible to operate this system because of the capacity of the personnel to adapt to the changeover to technology. (author)

  4. Centralization and decentralization in the TRIUMF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, D.A.; Gurd, D.P.

    1983-09-01

    The increased demands of an expanding accelerator laboratory have made it timely to consider strategies for expansion of the TRIUMF Control System. These requirements have led to reflections on one of the major themes of this conference - centralized vs. distributed digital control systems for accelerators. This paper discusses the way in which the TRIUMF system successfully combines elements of both approaches

  5. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  6. Chronic low-level arsenic exposure causes gender-specific alterations in locomotor activity, dopaminergic systems, and thioredoxin expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardullas, U.; Limon-Pacheco, J.H.; Giordano, M.; Carrizales, L.; Mendoza-Trejo, M.S.; Rodriguez, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid widely present in the environment. Human exposure to As has been associated with the development of skin and internal organ cancers and cardiovascular disorders, among other diseases. A few studies report decreases in intelligence quotient (IQ), and sensory and motor alterations after chronic As exposure in humans. On the other hand, studies of rodents exposed to high doses of As have found alterations in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, and oxidative stress. In the present study both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of As such as 0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg As/L of drinking water for 4 months, and locomotor activity was assessed every month. Male mice presented hyperactivity in the group exposed to 0.5 mg As/L and hypoactivity in the group exposed to 50 mg As/L after 4 months of As exposure, whereas female mice exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg As/L exhibited hyperactivity in every monthly test during As exposure. Furthermore, striatal and hypothalamic dopamine content was decreased only in female mice. Also decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx-1) mRNA expression in striatum and nucleus accumbens were observed in male and female mice, respectively. These results indicate that chronic As exposure leads to gender-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers and spontaneous locomotor activity, and down-regulation of the antioxidant capacity of the brain.

  7. TFTR centralized torus interface valve control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, G.G.; Olsen, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    A system developed especially for the TFTR to monitor and control the interface between the vacuum vessel and associated diagnostics will be described in this paper. Diagnostics which must be connected to the machine vacuum are required to do so through a Torus Interface Valve (TIV). Two types of TIV's are used on TFTR. The first type is a non-latching valve which must be held in the opened position by a sustained OPEN command, returning automatically to the closed position when the OPEN command is removed. This type of TIV is used on all systems which never insert a probe into the vacuum vessel through the TIV. The second type of TIV is a latching valve which requires a momentary OPEN command to open and a momentary CLOSE command to close. Each TIV is linked to its own dedicated logic controller. Each logic controller is hardwired to the appropriate TIV OPEN/CLOSED limit switches, probe IN/OUT limit switches, TFTR vacuum vessel pressure setpoint switches, and diagnostic pressure setpoint switches. The logic controller can be configured for local (push-button) or remote (computer) control. Each controller has a uniquely coded keyswitch to determine the configuration. Whether under local or remote control, all OPEN and CLOSE commands must be approved by the TIV controller (TIVC). In the case of systems with probes, the controller must receive a positive indication that the probe is completely backed out before a CLOSE command will be transmitted from the TIVC to the TIV. Before a valve will be opened by a controller, the differential pressure across the valve must be within certain limits

  8. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  9. A 200kW central receiver CPV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasich, John, E-mail: jbl@raygen.com; Thomas, Ian, E-mail: ithomas@raygen.com; Hertaeg, Wolfgang; Shirley, David; Faragher, Neil; Erenstrom, Neil; Carter, Sam; Cox, Brian; Zuo, Xinyi [Raygen Resources Pty. Ltd., 15 King Street, Blackburn, Victoria, 3130 (Australia)

    2015-09-28

    Raygen Resources has recently completed a Central Receiver CPV (CSPV) pilot plant in Central Victoria, Australia. The system is under final commissioning and initial operation is expected in late April 2015. The pilot demonstrates a full scale CSPV repeatable unit in a form that is representative of a commercial product and provides a test bed to prove out performance and reliability of the CSPV technology. Extensive testing of the system key components: dense array module, wireless solar powered heliostat and control system has been performed in the laboratory and on sun. Results from this key component testing are presented herein.

  10. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  11. Serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of attentional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulougouris, Vasileios; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in attentional processes are a common feature of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Huntington's disease. The use of animal models has been useful in defining various candidate neural systems thus enabling us to translate basic laboratory science to the clinic and vice-versa. In this chapter, a comparative and integrated account is provided on the neuroanatomical and neurochemical modulation of basic behavioural operations such as selective attention, vigilance, set-shifting and executive control focusing on the comparative functions of the serotonin and dopamine systems in the cognitive control exerted by the prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we have reviewed evidence emerging from several behavioural paradigms in experimental animals and humans each of which centres on a different aspect of the attentional function. These paradigms offering both human and animal variants include the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), attentional set-shifting and stop-signal reaction time task. In each case, the types of operation that are measured by the given paradigm and their neural correlates are defined. Then, the role of the ascending dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the neurochemical modulation of its behavioural output are examined, and reference is made to clinical implications for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders which exhibit deficits in these cognitive tests.

  12. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  13. Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article deals with the system of information collection and transfer from a centralized relay protection and automation system for medium voltage electrical units based on a passive optical bus. The issues of electromagnetic compatibility of technical devices are also considered, and the intensity of electromagnetic ...

  14. PET measurements od dopaminergic pathways in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlmutter, J.S. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, Anatomy and Neurobiology; Moerlein, S.M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology

    1999-06-01

    Position emission tomography (PET) measurements of dopaminergic pathways have revealed several new insights into the role of dopamine in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia and schizophrenia. PET studies of regional blood flow of metabolism identifies sites of regional pathology. Drug-induced changes in flow or metabolism indicate the function of dopamine-mediated pathways. Measurements of radioligand binding 'in vivo' with PET reveals abnormalities associated with specific diseases and the actions of various drugs that effect the dopaminergic system. Finally, PET measurements of the uptake of analogues of levodopa provide clues to the function of dopamine pathways potentially important for diagnosis and treatment of disease like PD.

  15. Topography and collateralization of dopaminergic projections to primary motor cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, Jonas A; Nolan, Helen E; Luft, Andreas R

    2015-05-01

    Dopaminergic signaling within the primary motor cortex (M1) is necessary for successful motor skill learning. Dopaminergic neurons projecting to M1 are located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, nucleus A10) of the midbrain. It is unknown which behavioral correlates are encoded by these neurons. The objective here is to investigate whether VTA-M1 fibers are collaterals of projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) or if they form a distinct pathway. In rats, multiple-site retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected into M1, PFC and the core region of the NAc and VTA sections investigated for concomitant labeling of different tracers. Dopaminergic neurons projecting to M1, PFC and NAc were found in nucleus A10 and to a lesser degree in the medial nucleus A9. Neurons show high target specificity, minimal collateral branching to other than their target area and hardly cross the midline. Whereas PFC- and NAc-projecting neurons are indistinguishably intermingled within the ventral portion of dopaminergic nuclei in middle and caudal midbrain, M1-projecting neurons are only located within the dorsal part of the rostral midbrain. Within M1, the forelimb representation receives sevenfold more dopaminergic projections than the hindlimb representation. This strong rostro-caudal gradient as well as the topographical preference to dorsal structures suggest that projections to M1 emerged late in the development of the dopaminergic systems in and form a functionally distinct system.

  16. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter-observer variabil......Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  17. CT findings of central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Cheng; Yang Xinghui; Wang Man

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant. Methods: CT findings of central nervous system in 11 infants with clinically proved congenital syphilis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: CT findings in 10 syphilis neonates were diffuse hypodense lesions in the white matter, with subarachnoid and intra-encephalic hemorrhage in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. One 2-month-old syphilis infant case and 5 cases of follow-up after 45 days to 6 months of treatment demonstrated bilateral widened sulci and cistern with enlarged ventricles in 3 of them. Conclusion: CT findings of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant are similar to those of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, and extra-encephalic hydrocephalus or brain hypogenesis ensues later on. (authors)

  18. Neurochemical evidence that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide modulates the dopaminergic reward system by decreasing the dopamine release in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovska, Angelina; Baranyi, Maria; Windisch, Katalin; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Gagov, Hristo; Kalfin, Reni

    2017-09-01

    CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system. Thus in the present study, we examined the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on the basal, electrical field stimulation-evoked (EFS-evoked) (30V, 2Hz, 120 shocks) and returning basal dopamine (DA) release and on the release of the DA metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetaldehyde (DOPAL), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) as well as on norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine-o-quinone (Daq) in isolated mouse nucleus accumbens, in a preparation, in which any CART peptide effects on the dendrites or soma of ventral tegmental projection neurons have been excluded. We further extended our study to assess the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on basal cocaine-induced release of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAL, DOPAC, HVA, DOPET and 3-MT as well as on NE and Daq. To analyze the amount of [ 3 H]dopamine, dopamine metabolites, Daq and NE in the nucleus accumbens superfusate, a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with electrochemical, UV and radiochemical detections was used. CART (55-102) peptide, 0.1μM, added alone, exerted: (i) a significant decrease in the basal and EFS-evoked levels of extracellular dopamine (ii) a significant increase in the EFS-evoked and returning basal levels of the dopamine metabolites DOPAC and HVA, major products of dopamine degradation and (iii) a significant decrease in the returning basal

  19. alpha-MSH in systemic inflammation. Central and peripheral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A; Delgado, R; Airaghi, L; Cutuli, M; Garofalo, L; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Lipton, J M

    1999-10-20

    Until recently, inflammation was believed to arise from events taking place exclusively in the periphery. However, it is now clear that central neurogenic influences can either enhance or modulate peripheral inflammation. Therefore, it should be possible to improve treatment of inflammation by use of antiinflammatory agents that reduce peripheral host responses and inhibit proinflammatory signals in the central nervous system (CNS). One such strategy could be based on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Increases in circulating TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin in mice, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Increase in lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that antiinflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation. In addition to its central influences, alpha-MSH has inhibitory effects on peripheral host cells, in which it reduces release of proinflammatory mediators. alpha-MSH reduces chemotaxis of human neutrophils and production of TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO by monocytes. In research on septic patients, alpha-MSH inhibited release of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in whole blood samples in vitro. Combined central and peripheral influences can be beneficial in treatment of sepsis.

  20. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  1. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant with Solar Central Receiver Technology is presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber.

  2. Comparison of centralized and decentralized energy supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich; Voß, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Communal energy programs are often embedded in a conception of a decentralized energy supply system where electricity is produced by a number of smaller power plants. For a comprehensive survey the question arises whether these decentralized systems are more advantageous than centralized systems with regard to the criterions energy consumption, safety of supply, environmental compatibility and economy. In the following, after a definition of the term "decentralized", the present structure of ...

  3. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  4. Sweet taste and nutrient value subdivide rewarding dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-03-16

    Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1-4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β'2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous activation of mitophagy and autophagy by staurosporine protects against dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Seo-Eun; Son, Jin H

    2014-02-21

    Abnormal autophagy is frequently observed during dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not yet firmly established whether active autophagy is beneficial or pathogenic with respect to dopaminergic cell loss. Staurosporine, a common inducer of apoptosis, is often used in mechanistic studies of dopaminergic cell death. Here we report that staurosporine activates both autophagy and mitophagy simultaneously during dopaminergic neuronal cell death, and evaluate the physiological significance of these processes during cell death. First, staurosporine treatment resulted in induction of autophagy in more than 75% of apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased significantly cell viability. In addition, staurosporine treatment resulted in activation of the PINK1-Parkin mitophagy pathway, of which deficit underlies some familial cases of PD, in the dopaminergic neuronal cell line, SN4741. The genetic blockade of this pathway by PINK1 null mutation also dramatically increased staurosporine-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest that staurosporine induces both mitophagy and autophagy, and that these pathways exert a significant neuroprotective effect, rather than a contribution to autophagic cell death. This model system may therefore be useful for elucidating the mechanisms underlying crosstalk between autophagy, mitophagy, and cell death in dopaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  7. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a, and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  8. Dopaminergic Dysregulation, Artistic Expressiveness, and Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pousa, S.; Lombardía-Fernández, C.; Olmo, J. Garre; Monserrat-Vila, S.; Vilalta-Franch, J.; Calvó-Perxas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The most frequent behavioral manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributed to the dopaminergic dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is considered to be secondary to the iatrogenic effects of the drugs that replace dopamine. Over the past few years some cases of patients improving their creative abilities after starting treatment with dopaminergic pharmaceuticals have been reported. These effects have not been clearly associated to DDS, but a relationship has been pointed out. Methods Case study of a patient with PD. The evolution of her paintings along medication changes and disease advance has been analyzed. Results The patient showed a compulsive increase of pictorial production after the diagnosis of PD was made. She made her best paintings when treated with cabergolide, and while painting, she reported a feeling of well-being, with loss of awareness of the disease and reduction of physical limitations. Conclusions Dopaminergic antagonists (DA) trigger a dopaminergic dysfunction that alters artistic creativity in patients having a predisposition for it. The development of these skills might be due to the dopaminergic overstimulation due to the therapy with DA, which causes a neurophysiological alteration that globally determines DDS. PMID:23185168

  9. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Ulrich [Alencon LLC; Fishman, Oleg [Alencon LLC

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  10. Paracoccidioidomicose sistêmica com envolvimento do sistema nervoso central Systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Luiz Wiener Pureza Duarte

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente portador de paracoccidioidomicose sistêmica, com comprometimento oral e ganglionar regional e posterior envolvimento pulmonar. O paciente, tratado com drogas específicas(anfotericina B, itraconazol, sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim e acompanhado durante seis anos, foi ao óbito com extenso comprometimento do sistema nervoso centralA clinical case of a patient bearing systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with regional ganglionic and oral exposure and later pulmonary envolvement is presented. The patient was treated with especific drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and followed throughout a 6-year period and eventually died showing an extensive envolvement of the central nervous system.

  11. Primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Sevilla, G.; Olivan, M.; Gutierrez, P.; Guelbenzo, S.; Ayuso, T.

    1995-01-01

    A case of a young man with primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system manifesting as a seizure is presented. The patient did not show previous pathology. Laboratory tests, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, but the definitive diagnosis was made only by means of brain biopsy. Administration of steroids showed and improvement in symptoms. 8 refs

  12. Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocquard, Y.; Marion, J.L.; Goas, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system are increasingly met with. Both the brain and spinal cord may be involved. Whereas some forms have a favorable outcome, many run a relentlessly progressive course, failing to respond to treatment. Improvement of radiation protocols should achieve a lower complication rate [fr

  13. Conventional external beam radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Burger, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated external beam photon radiotherapy is an important component of the clinical management of malignant disease of the central nervous system. The practicing neurologist or neurosurgeon frequently relies on the consultative and treatment skills of a radiotherapist. This article provides a review for the nonradiotherapist of the place of conventional external beam radiotherapy in neuro-oncology. 23 references

  14. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg ..... in the brain and inhibition of neuronal output could be ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  16. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  17. Central Auditory Nervous System Dysfunction in Echolalic Autistic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherby, Amy Miller; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The results showed that all the Ss had normal hearing on the monaural speech tests; however, there was indication of central auditory nervous system dysfunction in the language dominant hemisphere, inferred from the dichotic tests, for those Ss displaying echolalia. (Author)

  18. Neurodegenerative diseases of the central motor system in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfke, K.

    2005-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central motor system often lead to discrete but functionally important parenchymal abnormalities in various parts of the brain. MRI is the most sensitive imaging method to detect these abnormalities. Various neurodegenerative diseases are presented with their clinical symptoms and MRI findings. Criteria for differential diagnosis are provided as well. (orig.)

  19. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS),

  20. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  1. Radiotherapy of the central nervous system in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a site of occult and overt involvement with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Prophylactic treatment of the cranial and spinal meninges can significantly reduce the incidence of CNS relapse. This review addresses the issues associated with the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of the CNS in ALL.20 references

  2. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  3. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  4. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  5. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipold, A.; Tipold, E.

    1991-01-01

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  6. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  7. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  10. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  11. Centralized Coordination of Load Shedding & Protection System of Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Bak, Claus Leth

    2018-01-01

    The power system integrity is vulnerable to thermal limit of transmission lines due to overloading and consequently activation of their protection devices following severe contingencies. In this paper, the loading rate of transmission lines is monitored online and is considered in the centralized......, over current protection....

  12. Neuron-derived IgG protects dopaminergic neurons from insult by 6-OHDA and activates microglia through the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Na; Wang, Mingyu; McNutt, Michael A; Zhang, Donghong; Zhang, Baogang; Lu, Shijun; Liu, Yuqing; Liu, Zhihui

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative and immune attacks from the environment or microglia have been implicated in the loss of dopaminergic neurons of Parkinson's disease. The role of IgG which is an important immunologic molecule in the process of Parkinson's disease has been unclear. Evidence suggests that IgG can be produced by neurons in addition to its traditionally recognized source B lymphocytes, but its function in neurons is poorly understood. In this study, extensive expression of neuron-derived IgG was demonstrated in dopaminergic neurons of human and rat mesencephalon. With an in vitro Parkinson's disease model, we found that neuron-derived IgG can improve the survival and reduce apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity, and also depress the release of NO from microglia triggered by 6-hydroxydopamine. Expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in microglia was elevated to protective levels by neuron-derived IgG at a physiologic level via the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways and microglial activation could be attenuated by IgG blocking. All these data suggested that neuron-derived IgG may exert a self-protective function by activating microglia properly, and IgG may be involved in maintaining immunity homeostasis in the central nervous system and serve as an active factor under pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Axonal Elongation into Peripheral Nervous System ``Bridges'' after Central Nervous System Injury in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Samuel; Aguayo, Albert J.

    1981-11-01

    The origin, termination, and length of axonal growth after focal central nervous system injury was examined in adult rats by means of a new experimental model. When peripheral nerve segments were used as ``bridges'' between the medulla and spinal cord, axons from neurons at both these levels grew approximately 30 millimeters. The regenerative potential of these central neurons seems to be expressed when the central nervous system glial environment is changed to that of the peripheral nervous system.

  14. [Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus - diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka, Magdalena

    Nervous system involvement in lupus belongs to its severe complications and significantly impacts its prognosis. Neuropsychiatric lupus includes 19 disease manifestations concerning both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper presents clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in lupus. It reviews its epidemiology, risk factors and principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated ...

