WorldWideScience

Sample records for central core disease

  1. Central endoscopy reads in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials: The role of the imaging core lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Harris; Berzin, Tyler M; Yu, Hui Jing; Huang, Christopher S; Mishkin, Daniel S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are evolving at a rapid pace by employing central reading for endoscopic mucosal assessment in a field that was, historically, largely based on assessments by local physicians. This transition from local to central reading carries with it numerous technical, operational, and scientific challenges, many of which can be resolved by imaging core laboratories (ICLs), a concept that has a longer history in clinical trials in a number of diseases outside the realm of gastroenterology. For IBD trials, ICLs have the dual goals of providing objective, consistent assessments of endoscopic findings using central-reading paradigms whilst providing important expertise with regard to operational issues and regulatory expectations. This review focuses on current approaches to using ICLs for central endoscopic reading in IBD trials. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  2. ATLAS Distributed Computing: Its Central Services core

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) Project is responsible for the off-line processing of data produced by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It facilitates data and workload management for ATLAS computing on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). ADC Central Services operations (CSops)is a vital part of ADC, responsible for the deployment and configuration of services needed by ATLAS computing and operation of those services on CERN IT infrastructure, providing knowledge of CERN IT services to ATLAS service managers and developers, and supporting them in case of issues. Currently this entails the management of thirty seven different OpenStack projects, with more than five thousand cores allocated for these virtual machines, as well as overseeing the distribution of twenty nine petabytes of storage space in EOS for ATLAS. As the LHC begins to get ready for the next long shut-down, which will bring in many new upgrades to allow for more data to be captured by the on-line syste...

  3. Centrality metrics and localization in core-periphery networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio; Tantari, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Two concepts of centrality have been defined in complex networks. The first considers the centrality of a node and many different metrics for it have been defined (e.g. eigenvector centrality, PageRank, non-backtracking centrality, etc). The second is related to large scale organization of the network, the core-periphery structure, composed by a dense core plus an outlying and loosely-connected periphery. In this paper we investigate the relation between these two concepts. We consider networks generated via the stochastic block model, or its degree corrected version, with a core-periphery structure and we investigate the centrality properties of the core nodes and the ability of several centrality metrics to identify them. We find that the three measures with the best performance are marginals obtained with belief propagation, PageRank, and degree centrality, while non-backtracking and eigenvector centrality (or MINRES [10], showed to be equivalent to the latter in the large network limit) perform worse in the investigated networks. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics )

  4. Microsurgical anatomy of the central core of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Eduardo Carvalhal; Yağmurlu, Kaan; de Oliveira, Evandro; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Rhoton, Albert

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the cortical and subcortical anatomy of the central core of the brain, defining its limits, with particular attention to the topography and relationships of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and related white matter pathways and vessels. METHODS The authors studied 19 cerebral hemispheres. The vascular systems of all of the specimens were injected with colored silicone, and the specimens were then frozen for at least 1 month to facilitate identification of individual fiber tracts. The dissections were performed in a stepwise manner, locating each gray matter nucleus and white matter pathway at different depths inside the central core. The course of fiber pathways was also noted in relation to the insular limiting sulci. RESULTS The insular surface is the most superficial aspect of the central core and is divided by a central sulcus into an anterior portion, usually containing 3 short gyri, and a posterior portion, with 2 long gyri. It is bounded by the anterior limiting sulcus, the superior limiting sulcus, and the inferior limiting sulcus. The extreme capsule is directly underneath the insular surface and is composed of short association fibers that extend toward all the opercula. The claustrum lies deep to the extreme capsule, and the external capsule is found medial to it. Three fiber pathways contribute to form both the extreme and external capsules, and they lie in a sequential anteroposterior disposition: the uncinate fascicle, the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, and claustrocortical fibers. The putamen and the globus pallidus are between the external capsule, laterally, and the internal capsule, medially. The internal capsule is present medial to almost all insular limiting sulci and most of the insular surface, but not to their most anteroinferior portions. This anteroinferior portion of the central core has a more complex anatomy and is distinguished in this paper as the "anterior perforated

  5. Central Core Disease Associated with Elevated Creatine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was held in position by gum tragacanth. The sections were processed for nicotinamide-adenosine-diaphorase-tetra-. zoIium reductase, myofibrillar ATPase, phosphorylase, mitochondrial ATPase and routine haematoxylin and eosin, trichrome and PAS stains. The second muscle specimen was processed according to a ...

  6. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  7. A NEW RECIPE FOR OBTAINING CENTRAL VOLUME DENSITIES OF PRESTELLAR CORES FROM SIZE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Yorke, Harold W.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple analytical method for estimating the central volume density of prestellar molecular cloud cores from their column density profiles. Prestellar cores feature a flat central part of the column density and volume density profiles of the same size indicating the existence of a uniform-density inner region. The size of this region is set by the thermal pressure force which depends only on the central volume density and temperature of the core, and can provide a direct measurement of the central volume density. Thus, a simple length measurement can immediately yield a central density estimate independent of any dynamical model for the core and without the need for fitting. Using the radius at which the column density is 90% of the central value as an estimate of the size of the flat inner part of the column density profile yields an estimate of the central volume density within a factor of two for well-resolved cores.

  8. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome mimicking mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Descartes, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Later-onset congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (LO-CCHS) does not present only breathing problems but can be present as episodic multiple organs involvement. Our unique case demonstrated LO-CCHS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases and having nontypical polysomnography result.

  9. Geotechnical properties of two siliceous cores from the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    Physical properties of the siliceous sediments from the Central Indian Basin are measured on two short cores. The properties such as water content, Atterberg limits, porosity specific gravity, wet density show the medium to high plastic sediment...

  10. Diagenetic remobilization of rare earth elements in a sediment core from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Banakar, V.K.

    Rare earth elements (REE) distribution in a 36 cm long sediment box core from the Central Indian Basin is studied. REE concentration is generally higher in the upper oxic zone than in intermediate suboxic zone suggesting REE diffusion upwards...

  11. Physical properties of a sediment core from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    A box core of 7.5 m was collected from the Central Indian Basin for the purpose of geotechnical studies and depthwise variation of physical properties and clay mineralogy. Water content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity are measured at regular...

  12. Split core experiments; Part I. Axial neutron flux distribution measurements in the reactor core with a central horizontal reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strugar, P; Raisic, N; Obradovic, D; Jovanovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-05-01

    A series of critical experiments were performed on the RB reactor in order to determine the thermal neutron flux increase in the central horizontal reflector formed by a split reactor core. The objectives of these experiments were to study the possibilities of improving the thermal neutron flux characteristics of the neutron beam in the horizontal beam tube of the RA research reactor. The construction of RA reactor enables to split the core in two, to form a central horizontal reflector in front of the beam tube. This is achieved by replacing 2% enriched uranium slugs in the fuel channel by dummy aluminium slugs. The purpose of the first series of experiments was to study the gain in thermal neutron component inside the horizontal reflector and the loss of reactivity as a function of the lattice pitch and central reflector thickness.

  13. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  14. [A core deficit in Parkinson disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, A; Herrera, E; Cuetos, F

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative condition involving motor, cognitive, and linguistic deficits. It is important to know why all these different deficits co-occur in the affected people. This paper aims to clarify whether these comorbid deficits result from the selective impairment of a computational primitive, namely, a context-sensitive computational ability according to Chomsky's Hierarchy (a well-established research tool in comparative neuroscience). A total of 15 medicated subjects with Parkinson disease and 15 controls were selected. They were matched in age and education. A battery of tasks was designed to test 3 different domains (motor capacities, cognition, and language) and 2 different computational abilities (context-free and context-sensitive operations). Significant differences between groups were observed only regarding the linguistic task involving context-sensitive computations (correferences). The observed deficits in our patients with Parkinson disease cannot be explained in terms of the selective impairment of one only unspecific, low-level computational process. At the same time, differences between patients and controls are expected to be greater if the former are not medicated. Moreover, we should pursue in the search of (this kind of) computational primitives than can be selectively impaired in people with Parkinson disease, because they may help to achieve an earlier diagnosis of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The structural core of prion disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are serious neurological ailments, in which the brain tissue deteriorates by progressive loss of brain cells which results in the loss of a wide variety of brain functions, including memory, speech and locomotion. Similar conditions

  16. Effect of a Central Graphite Column on a Pebble Flow in a Pebble Bed Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, W. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A pebble bed reactor(PBR) uses coated fuel particles embedded in spherical graphite fuel pebbles. The fuel pebbles flow down through the core during an operation. The pebble bed core is configured as cylindrical or annular depending on the reactor power. It is well known that an annular core can increase a cores' thermal power. The annular inner core zone is typically filled with movable graphite balls or a fixed graphite column. The first problem with this conventional annular core is that it is difficult to maintain a boundary between the central graphite ball zone and the outer fuel zone. The second problem is that it is expensive to replace the central fixed graphite column after several tens of years of reactor operation. In order to resolve these problems, a PBR with a central graphite column in a low core is invented. This paper presents the effect of the central graphite column on a pebble flow by using the computational fluid dynamics(CFD) code, CFX-10

  17. Coupled core criticality calculations with control rods located in the central reflector region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhy, M [Reactor depatrment, nuclear research center, Inshaas (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The reactivity of a coupled core is controlled by a set of control rods distributed in the central reflector region. The reactor contains two compact cores cooled and moderated by light water. Control rods are designed to have reactivity worths sufficient to start, control and shutdown the coupled system. Each core in a coupled system is in subcritical conditions without any absorber then each core needs to the other core to fulfill nuclear chain reaction and to approach the criticality. In this case, each core is considered clean which is suitable for research reactor with low flux disturbance and better neutron economy, in addition to the advantage of disappearing the cut corner fuel baskets. This facilitate the in core fuel management with identical fuel baskets. Hot spots will disappear. This leads to a good heat transfer process. the excess reactivity and the shutdown margin are calculated for some of reflector as coupling region gives sufficient area for coupled core are calculated cost. The fluctuations of reactivity for coupled core are calculated by noise analysis technique and compared with that for rode core. The results show low reactivity perturbation associated with coupled core.

  18. Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rezaei Dastjerdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores. Materials and Methods Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1, fiber-reinforced composite (FRC post and composite core (group 2, composite post and core (group 3, and controls (group 4. Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4. Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Results Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4 > cast post and core (group 1 > fiber post and composite core (group 2 > composite post and core (group 3. All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58% in group 1 were non-restorable. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors.

  19. Reference equilibrium core with central flux irradiation facility for Pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israr, M.; Shami, Qamar-ud-din; Pervez, S.

    1997-11-01

    In order to assess various core parameters a reference equilibrium core with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel for Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1) was assembled. Due to increased volume of reference core, the average neutron flux reduced as compared to the first higher power operation. To get a higher neutron flux an irradiation facility was created in centre of the reference equilibrium core where the advantage of the neutron flux peaking was taken. Various low power experiments were performed in order to evaluate control rods worth and neutron flux mapping inside the core. The neutron flux inside the central irradiation facility almost doubled. With this arrangement reactor operation time was cut down from 72 hours to 48 hours for the production of the required specific radioactivity. (author)

  20. Relationship between chemical composition and magnetic susceptibility in sediment cores from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; Banakar, V.K.; Tomer, A.; Kulkarni, M.

    Three sediment cores in a north–south transect (3 degrees N to 13 degrees S) from different sediment types of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are studied to understand the possible relationship between magnetic susceptibility (Chi) and Al, Fe...