  16. Interconnected power systems of the countries of America Central (SIEPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation shows the project SIEPAC (Sistema de interconexion electrica de los paises de Centro America) describes the current transmission system, and planned SIEPAC transmission system, also describes the objectives: implementation of an central american electrical market named Mercado Electrico Regional that contributes to sustaintable development of the region. Also describes the power transmission lines, the structure of line transmission and its market to be covered. Financing of the project from lending institutions is explained

  17. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback–feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central–autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age–gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS–ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity. PMID:27044986

  18. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geologic characterization of Cuvette Centrale petroleum systems Congo-DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro; Rezende, Nelio G.A.M. [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Cuvette Centrale is an almost unexplored basin, which contains some petroleum system elements that indicate the presence of hydrocarbons. In this sense; this paper presents an exploratory alternative for this intracratonic basin. The interpretation of the limited gravimetric, magnetometric, geochemical and seismic available data allowed the identification of many huge structural features and also some areas with hydrocarbon potential for stratigraphic traps. The presence of several oil and gas seeps widespread around the Busira and Lokoro sub-basins indicate that at least one active petroleum system exist in the basin. Despite only four wells have been drilled in the basin, one of them presented oil shows during drilling. Geological correlations between Brazilian Paleozoic basins and Cuvette Centrale sedimentary sequences permitted to conclude that Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian source rocks must be present and active in the Cuvette Centrale basin. The tectono-stratigraphic evolution history of the Cuvette Centrale from Neo proterozoic to Recent times shows extensional and compressional/transpressional alternating phases along the geological time. The most confident petroleum system expected in the Cuvette Centrale is characterized by the Cambrian Mamungi shale - source rock - and the Cambro-Ordovician. Upper Arenaceous Sequence - reservoirs, as observed in the MBandaka and Gilson wells and confirmed by surface geology in outcrops. Besides, other potential petroleum systems are expected to occur in the basin. One is characterized by the Neo proterozoic Itury Group source rock and reservoirs in the mature/over mature stage, the others are the Siluro-Devonian and Cretaceous source rocks and reservoirs, expected to occur with better maturity conditions only in the deeper parts of the basin. (author)

  20. Commissioning the ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 central trigger is a critical part of ATLAS operation. It receives the 40 MHz bunch clock from the LHC and distributes it to all sub-detectors. It initiates their read-out by forming the Level-1 Accept decision, which is based on information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and a variety of additional trigger inputs from detectors in the forward region. It also provides trigger summary information to the data acquisition system and the Level-2 trigger system. In this paper, we present the completion of the installed central trigger system, its performance during cosmic-ray data taking and the experience gained with triggering on the first LHC beams.

  1. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  2. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-06-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  3. Evidence of dopaminergic processing of executive inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra D Badgaiyan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of unwanted response is an important function of the executive system. Since the inhibitory system is impaired in patients with dysregulated dopamine system, we examined dopamine neurotransmission in the human brain during processing of a task of executive inhibition. The experiment used a recently developed dynamic molecular imaging technique to detect and map dopamine released during performance of a modified Eriksen's flanker task. In this study, young healthy volunteers received an intravenous injection of a dopamine receptor ligand ((11C-raclopride after they were positioned in the PET camera. After the injection, volunteers performed the flanker task under Congruent and Incongruent conditions in a single scan session. They were required to inhibit competing options to select an appropriate response in the Incongruent but not in the Congruent condition. The PET data were dynamically acquired during the experiment and analyzed using two variants of the simplified reference region model. The analysis included estimation of a number of receptor kinetic parameters before and after initiation of the Incongruent condition. We found increase in the rate of ligand displacement (from receptor sites and decrease in the ligand binding potential in the Incongruent condition, suggesting dopamine release during task performance. These changes were observed in small areas of the putamen and caudate bilaterally but were most significant on the dorsal aspect of the body of left caudate. The results provide evidence of dopaminergic processing of executive inhibition and demonstrate that neurochemical changes associated with cognitive processing can be detected and mapped in a single scan session using dynamic molecular imaging.

  4. Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Alentorn, Agusti; Mokhtari, Karima; Kalamarides, Michel; Sanson, Marc

    2018-04-26

    There is currently no treatment for solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/H) of the central nervous system recurring after multiple surgeries and radiotherapies. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is the hallmark of these tumors, and upregulates Early Growth Factor, activating several growth pathways. We treated two patients presenting pluri-recurrent meningeal SFT/H with Pazopanib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We analyzed the exome and RNA sequencing data of one of them and, in addition to another meningeal SFT/H, compared it to the transcriptomic profiling of 5 systemic SFT/H. A dramatic clinical and radiological response was observed in both cases, respectively 84 and 43% decrease after 3 months. As a comparison, Pazopanib has only a stabilizing effect in systemic SFT/H. Indeed, central nervous system SFT/H show overexpression of different tyrosine kinases targeted by Pazopanib. Two consecutive patients with untreatable central nervous system SFT/H showed a spectacular partial response to Pazopanib, an unprecedented result in SFT/H. This result could be explained by differences in expression profiles and calls for a confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.

  5. Assessment of Dopaminergic Homeostasis in Mice by Use of High-performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis and Synaptosomal Dopamine Uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kathrine L; Runegaard, Annika H; Weikop, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a modulatory neurotransmitter controlling motor activity, reward processes and cognitive function. Impairment of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotransmission is strongly associated with several central nervous system-associated diseases such as Parkinson's disease, attention...... therapeutic targets for these diseases. Here, we present two useful experimental protocols that when combined provide a functional read-out of the DAergic system in mice. Biochemical and functional parameters on DA homeostasis are obtained through assessment of DA levels and dopamine transporter (DAT......) functionality(5). When investigating the DA system, the ability to reliably measure endogenous levels of DA from adult brain is essential. Therefore, we present how to perform high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on brain tissue from mice to determine levels of DA. We perform the experiment on tissue...

  6. Development of 99mTc agents for imaging central neural system receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals that bind to central neural system (CNS) receptors in vivo are potentially useful for understanding the pathophysiology of anumber of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their diagnosis and treatment. Carbon-11 labelled compounds and positron emission tomography(PET) imaging have played a vital role in establishing the usefulness of imaging the dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic and benzodiazapine receptors, and relating the receptor density to disease status. Since the use of 11C agents is constrained due to their 20 min half-life, various radiohalogenated analogues based on the structure of 11C compounds have been successfully developed, providing comparable information. Iodine- 123 is the most widely employed of these radioisotopes; it has a longer, 13 h, half-life. Through the use of 123I, there has been a steady growth in CNS receptor imaging studies employing single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). SPECT, as compared with PET, has slightly inferior image resolution but has the advantage of being readily available worldwide. However, the 123I radiopharmaceutical is expensive and the distribution system outside of the major markets is not well developed for its supply on a routine basis. The ideal radioisotope for SPECT imaging is 99mTc, due to its low cost per dose, availability through commercially available generator systems and physical decay characteristics. Over 80% of all diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging studies worldwide are conducted using this radioisotope. Development of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for imaging CNS receptors is therefore of considerable importance. On the basis of the recommendations of a consultants meeting, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated in 1996 a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Agents for Imaging CNS Receptors based on 99mTc. At that time there were no 99mTc CNS receptor imaging radiopharmaceuticals available even though work on

  7. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  8. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  9. Design of central control system for large helical device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kaneko, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Motojima, O.

    1993-11-01

    The world largest superconducting fusion machine LHD (Large Helical Device) is under construction in Japan, aiming at steady state operations. Its basic control system consists of UNIX computers, FDDI/Ethernet LANs, VME multiprocessors and VxWorks real-time OS. For flexible and reliable operations of the LHD machine a cooperative distributed system with more than 30 experimental equipments is controlled by the central computer and the main timing system, and is supervised by the main protective interlock system. Intelligent control systems, such as applications of fuzzy logic and neural networks, are planed to be adopted for flexible feedback controls of plasma configurations besides the classical PID control scheme. Design studies of its control system and related R and D programs with coil-plasma simulation systems are now being performed. The construction of the LHD Control Building in a new site will begin in 1995 after finishing the construction of the LHD Experimental Building, and the hardware construction of the LHD central control equipments will be started in 1996. A first plasma production by means of this control system is expected in 1997. (author)

  10. The Central Nervous System and Bone Metabolism: An Evolving Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Paul; Rosen, Cliff

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function. The sympathetic nervous system was originally identified as the predominant efferent pathway mediating central signalling to control skeleton metabolism, in part regulated through circadian genes. More recent evidence points to a role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of skeletal metabolism either through muscarinic influence of sympathetic nerves in the brain or directly via nicotinic receptors on osteoclasts, thus providing evidence for broader autonomic skeletal regulation. Sensory innervation of bone has also received focus again widening our understanding of the complex neuronal regulation of bone mass. Whilst scientific advance in this field of bone metabolism has been rapid, progress is still required to understand how these model systems work in relation to the multiple confounders influencing skeletal metabolism, and the relative balance in these neuronal systems required for skeletal growth and development in childhood and maintaining skeletal integrity in adulthood.

  11. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  12. Beam diagnostic system for SSC on HIRFL central console

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guixu; Wang Zhen; Huang Tuanhua

    1998-01-01

    The SSC ion beam diagnostic system on the console of HIRFL in institute of modern physics is presented. The information between console and diagnostic system can be transferred via DECnet communication. The central computer for HIRFL console is VAX-8350, the working computer of diagnostic system is changed from IBM PC/XT to COMPAQ 486, and the operating program is rewritten from FORTRAN to C. In order to communicate information, DECnet TTT function is put into both programs on the VAX and PC

  13. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  14. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-11-24

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  15. The role of surgery in primary central nervous system lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Villalonga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL are infrequent. The traditional treatment of choice is chemotherapy. Complete resections have generally not been recommended, because of the risk of permanent central nervous system deficits with no proven improvement in survival. The aim of the current study was to compare survival among patients with PCNSL who underwent biopsy versus surgical resection. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PCNSL treated at our center from January 1994 to July 2015. Results Patients in the resection group exhibited significantly longer median survival time, relative to the biopsy group, surviving a median 31 months versus 14.5 months; p = 0.016. Conclusions In our series, patients who had surgical resection of their tumor survived a median 16.5 months longer than patients who underwent biopsy alone.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Hennessy, O.

    1993-01-01

    The variable magnetic resonance imaging appearances of central nervous system haemorrhage, both intra- and extra-axial, are described. These will vary with the type of image contrast (T1 or T2 weighting), the nature of the imaging sequence (spin-echo or gradient-echo) and the time from onset of haemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique for imaging haemorrhage in the central nervous system as it yields temporal information about haematoma development, and it is the only non-invasive means of imaging intraspinal haemorrhage. However, in the imaging of haematomas within 24 h of onset and in subarachnoid haemorrhage computed tomography is the investigation of choice. 13 refs., 6 figs

  17. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2015-12-01

    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toirac Romani, Carlos Andres; Salmon Cruzata, Acelia; Musle Acosta, Mirelvis; Rosales Fargie, Yamile; Dosouto Infante, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  19. Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    The regulation of body fat stores and blood glucose levels is critical for survival. This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes. Investigation into underlying mechanisms has begun to clarify the physiological role of leptin in the control of glucose metabolism and raises interesting new possibilities for the treatment of diabetes and related disorders.

  20. Regulation of Neurotransmitter Responses in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP J’-aminobutyric acid; yclic AM’P; neuromodulation ; brain 1ABTAT(Continue on reverse if necessary and...crucial enzyme for regulating neuromodulation in brain. Given the ultimate goal of developing novel pharmacological agents for N! manipulating...central nervous system function, the discovery of a biochemical response to a neuromodulator can be considered a major step in that direction. Thus, up to

  1. Rituximab treatment in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Ross, Laura; Oon, Shereen; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-06-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis affecting the brain and spinal cord. Treatment with biological agents has revolutionised the treatment of many rheumatic conditions but there is scant literature regarding the use of biological agents in PACNS. We present three cases of PACNS treated with rituximab, including two cases of relapsed disease, and a literature review suggesting a role for rituximab in this condition. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  3. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur; Toorn, Ronald van

    2009-01-01

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  4. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  5. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [The Role of Imaging in Central Nervous System Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hajime; Tazoe, Jun; Yamada, Kei

    2015-07-01

    Many infections invade the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the main tool that is used to evaluate infectious lesions of the central nervous system. The useful sequences on MRI are dependent on the locations, such as intra-axial, extra-axial, and spinal cord. For intra-axial lesions, besides the fundamental sequences, including T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, advanced sequences, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy, can be applied. They are occasionally used as determinants for quick and correct diagnosis. For extra-axial lesions, understanding the differences among 2D-conventional T1-weighted images, 2D-fat-saturated T1-weighted images, 3D-Spin echo sequences, and 3D-Gradient echo sequence after the administration of gadolinium is required to avoid wrong interpretations. FLAIR plus gadolinium is a useful tool for revealing abnormal enhancement on the brain surface. For the spinal cord, the sequences are limited. Evaluating the distribution and time course of the spinal cord are essential for correct diagnoses. We summarize the role of imaging in central nervous system infections and show the pitfalls, key points, and latest information in them on clinical practices.

  7. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  8. Predicting abuse potential of stimulants and other dopaminergic drugs: overview and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskinson, Sally L; Naylor, Jennifer E; Rowlett, James K; Freeman, Kevin B

    2014-12-01

    Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sizewell integrated system for centralized operations: getting it all together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.; Robinson, D.E.P.

    1992-01-01

    In June 1991, Westinghouse was awarded a contract by Nuclear Electric to supply the Integrated System for Centralized Operations (ISCO) for the Sizewell B nuclear power plant under construction in Suffolk. This system is a large scale distributed control and instrumentation system that will perform safety and control functions for the primary and secondary systems for the plant. Combined with the control and instrumentation equipment that was already being supplied for the plant by Westinghouse, this will be the most extensive integration of modern digital control equipment on a nuclear power plant to date. The ISCO architecture, consisting of 3 major segments -high integrity control, process control and the distributed computer system - is described. The history of the ISCO development is explained. (Author)

  10. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  11. Centralized database for interconnection system design. [for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    A database application called DFACS (Database, Forms and Applications for Cabling and Systems) is described. The objective of DFACS is to improve the speed and accuracy of interconnection system information flow during the design and fabrication stages of a project, while simultaneously supporting both the horizontal (end-to-end wiring) and the vertical (wiring by connector) design stratagems used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) project engineering community. The DFACS architecture is centered around a centralized database and program methodology which emulates the manual design process hitherto used at JPL. DFACS has been tested and successfully applied to existing JPL hardware tasks with a resulting reduction in schedule time and costs.

  12. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  13. Exploring the Central Nervous System: methodological state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcourt, Jacques; Koulibaly, Pierre-Malick; Migneco, Octave

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the clinical use of brain SPECT demonstrate a defacing between the methodological developments published recently and its current use in clinical practice. We review a description of recent methodological developments that could be useful in three classical clinical application: the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the evaluation of dopaminergic neurotransmission in Parkinson's Disease and the study of epilepsy. In Alzheimer's disease the methods of spatial standardization and the comparison to a normative data base are more useful to observers that have the least experience and for this end methodological approaches that are oriented to routine work better and are simpler than SPM. Quantification is essential in the study of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the measurement of binding potential appears biased due to septal penetration, attenuation, diffusion and partial volume effect. Partial volume effect introduces most error and its correction is difficult because of the co registration precision required with magnetic resonance images. The study of epilepsy by subtraction of ictal and interictal SPECT has demonstrated its clinical value. It is a fusion of images operation that has now very well defined methods (au)

  14. Vertebrobasilar system computed tomographic angiography in central vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşaoğlu, Lale

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of vertigo in the population is 20% to 30% and one-fourth of the cases are related to central causes. The aim of this study was to evaluate computed tomography angiography (CTA) findings of the vertebrobasilar system in central vertigo without stroke.CTA and magnetic resonance images of patients with vertigo were retrospectively evaluated. One hundred twenty-nine patients suspected of having central vertigo according to history, physical examination, and otological and neurological tests without signs of infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. The control group included 120 patients with similar vascular disease risk factors but without vertigo. Vertebral and basilar artery diameters, hypoplasias, exit-site variations of vertebral artery, vertebrobasilar tortuosity, and stenosis of ≥50% detected on CTA were recorded for all patients. Independent-samples t test was used in variables with normal distribution, and Mann-Whitney U test in non-normal distribution. The difference of categorical variable distribution according to groups was analyzed with χ and/or Fisher exact test.Vertebral artery hypoplasia and ≥50% stenosis were seen more often in the vertigo group (P = 0.000, vertigo patients had ≥50% stenosis, 54 (69.2%) had stenosis at V1 segment, 9 (11.5%) at V2 segment, 2 (2.5%) at V3 segment, and 13 (16.6%) at V4 segment. Both vertigo and control groups had similar basilar artery hypoplasia and ≥50% stenosis rates (P = 0.800, >0.05).CTA may be helpful to clarify the association between abnormal CTA findings of vertebral arteries and central vertigo.This article reveals the opportunity to diagnose posterior circulation abnormalities causing central vertigo with a feasible method such as CTA.

  15. The memory systems of children with (central) auditory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mayra Monteiro; Mota, Mailce Borges; Pinheiro, Maria Madalena Canina

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate working, declarative, and procedural memory in children with (central) auditory processing disorder who showed poor phonological awareness. Thirty 9- and 10-year-old children participated in the study and were distributed into two groups: a control group consisting of 15 children with typical development, and an experimental group consisting of 15 children with (central) auditory processing disorder who were classified according to three behavioral tests and who showed poor phonological awareness in the CONFIAS test battery. The memory systems were assessed through the adapted tests in the program E-PRIME 2.0. The working memory was assessed by the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C), whereas the declarative memory was assessed by a picture-naming test and the procedural memory was assessed by means of a morphosyntactic processing test. The results showed that, when compared to the control group, children with poor phonological awareness scored lower in the working, declarative, and procedural memory tasks. The results of this study suggest that in children with (central) auditory processing disorder, phonological awareness is associated with the analyzed memory systems.

  16. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Details of the conceptual design, economic analysis, and development plan for a solar central receiver system for retrofitting the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant are presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system displaces natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber. The solar reformer retrofit system characteristics and its interface with the existing plant are simple, incorporating state of the art components with proven technology. A northfield composed of one thousand forty second generation heliostats provides solar energy to the receiver which is positioned on top of a 90 meter high steel tower. The overall economics of this system can provide over 20% discount cash flow rate of return with proper investment and market conditions.

  17. Piping information centralized management system for nuclear plant, PIMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Masaru

    1977-01-01

    Piping works frequently cause many troubles in the progress of construction works, because piping is the final procedure in design and construction and is forced to suffer the problems in earlier stages. The enormous amount of data on quality control and management leads to the employment of many unskilled designers of low technical ability, and it causes confusion in installation and inspection works. In order to improve the situation, the ''piping information management system for nuclear plants (PIMAS)'' has been introduced attempting labor-saving and speed-up. Its main purposes are the mechanization of drafting works, the centralization of piping informations, labor-saving and speed-up in preparing production control data and material management. The features of the system are as follows: anyone can use the same informations whenever he requires them because the informations handled in design works are contained in a large computer; the system can be operated on-line, and the terminals are provided in the sections which require informations; and the sub-systems are completed for preparing a variety of drawings and data. Through the system, material control has become possible by using the material data in each plant, stock material data and the information on the revision of drawings in the design department. Efficiency improvement and information centralization in the manufacturing department have also been achieved because the computer has prepared many kinds of slips based on unified drawings and accurate informations. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. MRI findings in central nervous system of neurofibromatosis-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoen; Huang Suiqiao; Shen Jun; Hong Guobin; Wu Zhuo; Lin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in central nervous system involvement of neurofibromatosis II. Methods: 7 patients with surgically and pathologically proved neurofibromatosis II were included. Their MR imaging findings and clinical features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The main findings of 7 cases of neurofibraomaosis II on MR imaging included bilateral acoustic neurilemoma, multiple neurofibroma, meningioma and schwannoma. Among the 7 patients, Tl-weighted imaging after contrast enhancement displayed additional lesions which had been ignored on un-enhanced scan. Conclusion: MR imaging has advantages in the detection of central nervous sys- tem involvement of neurofibromatosis II with regard to its ability to show the lesions well, meanwhile displaying the size, morphology and signal features clearly. (authors)

  19. Development Of Data Acquisition Software For Centralized Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolida Yussup; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawardi Hasim; Azraf Azman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, with the growth of technology, many devices and equipment's can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition. Centralized radiation monitoring system utilizes a Local Area Network (LAN) as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software development on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. Then the recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a web site. The readings with the time stamp are stored in the system database for query. Besides acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, additional features such as data conversion from mR to μSv and line chart display are developed in the software for effective radiation level trend observation and studies. (author)

  20. Dopaminergic sensitivity and cocaine abuse: response to apomorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Nunes, E; DeCaria, C M; Quitkin, F M; Cooper, T; Wager, S; Klein, D F

    1990-08-01

    Ten male patients with chronic cocaine abuse received a single dose of the dopamine agonist apomorphine. Self-ratings of cocaine craving, depression, and anxiety decreased in response to apomorphine. Neuroendocrine response was consistent with central dopaminergic stimulation. Patients in the "craving" phase of the cocaine abuse cycle differed in behavioral but not neuroendocrine response to apomorphine from patients in the "crash" phase. Decrease in cocaine craving correlated with decrease in plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA). Total cocaine consumption correlated negatively with baseline prolactin and pHVA levels and inversely with peak change in prolactin following apomorphine. Patients had blunted neuroendocrine response to apomorphine in comparison to historical normal controls. Implications for the "dopamine" hypothesis of cocaine abuse are discussed.

  1. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of meth-amphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘CNS Stimulants’. PMID:24709540

  2. Central display system of figures in fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shaohong; Zhu Zicheng; Zhu Liqun; Ren Yi; Yu Hongmei; Du Chengbao; Xie Guoxue

    1997-01-01

    A new type of 'central display system of figures in fire alarm' includes two parts: (1) software package of drawing picture; (2) real time processing and operate system (POS). Main function of the software package is to draw floor plane figures, fire-fighting facility signs and room numbers; and then all pictures are used in POS. Main functions of POS are to process fire alarm, faults and activation of fire fighting control facility, save and print reports, look over floor plane figures, look over concrete condition of fire fighting facilities, and to show appropriate prompt according to different case. This system realizes many functions, such as, control with mouse, operation with push-button, menu operation interface, flip windows to prompt, and chinese character. It have won acclaim for its amazing interface, its convenience to operate, its reliability and flexibility

  3. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  4. A centralized storage system for the delivery of subcutaneous infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Peter; Lee, Jane; Arnold, Gill; Davis, Melanie

    Symptom control is an important part of maintaining a palliative patient's comfort and dignity, particularly in the end stages of their illness. Within the discipline of palliative care, the use of continuous subcutaneous syringe drivers is an important way of administering drugs at the end stages of a patient's illness to maintain symptom control. This study identified that ward staff had difficulty in obtaining the correct equipment, such as administration sets and Luer-lock syringes, leading to significant delays in patients being given drugs, affecting patient care and, when unable to obtain the correct equipment, the incorrect equipment was used. It was also identified that there was no consistent approach to the use or maintenance of syringe drivers, with a clear risk to patient safety. The study aim was to identify whether the introduction of a centralized storage system of set boxes containing all the relevant equipment would resolve these issues and improve patient care and safety. The audit showed that a centralized storage system enhanced practice by ensuring that there was a standardized approach to the initiation and care of syringe drivers, including equipment when used in the palliative care setting. The system also provided easy access to the correct equipment, reducing in the delay of commencing treatment, as well as the risk of any adverse events.

  5. X window terminals in TRIUMF's central control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadantsev, S.G.; Kadantseva, T.P.; Davison, B.; Diel, D.A.; Grant, P.A.; Klassen, E.; Lee, K.S.; Mouat, M.M.; Richards, J.E.; Yogendran, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    TRIUMF's Central Control System is being upgraded. In this process, an environment that suits the needs of cyclotron operational use and the Controls Group's development and maintenance duties has been sought. Over the years since TRIUMF's inception, workstations and a variety of dedicated input/output devices have been introduced into the main console of the Control Room and into the offices of the Controls Group personnel. A number of factors including the overhead of system management, price/performance, time to obsolescence, flexibility, and reliability have affected the suitability of workstations and the other I/O devices. In the new configuration, a generic display device plays a very important role in the Central Control System. X terminals have proven to be superior to workstations and other display devices and are now the display medium of choice in TRIUMF's Controls Group. This paper reviews the TRIUMF Controls Group's experiences with X terminals. A number of aspects of X terminal use in a particle accelerator environment are discussed. Topics include functionality, hardware configuration, software management, relative cost, performance, reliability, boot mechanisms, application suitability, and operator acceptance. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  6. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different sub-detector combinations. In this contribution, we give an overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are m...

  7. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  8. Tolerance of the central nervous system to photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D.R.; Murray, R.M.L.; Koschel, K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response isoeffect equations have been determined for hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency following cranial irradiation. Of particular importance is the occurrence of complications at doses substantially less than those commonly used for the treatment of central nervous system tumors. Such complications may be severe and potentially life threatening. These complications occur when a small midline 'target' volume containing the pituitary gland, infundibulum and adjacent inferior hypothalamic structures is irradiated. Direct pituitary irradiation is unlikely to be a factor, at least in some cases. The possible role of incidental hypothalamic irradiation in the control of acromegaly and pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome is discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Prophylactic radiotherapy for central nervous system in acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.

    1994-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the central nervous system in leukemias is a complex problem and there is no optimal solution that is universal for all patients. Radiation therapy, because of its CNS toxicity and potential carcinogenicity, is reserved for those in the highest risk groups. The cranial radiation dose is 18 Gy, while the spinal cord is treated with intrathecal methotrexate or multidrug therapy. The authors describe the basic aspects of radiation therapy treatment planning, as the main areas that should be included in treatment field, in order to guarantee favourable results. (author)

  10. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  11. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M.; Altena, R. van; Laridon, A.; Coeman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  13. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  14. Role for excitatory amino acids in methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsalla, P K; Nicklas, W J; Heikkila, R E

    1989-01-20

    The systemic administration of either methamphetamine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to experimental animals produces degenerative changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons or their axon terminals. This study was conducted to determine if excitatory amino acids, which appear to be involved in various neurodegenerative disorders, might also contribute to the dopaminergic neurotoxicity produced in mice by either methamphetamine or MPTP. MK-801, phencyclidine, and ketamine, noncompetitive antagonists of one subtype of excitatory amino acid receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, provided substantial protection against neurotoxicity produced by methamphetamine but not that produced by MPTP. These findings indicate that excitatory amino acids play an important role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine.

  15. Functional properties and synaptic integration of genetically labelled dopaminergic neurons in intrastriatal grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Thompson, Lachlan; Kirik, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    in the dopamine-depleted striatum than of those in the intact striatum. Our findings define specific electrophysiological characteristics of transplanted fetal dopaminergic neurons, and we provide the first direct evidence of functional synaptic integration of these neurons into host neural circuitries......., the electrophysiological properties grafted cells need to have in order to induce substantial functional recovery are poorly defined. It has not been possible to prospectively identify and record from dopaminergic neurons in fetal transplants. Here we used transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under control...... of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of endogenous and grafted dopaminergic neurons. We transplanted ventral mesencephalic tissue from E12.5 transgenic mice into striatum of neonatal rats with or without lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The transplanted...

  16. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Katou, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Chiba, Jun

    1982-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant. (J.P.N.)

  17. Nigral dopaminergic neuron replenishment in adult mice through VE-cadherin-expressing neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir A Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2– neural progenitor cells. We sought to further validate this finding and explore a potential atypical origin for these progenitor cells. Since neural progenitor cells have a proximal association with the vasculature of the brain and subsets of endothelial cells are Nestin+, we hypothesized that dopaminergic neural progenitors might share a common cell lineage. Therefore, we employed a VE-cadherin promoter-driven CREERT2:THlox/THlox transgenic mouse line to ablate the tyrosine hydroxylase gene from endothelial cells in adult animals. After 26 weeks, but not 13 weeks, following the genetic blockade of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in VE-cadherin+ cells, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase+ neurons in the substantia nigra. The results from this genetic lineage tracing study suggest that dopaminergic neurons are replenished in adult mice by a VE-cadherin+ progenitor cell population potentially arising from an endothelial lineage.

  18. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  19. MINED GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEM (MGDS) MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS CENTRALIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. McGrath

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify and document Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) requirements for centralized command and control. Additionally, to further develop the MGDS monitoring and control functions. This monitoring and control report provides the following information: (1) Determines the applicable requirements for a monitoring and control system for repository operations and construction (excluding Performance Confirmation). (2) Makes a determination as to whether or not centralized command and control is required

  20. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbing; Chen Liguang; Ma Yuxiang; Liu Wen; Lin Xiangtao; Shi Hao; Yang Zhenzhen; Qu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T 2 -weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T 1 -weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T 2 -weighted images. T 1 -weighted images were not as good as T 2 -weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  1. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  2. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T W; Sill, Martin; Hovestadt, Volker; Schrimpf, Daniel; Sturm, Dominik; Koelsche, Christian; Sahm, Felix; Chavez, Lukas; Reuss, David E; Kratz, Annekathrin; Wefers, Annika K; Huang, Kristin; Pajtler, Kristian W; Schweizer, Leonille; Stichel, Damian; Olar, Adriana; Engel, Nils W; Lindenberg, Kerstin; Harter, Patrick N; Braczynski, Anne K; Plate, Karl H; Dohmen, Hildegard; Garvalov, Boyan K; Coras, Roland; Hölsken, Annett; Hewer, Ekkehard; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Fischer, Roger; Beschorner, Rudi; Schittenhelm, Jens; Staszewski, Ori; Wani, Khalida; Varlet, Pascale; Pages, Melanie; Temming, Petra; Lohmann, Dietmar; Selt, Florian; Witt, Hendrik; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Aronica, Eleonora; Giangaspero, Felice; Rushing, Elisabeth; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Geisenberger, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Becker, Albert; Preusser, Matthias; Haberler, Christine; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Cryan, Jane; Farrell, Michael; Deckert, Martina; Hench, Jürgen; Frank, Stephan; Serrano, Jonathan; Kannan, Kasthuri; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Brück, Wolfgang; Hofer, Silvia; Brehmer, Stefanie; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Hänggi, Daniel; Hans, Volkmar; Rozsnoki, Stephanie; Hansford, Jordan R; Kohlhof, Patricia; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Lechner, Matt; Lopes, Beatriz; Mawrin, Christian; Ketter, Ralf; Kulozik, Andreas; Khatib, Ziad; Heppner, Frank; Koch, Arend; Jouvet, Anne; Keohane, Catherine; Mühleisen, Helmut; Mueller, Wolf; Pohl, Ute; Prinz, Marco; Benner, Axel; Zapatka, Marc; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Kramm, Christof M; Müller, Hermann L; Rutkowski, Stefan; von Hoff, Katja; Frühwald, Michael C; Gnekow, Astrid; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Calaminus, Gabriele; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Perry, Arie; Jones, Chris; Jacques, Thomas S; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Gessi, Marco; Pietsch, Torsten; Schramm, Johannes; Schackert, Gabriele; Westphal, Manfred; Reifenberger, Guido; Wesseling, Pieter; Weller, Michael; Collins, Vincent Peter; Blümcke, Ingmar; Bendszus, Martin; Debus, Jürgen; Huang, Annie; Jabado, Nada; Northcott, Paul A; Paulus, Werner; Gajjar, Amar; Robinson, Giles W; Taylor, Michael D; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Ryzhova, Marina; Platten, Michael; Unterberg, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Karajannis, Matthias A; Mittelbronn, Michel; Acker, Till; Hartmann, Christian; Aldape, Kenneth; Schüller, Ulrich; Buslei, Rolf; Lichter, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Herold-Mende, Christel; Ellison, David W; Hasselblatt, Martin; Snuderl, Matija; Brandner, Sebastian; Korshunov, Andrey; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M

    2018-03-22

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging-with substantial inter-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show that the availability of this method may have a substantial impact on diagnostic precision compared to standard methods, resulting in a change of diagnosis in up to 12% of prospective cases. For broader accessibility, we have designed a free online classifier tool, the use of which does not require any additional onsite data processing. Our results provide a blueprint for the generation of machine-learning-based tumour classifiers across other cancer entities, with the potential to fundamentally transform tumour pathology.

  3. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  4. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H H; Huygen, P L M; Merx, J L; Kremer, H P H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Longridge, Neil S

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  5. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  6. A centralized information management system for environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, K. [Martin Marietta Technical Services, Inc., Bay City, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    During the past few decades there have been several serious initiatives focusing on the applications of computational technology towards understanding the diverse fields of environmental research such as environmental monitoring, pollution prevention, and hazardous chemical mitigation. Recently, due to the widespread application of high performance computer technology and the renewed interest of the industrial community in environmental protection, we are witnessing an era of environmental information explosion. In light of these large-scale computer-driven developments, the author identifies a highly desirable initiative for this field, which is solely devoted to a centralized environmental database and information management system. This talk will focus on some design aspects of such an information management system.

  7. Visualization of radiation effects on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Dinkel, J.; Zamecnik, C.

    2012-01-01

    Therapy-related side effects, which are detectable with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at high sensitivity, are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity in cancer patients. They can be observed in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases as well as in systemic therapy, including whole brain irradiation and chemotherapy and are more often seen due to the better overall survival. This review describes the most frequent acute and chronic therapy-related changes in the CNS and the imaging findings. Acute changes are often reversible while chronic changes can be observed up to several years after treatment. The differentiation of treatment-related from tumor-related changes might be very difficult, although modern imaging modalities such as MR spectroscopy or MR perfusion measurements supply helpful differential diagnostic information. (orig.) [de

  8. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  9. MyOcean Central Information System - Achievements and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Vincent; Loubrieu, Thomas; Jolibois, Tony; de Dianous, Rémi; Blower, Jon; Romero, Laia; Griffiths, Guy

    2013-04-01

    Since 2009, MyOcean (http://www.myocean.eu) is providing an operational service, for forecasts, analysis and expertise on ocean currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, primary ecosystems and ice coverage. The production of observation and forecasting data is done by 42 Production Units (PU). Product download and visualisation are hosted by 25 Dissemination Units (DU). All these products and associated services are gathered in a single catalogue hiding the intricate distributed organization of PUs and DUs. Besides applying INSPIRE directive and OGC recommendations, MyOcean overcomes technical choices and challenges. This presentation focuses on 3 specific issues met by MyOcean and relevant for many Spatial Data Infrastructures: user's transaction accounting, large volume download and stream line the catalogue maintenance. Transaction Accounting: Set up powerful means to get detailed knowledge of system usage in order to subsequently improve the products (ocean observations, analysis and forecast dataset) and services (view, download) offer. This subject drives the following ones: Central authentication management for the distributed web services implementations: add-on to THREDDS Data Server for WMS and NETCDF sub-setting service, specific FTP. Share user management with co-funding projects. In addition to MyOcean, alternate projects also need consolidated information about the use of the cofunded products. Provide a central facility for the user management. This central facility provides users' rights to geographically distributed services and gathers transaction accounting history from these distributed services. Propose a user-friendly web interface to download large volume of data (several GigaBytes) as robust as basic FTP but intuitive and file/directory independent. This should rely on a web service drafting the INSPIRE to-be specification and OGC recommendations for download taking into account that FTP server is not enough friendly (need to know

  10. The JET diagnostic fast central acquisition and trigger system (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A. W.; Blackler, K.

    1995-01-01

    Most plasma physics diagnostics sample at a fixed frequency that is normally matched to available memory limits. This technique is not appropriate for long pulse machines such as JET where sampling frequencies of hundreds of kHz are required to diagnose very fast events. As a result of work using real-time event selection within the previous JET soft x-ray diagnostic, a single data acquisition and event triggering system for all suitable fast diagnostics, the fast central acquisition and trigger system (Fast CATS), has been developed for JET. The front-end analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) part samples all channels at 250 kHz, with a 100 kHz pass band and a stop band of 125 kHz. The back-end data collection system is based around Texas Instruments TMS320C40 microprocessors. Within this system, two levels of trigger algorithms are able to evaluate data. The first level typically analyzes data on a per diagnostic and individual channel basis. The second level looks at the data from one or more diagnostics in a window around the time of interest flagged by the first level system. Selection criteria defined by the diagnosticians are then imposed on the results from the second level to decide whether that data should be kept. The use of such a system involving intelligent real time trigger algorithms and fast data analysis will improve both the quantity and quality of JET diagnostic data, while providing valuable input to the design of data acquisition systems for very long pulse machines such as ITER. This paper will give an overview of the various elements of this new system. In addition, first results from this system following the restart of JET operation will be presented.