  1. Central dot sign in entities other than Caroli disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, T.; Itai, Yuji; Minami, Manabu.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe central dot sign (tiny dots with strong contrast enhancement of the portal vein within dilated hepatic bile ducts on computed tomography) in entities other than Caroli disease, especially in peribiliary cysts with or without autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Computed tomography in 74 cases of peribiliary cysts and 134 cases of other liver diseases and states possibly showing central dot sign were retrospectively reviewed to examine the central dot sign. In three cases of peribiliary cysts, some part of the liver showed strongly enhanced portal radicles surrounded completely or partially by low-attenuation, enlarged peribiliary cysts, presenting ''central dot sign'' on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. We suggest that in addition to Caroli disease, some other entities and diseases of the liver may demonstrate central dot sign and this sign should not be considered a specific finding of Caroli disease. (author)

  2. Central dot sign in entities other than Caroli disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, T.; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Minami, Manabu

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe central dot sign (tiny dots with strong contrast enhancement of the portal vein within dilated hepatic bile ducts on computed tomography) in entities other than Caroli disease, especially in peribiliary cysts with or without autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Computed tomography in 74 cases of peribiliary cysts and 134 cases of other liver diseases and states possibly showing central dot sign were retrospectively reviewed to examine the central dot sign. In three cases of peribiliary cysts, some part of the liver showed strongly enhanced portal radicles surrounded completely or partially by low-attenuation, enlarged peribiliary cysts, presenting ``central dot sign`` on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. We suggest that in addition to Caroli disease, some other entities and diseases of the liver may demonstrate central dot sign and this sign should not be considered a specific finding of Caroli disease. (author)

  3. Central skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, Danit; Smith, Stacy; Mulligan, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that histologically typically shows non-caseating granulomas. The most common radiologic finding is hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Patients with widely disseminated disease may show involvement of the peripheral appendicular skeleton in 1-13% of such cases. A primary skeletal presentation without other manifestations typical of the disease is rare. We present a case of sarcoidosis in a middle-aged Caucasian man in whom the disease presented with widespread lytic lesions in the axial skeleton and long bones, mimicking metastatic disease. There was no involvement of the peripheral skeleton, skin or lungs. (orig.)

  4. Physical start up of the Dalat nuclear research reactor with the core configuration having a central neutron trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien; Ngo Quang Huy; Vu Hai Long; Tran Khanh Mai

    1994-01-01

    After the reactor has reached physical criticality with the core configuration exempt from central neutron trap on 1 November 1983, the core configuration with a central neutron trap has been arranged in the reactor and the reactor has reached physical criticality with this core configuration at 17h48 on 18 December 1983. The integral worths of different control rods are determined with accuracy. 2 refs., 24 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Central nervous system involvement in Whipple's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, B.; Bohl, J.; Heferkamp, G.

    1981-01-01

    A case of Whipple's disease is presented manifesting itself predominantly with neurological and mental symptoms but without gastrointestinal complaints. Although the first cranial CT in the fourth year of the disease was normal, the second, 1.5 years later, revealed intensive hypodensity of the white matter and cortical enhancement. CT findings are compared with autopsy results and a review of the pertinent literature is given. (orig.)

  6. Update on the MRI Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Fox, Nick C; Thompson, Paul M; Schuff, Norbert; Krueger, Gunnar; Killiany, Ronald J; DeCarli, Charles S; Dale, Anders M; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Functions of the ADNI MRI core fall into three categories: (1) those of the central MRI core lab at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, needed to generate high quality MRI data in all subjects at each time point; (2) those of the funded ADNI MRI core imaging analysis groups responsible for analyzing the MRI data, and (3) the joint function of the entire MRI core in designing and problem solving MR image acquisition, pre-processing and analyses methods. The primary objective of ADNI was and continues to be improving methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. Our approach to the present (“ADNI-GO”) and future (“ADNI-2”, if funded) MRI protocol will be to maintain MRI methodological consistency in previously enrolled “ADNI-1” subjects who are followed longitudinally in ADNI-GO and ADNI-2. We will modernize and expand the MRI protocol for all newly enrolled ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 subjects. All newly enrolled subjects will be scanned at 3T with a core set of three sequence types: 3D T1-weighted volume, FLAIR, and a long TE gradient echo volumetric acquisition for micro hemorrhage detection. In addition to this core ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 protocol, we will perform vendor specific pilot sub-studies of arterial spin labeling perfusion, resting state functional connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging. One each of these sequences will be added to the core protocol on systems from each MRI vendor. These experimental sub-studies are designed to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring useful data in a multi-center (but single vendor) setting for these three emerging MRI applications. PMID:20451869

  7. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  8. Permian-Triassic palynofacies and chemostratigraphy in a core recovered from central Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Els; Hasic, Edi; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik; Sleveland, Arve; Midtkandal, Ivar; Twitchett, Richard; Kürschner, Wolfram

    2017-04-01

    The Late Permian biotic crisis is one of the most severe extinction events in the history of the Earth, affecting both terrestrial and marine environments. A large igneous province (LIP) in Siberia is thought to be linked with this global event; however, correlation between the volcanic event and the biotic crisis is difficult and requires well dated and high resolution Permian-Triassic boundary successions from the Arctic region. The Svalbard end-Permian drilling project is aimed at improved correlation of the Permian-Triassic sections in Svalbard with the Siberian Traps. The core was collected from Deltadalen, in central Spitsbergen, with additional samples collected from an outcrop close to the drilling site. As part of this collaborative project, carbon isotope geochemistry, palynofacies and palynomorphs were studied in order to learn more about the biostratigraphy and to understand changes in the source(s) of organic matter. Objectives were to reconstruct the paleo-environment; to correlate the core with other sites on Svalbard, and with global records; and to identify and characterize the Late Permian extinction event in the core. A carbon isotope shift is an important global stratigraphic marker in the latest Permian and occurs near the base of the Vikinghøgda Formation in the Deltadalen core, where bulk rock values change from -24.5 to -32.7‰. Palynomorph preservation was generally poor in both core and outcrop samples which prevented detailed examination of species and limited their usefulness for biostratigraphy. Still, palynofacies were useful for correlative purposes. AOM (amorphous organic matter) in the core increases at the lithological change from sandstones to siltstones, and is indicative of anoxic conditions. Similar high levels of AOM in the outcrop samples can be correlated with the core. Palynological analyses show that the spore/pollen ratio starts to increase before the negative shift in the isotope curve. Such an increase in spore

  9. Evaluation of the Fitness of Glass-Infiltrated Zirconia Core in Maxillary Central Incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Ban, Jae-Sam; Park, Sang-Won; Yim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fitness of zirconia cores according to the amount and treated surface of glass infiltration. A maxillary right central incisor customized abutment was milled to have a 6° slope and a 1 mm deep chamfer margin and was manufactured in an intaglio mold using silicone impression material. Fifty-six stone dies were produced by injecting high strength dental stone into a mold and then zirconia cores were milled with CAD/CAM systems. The control group (Control) used non glass-infiltrated zirconia, and the experiment group was divided by one with the glass and distilled water ratio of 1:300 and the other with the ratio of 1:100. Each group was divided into subgroups by glasstreated surface: external surface infiltration, internal surface infiltration, and both surface infiltration. The zirconia cores sintered after glass infiltration were attached to the stone dies and then cut. Afterwards, the absolute marginal discrepancies and internal gaps of the buccal and lingual sides were measured. The buccal absolute marginal discrepancies and lingual internal gaps were influenced by the glass infiltration amount (p 0.05). As a result of the above experiments, the glass-infiltrated zirconia cores showed a clinically acceptable fitness, which is within 120 μm. This means that glass infiltration can be clinically used.

  10. Neurodegenerative diseases of the central motor system in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfke, K.

    2005-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central motor system often lead to discrete but functionally important parenchymal abnormalities in various parts of the brain. MRI is the most sensitive imaging method to detect these abnormalities. Various neurodegenerative diseases are presented with their clinical symptoms and MRI findings. Criteria for differential diagnosis are provided as well. (orig.)

  11. GCFR 1/20-scale PCRV central core cavity closure model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.; Dougan, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been conducting structural response tests of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) closures for the 300-MW(e) gas-cooled fast reactor demonstration power plant. This report describes the third in a series of tests of small-scale closure plug models. The model represents a redesign of the central core cavity closure plug. The primary objective was to demonstrate structural performance and ultimate load capacity of the closure plug. Secondary objectives included obtaining data on crack development and propagation and on mode of failure of the composite structure

  12. Optimization of the coherence function estimation for multi-core central processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremnov, A. G.; Faerman, V. A.; Avramchuk, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers use of parallel processing on multi-core central processing unit for optimization of the coherence function evaluation arising in digital signal processing. Coherence function along with other methods of spectral analysis is commonly used for vibration diagnosis of rotating machinery and its particular nodes. An algorithm is given for the function evaluation for signals represented with digital samples. The algorithm is analyzed for its software implementation and computational problems. Optimization measures are described, including algorithmic, architecture and compiler optimization, their results are assessed for multi-core processors from different manufacturers. Thus, speeding-up of the parallel execution with respect to sequential execution was studied and results are presented for Intel Core i7-4720HQ и AMD FX-9590 processors. The results show comparatively high efficiency of the optimization measures taken. In particular, acceleration indicators and average CPU utilization have been significantly improved, showing high degree of parallelism of the constructed calculating functions. The developed software underwent state registration and will be used as a part of a software and hardware solution for rotating machinery fault diagnosis and pipeline leak location with acoustic correlation method.

  13. Central Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.

  14. An Exact Solution to the Central Core Model of the Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1998-11-01

    The central core model of the renal medulla provides a mathematical representation of the urine concentration mechanism. The model consists of eight coupled, nonlinear ODE's subject to certain initial and boundary conditions. Many investigators have studied the properties of the solutions to these equations, however no general analytic solution is known to exist. Thus, special exact solutions assume a position of significance by providing a basis for insight into the understanding of more realistic models used to analyze actual data. We calculate an exact solution for the case in which the water permeabilities are zero and a particular, but realistic, functional form is used for the metabolic pump. A detailed discussion will be given for the results obtained on the four cencentration and four flux functions that define the model. If invited to do so, the author is willing to expand the talk for the above abstract to twenty minutes.

  15. Cationic niosomes an effective gene carrier composed of novel spermine-derivative cationic lipids: effect of central core structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Leksantikul, Lalita; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2017-05-01

    Cationic niosomes formulated from Span 20, cholesterol (Chol) and novel spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) were successfully prepared for improving transfection efficiency in vitro. The niosomes composed of spermine cationic lipid with central core structure of di(oxyethyl)amino revealed the highest gene transfection efficiency. To investigate the factors affecting gene transfection and cell viability including differences in the central core structures of cationic lipids, the composition of vesicles, molar ratio of cationic lipids in formulations and the weight ratio of niosomes to DNA. Cationic niosomes composed of nonionic surfactants (Span20), cholesterol and spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures were formulated. Gene transfection and cell viability were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). The morphology, size and charge were also characterized. High transfection efficiency was obtained from cationic niosomes composed of Span20:Chol:cationic lipid at the molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:0.5 mM. Cationic lipids with di(oxyethyl)amino as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency. In addition, there was also no serum effect on transfection efficiency. These novel cationic niosomes may constitute a good alternative carrier for gene transfection.