  11. Centralized operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Sato, Hideyuki; Murata, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    According to the prospect of long term energy demand, in 2000, the nuclear power generation facilities in Japan are expected to take 15.9% of the total energy demand. From this fact, it is an important subject to supply nuclear power more stably, and in the field of instrumentation and control, many researches and developments and the incessant effort of improvement have been continued. In the central operation and monitoring system which is the center of the stable operation of nuclear power plants, the man-machine technology aiding operators by electronic and computer application technologies has been positively developed and applied. It is considered that hereafter, for the purpose of rationally heightening the operation reliability of the plants, the high quality man-machine system freely using the most advanced technologies such as high reliability digital technology, optical information transmission, knowledge engineering and so on is developed and applied. The technical trend of operation and monitoring system, the concept of heightening operation and monitoring capability, the upgrading of operation and monitoring system, and the latest operation, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants and waste treatment facilities are described. (K.I.)

  12. Central Hemodynamics and Arterial Stiffness in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Elena; Pucci, Giacomo; Cannarile, Francesca; Battista, Francesca; Alunno, Alessia; Giuliani, Marco; Cafaro, Giacomo; Gerli, Roberto; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a higher prevalence of macrovascular disease and a poorer related prognosis have been reported in SSc than in the general population. The simultaneous assessment of prognostically relevant functional properties of larger and smaller arteries, and their effects on central hemodynamics, has never been performed in SSc using the state-of-the-art techniques. Thirty-four women with SSc (aged 61±15 years, disease duration 17±12 years, and blood pressure 123/70±18/11 mm Hg) and 34 healthy women individually matched by age and mean arterial pressure underwent the determination of carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (upper limb) pulse wave velocity (a direct measure of arterial stiffness), aortic augmentation (a measure of the contribution of reflected wave to central pulse pressure), and aortobrachial pulse pressure amplification (brachial/aortic pulse pressure) through applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor). Patients and controls did not differ by carotid-femoral or carotid-radial pulse wave velocity. Aortic augmentation index corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75) was higher in women with SSc (30.9±16% versus 22.2±12%; P=0.012). Patients also had a lower aortobrachial amplification of pulse pressure (1.22±0.18 versus 1.33±0.25; P=0.041). SSc was an independent predictor of AIx@75 (direct) and pulse pressure amplification (inverse). Among patients, age, mean arterial pressure, and C-reactive protein independently predicted carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Age and mean arterial pressure were the only predictors of AIx@75. Women with SSc have increased aortic augmentation and decreased pulse pressure amplification (both measures of the contribution of reflected wave to central waveform) but no changes in aortic or upper limb arterial stiffness. Microvascular involvement occurs earlier than large artery stiffening in SSc. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...) and/or abnormal vascularity (abnormal blood supply and circulation) of the central nervous system. The...

  14. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure

  16. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  17. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders. PMID:24370461

  18. Interaction of Synuclein and Inflammation in Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    induces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons: implications for progression of Parkinson’s disease. Neurotox Res. 19: 63-72, (2011). Kalia, L. V., S...1998). Zhang J, Niu N, Wang M, McNutt MA, Zhang D, Zhang B, Lu S, Liu Y, Liu Z. Neuron-derived IgG protects dopaminergic neurons from insult by 6...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0465 TITLE: Interaction of Synuclein and Inflammation in Dopaminergic

  19. Role of Inflammation in MPTP-Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    of MPTP to MPP+ and MPP+ entry into dopaminergic neurons are key to the neurotoxic effects of MPTP and interference in any of these processes...presented at the Society for Neuroscience Meetings in 2006 Figure 1. Tempol Structure 29 Figure 2. Tempol protects dopaminergic neurons...in PD. Dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc were protected to a significant degree against the damaging effects of MPTP by M40401 whereas its isoforms

  20. Human neuromelanin: an endogenous microglial activator for dopaminergic neuron death

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Zecca, Luigi; Wilson, Belinda; Ren, RW; Wang, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that neuroinflammation caused by over-activation of microglial in the substantia nigra is critical in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing data demonstrates that environmental factors such as rotenone, paraquat play pivotal roles in the death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, potential role and mechanism of neuromelanin (NM), a major endogenous component in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, on microg...

  1. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  2. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  3. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, S.J.; Gerald, B.; Magill, H.L.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  4. Genome semantics, in silico multicellular systems and the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Eric

    2005-03-21

    Genomes with their complexity and size present what appears to be an impossible challenge. Scientists speak in terms of decades or even centuries before we will understand how genomes and their hosts the cell and the city of cells that make up the multicellular context function. We believe that there will be surprisingly quick progress made in our understanding of genomes. The key is to stop taking the Central Dogma as the only direction in which genome research can scale the semantics of genomes. Instead a top-down approach coupled with a bottom-up approach may snare the unwieldy beast and make sense of genomes. The method we propose is to take in silico biology seriously. By developing in silico models of genomes cells and multicellular systems, we position ourselves to develop a theory of meaning for artificial genomes. Then using that develop a natural semantics of genomes.

  5. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  6. Pericyte function in the physiological central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Rieko; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leads to disruption of the vascular network, causing vascular dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction is the major event in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases and is closely associated with the severity of neuronal dysfunction. The suppression of vascular dysfunction has been considered a promising avenue to limit damage to the CNS, leading to efforts to clarify the cellular and molecular basis of vascular homeostasis maintenance. A reduction of trophic support and oxygen delivery due to circulatory insufficiency has long been regarded as a major cause of vascular damage. Moreover, recent studies provide a new perspective on the importance of the structural stability of blood vessels in CNS diseases. This updated article discusses emerging information on the key role of vascular integrity in CNS diseases, specially focusing on pericyte function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Saksena, Sona; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  8. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  9. Engineering report for the central mercury treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) was used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant between 1950 and 1963. This contamination legacy has prompted a series of remedial measures. Since the mid-1980s, a series of engineered projects, maintenance activities, and general improvement in work practices has resulted in a decreasing trend of Hg concentration in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Some of the Hg in the soils surrounding past Hg- use buildings enters the building sumps which are discharged to EFPC. Overall goal is to reduce the Hg contamination of EFPC to no more than 5 g/day. This project will create the Central Mercy Treatment System to reduce the Hg contribution to EFPC by installing carbon adsorption units to treat the effluent from buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4. Use of carbon adsorption will be the long-term strategy for reduction of Hg in plant effluent

  10. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using human embryonal carcinoma (Ntera2=NT2) and Human neuroblastoma cell (NB1). They exposed to heavy ions and X ray 80% confluent cells in culture bottles. The cells were different type about growth and differentiation in the neuron. The apoptosis profile was measured by AnnexinV-EGFP, PI stained and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after carbon- or iron-ion irradiation. Memory functions were rapidly decreased after irradiation both ions. Iron -ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation C-ion group were recovered 25 weeks after irradiation. Tier memory were still keep at over 100 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  11. Dendrimer Advances for the Central Nervous System Delivery of Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included. PMID:24274162

  12. Dendrimer advances for the central nervous system delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included.

  13. Mosaic serine proteases in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2008-01-01

    We review the structure and function of three kinds of mosaic serine proteases expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Mosaic serine proteases have several domains in the proenzyme fragment, which modulate proteolytic function, and a protease domain at the C-terminus. Spinesin/TMPRSS5 is a transmembrane serine protease whose presynaptic distribution on motor neurons in the spinal cord suggests that it is significant for neuronal plasticity. Cell type-specific alternative splicing gives this protease diverse functions by modulating its intracellular localization. Motopsin/PRSS12 is a mosaic protease, and loss of its function causes mental retardation. Recent reports indicate the significance of this protease for cognitive function. We mention the fibrinolytic protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which has physiological and pathological functions in the CNS.

  14. Monitoring In Patients With Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunoday G R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of brain injury in infections of central nervous system (CNS are complex. While the primary injury may be due to meningeal and/or parenchymal invasion by the pathogen and release of toxins, a variety of secondary insults occur, which may influence the outcome as much as the primary insult. This concept is well recognized in brain trauma(1,2 where early recognition of secondary injuries and their appropriate treatment has been shown to improve outcome. Hypoxia, ischemia and metabolic disturbances are important secondary insults recognized in brain trauma, These are known to cause permanent neurological damage and worsening of outcome if undetected and untreated. In CNS infections, with their complex pathophysiologies, there is ample scope for such secondary insults. Monitoring in patients with CNS infections is to detect these secondary insults, allowing for a more informed approach to treatment.

  15. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  16. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannalini, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is little information on superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) in the literature, mainly due to the rarity of the disease, the difficulties in diagnosis (autopsy pre magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and the long latency of the symptoms. With the advent of MRI, for the first time we are able to make a positive in vivo diagnosis. But this comes at a time of less disease incidence, and little clinical awareness. MRI is able to make the diagnosis because of the strong paramagnetic effect of haemosiderin, the blood by-product that is deposited on the brain surface in superficial siderosis of the CNS. The ability of the brain to biosynthesize ferritin in response to prolonged contact with haemosiderin is thought to be the most important factor in the pathogenesis of superficial siderosis. (author)

  17. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  18. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Sica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, Huntington’s dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  19. MR imaging of the pediatric central nervous system utilization review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.; Prince, J.R.; Galloway, D.C.; Ross-Duggan, J.; Lester, P.D.; Yamanashi, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    MR has been done in over 500 pediatric and adolescent patients (ages 5 days to 20 years) with central nervous system (CNS) disease (brain, n = 331; spine, n = 218), including high-field and special coil application in 362 cases. T1-weighted, multiplanar MR imaging provides superior anatomic delineation of organogenetic CNS malformations, while multiparameter (T1, T2, p) MR is usually necessary for more complete characterization of histogenetic malformations, as well as acquired conditions. MR imaging is a desirable method for the initial and definitive evaluation of many cranial and spinal conditions of childhood (more-invasive procedures were obviated in 164 patients). CT or other modalities may be added when MR imaging does not satisfy the clinical query

  20. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  1. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  2. Radioautographic localization of neuropeptide receptors in central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostene, W.; Besson, J.; Broer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The first step of any physiological effect of a neuropeptide (NP) is its recognition by specific receptor sites. The very organization of the central nervous system (CNS) does not permit a precise localization of these binding sites by conventional binding assays. The aim of the present paper is to describe in detail a recently developed in vitro methodology for the localization, visualization and quantitation of specific binding sites for various NP such as TRH, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the rat CNS. The combination of this autoradiographic technique with radioimmunological measurements of NP, reveals that the endogenous distribution of THR, for example, in various brain regions, is not correlated with the presence of its binding sites. In vitro autoradiography may also be used to study the neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory role of NP in the CNS [fr

  3. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  4. Different types of centrally acting antihypertensives and their targets in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Chalmers, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The central regulation of blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters may involve the baroreceptor reflex are, including both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways, as well as amino acids, as neurotransmitters. Both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways have been recognized as targets for

  5. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Helm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of central nervous system (CNS diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes.

  6. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10 -5 M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3 H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  7. SALICYLATE INCREASES THE GAIN OF THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Lu, J.; Stolzberg, D.; Gray, L.; Deng, A.; Lobarinas, E.; Salvi, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    High doses of salicylate, the anti-inflammatory component of aspirin, induce transient tinnitus and hearing loss. Systemic injection of 250 mg/kg of salicylate, a dose that reliably induces tinnitus in rats, significantly reduced the sound evoked output of the rat cochlea. Paradoxically, salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of the sound-evoked field potential from the auditory cortex (AC) of conscious rats, but not the inferior colliculus (IC). When rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, which increases GABA-mediated inhibition, the salicylate-induced AC amplitude enhancement was abolished, whereas ketamine, which blocks N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, further increased the salicylate-induced AC amplitude enhancement. Direct application of salicylate to the cochlea, however, reduced the response amplitude of the cochlea, IC and AC, suggesting the AC amplitude enhancement induced by systemic injection of salicylate does not originate from the cochlea. To identify a behavioral correlate of the salicylate-induced AC enhancement, the acoustic startle response was measured before and after salicylate treatment. Salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of the startle response. Collectively, these results suggest that high doses of salicylate increase the gain of the central auditory system, presumably by down-regulating GABA-mediated inhibition, leading to an exaggerated acoustic startle response. The enhanced startle response may be the behavioral correlate of hyperacusis that often accompanies tinnitus and hearing loss. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO. PMID:19154777

  8. Thioredoxin reductase deficiency potentiates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in dopaminergic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Lopert

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are considered major generators of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS which are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD. We have recently shown that isolated mitochondria consume hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂ in a substrate- and respiration-dependent manner predominantly via the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx system. The goal of this study was to determine the role of Trx/Prx system in dopaminergic cell death. We asked if pharmacological and lentiviral inhibition of the Trx/Prx system sensitized dopaminergic cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased steady-state H₂O₂ levels and death in response to toxicants implicated in PD. Incubation of N27 dopaminergic cells or primary rat mesencephalic cultures with the Trx reductase (TrxR inhibitor auranofin in the presence of sub-toxic concentrations of parkinsonian toxicants paraquat; PQ or 6-hydroxydopamine; 6OHDA (for N27 cells resulted in a synergistic increase in H₂O₂ levels and subsequent cell death. shRNA targeting the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2 in N27 cells confirmed the effects of pharmacological inhibition. A synergistic decrease in maximal and reserve respiratory capacity was observed in auranofin treated cells and TrxR2 deficient cells following incubation with PQ or 6OHDA. Additionally, TrxR2 deficient cells showed decreased basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. These data demonstrate that inhibition of the mitochondrial Trx/Prx system sensitizes dopaminergic cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased steady-state H₂O₂, and cell death. Therefore, in addition to their role in the production of cellular H₂O₂ the mitochondrial Trx/Prx system serve as a major sink for cellular H₂O₂ and its disruption may contribute to dopaminergic pathology associated with PD.

  9. An Online Satellite Altimetry Data Processing System: Ads Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, A.; Braun, A.; Schöne, T.; Wen, H.; Reigber, C.

    To help solving important issues of climate change and sea level change and to un- derstand the complex system Earth, an interdisciplinary interpretation of various data sets is needed. Several groups on the national and international level are recently ac- tive in building up services to faciliate the access to geoscientific data to a broader community, especially the access to higher level products. In Germany, GFZ-Potsdam is currently building up the modular German Earth Science and Information System (GESIS). In the frame of GESIS the Altimeter Database System (ADS) has been com- pleted recently. This modul provides high quality data and processing capabilities for radar altimetry data to a wide range of users. The ADS modul can be accessed worldwide via the internet based user-interface "ADS Central" with a standard browser at (http://gesis.gfz-potsdam.de/ads). After a registra- tion process the system offers higher level standard products, calculated routinely from the harmonised and intercalibrated satellite database. Additionally, ADS allows to generate individual user specific products. The user is able to perform several processing and analysing steps, e.g. to generate mean sea sur- face height grids, to extract altimetry data time series around a given location, to anal- yse parameter variability, or to perform a crossover analysis. The user can specify general parameters like the satellite mission, time interval and region of the used data. Additionally, different available correction models can be choosen, which will be ap- plied to the data. It is further possible to enter several quality parameters to optimize the data for individual applications. These individual user defined products are au- tomatically processed by ADS at GFZ-Potsdam and are subsequently distributed via anonymous ftp. The system is an attempt to offer easy access to the daily growing satellite altime- try database and numerous correction models and orbits. Due to the effectiveness

  10. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runegaard, Annika H; Jensen, Kathrine L; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M; Dencker, Ditte; Weikop, Pia; Gether, Ulrik; Rickhag, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Cre-driver mouse lines have been extensively used as genetic tools to target and manipulate genetically defined neuronal populations by expression of Cre recombinase under selected gene promoters. This approach has greatly advanced neuroscience but interpretations are hampered by the fact that most Cre-driver lines have not been thoroughly characterized. Thus, a phenotypic characterization is of major importance to reveal potential aberrant phenotypes prior to implementation and usage to selectively inactivate or induce transgene expression. Here, we present a biochemical and behavioural assessment of the dopaminergic system in hemizygous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Our data show that TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice also show preserved dopamine transporter expression and function supporting sustained dopaminergic transmission. In addition, TH-Cre mice demonstrate normal responses in basic behavioural paradigms related to dopaminergic signalling including locomotor activity, reward preference and anxiolytic behaviour. Our results suggest that TH-Cre mice represent a valid tool to study the dopamine system, though careful characterization must always be performed to prevent false interpretations following Cre-dependent transgene expression and manipulation of selected neuronal pathways. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Linfoma primário do sistema nervoso central Primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bellesso

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O linfoma primário do sistema nervoso central (LPSNC é um linfoma extralinfonodal que, ao diagnóstico, encontra-se restrito ao parênquima cerebral, às meninges e/ou cordão espinhal e/ou olhos. Sua incidência triplicou nas últimas três décadas para 0,4 casos por 100.000 habitantes, representando 4% dos tumores do sistema nervoso central (SNC. Embora pacientes infectados pelo HIV tenham 3.600 vezes maior risco para o desenvolvimento do LPSNC, a incidência não aumentou apenas neste grupo de pessoas. Dados sugerem reduções da incidência de LPSNC em pacientes infectados após a introdução de drogas anti-retrovirais. Cerca de 90% dos casos de LPSNC são classificados como linfoma difuso de grandes células B, 10% têm envolvimento ocular e 10% são HIV positivos. A apresentação clínica depende da localização tumoral, prevalecendo os sintomas neurológicos em detrimento aos sistêmicos. Os exames de tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM são essenciais para o diagnóstico, porém o exame confirmatório deve ser o anatomopatológico. O estadiamento deve ser feito com exames de imagem e biópsia de medula óssea (BMO bilateral. Os principais fatores de mau prognóstico são: performance status do paciente acima de 1, idade superior a 60 anos, DHL elevada, hiperproteinorraquia e acometimento de área cerebral não hemisférica. Alguns fatores de prognóstico biológicos também podem influenciar na sobrevida, a exemplo da expressão de Bcl-6, que confere melhor prognóstico. O tratamento de escolha é a combinação de quimioterapia contendo altas doses de metotrexate e radioterapia (RDT. Devido às altas taxas de neurotoxicidade associada à RDT, seu uso tem ficado mais restrito aos pacientes idosos, e os recidivados ou refratários.Primary Central Nervous System lymphoma (PCNSL is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord or eyes. The incidence of PCNSL increased