  16. Rich club analysis in the Alzheimer's disease connectome reveals a relatively undisturbed structural core network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Bernstein, Matt A; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion imaging can assess the white matter connections within the brain, revealing how neural pathways break down in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed 3-Tesla whole-brain diffusion-weighted images from 202 participants scanned by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-50 healthy controls, 110 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 42 AD patients. From whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We tested whether AD disrupts the "rich club" - a network property where high-degree network nodes are more interconnected than expected by chance. We calculated the rich club properties at a range of degree thresholds, as well as other network topology measures including global degree, clustering coefficient, path length, and efficiency. Network disruptions predominated in the low-degree regions of the connectome in patients, relative to controls. The other metrics also showed alterations, suggesting a distinctive pattern of disruption in AD, less pronounced in MCI, targeting global brain connectivity, and focusing on more remotely connected nodes rather than the central core of the network. AD involves severely reduced structural connectivity; our step-wise rich club coefficients analyze points to disruptions predominantly in the peripheral network components; other modalities of data are needed to know if this indicates impaired communication among non rich club regions. The highly connected core was relatively preserved, offering new evidence on the neural basis of progressive risk for cognitive decline. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingsong; Huan Yi; Chang Yingjuan; Chang Yingjuan; Ge Yali; Zhang Guangyun; Han Yuedong; Zhao Haitao; Yang Chunmin; Yang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To discuss MRI manifestation of Wilson's disease accompanied with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), and to especially detect the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in this disease. Methods: Two cases of Wilson's disease accompanied with CPM were performed with sequent MR examination including T 1 WI, T 2 WI, FLAIR, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) by a 1.5 T magnetic resonance system (Philips gyroscan master). Results: Symmetric long T 1 and T 2 signals were found in central pontine region, lenticular nucleus, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. CEMRI showed no apparent enhanced lesions. DWI showed obviously high signal intensities in central pontine region with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (100-300) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s while FLAIR images just showed slightly high signal in the same area, which suggested that cytotoxic edema did in fact exist in CPM. Meanwhile, DWI also showed high signals in bilateral lenticular nucleus with apparent diffusion coefficient values fluctuated between (300-600) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, however, FLAIR images showed heterogeneous high signals and one case presented low DWI signals in bilateral head of caudate nucleus, all these signs might be explained by mixed-changes of cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema in long period of Wilson's disease. Conclusion: Wilson's disease and CPM have characteristic MRI manifestation and DWI may be a very useful way to confirm a correct diagnosis. (authors)

  18. A 320 Year Ice-Core Record of Atmospheric Hg Pollution in the Altai, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrikh, Stella; Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2017-10-17

    Anthropogenic emissions of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) have substantially increased atmospheric Hg levels during the 20th century compared to preindustrial times. However, on a regional scale, atmospheric Hg concentration or deposition trends vary to such an extent during the industrial period that the consequences of recent Asian emissions on atmospheric Hg levels are still unclear. Here we present a 320 year Hg deposition history for Central Asia, based on a continuous high-resolution ice-core Hg record from the Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai, covering the time period 1680-2001. Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes start rising above background levels at the beginning of the 19th century due to emissions from gold/silver mining and Hg production. A steep increase occurs after the 1940s culminating during the 1970s, at the same time as the maximum Hg use in consumer products in Europe and North America. After a distinct decrease in the 1980s, Hg levels in the 1990s and beginning of the 2000s return to their maximum values, which we attribute to increased Hg emissions from Asia. Thus, rising Hg emissions from coal combustion and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Asian countries determine recent atmospheric Hg levels in Central Asia, counteracting emission reductions due to control measures in Europe and North America.

  19. UAB HRFD Core Center: Core A: The Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Diseases Translational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Disease; Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease; Joubert Syndrome; Bardet Biedl Syndrome; Meckel-Gruber Syndrome; Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis; Caroli Syndrome; Oro-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I; Nephronophthisis; Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease

  20. Central Tibetan Plateau atmospheric trace metals contamination: a 500-year record from the Puruogangri ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2017-12-01

    Since the 1980s, Asia has experienced enormous industrial development from rapid population growth, industrialization and consequent large-scale environmental changes. The inherent generated atmospheric pollution currently contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions. Asian trace metal aerosols, when deposited on glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Interpreting trace element (TE) records from glaciers implies a thorough comprehension of their provenance and temporal variability. It is then essential to discriminate the TEs' natural background components from their anthropogenic components. Here we present 500-year TE records from the Puruogangri ice core (Tibet, China) that provide a highly resolved account of the impact of past atmospheric influences, environmental processes and human activities on the central TP. A decreasing aeolian dust input to the ice cap allowed the detection of an atmospheric pollution signal. The anthropogenic pollution contribution emerges in the record since the early 1900s and increases substantially after 1935. The metallurgy (Zn, Pb and steel smelting) emission products from the former Soviet Union and especially from central Asia likely enhanced the anthropogenic deposition to the Puruogangri ice cap between 1935 and 1980, suggesting that the westerlies served as a conveyor of atmospheric pollution to central Tibet. The impact of this industrial pollution cumulated with that of the hemispheric coal and gasoline combustion which are respectively traced by Sb and Pb enrichment in the ice. The Chinese steel production accompanying the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) and the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) is proposed as a secondary but proximal source of Pb pollution affecting the ice cap between 1958 and 1976. The most recent decade (1980-1992) of the enrichment time series suggests that Puruogangri ice cap recorded the early

  1. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modabber, Milad, E-mail: mmodabber@gmail.com [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Kundu, Sanjoy [Scarborough Hospital and Scarborough Vascular Ultrasound, The Vein Institute of Toronto (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  2. Altered intrinsic functional coupling between core neurocognitive networks in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Putcha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is largely attributed to disruptions in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. These neurodegenerative changes may also have a more global effect on intrinsic brain organization at the cortical level. Functional brain connectivity between neurocognitive systems related to cognitive processing is critical for effective neural communication, and is disrupted across neurological disorders. Three core neurocognitive networks have been established as playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders: the default-mode network (DMN, the salience network (SN, and the central executive network (CEN. In healthy adults, DMN–CEN interactions are anti-correlated while SN–CEN interactions are strongly positively correlated even at rest, when individuals are not engaging in any task. These intrinsic between-network interactions at rest are necessary for efficient suppression of the DMN and activation of the CEN during a range of cognitive tasks. To identify whether these network interactions are disrupted in individuals with PD, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI to compare between-network connectivity between 24 PD participants and 20 age-matched controls (MC. In comparison to the MC, individuals with PD showed significantly less SN–CEN coupling and greater DMN–CEN coupling during rest. Disease severity, an index of striatal dysfunction, was related to reduced functional coupling between the striatum and SN. These results demonstrate that individuals with PD have a dysfunctional pattern of interaction between core neurocognitive networks compared to what is found in healthy individuals, and that interaction between the SN and the striatum is even more profoundly disrupted in those with greater disease severity.

  3. Neutron Environment Characterization of the Central Cavity in the Annular Core Research Reactor *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parma Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the neutron environment in the central cavity of the Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR is important in order to provide experimenters with the most accurate spectral information and maintain a high degree of fidelity in performing reactor experiments. Characterization includes both modeling and experimental efforts. Building accurate neutronic models of the ACRR and the central cavity “bucket” environments that can be used by experimenters is important in planning and designing experiments, as well as assessing the experimental results and quantifying uncertainties. Neutron fluence characterizations of two bucket environments, LB44 and PLG, are presented. These two environments are used frequently and represent two extremes in the neutron spectrum. The LB44 bucket is designed to remove the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and significantly attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The PLG bucket is designed to enhance the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The neutron characterization for each bucket was performed by irradiating 20 different activation foil types, some of which were cadmium covered, resulting in 37 different reactions at the peak axial flux location in each bucket. The dosimetry results were used in the LSL-M2 spectrum adjustment code with a 640-energy group MCNP-generated trial spectrum, self-shielding correction factors, the SNLRML or IRDFF dosimetry cross-section library, trial spectrum uncertainty, and trial covariance matrix, to generate a least-squares adjusted neutron spectrum, spectrum uncertainty, and covariance matrix. Both environment character-izations are well documented and the environments are available for use by experimenters.

  4. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  5. Synthesis and in vitro transfection efficiency of spermine-based cationic lipids with different central core structures and lipophilic tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomtham, Nattisa; Apiratikul, Nuttapon; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Opanasopit, Praneet; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2015-02-01

    Twelve spermine-based cationic lipids with four different central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) and three hydrophobic tails (lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid) were synthesized. The liposomes containing lipids and DOPE showed moderate to good in vitro DNA delivery into HeLa cells. GFP expression experiments revealed that liposomes composed of lipids with 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency under serum-free condition. Whereas, lipid with 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl core structure showed highest transfection under 10% serum condition. Moreover, the liposomes and lipoplexes composted of these cationic lipids exhibited low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Early diagenetic processes affecting nutrients in the pore waters of Central Indian Ocean cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    and unoxidized organic carbon are observed in the Arabian Sea core, while nitrification with intermediate low nitrate and high organic carbon are found in the mottled zones of the pelagic cores. Mobilization of iron-host oxyhydroxides and peaked profiles...

  7. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight the impact of insomnia in central neurological disorders by providing information on its prevalence and give recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia in neurological disorders is a frequent, but underestimated symptom. Its occurrence may be a direct consequence of the disease itself or may be secondary to pain, depression, other sleep disorders or the effects of medications. Insomnia can have a significant impact on the patient's cognitive and physical function and may be associated with psychological distress and depression. Diagnosis of insomnia is primarily based on medical history and validated questionnaires. Actigraphy is a helpful diagnostic tool for assessing the circadian sleep-wake rhythm. For differential diagnosis and to measure the duration of sleep full polysomnography may be recommended. Prior to initiating treatment the cause of insomnia must be clearly identified. First line treatment aims at the underlying neurologic disease. The few high quality treatment studies show that short term treatment with hypnotics may be recommended in most disorders after having ruled out high risk for adverse effects. Sedating antidepressants may be an effective treatment for insomnia in stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Melatonin and light treatment can stabilize the sleep-wake circadian rhythm and shorten sleep latency in dementias and PD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective in treating insomnia symptoms associated with most of the central neurological diseases. The prevalence and treatment of insomnia in neurological diseases still need to be studied in larger patient groups with randomized clinical trials to a) better understand their impact and causal relationship and b) to develop and improve specific evidence-based treatment strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Central arterial characteristics of gout patients with chronic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gulperi; Yilmaz, Sema; Kebapcilar, Levent; Gundogdu, Ali

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between central blood pressure, arterial stiffness parameters and renal function parameters in gout patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and without CKD. The study enrolled 48 gout patients and 32 control subjects. Central blood pressure, arterial stiffness parameters and renal function parameters in gout patients were investigated. The vascular measurements were performed with an arteriograph. Of the gout patients, 40.1% had CKD. The 24-h pulse pressure (PP) (P < 0.001), central systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.001), central diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P < 0.001), cardiac output (CO) (P < 0.001) and peripheral resistance (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the all patients with gout compared to healthy control subjects. Moreover, when the gout patients with and without CKD were compared, the gout patients with CKD had higher 24-h PP (P = 0.009), 24-h augmentation index standardized to a heart rate of 75 beats per min (AIx@75) (P < 0.023), daytime PP (P = 0.001), daytime AIx@75 (P = 0.027), and nighttime PP (P = 0.035) than the gout patients without CKD. In our study, gout patients with CKD had worse and more emphasized evidence of arterial stiffness than gout patients without CKD. Further investigations with large sample sizes are needed to evaluate the effect of CKD on the arterial stiffness of gout patients. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Restoration of an intruded maxillary central incisor with a uniquely designed dowel and core restoration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Tacir, Ibrahim Halil

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the restoration of an intruded root using a custom-made metal dowel and metal-ceramic veneer core restoration. The treatment plan for this patient consisted of restoring the missing esthetics and eliminating psychological trauma by utilizing the root of the intruded maxillary left central incisor to replace both missing central incisor crowns. This treatment will preserve space and bone until the patient is old enough for another prosthodontic restoration to be considered. As the lost fragments were not recovered, we considered this restoration of the intruded root to be the best therapeutic option, considering the effect on the patient's psyche. The patient was satisfied with the final result.

  10. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Renchao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  11. Infectious Diseases Continued to be the World's Core Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Plague epidemic is going on in Madagascar. Many countries are in constant worries that such deadly infectious diseases might be carried from one part of the world to them (3). Although member countries signed an international agreement to report outbreaks promptly to the. World Health Organization and take steps to.

  12. Neutron flux measurement in the central channel (XC-1) of TRIGA 14 MW LEU core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARBOS, D.; BUSUIOC, P.; ROTH, Cs.; PAUNOIU, C.

    2008-01-01

    The TRIGA 14 MW reactor, operated by Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania, is a pool type reactor, and has a rectangular shape which holds fuel bundles and is surrounded with beryllium reflectors. Each fuel bundle is composed of 25 nuclear fuel rods. The TRIGA 14 MW reactor was commissioned 28 years ago with HEU fuel rods. The conversion was gradually achieved, starting in February 1992 and completed in March 2006. The full conversion of the 14 MW TRIGA Research Reactor was completed in May 2006 and each step of the conversion was achieved by removal of HEU fuel, replaced by LEU fuel, accompanied by a large set of theoretical evaluation and physical measurements intended to confirm the performances of gradual conversion. After the core full conversion, a program of measurements and comparisons with previous results of core physics and measurements is underway, allowing data acquisition for normal operation, demonstration of safety and economics of the converted core. Neutron flux spectrum measurements in the XC in the XC-1 water 1 water-filled channel were performed using multi multi-foil activation techniques. The neutron spectra and flux are obtained by unfolding from measured reaction rates using SAND II computer code. The integral neutron flux value for LEU core is greater of 13% than for the standard HEU core. Also thermal neutron flux value for converted LEU core is smaller by 0.38% than for the standard HEU core. These differences appear because the foil activation detectors have been irradiated using a pneumatic rabbit having a diameter of 32 mm, whereas foil irradiations in standard HEU core has been performed with a pneumatic rabbit having a diameter of 14 mm, and therefore the neutron spectra in LEU core is less thermalized and the weight of fast neutron is greater

  13. Microstructural investigations on carbonate fault core rocks in active extensional fault zones from the central Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Silvia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The study of the microstructural and petrophysical evolution of cataclasites and gouges has a fundamental impact on both hydraulic and frictional properties of fault zones. In the last decades, growing attention has been payed to the characterization of carbonate fault core rocks due to the nucleation and propagation of coseismic ruptures in carbonate successions (e.g., Umbria-Marche 1997, L'Aquila 2009, Amatrice 2016 earthquakes in Central Apennines, Italy). Among several physical parameters, grain size and shape in fault core rocks are expected to control the way of sliding along the slip surfaces in active fault zones, thus influencing the propagation of coseismic ruptures during earthquakes. Nevertheless, the role of grain size and shape distribution evolution in controlling the weakening or strengthening behavior in seismogenic fault zones is still not fully understood also because a comprehensive database from natural fault cores is still missing. In this contribution, we present a preliminary study of seismogenic extensional fault zones in Central Apennines by combining detailed filed mapping with grain size and microstructural analysis of fault core rocks. Field mapping was aimed to describe the structural architecture of fault systems and the along-strike fault rock distribution and fracturing variations. In the laboratory we used a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 granulometer to obtain a precise grain size characterization of loose fault rocks combined with sieving for coarser size classes. In addition, we employed image analysis on thin sections to quantify the grain shape and size in cemented fault core rocks. The studied fault zones consist of an up to 5-10 m-thick fault core where most of slip is accommodated, surrounded by a tens-of-meters wide fractured damage zone. Fault core rocks consist of (1) loose to partially cemented breccias characterized by different grain size (from several cm up to mm) and variable grain shape (from very angular to sub

  14. Quantitative analysis of core fucosylation of serum proteins in liver diseases by LC-MS-MRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junfeng; Sanda, Miloslav; Wei, Renhuizi; Zhang, Lihua; Goldman, Radoslav

    2018-02-07

    Aberrant core fucosylation of proteins has been linked to liver diseases. In this study, we carried out multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification of core fucosylated N-glycopeptides of serum proteins partially deglycosylated by a combination of endoglycosidases (endoF1, endoF2, and endoF3). To minimize variability associated with the preparatory steps, the analysis was performed without enrichment of glycopeptides or fractionation of serum besides the nanoRP chromatography. Specifically, we quantified core fucosylation of 22 N-glycopeptides derived from 17 proteins together with protein abundance of these glycoproteins in a cohort of 45 participants (15 disease-free control, 15 fibrosis and 15 cirrhosis patients) using a multiplex nanoUPLC-MS-MRM workflow. We find increased core fucosylation of 5 glycopeptides at the stage of liver fibrosis (i.e., N630 of serotransferrin, N107 of alpha-1-antitrypsin, N253 of plasma protease C1 inhibitor, N397 of ceruloplasmin, and N86 of vitronectin), increase of additional 6 glycopeptides at the stage of cirrhosis (i.e., N138 and N762 of ceruloplasmin, N354 of clusterin, N187 of hemopexin, N71 of immunoglobulin J chain, and N127 of lumican), while the degree of core fucosylation of 10 glycopeptides did not change. Interestingly, although we observe an increase in the core fucosylation at N86 of vitronectin in liver fibrosis, core fucosylation decreases on the N169 glycopeptide of the same protein. Our results demonstrate that the changes in core fucosylation are protein and site specific during the progression of fibrotic liver disease and independent of the changes in the quantity of N-glycoproteins. It is expected that the fully optimized multiplex LC-MS-MRM assay of core fucosylated glycopeptides will be useful for the serologic assessment of the fibrosis of liver. We have quantified the difference in core fucosylation among three comparison groups (healthy control, fibrosis and cirrhosis patients) using a sensitive and

  15. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight the impact of insomnia in central neurological disorders by providing information on its prevalence and give recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia in neurological disorders is a frequent, but underestimated symptom. Its occurrence may...... be a direct consequence of the disease itself or may be secondary to pain, depression, other sleep disorders or the effects of medications. Insomnia can have a significant impact on the patient's cognitive and physical function and may be associated with psychological distress and depression. Diagnosis...... of insomnia is primarily based on medical history and validated questionnaires. Actigraphy is a helpful diagnostic tool for assessing the circadian sleep-wake rhythm. For differential diagnosis and to measure the duration of sleep full polysomnography may be recommended. Prior to initiating treatment...

  16. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  17. Comparison of northern and central Greenland ice cores records of methanesulfonate covering the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsell, U.; Hansson, M. E.; Siggaard-Andersen, M-L-

    2007-01-01

    Methanesulfonate (MS-) is measured in ice cores with the objective to obtain a proxy record of marine phytoplankton production of dimethylsulfide (DMS). We present a continuous MS- record covering the last glacial period from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice core and compare...... this record with the corresponding records previously presented from Greenland and, in particular, with the GISP2 ice core located 320 km south of NGRIP. Despite that the records have similar mean concentrations, their responses to climatic changes during the last glacial period are slightly different. NGRIP...... MS- concentrations were higher during the cold marine isotopic stages (MIS) 2 and 4 and lower during the warm MIS 5. This long-term trend in MS-, which is similar to the inverse of the corresponding trend in d 18O, is not detected in the GISP2 MS- record. A systematic response in MS- concentrations...

  18. Canada's neglected tropical disease research network: who's in the core-who's on the periphery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Phillips

    Full Text Available This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding.MULTIPLE METHODS WERE USED TO CONDUCT THIS STUDY, INCLUDING: (1 a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2 a country-level "core-periphery" network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3 a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network ("k-core measure" and the quantity and quality of research produced.Over the past sixty years (1950-2010, Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n = 4,145 have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran. Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network.The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers of the NTD research they generate; there is opportunity to leverage

  19. The Extragalactic Lens VLBI Imaging Survey (ELVIS): Investigating galaxy cores and black holes with gravitational lens central images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Edward R.

    This thesis describes the Extragalactic Lens VLBI Imaging Survey (ELVIS), a search for central images in gravitational lenses. We present the first four ELVIS targets, for which we have radio VLBI observations with resolutions of a few milli-arcseconds and sensitivities of 15 - 38mJy. For PMN J1838-3427, CLASS B0739+366 and CLASS B0445+123 we have not detected any central images, but have set stringent upper limits on their flux densities. For CLASS B2319+051 we have made a tentative detection of a third radio source, which may be either a central image or radio emission from the lens galaxy. Using the upper limits on the central image flux densities, we gain new information about the matter distributions in the lens galaxies of these systems. We fit a broken power law model for the matter profile, and constrain the allowed break radii and inner index of this model. To demagnify the central images to the observed level the matter profiles must be slightly shallower than or steeper than isothermal, which is consistent with previous studies of early type galaxy profiles. The presence of a super-massive black hole weakens the constraints somewhat, but the profiles are still close to isothermal. Relative to previous work, we reduce the maximum sizes of shallow cores by factors of 2 to 3, and raise the indices of r 0( r -g central cusps by g = 0.05 - 0.35. If we take the source in B2319+051 to be a central image, then we select a narrow band of allowed break radii and inner indices, finding that a constant density core has size 150--380 pc, and a pure power law has index g = 1.5 - 1.67. Our constraints still allow sufficiently shallow profiles that some super-massive black holes may form central image pairs rather than eliminating the central image, and these image pairs may be detected with future instruments. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  20. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles ( n  = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine ( n  = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis ( n  = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO ( n  = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( n  = 2) and optic neuritis ( n  = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  1. Unusual polymorphism in new bent-shaped liquid crystals based on biphenyl as a central molecular core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kovářová

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bent-shaped mesogens possessing a biphenyl as a central core have been synthesized and the role of the terminal chain and the orientation of the ester as a linkage group have been investigated. For the studied molecular core we have established that both parameters play an important role for the mesomorphic properties. The polyfluoroalkyl terminal chain supports the formation of mesophases, and the introduction of a chiral lactate terminal chain destabilizes mesophases for the first type of mutual orientation of ester groups, attached to the central core. On the contrary, for the opposite orientation of esters, the terminal chain has no effect on the mesomorphic properties, and columnar phases have been found for all compounds. A unique phase sequence has been found for the mesogen with the fluorinated chain. A generalized tilted smectics, SmCG, have been observed in a temperature interval between two different lamellar SmCP phases and characterized by X-ray and dielectric measurements. The dielectric spectroscopy data are unique and presented for the first time in the SmCG phase providing new information about the molecular dynamics.

  2. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  3. Interlaboratory comparison of {sup 10}Be concentrations in two ice cores from Central West Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Thomas E., E-mail: woodruft@purdue.edu [PRIME Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Welten, Kees C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Caffee, Marc W. [PRIME Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Nishiizumi, Kunihiko [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    To improve sample processing efficiency for cosmogenic radionuclide measurements in samples from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide core, two chemical lines, one at Purdue University and one at University of California, Berkeley, are being used. Sections from two shallow ice cores from West Antarctica were processed at each lab, while all {sup 10}Be accelerator mass spectrometry measurements were performed at PRIME Lab, Purdue University. Duplicate samples gave {sup 10}Be results that are identical to within the AMS measurement uncertainties of 2-3%.

  4. Optimization of binary breeder reactor IV - Conception of mixed fuel at central part of the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1986-04-01

    Neutronic characteristics of some LMFBRs are analized for a fueling mode that is different from those reported previously. In an inner part of the core both 233 U/ 232 Th and Pu/U assemblies are placed while the outer zone is fueled with Pu/U assemblies. Both oxide metal fuels and 232 Th and 238 U blankets are considered. (Author) [pt

  5. Public values: core or confusion? Introduction to the centrality and puzzlement of public values research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck Jørgensen, T.; Rutgers, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public administration

  6. Geochemistry of deep-sea sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.; Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    , thought to be of diagenetic origin. Metals are suppliEd. by upward migration from a suboxic to anoxic zone at an intermediate depth of 12-35 cm below the sediment-water interface in all the cores. Buried maxima in transition metal concentration at depth...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Methanogenic Communities in Core Sediments of the Dajiuhu Peatland, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 22 times greater than carbon dioxide. Large amounts of CH4 can be produced and released by methanogenesis in peatland ecosystems, which make peatland ecosystems play an important role in mediating global climate change. Here we report the abundance and distribution of methanogenic communities and their correlation with physicochemical parameters along two sediment cores in the Dajiuhu Peatland via quantitative PCR, clone library construction of functional genes and statistical analysis. Uncultured Group and Fen Cluster were found to be the dominant methanogens at the upper part of the cores, and Rice and Related Rice Cluster became dominant in the bottom of the cores. Quantitative PCR showed that abundances of methanogenic communities ranged from 104 to 106 copies/ng DNA throughout the cores. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) indicated that dissolved oxygen (DO) (P=0.046, F=1.4) was the main factor significantly controlling methanogenic communities. Our results enhance the understanding of the compositions and variations of methanogenic communities vertically and greatly help us to further investigate process of microbial methanogenesis in Dajiuhu Peatland.