  12. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Pashut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  13. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashut, Tamar; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS) with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  14. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  15. Dopaminergic modulation of the spectral characteristics in the rat brain oscillatory activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Miguel; López-Azcárate, Jon; Nicolás, María Jesús; Alegre, Manuel; Artieda, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The oscillatory activity recorded at different locations of the rat brain present a power law characteristic (PLC). ► Dopaminergic drugs are able to modify the power law spectral characteristic of the oscillatory activity. ► Drugs with opposite effects over the dopaminergic system (agonists/antagonists), induce opposite changes in the PLC. ► There is a fulcrum point for the modulation of the PLC around 20 Hz. ► The brain operates in a state of self-organized criticality (SOC) sensitive to dopaminergic modulation. - Abstract: Oscillatory activity can be widely recorded in the brain. It has been demonstrated to play an important role not only in the physiology of movement, perception and cognition, but also in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. In frequency domain, neurophysiological recordings show a power spectrum (PSD) following a log (PSD) ∝ log (f) −β , that reveals an intrinsic feature of many complex systems in nature: the presence of a scale-free dynamics characterized by a power-law component (PLC). Here we analyzed the influence of dopaminergic drugs over the PLC of the oscillatory activity recorded from different locations of the rat brain. Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter that is required for a number of physiological functions like normal feeding, locomotion, posturing, grooming and reaction time. Alterations in the dopaminergic system cause vast effects in the dynamics of the brain activity, that may be crucial in the pathophysiology of neurological (like Parkinson’s disease) or psychiatric (like schizophrenia) diseases. Our results show that drugs with opposite effects over the dopaminergic system, induce opposite changes in the characteristics of the PLC: DA agonists/antagonists cause the PLC to swing around a fulcrum point in the range of 20 Hz. Changes in the harmonic component of the spectrum were also detected. However, differences between recordings are better explained by the modulation of the PLC

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Service of Radiology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Toni, G. de [University Hospital, Medical School of Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Borba, L.A. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Oliveira, G.G. [Division of Pathology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    A retrospective analisis of six cases of central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis, all but one proven by biopsy and surgery, was carried out to study the CT and clinical data and pathological correlation. Most of the patients were from the country. Headache, vomiting, seizures and hemiparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Papilloedema was present in four patients with raised intracranial pressure. Five patients had chronic lung disease and two with advanced systemic disease, skin and mucous membrane lesions were also observed. The neurological disturbance was sometimes the presenting features and the diagnosis was discovered incidentally after surgery. Both solitary and multiple parenchymal lesions were observed and the cerebral hemispheres were more commonly involved in four patients. Local meningeal involvement was observed in one with a single cortical granuloma. We enphasise the usefulness of CT, showing a rounded or lobulated mass with an isodense or radiolucent centre after contrast enhancement, surrounded by an irregular wall of varying thickness. There was always moderate oedema, extending peripherally. Other infections or neoplastic diseases may present similar findings. Preoperative diagnosis should rest on integration of clinical data, chest films, laboratory and neuroimaging studies. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Glioblastoma in the limbic system presenting as sustained central hypopnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mashiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital after experiencing an epigastric sensation followed by unconsciousness. On arrival, the patient showed impaired consciousness without convulsive movement, cyanosis and shallow breathing, arterial O2 desaturation, and increased PCO2. Artificial respiration improved CO2 accumulation and consciousness, but interruption of artificial respiration returned the patient to her former state. Computed tomography of the head showed a mass around the left corpus callosum. The patient's hypopnea followed by unconsciousness suggested sustained nonconvulsive epilepsy manifesting in central hypopnea and subsequent unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis. Intravenous (IV anticonvulsants promptly improved the respiratory condition, and the patient started to regain consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion involving the bilateral limbic systems. To our knowledge, limbic seizure manifesting with hypopnea causing unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis has not previously been reported, despite evidence of a strong relationship between the limbic and respiratory systems. The current case suggests that sustained limbic seizure can manifest as hypopnea. Since emergency EEG can be difficult to perform, IV anticonvulsant treatment is an appropriate diagnostic therapy.

  18. Cochlear Damage Affects Neurotransmitter Chemistry in the Central Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Albert Godfrey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the perception of a monotonous sound not actually present in the environment, affects nearly 20% of the population of the United States. Although there has been great progress in tinnitus research over the past 25 years, the neurochemical basis of tinnitus is still poorly understood. We review current research about the effects of various types of cochlear damage on the neurotransmitter chemistry in the central auditory system and document evidence that different changes in this chemistry can underlie similar behaviorally measured tinnitus symptoms. Most available data have been obtained from rodents following cochlear damage produced by cochlear ablation, loud sound, or ototoxic drugs. Effects on neurotransmitter systems have been measured as changes in neurotransmitter level, synthesis, release, uptake, and receptors. In this review, magnitudes of changes are presented for neurotransmitter-related amino acids, acetylcholine, and serotonin. A variety of effects have been found in these studies that may be related to animal model, survival time, type of cochlear damage, or methodology. The overall impression from the evidence presented is that any imbalance of neurotransmitter-related chemistry could disrupt auditory processing in such a way as to produce tinnitus.

  19. The Emerging Roles for Telomerase in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ying Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a specialized ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex, maintains telomere length at the 3′ end of chromosomes, and functions importantly in stem cells, cancer and aging. Telomerase exists in neural stem cells (NSCs and neural progenitor cells (NPCs, at a high level in the developing and adult brains of humans and rodents. Increasing studies have demonstrated that telomerase in NSCs/NPCs plays important roles in cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, neuronal survival and neuritogenesis. In addition, recent works have shown that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT can protect newborn neurons from apoptosis and excitotoxicity. However, to date, the link between telomerase and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS is not well reviewed. Here, we analyze the evidence and summarize the important roles of telomerase in the CNS. Understanding the roles of telomerase in the nervous system is not only important to gain further insight into the process of the neural cell life cycle but would also provide novel therapeutic applications in CNS diseases such as neurodegenerative condition, mood disorders, aging and other ailments.

  20. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  1. Dopaminergic stimulation increases selfish behavior in the absence of punishment threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni, Andreas; Eisenegger, Christoph; Hartmann, Matthias N; Fischbacher, Urs; Knoch, Daria

    2014-01-01

    People often face decisions that pit self-interested behavior aimed at maximizing personal reward against normative behavior such as acting cooperatively, which benefits others. The threat of social sanctions for defying the fairness norm prevents people from behaving overly selfish. Thus, normative behavior is influenced by both seeking rewards and avoiding punishment. However, the neurochemical processes mediating the impact of these influences remain unknown. Several lines of evidence link the dopaminergic system to reward and punishment processing, respectively, but this evidence stems from studies in non-social contexts. The present study investigates dopaminergic drug effects on individuals' reward seeking and punishment avoidance in social interaction. Two-hundred one healthy male participants were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) or a placebo before playing an economic bargaining game. This game involved two conditions, one in which unfair behavior could be punished and one in which unfair behavior could not be punished. In the absence of punishment threats, L-DOPA administration led to more selfish behavior, likely mediated through an increase in reward seeking. In contrast, L-DOPA administration had no significant effect on behavior when faced with punishment threats. The results of this study broaden the role of the dopaminergic system in reward seeking to human social interactions. We could show that even a single dose of a dopaminergic drug may bring selfish behavior to the fore, which in turn may shed new light on potential causal relationships between the dopaminergic system and norm abiding behaviors in certain clinical subpopulations.

  2. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once – in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position – either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  3. RAMI analysis of the ITER Central Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti, E-mail: kitazawa.siniti@jaea.go.jp [ITER Project Unit, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, 311-0193 Ibaraki (Japan); Okayama, Katsumi [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Neyatani, Yuzuru [ITER Project Unit, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, 311-0193 Ibaraki (Japan); Sagot, Francois; Houtte, Didier van [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We performed the functional analysis of the ITER CSS. • We performed a failure mode analysis of the ITER CSS. • We estimated the reliability and availability of the ITER CSS. • The ITER RAMI approach was applied to the ITER CSS for technical risk control in the design phase. - Abstract: ITER is the first worldwide international project aiming to design a facility to produce nuclear fusion energy. The technical requirements of its plant systems have been established in the ITER Project Baseline. In the project, the Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) approach has been adopted for technical risk control to help aid the design of the components in preparation for operation and maintenance. A RAMI analysis was performed on the conceptual design of the ITER Central Safety System (CSS). A functional breakdown was prepared in a bottom-up approach, resulting in the system being divided into 2 main functions and 20 sub-functions. These functions were described using the IDEF0 method. Reliability block diagrams were prepared to estimate the reliability and availability of each function under the stipulated operating conditions. Initial and expected scenarios were analyzed to define risk-mitigation actions. The inherent availability of the ITER CSS expected after implementation of mitigation actions was calculated to be 99.80% over 2 years, which is the typical interval of the scheduled maintenance cycles. This is consistent with the project required value of 99.9 ± 0.1%. A Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis was performed with criticality charts highlighting the risk level of the different failure modes with regard to their probability of occurrence and their effects on the availability of the plasma operation. This analysis defined when risk mitigation actions were required in terms of design, testing, operation procedures and/or maintenance to reduce the risk levels and increase the availability of the

  4. Do Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons Differentiate Between Reward and Punishment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J. Frank; D. James Surmeier

    2009-01-01

    The activity of dopaminergic neurons are thought to be increased by stimuli that predict reward and decreased by stimuli that predict aversive outcomes. Recent work by Matsumoto and Hikosaka challenges this model by asserting that stimuli associated with either rewarding or aversive outcomes increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

  5. Consolidation and Centralization of Waste Operations Business Systems - 12319

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, D. Dean [Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This abstract provides a comprehensive plan supporting the continued development and integration of all waste operations and waste management business systems. These include existing systems such as ATMS (Automated Transportation Management System), RadCalc, RFITS (Radio Frequency Identification Transportation System) Programs as well as incorporating key components of existing government developed waste management systems and COTS (Computer Off The Shelf) applications in order to deliver a truly integrated waste tracking and management business system. Some of these existing systems to be integrated include IWTS at Idaho National Lab, WIMS at Sandia National Lab and others. The aggregation of data and consolidation into a single comprehensive business system delivers best practices in lifecycle waste management processes to be delivered across the Department of Energy facilities. This concept exists to reduce operational costs to the federal government by combining key business systems into a centralized enterprise application following the methodology that as contractors change, the tools they use to manage DOE's assets do not. IWITS is one efficient representation of a sound architecture currently supporting multiple DOE sites from a waste management solution. The integration of ATMS, RadCalc and RFITS and the concept like IWITS into a single solution for DOE contractors will result in significant savings and increased efficiencies for DOE. Building continuity and solving collective problems can only be achieved through mass collaboration, resulting in an online community that DOE contractors and subcontractors access common applications, allowing for the collection of business intelligence at an unprecedented level. This is a fundamental shift from a solely 'for profit' business model to a 'for purpose' business model. To the conventional-minded, putting values before profit is an unfamiliar and unnatural way for a contractor to operate

  6. Central nervous system radiation injury in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies on radiation injury in the central nervous system have been carried out in many species ranging from mouse to monkey. This review is restricted to studies in rodents irradiated with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this paper, the various rodent models of brain and spinal cord injury are described with particular emphasis on the pathology of different types of lesions and theories of their pathogenesis. Many of the initial studies were limited to relatively high single doses, but in later work more clinically relevant fractionated irradiation schemes were employed. This has led to the recognition of various types of early and late delayed injury that are analogous to the syndromes observed in humans. Two main pathways have been suggested for the pathogenesis, one involving predominantly the progressive loss of glial cells and the other involving vascular injury. The relative importance of both mechanisms will be discussed with respect to treatment conditions and to dose level in particular. An hypothesis is presented concerning the possible role of different cell types in the development of specific syndromes

  7. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  8. The Central Nervous in system Rhabdoid tumor primitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manana, G.; Bernachin, J.; Waskoff, S.; Panuncio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Primitive Rhabdoid tumors of the Central Nervous system are entities of very low frequency and since 1942 is the first event observed in a total of 16,000 cases studied in the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Clinical Hospital. Until 2003 were described 118 case in the literature. The case is about the 3 years old child with no previous medical history consulted for 3 months with headaches, repeated vomiting, irritability and non specific abnormal gait. On examination is found a physical waking depression and great hydrocephalus in V I bilateral pair so is submitted to a emergency surgery. RMI CT and MRI performed reveals large frontal tumor that reaches the oval center with cystic and calcifications areas. Three days after is operates for the intraventricular tumor without post operative complications. Receive chemotherapy and the patient died 2 years later. The neuro pathological and ultrastructural study reveals a Rhabdoid malignancy brain tumor of grade IV as well as were analyzed histopathological and ultrastructural aspects of this entity

  9. BANJARESE GREETINGS SYSTEM IN DISTRICT KAPUAS OF CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Perdana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the study of the use of greeting in Banjarese which stay in Kapuas District of Central Borneo.This Research focused to describe the greeting word used by the people, particularly the greeting word in Banjarese used by the first generetion in Kapuas. The research method used is descriptive qualitative. Data collection by observation with a look at, involved notes. Sources of research data used is the preference of all speech that is displayed by 1 Aged over 30 years, 2 Native language studied. 3 Knowing its own culture, 4 The Banjarese are the first generation derived from Banjarmasin, 5 The Banjarese who had lived in Kapuas. Based on this research shows 1 Greetings kinship to greet our parents (father + mother → (+ Uma Abah; Greetings kinship parents to greet our father and mother (grandfather + grandmother → (kai + nini; Greetings kinship to greet parents our grandparents are corrected; Greetings kinship to greet both parents protested was waring; Greetings kinship to say hello (brother + sister → (kaka + ading. Greetings kinship to say hello if our children have children (grandchildren → (grandchildren; Greetings kinship to say hello if we have children and grandchildren is a great-grandfather. And 2 The system of daily greeting, to call people who may be called ikam lifetime, lives. I use the word, unda to appoint themselves. As for honor or call older used the word pian, and said ulun to appoint its own self.

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  11. Central nervous system infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajiri, Ryo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watakabe, Kyoko; Murata, Yutaka; Hagino, Takeshi; Seno, Yasushi; Najima, Yuho; Igarashi, Aiko; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2017-03-01

    Here, we described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a single institution over the previous 6 years. Charts of 353 consecutive allogeneic transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed for CNS infection. A total of 17 cases of CNS infection were identified at a median of 38 days (range, 10-1028 days) after allo-HSCT. Causative pathogens were human herpesvirus-6 (n=6), enterococcus (n=2), staphylococcus (n=2), streptococcus (n=2), varicella zoster virus (n=1), cytomegalovirus (n=1), John Cunningham virus (n=1), adenovirus (n=1), and Toxoplasma gondii (n=1). The cumulative incidence of CNS infection was 4.1% at 1 year and 5.5% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that high-risk disease status was a risk factor for developing CNS infection (p=.02), and that overall survival at 3 years after allo-HSCT was 33% in patients with CNS infection and 53% in those without CNS infection (p=.04). Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  13. Preferential lentiviral targeting of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fassler

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize and genetically manipulate specific cell populations of the central nervous system (CNS is fundamental to a better understanding of brain functions at the cellular and molecular levels. Tools to selectively target cells of the CNS include molecular genetics, imaging, and use of transgenic animals. However, these approaches are technically challenging, time consuming, and difficult to control. Viral-mediated targeting of cells in the CNS can be highly beneficial for studying and treating neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, despite specific marking of numerous cell types in the CNS, in vivo selective targeting of astrocytes has not been optimized. In this study, preferential targeting of astrocytes in the CNS was demonstrated using engineered lentiviruses that were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis envelope and displayed anti-GLAST IgG on their surfaces as an attachment moiety. Viral tropism for astrocytes was initially verified in vitro in primary mixed glia cultures. When injected into the brains of mice, lentiviruses that displayed GLAST IgG on their surface, exhibited preferential astrocyte targeting, compared to pseudotyped lentiviruses that did not incorporate any IgG or that expressed a control isotype IgG. Overall, this approach is highly flexible and can be exploited to selectively target astrocytes or other cell types of the CNS. As such, it can open a window to visualize and genetically manipulate astrocytes or other cells of the CNS as means of research and treatment.

  14. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Nickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation. Recent studies have revealed that long-lasting changes of myelination can be induced in these brain regions by experience, such as social isolation, stress, and alcohol abuse, as well as by neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, the mechanism and function of these changes remain poorly understood. Myelin regulation represents a new form of neural plasticity. Some progress has been made to provide new mechanistic insights into activity-independent and activity-dependent regulations of myelination in different experimental systems. More extensive investigations are needed in this important but underexplored research field, in order to shed light on how higher brain functions and myelination interplay in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  15. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jeffry R.; Barker, Peter B.; Bartha, Robert; Bizzi, Alberto; Boesch, Chris; Bolan, Patrick J.; Brindle, Kevin M.; Cudalbu, Cristina; Dinçer, Alp; Dydak, Ulrike; Emir, Uzay E.; Frahm, Jens; González, Ramón Gilberto; Gruber, Stephan; Gruetter, Rolf; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Heerschap, Arend; Henning, Anke; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Hüppi, Petra S.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Kreis, Roland; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Leach, Martin O.; Lin, Alexander P.; Luijten, Peter R.; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Pan, Jullie W.; Peet, Andrew C.; Poptani, Harish; Posse, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Ross, Brian D.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Schuster, Christian; Smith, Ian C. P.; Soher, Brian J.; Tkáč, Ivan; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of 1H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which 1H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24568703

  16. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  17. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  18. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement

  19. A case of disseminated central nervous system sparganosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiphithak, Raywat; Doungprasert, Gahn

    2016-01-01

    Sparganosis is a very rare parasitic infection in various organs caused by the larvae of tapeworms called spargana. The larva usually lodges in the central nervous system (CNS) and the orbit. However, lumbar spinal canal involvement, as noted in the present case, is extremely rare. We report a rare case of disseminated CNS sparganosis involving the brain and spinal canal and review the literature. A 54-year-old man presented with progressive low back pain and neurological deficit at the lumbosacral level for 2 months. Imaging indicated arachnoiditis and an abnormal lesion at the L4-5 vertebral level. The patient underwent laminectomy of the L4-5 with lesionectomy and lysis of adhesions between the nerve roots. Microscopic examination indicated sparganum infection. Further brain imaging revealed evidence of chronic inflammation in the left parieto-occipital area without evidence of live parasites. In addition, an ophthalmologist reported a nonactive lesion in the right conjunctiva. The patient recovered well after surgery, although he had residual back pain and bladder dysfunction probably due to severe adhesion of the lumbosacral nerve roots. CNS sparganosis can cause various neurological symptoms similar to those of other CNS infections. A preoperative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is helpful for diagnosis, especially in endemic areas. Surgical removal of the worm remains the treatment of choice.

  20. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  1. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  2. A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma, the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  3. Calcium signal communication in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Katleen; Cabooter, Liesbet; Paemeleire, Koen; Leybaert, Luc

    2004-02-01

    The communication of calcium signals between cells is known to be operative between neurons where these signals integrate intimately with electrical and chemical signal communication at synapses. Recently, it has become clear that glial cells also exchange calcium signals between each other in cultures and in brain slices. This communication pathway has received utmost attention since it is known that astrocytic calcium signals can be induced by neuronal stimulation and can be communicated back to the neurons to modulate synaptic transmission. In addition to this, cells that are generally not considered as brain cells become progressively incorporated in the picture, as astrocytic calcium signals are reported to be communicated to endothelial cells of the vessel wall and can affect smooth muscle cell tone to influence the vessel diameter and thus blood flow. We review the available evidence for calcium signal communication in the central nervous system, taking into account a basic functional unit -the brain cell tripartite- consisting of neurons, glial cells and vascular cells and with emphasis on glial-vascular calcium signaling aspects.

  4. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, SCID, B6, B6C3F1 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive. Radiation sensitivity of these cells ware SCID>B6>B6C3F1>C3H to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. Memory function were rapidly decrease after irradiation both ions. C-ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation, but Iron group were different. (author)

  5. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Liu Cuihua; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2003-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), B6 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. (author)

  6. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenzhong; Xia Liming; Yang Minjie; Feng Dingyi; Hu Junwu; Zou Mingli; Wang Chengyuan; Chen Xinlin; Yang Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  7. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  8. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  9. MRI findings of central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Man; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Ik Soo; Cho, Kwan Soo

    1997-01-01

    To characterize MRI findings of central nervous system (CNS) granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) and to analyse the points which differentiate it from other CNS tumors. We evaluated MRI in six patients with CNS granulocytic sarcoma proven by surgery or bone marrow biopsy (intracranical, one case and spine five cases). A 0.5T superconductive MR machine was used for diagnosis and, axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. We retrospectively analized the location, signal intensity, margin, contrast enhancement and homogeneity, and bony change around the tumor. MRI findings of CNS granulocytic sarcomas were as follows : one tumor was seen to be an extra-axial mass in the posterior fossa of the brain, four were epidural, and one was an epidural and presacral masses in the spine;tumor magins were lobulated and three were smooth. On T1-weighted images, all tumors were of isoignal intensity;on T2-weighted images, four were of isosignal intersity and two were of high signal intensity. Contrast enhancement was inhomogeneous in five of six cases. Bony change around the tumor was seen in two cases. On T1-weighted images, CNS granulocytic sarcomas (chloromas) were of isosignal intensity, relative to brain parenchyma or spinal cord;on T2-weighted images, they were of iso or high signal intensity, with relative contrast enhancement. These points could be useful in differentiating them from other CNS tumors

  10. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  11. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stephanie M.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS. PMID:24860829

  12. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

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    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  13. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAngelis, L.M.; Shapiro, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  14. Prenatal irradiation: radioinduced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.

    1998-01-01

    Severe mental retardation (SMR) is the most significant effect of prenatal irradiation. The high radiosensitivity of developing brain is related with the chronology of morpho genetic phenomena regarding neuroblast proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, synaptogenesis and dendritic arborization. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) normally occurs during development in central nervous system (CNS). Apoptosis is a direct result of the expression of specific genes with a final common pathway leading to a characteristic DNA fragmentation pattern. A wide variety of situations and toxic agents have been reported to result in apoptotic death in developing CNS. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of apoptosis using an in vitro model of prenatal irradiation. Primary cell cultures from rat brain cortex of 17 days g.a. were irradiated with a gamma source, with doses between 0.2 Gy to 2 Gy. Apoptosis was evaluated 4 hours and 20 hours after irradiation by hematoxylin/eosin, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis. It was also evaluated the neuro protective effect of L-NAME, SOD and glutathion. A dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell fraction was observed. A protector effect related with the presence of glutathion was observed. (author) [es

  15. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  16. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  17. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different onto...

  19. Silicon surface biofunctionalization with dopaminergic tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena-Serrano, A.; Lucena-Serrano, C.; Contreras-Cáceres, R.; Díaz, A.; Valpuesta, M. [Dep. Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Cai, C. [Dep. Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5003 (United States); López-Romero, J.M., E-mail: jmromero@uma.es [Dep. Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two dopaminergic tetrahydroisoquinolines (THI) were synthesized. • Vinyl-terminated THI incorporated onto the H−Si(1 1 1) substrates via a hydrosilylation. • The highest yield in coverage was obtained in DMSO, at 4 h of irradiation and 0.1 mbar of vacuum. • Alkynyl-terminated Si surface was produced for incorporation of azide-THI by click reaction. • Best yields on grafted molecule were obtained by click reaction in absence of ascorbic acid. - Abstract: In this work we grafted vinyl- and azido-terminated tetrahydroisoquinolines (compounds 1 and 2, respectively) onto H−Si(1 1 1) silicon wafers obtaining highly stable modified surfaces. A double bond was incorporated into the tetrahydroisoquinoline structure of 1 to be immobilized by a light induced hydrosilylation reaction on hydrogen-terminated Si(1 1 1). The best results were obtained employing a polar solvent (DMSO), rather than a non-polar solvent (toluene). The azide derivative 2 was grafted onto alkenyl-terminated silicon substrates with copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle goniometry (CA) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were used to demonstrate the incorporation of 1 and 2 into the surfaces, study the morphology of the modified surfaces and to calculate the yield of grafting and surface coverage. CA measurements showed the increase in the surface hydrophobicity when 1 or 2 were incorporated into the surface. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 were prepared starting from 1-(p-nitrophenyl)tetrahydroisoquinoline 3 under smooth conditions and in good yields. The structures of 1 and 2 were designed with a reduced A-ring, two substituents at positions C-6 and C-7, an N-methyl group and a phenyl moiety at C-1 in order to provide a high affinity against dopaminergic receptors. Moreover, O-demethylation of 1 was carried out once it was adsorbed onto the surface by treatment with BBr{sub 3}. The method

  20. Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-01-01

    in dopaminergic neuron. ► Mn nanoparticles activate caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of PKCδ cascade. ► Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells. ► Mn nanoparticles induce loss of TH + neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures. ► Study emphasizes neurotoxic risks of Mn nanoparticles to nigral dopaminergic system.

  1. Opioid receptors in midbrain dopaminergic regions of the rat. 1. Mu receptor autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, D.C.; Speciale, S.G.; Manaye, K.F.; Sadeq, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that an interaction exists between opioid peptides and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The purpose of this study was to map and quantify the density of the mu opioid receptor subtype relative to the location of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the retrorubral field (nucleus A8), substantia nigra (nucleus A9), and ventral tegmental area and related nuclei (nucleus A10) in the rat. Sections through the rostral-caudal extent of the midbrain were stained with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase, as a DA cell marker, and comparable sections were processed for in vitro receptor autoradiography using the mu-selective ligand, 3 H-Tyr-D-Ala-N-MePhe-Gyl-ol enkephalin. In the nucleus A8 region, there were low levels of mu binding. In the rostral portion of nucleus A9, there was prominent mu binding both in the ventral pars compacta, which contains numerous DA neurons, and in regions that correspond to the location of the DA dendrites which project ventrally into the underlying substantia nigra pars reticulata. In the caudal portion of nucleus A9, mu binding was greatest in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, but also in the same region that contains DA neurons. In nucleus A10, mu receptor densities differed depending upon the nucleus A10 subdivision, and the rostral-caudal position in the nucleus. Low receptor densities were observed in rostral portions of the ventral tegmental area and interfascicular nucleus, and there was negligible binding in the parabrachial pigmented nucleus and paranigral nucleus at the level of the interpeduncular nucleus; all regions where there are high densities of DA somata. Mu binding was relatively high in the central linear nucleus, and in the dorsal and medial divisions of the medial terminal nucleus of the accessory optic system, which has been shown to contain DA dendrites. These data indicate that mu opioid receptors are located in certain regions occupied by all three midbrain DA nuclei, but in a

  2. An imperfect dopaminergic error signal can drive temporal-difference learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Potjans

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An open problem in the field of computational neuroscience is how to link synaptic plasticity to system-level learning. A promising framework in this context is temporal-difference (TD learning. Experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that the mammalian brain performs temporal-difference learning includes the resemblance of the phasic activity of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons to the TD error and the discovery that cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity is modulated by dopamine. However, as the phasic dopaminergic signal does not reproduce all the properties of the theoretical TD error, it is unclear whether it is capable of driving behavior adaptation in complex tasks. Here, we present a spiking temporal-difference learning model based on the actor-critic architecture. The model dynamically generates a dopaminergic signal with realistic firing rates and exploits this signal to modulate the plasticity of synapses as a third factor. The predictions of our proposed plasticity dynamics are in good agreement with experimental results with respect to dopamine, pre- and post-synaptic activity. An analytical mapping from the parameters of our proposed plasticity dynamics to those of the classical discrete-time TD algorithm reveals that the biological constraints of the dopaminergic signal entail a modified TD algorithm with self-adapting learning parameters and an adapting offset. We show that the neuronal network is able to learn a task with sparse positive rewards as fast as the corresponding classical discrete-time TD algorithm. However, the performance of the neuronal network is impaired with respect to the traditional algorithm on a task with both positive and negative rewards and breaks down entirely on a task with purely negative rewards. Our model demonstrates that the asymmetry of a realistic dopaminergic signal enables TD learning when learning is driven by positive rewards but not when driven by negative rewards.

  3. Dopaminergic control of motivation and reinforcement learning: a closed-circuit account for reward-oriented behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji; Morishima, Mieko; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-05-15

    Humans and animals take actions quickly when they expect that the actions lead to reward, reflecting their motivation. Injection of dopamine receptor antagonists into the striatum has been shown to slow such reward-seeking behavior, suggesting that dopamine is involved in the control of motivational processes. Meanwhile, neurophysiological studies have revealed that phasic response of dopamine neurons appears to represent reward prediction error, indicating that dopamine plays central roles in reinforcement learning. However, previous attempts to elucidate the mechanisms of these dopaminergic controls have not fully explained how the motivational and learning aspects are related and whether they can be understood by the way the activity of dopamine neurons itself is controlled by their upstream circuitries. To address this issue, we constructed a closed-circuit model of the corticobasal ganglia system based on recent findings regarding intracortical and corticostriatal circuit architectures. Simulations show that the model could reproduce the observed distinct motivational effects of D1- and D2-type dopamine receptor antagonists. Simultaneously, our model successfully explains the dopaminergic representation of reward prediction error as observed in behaving animals during learning tasks and could also explain distinct choice biases induced by optogenetic stimulation of the D1 and D2 receptor-expressing striatal neurons. These results indicate that the suggested roles of dopamine in motivational control and reinforcement learning can be understood in a unified manner through a notion that the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia represents the value of states/actions at a previous time point, an empirically driven key assumption of our model.

  4. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces-Inigo, Enrique F. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Radiology Department, Hermanos Falco, Albacete (Spain); Leung, Rebecca; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant rhabdoid tumours (RT) are increasingly recognized in young children, probably as a consequence of advances in accurate histological diagnosis rather than a true increase in frequency. Although typically presenting as renal tumours in infancy, extrarenal tumours outside the central nervous system (CNS) in children less than 12 months of age are now well recognized, but previous literature on their imaging features is very limited. To demonstrate the imaging features of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS. A retrospective database review was made from 1989 to 2007 of patients diagnosed with extrarenal RT in infancy, i.e. below 12 months of age. There were nine patients (six boys and three girls). The age at presentation varied from 1 to 11 months (average 6 months). Tumours were located in the thorax/mediastinum (n=3), liver (n=3), neck (n=1), shoulder (n=1) and axilla (n=1). The imaging modalities used included US (n=8), CT (n=7) and MRI (n=6). Bone scan was positive in one patient, while metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in four patients. On MRI the tumours tended to show nonspecific hypointensity on T1-W images and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W images, with heterogeneous enhancement. This is the largest radiological series of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS in infancy. In our series no imaging features were found specific to the diagnosis. A tendency towards large size and mediastinal/paravertebral location were noted. A hypodense solid component on CT and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W MR images suggest that this tumour should be considered in the routine differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumours in infancy, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. (orig.)

  5. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  6. Hox gene regulation in the central nervous system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar eGummalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes specify the structures that form along the anteroposterior (AP axis of bilateria. Within the genome, they often form clusters where, remarkably enough, their position within the clusters reflects the relative positions of the structures they specify along the AP axis. This correspondence between genomic organization and gene expression pattern has been conserved through evolution and provides a unique opportunity to study how chromosomal context affects gene regulation. In Drosophila, a general rule, often called posterior dominance, states that Hox genes specifying more posterior structures repress the expression of more anterior Hox genes. This rule explains the apparent spatial complementarity of Hox gene expression patterns in Drosophila. Here we review a noticeable exception to this rule where the more-posteriorly expressed Abd-B hox gene fails to repress the more-anterior abd-A gene in cells of the central nervous system (CNS. While Abd-B is required to repress ectopic expression of abd-A in the posterior epidermis, abd-A repression in the posterior CNS is accomplished by a different mechanism that involves a large 92kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA encoded by the intergenic region separating abd-A and Abd-B (the iab8ncRNA. Dissection of this lncRNA revealed that abd-A is repressed by the lncRNA using two redundant mechanisms. The 1st mechanism is mediated by a microRNA (mir-iab-8 encoded by intronic sequence within the large iab8-ncRNA. Meanwhile, the second mechanism seems to involve transcriptional interference by the long iab-8 ncRNA on the abd-A promoter. Recent work demonstrating CNS-specific regulation of genes by ncRNAs in Drosophila, seem to highlight a potential role for the iab-8-ncRNA in the evolution of the Drosophila hox complexes

  7. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira Canellas, A.; Rovira Gols, A.; Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  8. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles ( n  = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine ( n  = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis ( n  = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO ( n  = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( n  = 2) and optic neuritis ( n  = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  10. Craniotomy and Survival for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ali I; Mehta, Amol; Cloney, Michael; Kinslow, Connor J; Wang, Tony J C; Bhagat, Govind; Canoll, Peter D; Zanazzi, George J; Sisti, Michael B; Sheth, Sameer A; Connolly, E Sander; McKhann, Guy M; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Iwamoto, Fabio M; Sonabend, Adam M

    2018-04-04

    Cytoreductive surgery is considered controversial for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). To investigate survival following craniotomy or biopsy for PCNSL. The National Cancer Database-Participant User File (NCDB, n = 8936), Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER, n = 4636), and an institutional series (IS, n = 132) were used. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between craniotomy, prognostic factors, and survival for PCNSL using case-control design.  In NCDB, craniotomy was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (19.5 vs 11.0 mo), independent of subsequent radiation and chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, P < .001). We found a similar trend with survival for craniotomy vs biopsy in the IS (HR 0.68, P = .15). In SEER, gross total resection was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (29 vs 10 mo, HR 0.68, P < .001). The survival benefit associated with craniotomy was greater within recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 1 group in NCDB (95.1 vs 29.1 mo, HR 0.66, P < .001), but was smaller for RPA 2-3 (14.9 vs 10.0 mo, HR 0.86, P < .001). A surgical risk category (RC) considering lesion location and number, age, and frailty was developed. Craniotomy was associated with increased survival vs biopsy for patients with low RC (133.4 vs 41.0 mo, HR 0.33, P = .01), but not high RC in the IS. Craniotomy is associated with increased survival over biopsy for PCNSL in 3 retrospective datasets. Prospective studies are necessary to adequately evaluate this relationship. Such studies should evaluate patients most likely to benefit from cytoreductive surgery, ie, those with favorable RPA and RC.

  11. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Current opinions on radiotherapy of pediatric central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.