  8. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  9. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira Canellas, A.; Rovira Gols, A.; Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  10. Geochemical stratigraphy of two regolith cores from the Central Highlands of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution concentration profiles are presented for 20-22 chemical elements in the under 1-mm grain-size fractions of 60001-7 and 60009/10. Emphasis is placed on the stratigraphic features of the cores, and the fresh results are compared with those of previous petrographic and geochemical studies. For elements associated with major mineral phases, the variations in concentration in both cores exceed that observed in some 40 samples of surface and trench soils. Most of the variation in lithophile element concentrations at depths of 18 to 21 cm results from the mixing of two components - oil that is relatively mafic and rich in incompatible trace elements (ITEs), and coarse-grained anorthosite. The linearity of mixing lines on two-element concentration plots argues that the relative abundances of these various subcomponents are sufficiently uniform from sample to sample and from region to region in the core that the mixture behaves effectively as a single component. Soils at depths of 52-55 cm exhibit very low concentrations of ITEs.

  11. Determination of the neutrons energy spectrum in the central thimble of the reactor core TRIGA Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra M, M. A.; Luis L, M. A.; Raya A, R.; Cruz G, H. S.

    2013-10-01

    This work presents the measurement of the neutrons spectrum in energies in the central thimble of the reactor TRIGA Mark III to a power of 1 MW in stationary state, with the core in the center of the pool. To achieve this objective, several thin sheets were irradiated (one at the time) in the same position of the core. The activation probes were selected in such a way that covered the energy range (1 x 10 -10 to 20 MeV) of the neutrons spectrum in the reactor core, for this purpose thin sheets were used of 197 Au, 58 Ni, 115 In, 24 Mg, 27 Al, 58 Fe, 59 Co and 63 Cu. After the irradiation, the high energy gamma emissions of the activated thin sheets were measured by means of gamma spectrometry, in a counting system of high resolution, with a Hyper pure Germanium detector, obtaining this way the activity induced in the thin sheets whose magnitude is proportional to the intensity of the neutrons flow, this activity together to a theoretical initial spectrum are the main entrance data of the computational code SANDBP (Hungarian version of the code Sand-II) that uses the unfolding method for the calculation of the spectrum. (Author)

  12. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  13. Central GLP-1 receptor activation modulates cocaine-evoked phasic dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2017-07-01

    Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration. We analyzed dopamine release events in both the NAc shell and core, as these two subregions are differentially affected by cocaine and uniquely contribute to motivated behavior. We found that central delivery of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 suppressed the induction of phasic dopamine release events by intravenous cocaine. This effect was selective for dopamine signaling in the NAc core. Suppression of phasic signaling in the core by Exendin-4 could not be attributed to interference with cocaine binding to one of its major substrates, the dopamine transporter, as cocaine-induced increases in reuptake were unaffected. The results suggest that GLP-1R activation, instead, exerts its suppressive effects by altering dopamine release - possibly by suppressing the excitability of dopamine neurons. Given the role of NAc core dopamine in the generation of conditioned responses based on associative learning, suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine signaling in this subregion by GLP-1R agonism may decrease the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Thus, GLP-1Rs remain viable targets for the treatment and prevention of cocaine seeking, taking and relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for obstructive pulmonary diseases from the perspective of physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Alexandra; Kirchberger, Inge; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-12-01

    The 'Comprehensive ICF Core Set for obstructive pulmonary diseases' (OPD) is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and represents the typical spectrum of problems in functioning of patients with OPD. To optimize a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented approach in pulmonary rehabilitation, in which physiotherapy plays an important role, the ICF offers a standardized language and understanding of functioning. For it to be a useful tool for physiotherapists in rehabilitation of patients with OPD, the objective of this study was to validate this Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD from the perspective of physiotherapists. A three-round survey based on the Delphi technique of physiotherapists who are experienced in the treatment of OPD asked about the problems, resources and aspects of environment of patients with OPD that physiotherapists treat in clinical practice (physiotherapy intervention categories). Responses were linked to the ICF and compared with the existing Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD. Fifty-one physiotherapists from 18 countries named 904 single terms that were linked to 124 ICF categories, 9 personal factors and 16 'not classified' concepts. The identified ICF categories were mainly third-level categories compared with mainly second-level categories of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD. Seventy of the ICF categories, all personal factors and 15 'not classified' concepts gained more than 75% agreement among the physiotherapists. Of these ICF categories, 55 (78.5%) were covered by the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD. The validity of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD was largely supported by the physiotherapists. Nevertheless, ICF categories that were not covered, personal factors and not classified terms offer opportunities towards the final ICF Core Set for OPD and further research to strengthen physiotherapists' perspective in pulmonary rehabilitation.

  15. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF ABELL 1142: A COOL-CORE CLUSTER LACKING A CENTRAL BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Weeren, Reinout van [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: yuanyuan.su@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF-IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-04-10

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s{sup −1}. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L{sub X}–T{sub X} scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  16. Thrusting and transpressional shearing in the Pan-African nappe southwest El-Sibai core complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahed, Mohamed A. Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The Wadi El-Shush area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt is occupied by the Sibai core complex and its surrounding Pan-African nappe complex. The sequence of metamorphic and structural events in the Sibai core complex and the enveloping Pan-African nappe can be summarized as follows: (1) high temperature metamorphism associated with partial melting of amphibolites and development of gneissic and migmatitic rocks, (2) between 740 and 660 Ma, oblique island arc accretion resulted in Pan-African nappe emplacement and the intrusion of syn-tectonic gneissic tonalite at about 680 ± 10 Ma. The NNW-SSE shortening associated with oblique island arc accretion produced low angle NNW-directed thrusts and open folds in volcaniclastic metasediments, schists and isolated serpentinite masses (Pan-African nappe) and created NNE-trending recumbent folds in syn-tectonic granites. The NNW-SSE shortening has produced imbricate structures and thrust duplexes in the Pan-African nappe, (3) NE-ward thrusting which deformed the Pan-African nappe into SW-dipping imbricate slices. The ENE-WSW compression event has created NE-directed thrusts, folded the NNW-directed thrusts and produced NW-trending major and minor folds in the Pan-African nappe. Prograde metamorphism (480-525 °C at 2-4.5 kbar) was synchronous with thrusting events, (4) retrograde metamorphism during sinistral shearing along NNW- to NW-striking strike-slip shear zones (660-580 Ma), marking the external boundaries of the Sibai core complex and related to the Najd Fault System. Sinistral shearing has produced steeply dipping mylonitic foliation and open plunging folds in the NNW- and NE-ward thrust planes. Presence of retrograde metamorphism supports the slow exhumation of Sibai core complex under brittle-ductile low temperature conditions. Arc-accretion caused thrusting, imbrication and crustal thickening, whereas gravitational collapse of a compressed and thickened lithosphere initiated the sinistral movement

  17. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  18. Determination of the energy spectrum of the neutrons in the central thimble of the reactor core TRIGA Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra M, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the neutron spectrum measurements inside the core of the TRIGA Mark III reactor at 1 MW power in steady-state, with the bridge placed in the center of the swimming pool, using several metallic threshold foils. The activation detectors are inserted in the Central Thimble of the reactor core, all the foils are irradiated in the same position and irradiation conditions (one by one). The threshold detectors are made of different materials such as: Au 197 , Ni 58 , In 115 , Mg 24 , Al 27 , Fe 58 , Co 59 and Cu 63 , they were selected to cover the full range the energies (10 -10 to 20 MeV) of the neutron spectrum in the reactor core. After the irradiation, the activation detectors were measured by means of spectrometry gamma, using a high resolution counting system with a hyper pure Germanium crystal, in order to obtain the saturation activity per target nuclide. The saturation activity is one of the main input data together with the initial spectrum, for the computational code SANDBP (hungarian version of the code SAND-II), which through an iterative adjustment, gives the calculated spectrum. The different saturation activities are necessary for the unfolding method, used by the computational code SANDBP. This research work is very important, since the knowledge of the energetic and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in the irradiation facilities, allows to characterize properly the irradiation facilities, just like, to estimate with a good precision various physics parameters of the reactor such as: neutron fluxes (thermal, intermediate and fast), neutronic dose, neutron activation analysis (NAA), spectral indices (cadmium ratio), buckling, fuel burnup, safety parameters (reactivity, temperature distribution, peak factors). In addition, the knowledge of the already mentioned parameters can give a best use of reactor, optimizing the irradiations requested by the users for their production process or research projects. (Author)

  19. Luminosity distribution in the central regions of Messier 87: Isothermal core, point source, or black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.; Nieto, J.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of photographic and photoelectric photometry with the McDonald 2 m reflector is used to derive a precise mean luminosity profile μ/sub B/(r*) of M87 (jet excluded) at approx.0''.6 resolution out to r*=70''. Within 8'' from the center the luminosity is less than predicted by extrapolation of the r/sup 1/4/ law defined by the main body of the galaxy (8'' 0 =30.5) the structural length of the underlying isothermal is α=2''.78=170 pc, the mass of the ''black hole'' M 0 =1.7.10 9 M/sub sun/ and the luminosity of the point source (B 0 =16.95, M 0 =-13.55) equals 4.2% of the integrated luminosity B (6'') =13.52 of the galaxy within r*=6''. These results agree closely with and confirm the work of the Hale team. Comparison of the McDonald and Hale data suggests that the central source may have been slightly brighter (approx.0.5 mag) in 1964 than in 1975--1977

  20. Core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship programs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Loria A; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2014-10-15

    The proven benefits of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) for optimizing antibiotic use and minimizing adverse events, such as Clostridium difficile and antibiotic resistance, have prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend that all hospitals have an ASP. This article summarizes Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs, a recently released CDC document focused on defining the infrastructure and practices of coordinated multidisciplinary programs to improve antibiotic use and patient care in US hospitals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  2. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  3. Ecohealth Interventions for Chagas Disease Prevention in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... 10 million people in the region are infected by the parasite Trypanosoma Cruzi. ... from human to chicken blood meals (chickens do not transmit the disease). ... pour recevoir des nouvelles et des articles d'opinion du CRDI chaque mois.