    2006-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are the most frequent solid tumors in childhood accounting for 20% of all pediatric malignancies. Despite developments in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a significant proportion of these patients suffer progressive disease. A good treatment management strategy should consider not only survival but also the quality of life of the child. Irradiation is ann essential part of the management of the majority of CNS tumors. During then last decade, there significant advances in the technology of planning and delivery of radiation treatment. These new radiotherapy techniques such as conformal, intensity modulated photon beam and stereotactic methods allow a high homogenous dose to the tumor region with minimal doses to normal tissue. This is particularly important in children with localized low-grade tumors, whose prognosis of long-term survival is often excellent and should be accompanied by smallest risk of treatment toxicity. For small tumors fractionated radiotherapy stereotactic radiotherapy using multiple fixed non-coplanar beams is an appropriate treatment. Modification of craniospinal technique, lowering of the total craniospinal dose with adjuvant chemotherapy, new radiotherapy modalities to treat the posterior fossa may be employed to possibly decrease the late rectifies of radiation therapy. For malignant glioma and brain stem tumors we need new approaches, as chemo sensitization, angiogenesis inhibitors and gene therapies. These new methods in therapy of pediatric brain tumors and our experience in treatment of children with medulloblastoma, low-grade astrocytoma, craniopharyngioma and brain stem tumors are presented. We summarize therapeutic aspects of most childhood brain tumors. (author)

  13. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  14. Neurotoxicity of cerebro-spinal fluid from patients with Parkinson's disease on mesencephalic primary cultures as an in vitro model of dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; Zhang, Ben-Shu; Lei, Ping; Kong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Shuang; Li, Dai; Zhang, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. In spite of extensive research, neither the cause nor the mechanisms have been firmly established thus far. One assumption is that certain toxic substances may exist in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of Parkinson's disease patients. To confirm the neurotoxicity of CSF and study the potential correlation between neurotoxicity and the severity of Parkinson's disease, CSF was added to cultured cells. By observation of cell morphology, changes in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, the ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells, and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein, the differences between the two groups were shown. The created in vitro model of dopaminergic neurons using primary culture of mouse embryonic mesencephalic tissue is suitable for the study of neurotoxicity. The observations of the present study indicated that CSF from Parkinson's disease patients contains factors that can cause specific injury to cultured dopaminergic neurons. However, no obvious correlation was found between the neurotoxicity of CSF and the severity of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  16. Synthesis of stereo (R and S) and geometric (E and Z) [F-18]fluoro-β-fluoromethylene-M-tyrosine derivatives: specific PET probes for central dopamine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacan, G.; Barrio, J.R.; Satyamurthy, N.; Yu, D.C.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Racemic β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMl) was developed as an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)- activated monoamine oxidase (MAO) suicide inhibitor. Direct [F-18] fluorination of pure enantiomers, R and S-(E)-β- fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (E-FMMT) and the racemic geometric isomer R,S(Z)-β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (Z-FMMT) with [F- 18] acetylhypofluorite, afforded 6- and 2[F-18] fluoro positional isomers as the major products. Regioselective radiofluorodestannylation of the respective 4-trimethylstannyl R,S- (E) - FMMT with [F-18]F 2 yielded the 4[F-18] fluoro derivative, thus allowing for the systematic evaluation of the regio- and stereo radiofluorinated AAAD probes. Macacca nemestrina monkeys were injected iv with purified radiofluorinated FMMT analogs and the distribution of activity in the central dopaminergic system was studied with positron emission tomography (PET). Radiofluorinated stereo and geometric FMMT derivatives showed significant differences in their in vivo striatal localization, with radioprobe localization decreasing in the order: 6F-S-(E)-FMMT >> 2F-S-(E)- FMMT >> 4F-R,S-(E)-FMMT. Neither radiofluorinated analogs of R-(E)- FMMT and R,S-(Z)-FMMT showed any significant striatal localization in vivo. (author)

  17. Fractal systems of central places based on intermittency of space-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The idea of intermittency is introduced into central place model. → The revised central place model suggests incomplete space filling. → New central place fractals are presented for urban analysis. → The average nearest distance is proposed to estimate the fractal dimension. → The concept of distance-based space is replaced by that of dimension-based space. - Abstract: The central place models are fundamentally important in theoretical geography and city planning theory. The texture and structure of central place networks have been demonstrated to be self-similar in both theoretical and empirical studies. However, the underlying rationale of central place fractals in the real world has not yet been revealed so far. This paper is devoted to illustrating the mechanisms by which the fractal patterns can be generated from central place systems. The structural dimension of the traditional central place models is d = 2 indicating no intermittency in the spatial distribution of human settlements. This dimension value is inconsistent with empirical observations. Substituting the complete space filling with the incomplete space filling, we can obtain central place models with fractional dimension D < d = 2 indicative of spatial intermittency. Thus the conventional central place models are converted into fractal central place models. If we further integrate the chance factors into the improved central place fractals, the theory will be able to explain the real patterns of urban places very well. As empirical analyses, the US cities and towns are employed to verify the fractal-based models of central places.

  18. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin-I in copper-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats: A possible link with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaoui, Abdellatif; Chatoui, Hicham; El Hiba, Omar; Gamrani, Halima

    2017-11-01

    Numerous findings indicate an involvement of heavy metals in the neuropathology of several neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have demonstrated that Copper (Cu) exhibits a potent neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic neurons and triggers profound neurobehavioral alterations. Curcumin is a major component of Curcuma longa rhizomes and a powerful medicinal plant that exerts many pharmacological effects. However, the neuroprotective action of curcumin on Cu-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of acute Cu-intoxication (10mg/kg B.W. i.p) for 3days on the dopaminergic system and locomotor performance as well as the possible therapeutic efficacy of curcumin I (30mg/kg B.W.). Intoxicated rats showed a significant loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) expression within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the striatal outputs. This was correlated with a clear decrease in locomotor performance. Critically, curcumin-I co-treatment reversed these changes and showed a noticeable protective effect; both TH expression and locomotor performance was reinstated in intoxicated rats. These results demonstrate altered dopaminergic innervations following Cu intoxication and a new therapeutic potential of curcumin against Cu-induced dopaminergic neurotransmission failure. Curcumin may therefore prevent heavy metal related Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A discrete dopaminergic projection from the incertohypothalamic A13 cell group to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fany eMessanvi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several findings have indicated an involvement of dopamine in panic and defensive behaviors. The dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (dlPAG is crucially involved in the expression of panic attacks in humans and defensive behaviors, also referred to as panic-like behaviors, in animals. Although the dlPAG is known to receive a specific innervation of dopaminergic fibers and abundantly expresses dopamine receptors, the origin of this dopaminergic input is largely unknown. This study aimed at mapping the dopaminergic projections to the dlPAG in order to provide further insight into the panic-like related behavior circuitry of the dlPAG. For this purpose, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb was injected into the dlPAG of male Wistar rats and double immunofluorescence for CTb and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, was performed. Neurons labeled for both CTb and TH were counted in different dopaminergic cell groups. The findings indicate that the dopaminergic nerve terminals present in the dlPAG originate from multiple dopamine-containing cell groups in the hypothalamus and mesencephalon. Interestingly, the A13 cell group is the main source of dopaminergic afferents to the dlPAG and contains at least 45% of the total number of CTb/TH-positive neurons. Anterograde tracing with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA combined with double immunofluorescence for BDA and TH confirmed the projections from the A13 cell group to the dlPAG. The remainder of the dopamine-positive terminals present in the dlPAG was found to originate from the extended A10 cell group and the A11 group. The A13 cell group is known to send dopaminergic efferents to several other brain regions implicated in defensive behavior, including the central amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus. Therefore, although direct behavioral evidence is lacking, our finding that the A13 cell group is also the main source of dopaminergic

  20. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal.

  1. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H.; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog. PMID:23115372

  2. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  3. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee...

  4. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  5. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  6. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  7. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  8. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  9. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  10. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  11. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  12. 78 FR 63159 - Amendment to Certification of Nebraska's Central Filing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ..., Raspberries, Rye, Seed crops, Sheep & Lambs, Silage, Sorghum Grain, Soybeans, Squash, Strawberries, Sugar....usda.gov ). Farm products covered by a State's central filing system are also identified through the GIPSA Web site. The Nebraska central filing system covers specified farm products. We originally...

  13. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system; Effectos radioinducidos sobre el sistema nervioso central en desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisone, P; Dubner, D; Michelin, S C; Perez, M.R. Del [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Gerencia de Apoyo Cientifico, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-11-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed. 8 refs.

  14. Energy problems of the central systems of air conditioning; Problemas energeticos de los sistemas centrales de climatizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardero Corria, Gaspar [Cubanacan, S.A., Varadero (Cuba)

    2003-07-01

    The central systems of air conditioning are widely used in air conditioning production for several reasons among which excel: 1) Better aesthetic of the building, 2) Less noise in the air conditioning premises and 3) Greater yield of the consumed energy. This is indeed the third reason in which this paper will try to contribute with elements that will allow reveal the problem and to identify some possible causes that originate it. The centralized systems of air conditioning must produce conditioned air with lesser power cost than the individual systems, it is that saving which allows to recover an investment that normally surpasses them in 3 to 5 times. Nevertheless, the real numbers do not demonstrate that. [Spanish] Los sistemas centrales de climatizacion son ampliamente usados en la produccion de aire acondicionado por varias razones entre las que sobresalen: 1) Mejor estetica del edificio, 2) Menor ruido en los locales climatizados y 3) Mayor rendimiento de la energia consumida. Es precisamente la tercera razon en la cual este trabajo intentara aportar elementos que permitan develar el problema e identificar algunas posibles causas que lo originan. Los sistemas centralizados de climatizacion deben producir aire acondicionado con un menor gasto energetico que los sistemas individuales, es precisamente ese ahorro lo que permite recuperar una inversion que normalmente los supera en 3 a 5 veces. Sin embargo, los numeros reales no demuestran eso.

  15. The Design and Comparison of Central and Distributed Light Sensored Smart LED Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Özçelik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of published peer-reviewed research comparing the efficiencies of distributed versus central sensor-controlled LED lighting systems. This research proposes improving the smart illumination of a room with external fenestration using central and distributed light sensors. The optical and electrical measurements of the daylight have been made in the case where the light was not distributed evenly and not sufficient. Test results show that the proposed distributed light sensor illumination system has increased the efficiency by 28% when compared to the proposed central system. It has also been shown that the two tested systems are more cost-effective than common smart illumination systems.

  16. Progress in study on central nervous system injuries caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and repetitive intermittent hypoxia and dysfunction of sleep architecture mainly contribute to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. More and more evidences demonstrate it is a systemic disease, which is common encountered in clinic and strongly related to the systemic lesion of central nervous system. The central nervous system complications comprise cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and the growing risk of stroke and so on. Early treatment for OSAS has a positive significance on complications of central nervous system, and even the damage can be completely reversed.

  17. In vivo binding of tritiated dopaminergic ligands in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, Michel; Martres, M.-P.; Le Sellin, Michel; Schwartz, J.-C.; Guyon, Anne; Morgat, J.-L.

    1977-01-01

    The regional distribution of various dopaminergic radiolabelled ligands has been studied in the mouse brain after their intravenous injections. Among them, 3 H-pimozide and, to a lesser extent, 3 H-apomorphine are preferentially accumulated in the striatum, a region rich in dopaminergic receptors, as compared to cerebellum, a region believed not to contain dopaminergic receptors. For 3 H-pimozide, this preferential retention is due to a more rapid disappearance from the cerebellum than from the striatum. Moreover, prior administration of various neuroleptics which do not modify 3 H-pimozide levels recovered in the cerebellum, abolishes the differential retention of 3 H-pimozide in the striatum. These results indicate that the retention of 3 H-pimozide in the brain may be regarded as the sum of two components: a non-specific retention evaluated by 3 H-pimozide level in the cerebellum and the binding to dopaminergic receptors [fr

  18. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nickel, Mara; Gu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic sup...

  19. Uncertainty Evaluation of Residential Central Air-conditioning Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoxue

    2018-04-01

    According to national standards, property tests of air-conditioning are required. However, test results could be influenced by the precision of apparatus or measure errors. Therefore, uncertainty evaluation of property tests should be conducted. In this paper, the uncertainties are calculated on the property tests of Xinfei13.6 kW residential central air-conditioning. The evaluation result shows that the property tests are credible.

  20. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  1. Central and systemic haemodynamic effects of terlipressin in portal hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hansen, E F; Becker, U

    2000-01-01

    the acute effects of terlipressin on central and systemic haemodynamics. METHODS: Sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and portal hypertension had their systemic, central, and splanchnic haemodynamics determined at baseline and after a blind randomised bolus infusion (2 mg) of terlipressin...... vascular resistance (r=-0.52, pportal hypertensive patients without a further contraction of the central and arterial blood volume. The systemic haemodynamic...... increased by 36% (pportal pressure and hepatic blood flow decreased (17% and 29%, both pportal pressure after terlipressin was significantly related to the increase in systemic...

  2. Isolated Richter's syndrome in central nervous system: case report Sindrome de Richter isolada em sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene S.R. Resende

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL, or Richter's syndrome, is a rare and serious complication. Isolated Richter's syndrome in the central nervous system is very rare; only 12 cases have been reported. We describe a 74-year-old patient with diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the right frontal region with the appearance of multiform glioblastoma.Linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em paciente portador de leucemia linfóide crônica (LLC, ou síndrome de Richter, é complicação rara e grave nesta leucemia. Síndrome de Richter isolada no sistema nervoso central é muito rara, tendo sido encontrados apenas 12 casos descritos. Descrevemos paciente de 74 anos, que apresentou linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em região frontal direita, simulando glioblastoma multiforme.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in striatal dopaminergic responses promotes monogamy in social songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, Kirill; Hyland Bruno, Julia; Ljubičić, Iva; Kothari, Paresh J; Helekar, Santosh A; Tchernichovski, Ofer; Voss, Henning U

    2017-08-11

    In many songbird species, males sing to attract females and repel rivals. How can gregarious, non-territorial songbirds such as zebra finches, where females have access to numerous males, sustain monogamy? We found that the dopaminergic reward circuitry of zebra finches can simultaneously promote social cohesion and breeding boundaries. Surprisingly, in unmated males but not in females, striatal dopamine neurotransmission was elevated after hearing songs. Behaviorally too, unmated males but not females persistently exchanged mild punishments in return for songs. Song reinforcement diminished when dopamine receptors were blocked. In females, we observed song reinforcement exclusively to the mate's song, although their striatal dopamine neurotransmission was only slightly elevated. These findings suggest that song-triggered dopaminergic activation serves a dual function in social songbirds: as low-threshold social reinforcement in males and as ultra-selective sexual reinforcement in females. Co-evolution of sexually dimorphic reinforcement systems can explain the coexistence of gregariousness and monogamy.

  4. Geological setting of petroleum systems in central Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.G.; Wall, G.; Macdougal, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : During the Late Cretaceous, central Georgia was located south of the Greater Caucasus basin and on a south-facing destructive continental margin. Om the Santonian, an Andean are developed above the subduction zone. They are rifted in latest Cretaceous or early Paleocene times to form an extensional basin that underwent post-rift thermal subsidence untill the latest part of the Middle Eocene. This formed the eastern part of the eastern Black Sea. The basin filled with depp marine clastic sediments, many volcanogenic. During the late Middle Eocene, the region became compressional for the first time. The sense of movement along Cretaceous extensional faults reversed, causing folding of the Paleogene sediments into tight inversion structures. Compression and fold growth continued to influence late Eocene and Oligocene sedimentation untill regional uplift and peneplanation affected the area prior to the Middle Miocene, related to the development of a foreland bulge produced by compression in the Greater Caucasus. The northern part of the region subsided beneath the growing Caucasus foreland basin during the late Miocene and part of this basin was thrust over the top of the eroded Paleogene basin, mainly along a detachment at the base of the middle Sarmatian. oil accumulations in central Georgia are found throughout the Paleogene post-rift sedimentary sequence, mostly trapped in inversion anticlines that predate middle Miocene erosion. The source rock for the oil is probably the lower part of the upper Eocene marine mudstone sequence.

  5. Drosophila divalent metal ion transporter Malvolio is required in dopaminergic neurons for feeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, E; LaMora, A; Seehra, G; Barron, A B; Duncan, J G; Ben-Shahar, Y

    2017-06-01

    Members of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family are evolutionarily conserved metal ion transporters that play an essential role in regulating intracellular divalent cation homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Malvolio (Mvl), the sole NRAMP family member in insects, plays a role in food choice behaviors in Drosophila and other species. However, the specific physiological and cellular processes that require the action of Mvl for appropriate feeding decisions remain elusive. Here, we show that normal food choice requires Mvl function specifically in the dopaminergic system, and can be rescued by supplementing food with manganese. Collectively, our data indicate that the action of the Mvl transporter affects food choice behavior via the regulation of dopaminergic innervation of the mushroom bodies, a principle brain region associated with decision-making in insects. Our studies suggest that the homeostatic regulation of the intraneuronal levels of divalent cations plays an important role in the development and function of the dopaminergic system and associated behaviors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. The role of the dopaminergic projections in MFB self-stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    1986-11-01

    Psychophysical experiments indicate that the first stage of the reward pathway in medial forebrain bundle self-stimulation consists of small myelinated descending axons. Pharmacological experiments show that neuroleptics attenuate or abolish the rewarding effect. This had led to the hypothesis that the descending myelinated axons synapse on an ascending dopaminergic second stage projection. 2-Deoxy-[14C]glucose autoradiography in self-stimulating animals or animals receiving automatically administered rewarding stimulation after treatment with reward-blocking doses of pimozide reveals activation of a descending myelinated system but no stimulation-produced activation of an ascending dopaminergic projection system, even though the autoradiographic method reveals the mild elevations and depressions of activity in dopaminergic terminal fields consequent upon injections of neuroleptics and amphetamine, respectively, and the strong activation of the nigrostriatal projection produced by stimulating directly in the substantia nigra. When the effects of neuroleptics and clonidine are measured by the psychophysical method (that is, by lateral shifts in the rate-frequency function), it is found that both drugs produce only gradual and rather small attenuations of rewarding efficacy up to doses at which it is no longer possible to measure their effects. It is suggested that, for neuroleptics at least, the rewarding effect abruptly fails at these doses. It is further suggested that these drugs do not act on the rewarding pathway itself, but on the process by which the rewarding signal is converted to an enduring rewarding effect.

  7. Contribution of dopamine to mitochondrial complex I inhibition and dopaminergic deficits caused by methylenedioxymethamphetamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Miñones, L; Goñi-Allo, B; Suquia, V; Beitia, G; Aguirre, N; Puerta, E

    2015-06-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by oxidative stress probably due to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. In this study we investigated the contribution of dopamine (DA) to such effects. For this, we modulated the dopaminergic system of mice at the synthesis, uptake or metabolism levels. Striatal mitochondrial complex I activity was decreased 1 h after MDMA; an effect not observed in the striatum of DA depleted mice or in the hippocampus, a dopamine spare region. The DA precursor, L-dopa, caused a significant reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity by itself and exacerbated the dopaminergic deficits when combined with systemic MDMA. By contrast, no damage was observed when L-dopa was combined with intrastriatal injections of MDMA. On the other hand, dopamine uptake blockade using GBR 12909, inhibited both, the acute inhibition of complex I activity and the long-term dopaminergic toxicity caused by MDMA. Moreover, the inhibition of DA metabolism with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, pargyline, afforded a significant protection against MDMA-induced complex I inhibition and neurotoxicity. Taken together, these findings point to the formation of hydrogen peroxide subsequent to DA metabolism by MAO, rather than a direct DA-mediated mitochondrial complex I inhibition, and the contribution of a peripheral metabolite of MDMA, as the key steps in the chain of biochemical events leading to DA neurotoxicity caused by MDMA in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of natural products as drugs acting on central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zu Zhu

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recenty studied several natural product constituents which have effects on the CNS. (1 Tetrahydropalmatine (THP and its analogues were isolated from Corydalis ambigua and various species of Stephania. (+-THP and (--THP posses not only analgesic activity, but also exert sedative-tranquillizing and hypnotic actions. Results of receptor binding assay and their pre-and post-synaptic effects on dopaminergic system indicate that (--THP and (--stepholidine are dopamine receptor antagonists while (+-THP is a selective dopamine depletor. (2 3-Acetylaconitine (AAC is an alkaloid isolated from Aconitum flavum. The relative potency of analgesic action of AAC was 5.1-35.6 and 1250-3912 times that of morphine and aspirin, respectively. The analgesic effect of AAC was antagonized by naloxone, but was eliminated by reserpine. In monkeys, after AAC was injected for 92 days, no abstinence syndrome was seen after sudden AAC withdrawal or when challenged with nalorphine. (3 Huperzine A (Hup-A is an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata which was found to be a selective ChE inhibitor and could improve learning and retrieval process. Preliminary clinical studies showed that Hup-A improve short-and long-term memory in patients of cerebral arteriosclerosis with memory impairment. (4 Ranamargarin is a new tetradecapeptide isolated from the skin of the Chines frog Rana margaratae. This peptide may mainly act on NK-1 receptor.