  4. Prevention and control of rheumatic heart disease: Overcoming core challenges in resource-poor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Scott; Beaton, Andrea; Nascimento, Bruno R; Zühlke, Liesl J; Khorsandi, Maziar; Wilson, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has long receded as a significant threat to public health in high-income countries. In low-resource settings, however, the specter of RHD remains unabated, as exemplified by recent data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study. There are many complex reasons for this ongoing global disparity, including inadequate data on disease burden, challenges in effective advocacy, ongoing poverty and inequality, and weak health systems, most of which predominantly affect developing nations. In this review, we discuss how each of these acts as a core challenge in RHD prevention and control. We then examine key lessons learnt from successful control programs in the past and highlight resources that have been developed to help create strong national RHD control programs. PMID:29440834

  5. Myelin injury in the central nervous system and Alzheimer's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Tian-Bi; Chu, Shi-Feng; He, Wen-Bin; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2018-05-03

    Myelin is a membrane wrapped around the axon of the nerve cell, which is composed of the mature oligodendrocytes. The role of myelin is to insulate and prevent the nerve electrical impulses from the axon of the neurons to the axons of the other neurons, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Minor changes in myelin thickness could lead to substantial changes in conduction speed and may thus alter neural circuit function. Demyelination is the myelin damage, which characterized by the loss of nerve sheath and the relative fatigue of the neuronal sheath and axon. Studies have shown that myelin injury may be closely related to neurodegenerative diseases and may be an early diagnostic criteria and therapeutic target. Thus this review summarizes the recent result of pathologic effect and signal pathways of myelin injury in neurodegenerative diseases, especially the Alzheimer's disease to provide new and effective therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Black Carbon Concentrations from ~1850-1980 from a High-Resolution Ice Core from Geladandong, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-fuels, is estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming behind CO2; when deposited on snow and ice BC reduces albedos, potentially enhancing surface melt and glacial retreat. The study of BC's past and present variability is imperative in order to better understand and estimate its potential impact on climate and water resources. This is especially important in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, a region that provides fresh water to over a billion people and where BC's climatic effects are estimated to be the largest (Flanner et al., 2007; Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). To more accurately constrain BC's past variability in this sensitive region, an ice core recovered in 2005 from Mt. Geladandong (5800 m a.s.l.) on the central Tibetan Plateau was analyzed for BC at high resolution using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Results indicate that 1) average BC concentrations at this location are higher than at other locations closer to BC sources and analyzed by the same method (Mt. Everest by Kaspari et al., 2011 and Muztagh Ata by Wang et al., in prep), and 2) BC exists in peak concentrations high enough (>10 μg/L) to cause a >1% reduction in surface albedo at the sampling location (Ming et al., 2009; Hadley et al., 2010). Potential causes of the higher BC concentrations at the Geladandong site include lower annual precipitation and the mechanical trapping and concentration of BC caused by surface melt and/or sublimation (Conway et al., 1996; Huang et al., 2011). Preliminary dating (Grigholm et al., in prep) has dated the top of the core to ~1980, suggesting that annual mass loss at the site has removed the upper portion of the record. This supports the findings of Kehrwald et al. (2008) who reported that glaciers below ~6050 m a.s.l. in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau are losing mass annually. Presented here is the record of BC on the central Tibetan Plateau over the time

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis: A deadly disease | Cree | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the diagnosis, cause, course and required treatment of this deadly disease among physicians and surgeons around the world is limited. Methods: A study was undertaken at University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka Zambia to review the incidence, associated pathology, management given, ...

  8. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    be a direct consequence of the disease itself or may be secondary to pain, depression, other sleep disorders or the effects of medications. Insomnia can have a significant impact on the patient's cognitive and physical function and may be associated with psychological distress and depression. Diagnosis...

  9. Ecohealth Interventions for Chagas Disease Prevention in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This had the effect of preventing reinfestation and modifying the insects' feeding practices such that they switched from human to chicken blood meals (chickens do not transmit the disease). This project will test the insect control program in selected border areas in the three countries where T. dimidiata is highly prevalent ...

  10. Childhood acquired heart diseases in Jos, north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The patterns of childhood acquired heart diseases (AHD) vary in different parts of the world and may evolve over time. We aimed to compare the pattern of childhood AHD in our institution to the historical and contemporary patterns in other parts of the country, and to highlight possible regional differences and ...

  11. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  12. Vestibulocerebellar disease impairs the central representation of self-orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Tarnutzer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of head-fixed otolith signals into a space-fixed frame of reference is essential for perception of self-orientation and ocular motor control. In monkeys the nodulus and ventral uvula of the vestibulo-cerebellum facilitate this transformation by computing an internal estimate of direction of gravity. These experimental findings motivated the hypothesis that degeneration of the vestibulo-cerebellum in humans alter perceptual and ocular motor functions that rely on accurate estimates of gravity, such as subjective visual vertical (SVV, static ocular counterroll (OCR, and gravity-dependent modulation of vertical ocular drifts. We assessed the SVV, OCR, and spontaneous vertical ocular drifts in 12 patients with chronic vestibulo-cerebellar disease and in ten controls. Substantially increased variability in estimated SVV was noted in the patients. Furthermore, gravity-dependent modulation of spontaneous vertical ocular drifts along the pitch plane was significantly (p < 0.05 larger in the patients. However, the gain and variability of static OCR and errors in SVV were not significantly different. In conclusion, in chronic vestibulo-cerebellar disease SVV and OCR remain intact except for an abnormal variability in the perception of verticality and impaired stabilization of gaze mediated by the otoliths. These findings suggest that OCR and perceived vertical are relatively independent from the cerebellum unless there is a cerebellar imbalance like an acute unilateral cerebellar stroke. The increased trial-to-trial SVV variability may be a general feature of cerebellar disease since a function of the cerebellum may be to compensate for such. SVV variability might be useful to monitor disease progression and treatment response in patients.

  13. Test of small-scale central-core-cavity closure for a 300-MW(e) GCFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.C.; Dougan, J.R.; Naus, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Under the Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, model tests are conducted to verify the design of the PCRV for a 300 MW(e) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Prominent features of the 1:20-scale central core cavity model included a close pitched array of fifty-five penetration tubes, forty-four segmented gusset/bearing plate assemblies, and intermeshed reinforcing steel. The closure model which was designed for a maximum cavity pressure (MCP) of 10.08 MPa was initially tested by applying 10 pressurization cycles from essentially no load to the MCP with strain and deflection data obtained during each cycle. This was followed by pressurization cycles to 32.8 MPa, 41.3 MPa, 48.3 MPa, 58.4 MPa and 79.3 MPa. At a pressure of 79.3 MPa an end cap on a penetration tube developed leaks and the test was terminated. An inelastic analysis was conducted to provide an estimate of the ultimate strength of the closure plug and to determine the potential mode of failure

  14. Splenectomy for hematological diseases: The Qatif Central HospitalExperience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, Ahmed H.; Naserullah, Z.; Qaisaruddin, S.; Al-Dabbous, I.; Al-Abkari, H.; Al-Jama, A.; Al-Faraj, A.; Yassin, Yassin M.

    1999-01-01

    In the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, an area known for varioushemoglobinopathies, splenectomy is performed rather frequently. This study isan analysis of our experience with splenectomy performed for varioushematological disorders between 1988 and 1997, outlining the indications,complications and outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of all patientswho had splenectomy at our hospital during this period. One hundred andforty-three patients were treated for various hematological disorders at ourhospital. These disorders included sickle cell disease (SCD) (100 patients),sickle thalassemia (S-B-thalassemia) (13 ITP) (5 patients), Gaucher's disease(2 patients), hereditary spherocytosis (1 patient), autoimmune hemolyticanemia (1 patient), thalssemia intermediate (2 patients) and chronic myeloidleukemia (1 patient). The indications for splenectomy in those with SCD andthalassemia were: hypersplenism (26 patients), major splenic sequestrationcrisis (50 patients), splenic abscess (12 patients), and massive splenicinfarction (2 patients). Splenectomy in these patients was beneficial inreducing their transfusion requirements and its attendant risks, eliminatingthe discomfort from mechanical pressure of the enlarged spleen, avoiding therisks of acute splenic sequestration crisis, and managing splenic abscess.For those with Thalassemia, total splenectomy was beneficial in reducingtheir transfusion requirements, while partial splenectomy was beneficial onlyas a temporary measure, as regrowth of splenic remnant in these patientssubsequently led to increase in their transfusion requirements. Those withITP, hereditary spherocytosis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia showedexcellent response following splenectomy. There was no mortality, and thepostoperative morbidity was 5.6%. With careful perioperative management,splenectomy is both safe and beneficial in a selected group of patients withhematological diseases. (author)

  15. Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease: Collaboration Patterns and Research Core Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Alejandro; González, Gregorio; Manuel Ramos, Jose

    2016-09-01

    Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are important health problems in developing countries. The study aim was to provide a review and content analysis of the scientific literature on rheumatic fever and RHD over a 70-year period. Medline was employed via the online PubMed service of the US National Library of Medicine, to search for all documents containing the MeSH terms 'rheumatic fever' or 'rheumatic heart disease' between January 1945 and December 2013. A total of 18,552 references was retrieved. Between 1945 and 1970 the number of annual publications containing the search terms increased, but decreased between 1971 and 2013. Between 1990 and 2013, national collaboration (co-authorship) was greatly increased, from 8.7% to 41.7% of the total reports. International collaboration also increased, from 2.5% to 14.8% (p = 0.001). The United States was the main collaborating country, sharing ties mainly with India, South Africa and Brazil. A content analysis led to the identification of three prominent core research topics, chief among which were heart diseases (rheumatic fever diseases, mitral valve diseases and endocarditis). Other areas of note included streptococcal infections and rheumatic diseases (which, in addition to rheumatic fever, also highlighted arthritis and juvenile arthritis). Publications on rheumatic fever and RHD had a major impact during the 1960s, but research groups interest has since declined overall, in line with a decreasing interest in these diseases in developed countries. In contrast, national and international collaboration has increased, a phenomenon that should be encouraged for research into these and other diseases that affect developing countries.

  16. Diseases of intensively cultured hybrid poplars: a summary of recent research in the north central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Ostry; H. S. McNabb

    1983-01-01

    Several potentially damaging diseases of hybrid poplars hue been identified in the north-central United States. Among the most serious are leaf and stem diseases caused by Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria. Short-term chemical controls are of limited usefulness. The most practical control strategy appears to be the use of resistant clones obtained through local...

  17. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period...

  18. [Finite element analysis of the maxillary central incisor with crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of crown-root fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Min; Hu, Wen-jie; Rong, Qi-guo

    2015-12-18

    To construct the finite element models of maxillary central incisor and the simulations with crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of different crown-root fracture types, to investigate the stress intensity and distributions of these models mentioned above, and to analyze the indications of crown lengthening from the point of view of mechanics. An extracted maxillary central incisor and alveolar bone plaster model were scanned by Micro-CT and dental impression scanner (3shape D700) respectively. Then the 3D finite element models of the maxillary central incisor and 9 simulations with crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration were constructed by Mimics 10.0, Geomagic studio 9.0 and ANSYS 14.0 software. The oblique static force (100 N) was applied to the palatal surface (the junctional area of the incisal 1/3 and middle 1/3), at 45 degrees to the longitudinal axis, then the von Mises stress of dentin, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, post and core, as well as the periodontal ligament area, were calculated. A total of 10 high-precision three-dimensional finite element models of maxillary central incisor were established. The von Mises stress of models: post>dentin>alveolar bone>core>periodontal ligament, and the von Mises stress increased linearly with the augmentation of fracture degree (besides the core). The periodontal ligament area of the crown lengthening was reduced by 12% to 33%. The von Mises stress of periodontal ligament of the B2L2c, B2L3c, B3L1c, B3L2c, B3L3c models exceeded their threshold limit value, respectively. The maxillary central incisors with the labial fracture greater than three-quarter crown length and the palatal fracture deeper than 1 mm below the alveolar crest are not the ideal indications of the crown lengthening surgery.

  19. Transitional states of central serotonin receptors in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl, E.; Riederer, P.; Jellinger, K.; Wesemann, W.; Marburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Crude membrane preparations from the frontal cortex of controls and pakinsonian patients were used to demonstrate affinity changes of the specific 3 H-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding sites. Two such sites were noteable in controls, a finding consistent with earlier observations. In Parkinson's disease, both high- and low-affinity sites are significantly decreased. Additional experiments either with prolonged incubation times or pre-incubation with N-ethylmaleimide change the two affinities to a single high-affinity or low-affinity constant. The concept of transitional states of 5-HT receptors is discussed and seems to have important implications in the treatment of parkinsonism. (author)

  20. Transitional states of central serotonin receptors in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzl, E; Riederer, P; Jellinger, K; Wesemann, W [Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Lainz (Austria). Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Neurobiologie; Marburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physiologie II, Abt. fuer Neurochemie)

    1981-01-01

    Crude membrane preparations from the frontal cortex of controls and pakinsonian patients were used to demonstrate affinity changes of the specific /sup 3/H-5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) binding sites. Two such sites were noteable in controls, a finding consistent with earlier observations. In Parkinson's disease, both high- and low-affinity sites are significantly decreased. Additional experiments either with prolonged incubation times or pre-incubation with N-ethylmaleimide change the two affinities to a single high-affinity or low-affinity constant. The concept of transitional states of 5-HT receptors is discussed and seems to have important implications in the treatment of parkinsonism.