  9. DoD Can Save Millions by Using Energy Efficient Centralized Aircraft Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-07

    recommends that the Secretary of the Air Force: -- Reevaluate the decision not to install centralized systems at tactical bases. If the systems can be...discontinue using the aircraft’s onboard auxillary power units. These units consume tremendous amounts of jet fuel in providing cabin air-conditioning...requirements. Each command has been asked to analyze its bases to determine if centralized systems should be installed. Although a final decision has not

  10. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0586 TITLE: Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring PRINCIPAL...Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0586 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14-1-0586 5c...barriers that prevent the optimal delivery of biologics and cells to the injured nervous system . A significant problem is the formation of scar tissue

  11. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieron, M.A.; Khoromi, S.; Campos, A.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  12. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieron, M A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Khoromi, S [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Campos, A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  13. Effects of manganese on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and TH-phosphorylation in a dopaminergic neural cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Danhui; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure causes manganism, a neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which Mn impairs the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) plays a key role in Mn-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we showed that PKCδ negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report that Mn exposure can affect the enzymatic activity of TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by activating PKCδ-PP2A signaling pathway in a dopaminergic cell model. Low dose Mn (3-10 μM) exposure to differentiated mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells for 3 h induced a significant increase in TH activity and phosphorylation of TH-Ser40. The PKCδ specific inhibitor rottlerin did not prevent Mn-induced TH activity or TH-Ser40 phosphorylation. On the contrary, chronic exposure to 0.1-1 μM Mn for 24 h induced a dose-dependent decrease in TH activity. Interestingly, chronic Mn treatment significantly increased PKCδ kinase activity and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme activity. Treatment with the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin almost completely prevented chronic Mn-induced reduction in TH activity, as well as increased PP2A activity. Neither acute nor chronic Mn exposures induced any cytotoxic cell death or altered TH protein levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate that low dose Mn exposure impairs TH activity in dopaminergic cells through activation of PKCδ and PP2A activity.

  14. The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the existence of a frontoparietal control system consisting of ‘flexible hubs’ that regulate distributed systems (e.g., visual, limbic, motor) according to current task goals. A growing number of studies are reporting alterations of this control system across a striking range of mental diseases. We suggest this may reflect a critical role for the control system in promoting and maintaining mental health. Specifically, we propose that this system implements feedback control to regulate symptoms as they arise (e.g., excessive anxiety reduced via regulation of amygdala), such that an intact control system is protective against a variety of mental illnesses. Consistent with this possibility, recent results indicate that several major mental illnesses involve altered brain-wide connectivity of the control system, likely altering its ability to regulate symptoms. These results suggest that this ‘immune system of the mind’ may be an especially important target for future basic and clinical research. PMID:24622818

  15. The JET fast central acquisition and trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackler, K.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new data acquisition system at JET which uses Texas TMS320C40 parallel digital signal processors and the HELIOS parallel operating system to reduce the large amounts of experimental data produced by fast diagnostics. This unified system features a two level trigger system which performs real-time activity detection together with asynchronous event classification and selection. This provides automated data reduction during an experiment. The system's application to future fusion machines which have almost continuous operation is discussed

  16. The effect of central nervous system involvement and irradiation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskinen, Mervi; Oskarsson, Trausti; Levinsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system irradiation (CNS-RT) has played a central role in the cure of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but due to the risk of long-term toxicity, it is now considered a less-favorable method of CNS-directed therapy. PROCEDURES: Retrospectively, we estimated the effect...

  17. Research status and evaluation system of heat source evaluation method for central heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Qi, Junfeng; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The central heating boiler room is a regional heat source heating center. It is also a kind of the urban environment pollution, it is an important section of building energy efficiency. This article through to the evaluation method of central heating boiler room and overviews of the researches during domestic and overseas, summarized the main influence factors affecting energy consumption of industrial boiler under the condition of stable operation. According to the principle of establishing evaluation index system. We can find that is great significance in energy saving and environmental protection for the content of the evaluation index system of the centralized heating system.

  18. Centralized multiprocessor control system for the frascati storage rings DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pirro, G.; Milardi, C.; Serio, M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the status of the DANTE (DAΦne New Tools Environment) control system for the new DAΦNE Φ-factory under construction at the Frascati National Laboratories. The system is based on a centralized communication architecture for simplicity and reliability. A central processor unit coordinates all communications between the consoles and the lower level distributed processing power, and continuously updates a central memory that contains the whole machine status. We have developed a system of VME Fiber Optic interfaces allowing very fast point to point communication between distant processors. Macintosh II personal computers are used as consoles. The lower levels are all built using the VME standard. (author)

  19. Redox Signaling Mediated by Thioredoxin and Glutathione Systems in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoyuan; Zou, Lili; Zhang, Xu; Branco, Vasco; Wang, Jun; Carvalho, Cristina; Holmgren, Arne; Lu, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems play important roles in maintaining the redox balance in the brain, a tissue that is prone to oxidative stress due to its high-energy demand. These two disulfide reductase systems are active in various areas of the brain and are considered to be critical antioxidant systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Various neuronal disorders have been characterized to have imbalanced redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: In addition to their detrimental effects, recent studies have highlighted that reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) act as critical signaling molecules by modifying thiols in proteins. The Trx and GSH systems, which reversibly regulate thiol modifications, regulate redox signaling involved in various biological events in the CNS. In this review, we focus on the following: (i) how ROS/RNS are produced and mediate signaling in CNS; (ii) how Trx and GSH systems regulate redox signaling by catalyzing reversible thiol modifications; (iii) how dysfunction of the Trx and GSH systems causes alterations of cellular redox signaling in human neuronal diseases; and (iv) the effects of certain small molecules that target thiol-based signaling pathways in the CNS. Further study on the roles of thiol-dependent redox systems in the CNS will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of many human neuronal disorders and also help to develop novel protective and therapeutic strategies against neuronal diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 989-1010.

  20. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered

  1. PICK1 expression in the Drosophila central nervous system primarily occurs in the neuroendocrine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Anna M; Nässel, Dick R; Madsen, Kenneth L

    2009-01-01

    in the adult and larval Drosophila central nervous system. PICK1 was found in cell bodies in the subesophageal ganglion, the antennal lobe, the protocerebrum, and the neuroendocrine center pars intercerebralis. The cell types that express PICK1 were identified using GAL4 enhancer trap lines. The PICK1...... (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 and the dopamine transporter. PICK1 is strongly implicated in GluR2 trafficking and synaptic plasticity. In mammals, PICK1 has been characterized extensively in cell culture studies. To study PICK1 in an intact system, we characterized PICK1 expression immunohistochemically...... neurons in the neuroendocrine system, which express the transcription factor DIMM and the amidating enzyme peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). The PICK1-positive cells include neurosecretory cells that produce the insulin-like peptide dILP2. PICK1 expression in insulin-producing cells...

  2. The Glymphatic System in Central Nervous System Health and Disease: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plog, Benjamin A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-24

    The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute. Here, we review the role of the glymphatic pathway in CNS physiology, the factors known to regulate glymphatic flow, and the pathologic processes in which a breakdown of glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange has been implicated in disease initiation and progression. Important areas of future research, including manipulation of glymphatic activity aiming to improve waste clearance and therapeutic agent delivery, are also discussed.

  3. Concept design for the central control system of HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianming; Li Qiang; Jiang Chao

    2001-01-01

    The design principle and basic structure of the central control system for HL-2A Tokamak are introduced. Having been limited by manpower and money, the central control system should not be too expensive and too advanced. On the other hand, because of the complexity of the machine and the difficulty the author will encounter when operating the machine, the central control system should be advanced enough. If use the same technology for HL-1M to control HL-2A, the author would fail to fulfill authors' experiment goal. The central control system consists of software and hardware. The software mainly includes: (a) system monitor and control software; (b) discharge monitor and control software; (c) network and communication software. Hardware includes: (a) PLC for machine control, personnel protection and machine protection; and (b) VME computer, for the feedback control of the discharge

  4. Physiological characterisation of human iPS-derived dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Hartfield

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2, representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3 receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models.

  5. Interaction of NMDA receptor and pacemaking mechanisms in the midbrain dopaminergic neuron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Ha

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurotransmission has been found to play a role in addictive behavior and is altered in psychiatric disorders. Dopaminergic (DA neurons display two functionally distinct modes of electrophysiological activity: low- and high-frequency firing. A puzzling feature of the DA neuron is the following combination of its responses: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation evokes high-frequency firing, whereas other tonic excitatory stimuli (α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR activation or applied depolarization block firing instead. We suggest a new computational model that reproduces this combination of responses and explains recent experimental data. Namely, somatic NMDAR stimulation evokes high-frequency firing and is more effective than distal dendritic stimulation. We further reduce the model to a single compartment and analyze the mechanism of the distinct high-frequency response to NMDAR activation vs. other stimuli. Standard nullcline analysis shows that the mechanism is based on a decrease in the amplitude of calcium oscillations. The analysis confirms that the nonlinear voltage dependence provided by the magnesium block of the NMDAR determine its capacity to elevate the firing frequency. We further predict that the moderate slope of the voltage dependence plays the central role in the frequency elevation. Additionally, we suggest a repolarizing current that sustains calcium-independent firing or firing in the absence of calcium-dependent repolarizing currents. We predict that the ether-a-go-go current (ERG, which has been observed in the DA neuron, is the best fit for this critical role. We show that a calcium-dependent and a calcium-independent oscillatory mechanisms form a structure of interlocked negative feedback loops in the DA neuron. The structure connects research of DA neuron firing with circadian biology and determines common minimal models for investigation of robustness of oscillations

  6. How to design electrical systems with central control capability for industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigolini, S.; Galati, G.; Lionetto, P.F.; Stiz, M. (Siemens, Milan (Italy) Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano, Milan (Italy))

    1991-12-01

    The modern centralized control system, incorporating microprocessors, constitutes an extremely efficacious instrument for the management of an industrial plant's electrical system and provides the performance, reliability, flexibility and safety features required by today's technologically advanced plant processes. The use of intelligent centralized control systems, capable of autonomous operation and dialoguing with industrial plant electrical systems, simplifies the design of the overall plant. This paper reviews the main design criteria for the automated systems and gives examples of some suitable commercially available intelligent systems.

  7. Neuropsychiatric and metabolic aspects of dopaminergic therapy: perspectives from an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasoulia-Kaspar, Anastasia P; Popp, Kathrin H; Stalla, Gunter Karl

    2018-01-01

    The dopaminergic treatment represents the primary treatment in prolactinomas, which are the most common pituitary adenomas and account for about 40% of all pituitary tumours with an annual incidence of six to ten cases per million population. The dopaminergic treatment includes ergot and non-ergot derivatives with high affinity for the dopamine receptors D1 or/and D2. Through the activation of the dopaminergic pathway on pituitary lactotrophs, the dopamine agonists inhibit the prolactin synthesis and secretion, therefore normalizing the prolactin levels and restoring eugonadism, but they also lead to tumour shrinkage. Treatment with dopamine agonists has been associated – apart from the common side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms, dizziness and hypotension – with neuropsychiatric side effects such as impulse control disorders (e.g. pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, hypersexuality and binge eating) and also with behavioral changes from low mood, irritability and verbal aggressiveness up to psychotic and manic symptoms and paranoid delusions not only in patients with prolactinomas but also in patients with Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome. They usually have de novo onset after initiation of the dopaminergic treatment and have been mainly reported in patients with Parkinson’s disease, who are being treated with higher doses of dopamine agonists. Moreover, dopamine and prolactin seem to play an essential role in the metabolic pathway. Patients with hyperprolactinemia tend to have increased body weight and an altered metabolic profile with hyperinsulinemia and increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in comparison to healthy individuals and patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Treatment with dopamine agonists in these patients in short-term studies seems to lead to weight loss and amelioration of the metabolic changes. Together these observations provide evidence that dopamine and prolactin have a crucial role both

  8. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-09-11

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder.

  9. Increased Fos expression among midbrain dopaminergic cell groups during birdsong tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeen, E J; Holtzman, D A; Nordeen, K W

    2009-08-01

    During avian vocal learning, birds memorize conspecific song patterns and then use auditory feedback to match their vocal output to this acquired template. Some models of song learning posit that during tutoring, conspecific visual, social and/or auditory cues activate neuromodulatory systems that encourage acquisition of the tutor's song and attach incentive value to that specific acoustic pattern. This hypothesis predicts that stimuli experienced during social tutoring activate cell populations capable of signaling reward. Using immunocytochemistry for the protein product of the immediate early gene c-Fos, we found that brief exposure of juvenile male zebra finches to a live familiar male tutor increased the density of Fos+ cells within two brain regions implicated in reward processing: the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). This activation of Fos appears to involve both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA/SNc neurons. Intriguingly, a familiar tutor was more effective than a novel tutor in stimulating Fos expression within these regions. In the periaqueductal gray, a dopamine-enriched cell population that has been implicated in emotional processing, Fos labeling also was increased after tutoring, with a familiar tutor again being more effective than a novel conspecific. As several neural regions implicated in song acquisition receive strong dopaminergic projections from these midbrain nuclei, their activation in conjunction with hearing the tutor's song could help to establish sensory representations that later guide motor sequence learning.

  10. Inhibition of the mesoamygdala dopaminergic pathway impairs the retrieval of conditioned fear associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, K; LeDoux, J E

    1999-10-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that systemic dopaminergic manipulations impair the retrieval of Pavlovian conditioned fear. A second-order fear-conditioning paradigm was used to test whether the dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the lateral and basal amygdala (LBA) can affect conditioned fear. Phase 1 entailed conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS1-US) pairings. In Phase 2, drugs were infused in either the LBA or VTA prior to pairings of CS2 (a second cue) with CS1. In Phase 3, freezing behavior elicited by CS2 was tested without drugs. Infusions of the D2 agonist quinpirole into the VTA or of the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 into the LBA caused a decrease in freezing to CS2. Both manipulations decrease D1 receptor activation in the LBA. Infusions of the D1 agonist SKF 38393 into the LBA had no effect. This pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that the VTA-LBA dopaminergic projection modulates the retrieval of an association between a CS and footshock US.

  11. Maintenance and adjustment of control systems of central heating turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyuk, V.A.; Balashov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of operation and design of systems of automatic control of steam turbines with controlled heating stem extraction are described. Specific features of maintenance and adjustment of the most common domestic turbines are considered. Recommendations on testing state of turbine control systems and improving reliability of their operation are given. 22 refs., 51 refs

  12. Inhibition of systemic inflammation by central action of the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte- stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Hernàndez, R; Demitri, M T; Carlin, A; Meazza, C; Villa, P; Ghezzi, P; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) reduces fever and acute inflammation in the skin when administered centrally. The aim of the present research was to determine whether central alpha-MSH can also reduce signs of systemic inflammation in mice with endotoxemia. Increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide, induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was increased in endotoxemic mice; the increase was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Intraperitoneal administration of the small dose of alpha-MSH that was effective centrally did not alter any of the markers of inflammation. In experiments using immunoneutralization of central alpha-MSH, we tested the idea that endogenous peptide induced within the brain during systemic inflammation modulates host responses to endotoxic challenge in peripheral tissues. The data showed that proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin in the circulation, lungs, and liver were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation.

  13. Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS)™ as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; McLaughlin, Thomas; Cronjé, Frans J; Han, David; Gold, S Mark

    2014-09-01

    Following the first association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and severe alcoholism, there has been an explosion of research reports in the psychiatric and behavioral addiction literature and neurogenetics. With this increased knowledge, the field has been rife with controversy. Moreover, with the advent of Whole Genome-Wide Studies (GWAS) and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), along with Functional Genome Convergence, the multiple-candidate gene approach still has merit and is considered by many as the most prudent approach. However, it is the combination of these two approaches that will ultimately define real, genetic allelic relationships, in terms of both risk and etiology. Since 1996, our laboratory has coined the umbrella term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) to explain the common neurochemical and genetic mechanisms involved with both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. This is a selective review of peer-reviewed papers primary listed in Pubmed and Medline. A review of the available evidence indicates the importance of dopaminergic pathways and resting-state, functional connectivity of brain reward circuits. Importantly, the proposal is that the real phenotype is RDS and impairments in the brain's reward cascade, either genetically or environmentally (epigenetically) induced, influence both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Understanding shared common mechanisms will ultimately lead to better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of relapse. While, at this juncture, we cannot as yet state that we have "hatched the behavioral addiction egg", we are beginning to ask the correct questions and through an intense global effort will hopefully find a way of "redeeming joy" and permitting homo sapiens live a life, free of addiction and pain.

  14. Radiologic studies in two outbreaks of isolated vasculitis in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, H.J.; Perez, M.; Tilton, A.H.; Garcia, C.; McGarry, P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis is only occasionally diagnosed with angiography. Two outbreaks of isolated central nervous system vasculitis permitted a comparison of the accuracy of diagnostic radiologic studies. Two new radiologic features and methods of diagnosis are discussed

  15. Cerebral angiography as a guide for therapy in isolated central nervous system vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.L.; Martino, C.R.; Weinert, D.M.; Hueftle, M.; Kammer, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a case of isolated central nervous system vasculitis documented by cerebral arteriography in which remission, using a treatment regimen of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, was guided by serial arteriography during a 15-month period

  16. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries: Positive or negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Yan, Yi

    2013-10-05

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure following traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever following brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as well as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  17. Fibrotic scar formation in central serous chorioretinopathy developed during systemic treatment with corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooymans, JMM

    1998-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the development of subretinal fibrotic scar formation in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) that developed during systemic corticosteroid treatment. Methods: The clinical and photographic records of a patient in whom an unusual

  18. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  19. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  20. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment may include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and targeted therapy. Treatment depends on the tumor type. Learn more about brain and spinal tumor treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.