  1. Romanticism and schizophrenia. First part: The recency hypothesis and the core Gestalt of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan J; López-Ibor, María I

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of irrational, incomprehensible, or unconstrained behavior such as is common nowadays in patients suffering from severe mental disorders can be found in the Bible, in Mesopotamian scripts, in classical Greek and Roman literature, and in the writings of many non-Western cultures. However, the presence of full-blown features of schizophrenia as seen today in psychiatric settings is controversial. Typical symptoms, the expected onset, duration and outcome, the impact of the disease on psychic functioning and the associated disability of the disease are mostly absent in those texts. Torrey (1980) and Hare (1988) have claimed that the disease did not exist before the year 1800 (this is known as the recency hypothesis). This would be the consequence of biological factors such as viruses, genetic or dietary factors or environmental contaminants associated to civilization. Others have put the emphasis on industrialization and its repercussions on social conditions such as family structure and migration. After analyzing the many manifestations of insanity in literary characters, in medical texts and in key historical figures, the arguments presented in this paper tend to support the recency hypothesis. A review of the core characteristics of schizophrenia and its impact on selfhood, intersubjetivity and ipseity, topics relatively neglected in recent psychiatric literature, opens the doors to consider in a second part the relationship between the features of Romanticism, starting by the “discovery of intimacy”, and its articulation with the disturbance of ipseity and selfhood characteristic of the disease.

  2. Isotope composition of bulk carbon in replicated Sphagnum peat cores from three central European high-elevation wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Martin; Zemanova, Leona; Jackova, Iva; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Several processes may contribute to systematic downcore trends in δ 13 C of bulk Sphagnum peat. Whereas changes in water availability during C assimilation may change δ 13 C values in both a negative and positive direction, other processes would always cause a uni-directional shift in δ 13 C. Selective preservation of isotopically light lignin C may lead to more negative δ 13 C values with an increasing depth and age of peat. Anthropogenic change toward lower δ 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 due to massive coal burning since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution would result in lower δ 13 C of the youngest past layers, and in higher δ 13 C of older peat layers. Emissions of low-δ 13 C methane from wetlands should result in a progressive enrichment of the residual peat substrate in the heavier isotope 13 C. Consequently, deeper peat would have higher δ 13 C. In a specific peat profile, the downcore trend in δ 13 C will be the result of an interplay between all these isotope-sensitive processes. Most Central European wetlands studied previously show a 13 C enrichment (i.e., higher δ 13 C values) with an increasing depth and age. Here we focus on sites which showed lower δ 13 C with an increasing depth and age when a single peat core was taken. Replication did not confirm this negative downcore δ 13 C shift. A positive downcore δ 13 C shift is more widespread than previously believed. We suggest that decreasing δ 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 and emissions of low-δ 13 C methane belong to the main controls of the downcore δ 13 C trends in young peat substrate. (author)

  3. Central Role of Core Binding Factor β2 in Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Organogenesis in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatake, Takahiro; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Sato, Shintaro; Okura, Hideaki; Tachibana, Masashi; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Ito, Kosei; Shimojou, Michiko; Matsumoto, Naomi; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a group of secondary and organized lymphoid tissue that develops at different mucosal surfaces. Peyer's patches (PPs), nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and tear duct-associated lymphoid tissue (TALT) are representative MALT in the small intestine, nasal cavity, and lacrimal sac, respectively. A recent study has shown that transcriptional regulators of core binding factor (Cbf) β2 and promotor-1-transcribed Runt-related transcription factor 1 (P1-Runx1) are required for the differentiation of CD3-CD4+CD45+ lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, which initiate and trigger the developmental program of PPs, but the involvement of this pathway in NALT and TALT development remains to be elucidated. Here we report that Cbfβ2 plays an essential role in NALT and TALT development by regulating LTi cell trafficking to the NALT and TALT anlagens. Cbfβ2 was expressed in LTi cells in all three types of MALT examined. Indeed, similar to the previous finding for PPs, we found that Cbfβ2-/- mice lacked NALT and TALT lymphoid structures. However, in contrast to PPs, NALT and TALT developed normally in the absence of P1-Runx1 or other Runx family members such as Runx2 and Runx3. LTi cells for NALT and TALT differentiated normally but did not accumulate in the respective lymphoid tissue anlagens in Cbfβ2-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that Cbfβ2 is a central regulator of the MALT developmental program, but the dependency of Runx proteins on the lymphoid tissue development would differ among PPs, NALT, and TALT.

  4. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Veeneman, Dineke; Bongers, Coen C C W; Netea, Mihai G; van der Meer, Jos W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-05-01

    Exercise increases core body temperature (T C ) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in T C by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated whether the exercise-induced increase in T C is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature set point. Fifteen healthy, active men age 36 ± 14 y were recruited. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise in 3 randomized test conditions: (1) 400 mg ibuprofen and 1000 mg acetaminophen (IBU/APAP), (2) 1000 mg acetaminophen (APAP), and (3) a control condition (CTRL). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used to block the effect of IL-6 at a central and peripheral level, respectively. T C , skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously during the submaximal exercise tests. Baseline values of T C , skin temperature, and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased in all 3 conditions. A significantly lower peak T C was observed in IBU/APAP (38.8°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL (39.2°C ± 0.5°C, P = .02) but not in APAP (38.9°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL. Similarly, a lower ΔT C was observed in IBU/APAP (1.7°C ± 0.3°C) vs CTRL (2.0°C ± 0.5°C, P exercise compared with a CTRL. This observation suggests that a prostaglandin-E2-induced elevated hypothalamic temperature set point may contribute to the exercise-induced rise in T C .

  5. Involvement of central airways in vibroacoustic disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reis Ferreira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vibroacoustic disease (VAD is the whole-body pathology caused by excessive exposure to LFN. For the past 25 years, it has been know that low frequency noise (LFN, <500 Hz, including infrasound targets the respiratory system. In LFN-exposed rodents, the morphological changes of respiratory tract tissue partially explained some respiratory symptoms reported by VAD patients. However, many questions remain unanswered. Recently, some volunteer VAD patients underwent bronchoscopy in order to ascertain possible damage that could be associated with their respiratory complaints. Methods. Fourteen fully-informed and volunteer VAD patients were submitted to bronchoscopy, and biopsies were removed for analysis. Results. All patients exhibited small submucosal vascular-like lesions near the spurs, consisting of increased collagen and elastin fibres. Histology disclosed cilliary abnormalities, basal membrane hyperplasia, and thickening of vessel walls. In five patients, collagen bundles appeared degenerative and disrupted. No inflammatory process was ever identified, and no differences were seen between smokers and non-smokers. Discussion. Data is in accordance with what was observed in LFN-exposed animal models and also in 8 VAD patients who developed lung tumours. Collagen disruption and degeneration was also observed in electron microscopy images of the respiratory tract of LFN-exposed rodents. Thickened blood and lymphatic vessel walls have been consistently seen in images of VAD patients and of LFN-exposed rodents. During bronchoscopy performed by other reasons, this sort of structural aspects is not frequently seen. Taken together, it is strongly suggested that these findings could be VAD-specific. Resumo: Nos últimos vinte cinco anos constatou-se que o aparelho respiratório constitui um alvo do ruído de baixa frequência (RFB <500Hz, incluindo infra-sons. Denomina-se doença vibroacústica (VAD a patologia sistémica causada pela

  6. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  7. Clinical and molecular genetic features of Hb H and AE Bart's diseases in central Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traivaree, Chanchai; Boonyawat, Boonchai; Monsereenusorn, Chalinee; Rujkijyanont, Piya; Photia, Apichat

    2018-01-01

    α-Thalassemia, one of the major thalassemia types in Thailand, is caused by either deletion or non-deletional mutation of one or both α-globin genes. Inactivation of three α-globin genes causes hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease, and the combination of Hb H disease with heterozygous hemoglobin E (Hb E) results in AE Bart's disease. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and hematological manifestations of 76 pediatric patients with Hb H and AE Bart's diseases treated at Phramongkutklao Hospital, a tertiary care center for thalassemia patients in central Thailand. Seventy-six unrelated pediatric patients, 58 patients with Hb H disease and 18 patients with AE Bart's disease, were enrolled in this study. Their clinical presentations, transfusion requirement, laboratory findings, and mutation analysis were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. A total of 76 pediatric patients with Hb H and AE Bart's diseases who mainly lived in central Thailand were included in this study. The clinical severities of patients with non-deletional mutations were more severe than those with deletional mutations. Eighty-six percent of patients with non-deletional AE Bart's disease required more blood transfusion compared to 12.5% of patients with deletional AE Bart's disease. Non-deletional AE Bart's disease also had a history of urgent blood transfusion with the average of 6±0.9 times compared to 1±0.3 times in patients with deletional Hb H disease. The difference was statistically significant. This study revealed the differences in clinical spectrum between patients with Hb H disease and those with AE Bart's disease in central Thailand. The differentiation of α-thalassemia is essential for appropriate management of patients. The molecular diagnosis is useful for diagnostic confirmation and genotype-phenotype correlation.

  8. An epidemiological approach for the estimation of disease onset in Central Europe in central and peripheral monogenic retinal dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofyeva, Elena; Wilke, Robert; Lotz, Gunnar; Troeger, Eric; Strasser, Torsten; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2009-07-01

    To study clinical patterns of disease onset in monogenic retinal dystrophies (MRD), using an epidemiological approach. Records of patients with MRD, seen at the University Eye Hospital Tuebingen from 1994 to 1999, were selected from a database and retrospectively reviewed. For analysis, patients were divided into 2 groups by predominant part of visual field (VF) involvement: group 1 (predominantly central involvement) included Stargardt disease (ST), macular dystrophy (MD), and central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD), and group 2 (predominantly peripheral involvement) included Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBD), Usher syndrome (USH) I and II, and choroideremia (CHD). Age, sex, age of first diagnosis, age of visual acuity (VA) decrease and VF emergence, night blindness and photophobia onset, types of VF defects and age of its onset, color discrimination defects and best corrected VA were analyzed. Records of 259 patients were studied. Men were more prevalent than women. Mean age of the patients was 47.2 (SD = 15.6) years old. Forty-five patients in the first group and 40 in the second were first diagnosed between 21 and 30 years of age. Ninety-four patients in the first group had VA decrease before 30 years of age; in the second group, 68 patients had VA decrease onset between 21 and 40 years of age. Forty-four patients in the first group noticed VF at an age between 21 and 30 years, and 74 patients between 11 and 30 years in the second group. Central scotoma was typical for the first group, and was detected in 115 patients. Concentric constriction was typical for the second group, and was found in 81 patients. Half of patients in both groups preserved best-corrected VA in the better eye at a level of 20/40 or better; 7% in the first group and 6% in the second group were registered as legally blind according to WHO criteria, having VA <1/50 or VF <5 degrees . Diagnosis frequency was USH I and II-34%, ST-31%, MD-18%, CHD-14%, BBD-5%. An epidemiological approach to the

  9. Neutron activation analysis of the central nervous system tissues in neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1994-07-01

    As the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and the metals of their causes, Minamata disease due to Hg, itai-itai disease due to Cd, dialysis brain disease due to Al, hemochromatosis due to Fe, Wilson disease due to Cu and so on have been known. Also as the neural diseases, in which the possibility that metals take part in them is presumed, there are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism dementia and so on. In order to know the causes of the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and neurological diseases, the authors have measured Cu, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn and Fe in central nervous system tissues by activation analysis nondestructive method. The cases investigated were 4 cases of hepatocerebral diseases, 6 cases of ALS, 4 cases of Parkinson disease, 4 cases of Parkinsonism dementia, 4 cases of multiple sclerosis and 5 cases without CNS disease for the control. The method of measurement is described. The results for respective diseases are reported. Cu and Fe are in the relation of mirror images, and Cu formed Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD) similarly to Zn and Mn as SOD carrier metals, and protects living bodies and CNS from oxidative stress. (K.I.).

  10. Physical start up of the Dalat nuclear research reactor with the core configuration having a central neutron trap; Khoi dong vat ly lo phan ung hat nhan Da Lat voi cau hinh vung hoat co bay notron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, Pham Duy; Huy, Ngo Quang; Long, Vu Hai; Mai, Tran Khanh [Nuclear Research Inst., Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    1994-10-01

    After the reactor has reached physical criticality with the core configuration exempt from central neutron trap on 1 November 1983, the core configuration with a central neutron trap has been arranged in the reactor and the reactor has reached physical criticality with this core configuration at 17h48 on 18 December 1983. The integral worths of different control rods are determined with accuracy. 2 refs., 24 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. The central biobank and virtual biobank of BIOMARKAPD: a resource for studies on neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette eReijs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease (BIOMARKAPD is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND, that aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized preanalytical procedures (SOP and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg (IBBL. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, vascular dementia (VaD, multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank.

  12. CT and MRI analysis of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatang; Lang Senyang; Pu Chuanqiang; Zhu Ruyuan; Wang Dianjun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT and MRI imaging features of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease and to enhance knowledge and differential diagnostic ability for central nervous system Rosai-Doffman disease. Methods: The CT and MRI imaging appearances in 4 cases of pathologically proven Rosai-Dorfman disease were retrospectively evaluated and the literature of central nervous system Rosai- Dorfman disease were reviewed. Results: Two cases had cranial CT scans, 4 cases had cranial MRI scans. On CT scans, cerebral edema was demonstrated in one case and the other case was normal. MRI scans showed the lesions were solitary in saddle area in 3 cases, and multiple in anterior cranial fossa in 1 case. The lesions exhibited iso- to hypointensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI images. Following intravenous injection of contrast medium, ring-like enhancement was seen in 2 cases and homogeneous enhancement in 1 case. Nodular enhancement was seen in the case of multiple lesions in the anterior cranial fossa. All lesions were dural-based. Conclusions: In patients with fever, headache, elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and a polyclonal increase in γ-globulins, the possibility of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered when single or multiple dural-based mass lesions, especially in sellar region, were identified by CT and MRI. (authors)

  13. Update on uncertain etiology of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka's north-central dry zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigasuriya, Kamani

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript updates a review previously published in a local journal in 2012, about a new form of chronic kidney disease that has emerged over the past two decades in the north-central dry zone of Sri Lanka, where the underlying causes remain undetermined. Disease burden is higher in this area, particularly North Central Province, and affects a rural and disadvantaged population involved in rice-paddy farming. Over the last decade several studies have been carried out to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of this chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. Summarize the available evidence on prevalence, clinical profile and risk factors of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the north-central region of Sri Lanka. PubMed search located 16 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals. Three peer-reviewed abstracts of presentations at national scientific conferences were also included in the review. Disease prevalence was 5.1%-16.9% with more severe disease seen in men than in women. Patients with mild to moderate stages of disease were asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms; urinary sediments were bland; 24-hour urine protein excretion was urine, and mycotoxins detected in foods were below maximum statutory limits. Calcium-bicarbonate-type water with high levels of fluoride was predominant in endemic regions. Significantly high levels of cadmium in urine of cases compared to controls, as well as the disease's dose-related response to these levels, has drawn attention to this element as a possible contributing factor. Familial clustering of patients is suggestive of a polygenic inheritance pattern comparable to that associated with diseases of multifactorial etiology. Available data suggest that chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology is an environmentally acquired disease, but to date no definitive causal factor has been identified. Geographic distribution and research findings suggest a multifactorial etiology.

  14. Morbus Behçet - a rare disease in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniacka, Anna; Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Jurowski, Piotr; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Kot, Marek

    2015-12-10

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. The entity is endemic in countries of Eastern and Central Asia, especially Turkey and Iran, but rarely seen in Central Europe. As there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should be based on clinical criteria. Frequently a definitive diagnosis is established within several years or months after the first manifestations appear. The increased number of cases, recently described worldwide also in the Polish population, indicates that the disease could spread out of endemic areas. The aim of this manuscript is to present the clinical picture, diagnosis criteria and therapeutic approaches of this "international disease" which currently is observed not only in emigrants from Asia but also in native Polish citizens.

  15. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  16. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  17. Hydatid disease of the Central Nervous System: imaging characteristics and general features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassioun, K.; Amirjamshidi, A.; Sabouri Deylamie, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease primarily affects the liver and typically demonstrates characteristic imaging findings. Secondary involvement due to hematogenous dissemination may be seen in almost any locations, e.g., lung, kidney, spleen, bone and central nervous system. Objectives: To review the different aspects of hydatidosis of the central nervous system briefly and discuss the pathognomonic features and rare varieties of radiological findings useful in preoperative diagnosis of the disease in the human central nervous system. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, the records of almost 100 cases of central nervous system hydatidosis were analyzed . The available images were reviewed by independent observers, either a radiologist or a neurosurgeon, and reported separately. Results: In skull x-ray films, nonspecific changes denoted increased intracranial pressure, skull asymmetry and curvilinear calcification in rare instances. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the round or oval, well-defined cystic mass with an attenuation or signal intensity similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid, with no associated perifocal edema, and no contrast enhancement as the pathognomonic findings of brain hydatidosis. Similar findings were detected in hydatid cysts involving the orbit, spinal column and spinal cord with some variations. Such findings as mild perifocal edema, non homogenous contrast enhancement, non-uniform shapes, calcification and multiplicity or septations have been the atypical radiological findings. Conclusion: In endemic areas, familiarity with typical and atypical radiological manifestations of hydatid disease of the central nervous system, will be helpful in making prompt and correct preoperative diagnosis leading to a better surgical outcome

  18. From DNA to RNA to disease and back: The 'central dogma' of regulatory disease variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranger Barbara E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much of the focus of human disease genetics is directed towards identifying nucleotide variants that contribute to disease phenotypes. This is a complex problem, often involving contributions from multiple loci and their interactions, as well as effects due to environmental factors. Although some diseases with a genetic basis are caused by nucleotide changes that alter an amino acid sequence, in other cases, disease risk is associated with altered gene regulation. This paper focuses on how studies of gene expression variation might complement disease studies and provide crucial links between genotype and phenotype.

  19. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in infectious and noninfectious central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud; Ertner, Gideon; Langholz Kristensen, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most important tool for assessing central nervous system (CNS) disease. An elevated CSF leukocyte count rarely provides the final diagnosis, but is almost always an indicator of inflammation within the CNS.The present study investigated the variety...

  1. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  2. Fibromyalgia in a Patient with Cushing's Disease Accompanied by Central Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Katada, Shinichi; Yamada, Takaho; Mezaki, Naomi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akiko; Hanyu, Osamu; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Kawachi, Izumi; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Sone, Hirohito

    A 39-year-old woman with a 3-year history of a rounded face developed widespread myalgia. Detailed examinations revealed no disorders that could explain the pain other than concomitant Cushing's disease and central hypothyroidism. Both the hypercortisolemia and hypothyroidism completely resolved after the patient underwent surgery to treat Cushing's disease, but she continued to experience unresolved myalgia and met the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Few studies have so far investigated patients with fibromyalgia associated with Cushing's syndrome. In our case, the hypothyroidism caused by Cushing's disease probably played an important role in triggering and exacerbating fibromyalgia. This highlights the need to examine the endocrine function in patients with muscle pain.

  3. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Shen (Lishuang); M.A. Diroma (Maria Angela); M. Gonzalez (Michael); D. Navarro-Gomez (Daniel); J. Leipzig (Jeremy); M.T. Lott (Marie T.); M. van Oven (Mannis); D.C. Wallace; C.C. Muraresku (Colleen Clarke); Z. Zolkipli-Cunningham (Zarazuela); P.F. Chinnery (Patrick); M. Attimonelli (Marcella); S. Zuchner (Stephan); M.J. Falk (Marni J.); X. Gai (Xiaowu)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes,

  4. The Gut Microbiome as Therapeutic Target in Central Nervous System Diseases: Implications for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Katarzyna; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Research on commensal microbiota and its contribution to health and disease is a new and very dynamically developing field of biology and medicine. Recent experimental and clinical investigations underscore the importance of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and course of stroke. Importantly, microbiota may influence the outcome of cerebral ischemia by modulating central nervous system antigen-specific immune responses. In this review we summarize studies linking gut microbiota with physiological function and disorders of the central nervous system. Based on these insights we speculate about targeting the gut microbiome in order to treat stroke.

  5. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Owens, T; Frøkiaer, J

    2010-01-01

    Asgari N, Owens T, Frøkiaer J, Stenager E, Lillevang ST, Kyvik KO. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01416.x.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. In the past 10 years, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has...... or by intrathecal administration to naive mice. NMO may be characterized as a channelopathy of the central nervous system with autoimmune characteristics....

  6. Close relation of interpersonal sensitivity with negative core beliefs about the self, the central construct of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori

    2018-05-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait linked with anxious attachment conceptualized in attachment theory. This personality trait is comprised of four components, i.e., interpersonal awareness, separation anxiety, timidity and fragile inner-self, which are measured by the corresponding subscales of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Meanwhile, one study showed that six items of the IPSM tentatively used as negative self-schemas predicted the onset of depression. To clarify if interpersonal sensitivity reflects cognitive vulnerability, we examined the relation of this personality trait with negative core beliefs about the self. The study population consisted of 335 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the IPSM, and negative core beliefs about the self were assessed by the negative-self subscale of the Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS). Multiple regression analysis showed that scores of the four subscales of the IPSM were strongly correlated with those of the negative-self subscale of the BCSS (P < 0.001). Similarly, sequential equation modeling demonstrated that the four components of interpersonal sensitivity were strongly predicted by core beliefs of negative-self (P < 0.001). The present study shows that interpersonal sensitivity is closely related to negative core beliefs about the self, suggesting that this personality trait can be regarded as a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa'ad, Farah A; Rahman, Ghousia; Al Mahmoud, Noura; Al Shamasi, Ebtehaj; Al Khuwaileidi, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding periodontal disease and its effects on pregnancy among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional survey, self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 pregnant women who were chosen randomly from attendees of maternity health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. The questions were developed from literature reviews of articles. The questionnaire addressed personal and sociodemographic variables, periodontal health awareness, and knowledge of pregnant women. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and was pretested during the pilot study on a random sample of 50 pregnant women. Data were analyzed by χ(2) -tests, with the level of significance set at P disease could be prevented through toothbrushing and flossing. Approximately 97% of the respondents knew the negative effect of smoking, while only 12% knew there was a possible relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results of this cross-sectional study found that there is limited knowledge and awareness about periodontal disease and its possible effects on pregnancy among pregnant women attending maternal health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  9. Carp edema virus/Koi sleepy disease: an emerging disease in Central-East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewisch, E; Gorgoglione, B; Way, K; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-02-01

    Koi sleepy disease (KSD), also known as carp edema virus (CEV), was first reported from juvenile colour carp in Japan in the 1970s. Recently, this pox virus was detected in several European countries, including Germany, France and the Netherlands. In England, in addition to colour carp, outbreaks in common carp are reported. KSD/CEV is an emerging infectious disease characterized by a typical sleepy behaviour, enophthalmia, generalized oedematous condition and gill necrosis, leading to hypoxia. High mortality, of up to 80-100%, is seen in juvenile koi collected from infected ponds. In Austria, this disease had not been detected until now. In spring 2014, diagnostic work revealed the disease in two unrelated cases. In one instance, a pond with adult koi was affected; in the other, the disease was diagnosed in adult common carp recently imported from the Czech Republic. A survey was carried out on recent cases (2013/2014), chosen from those with similar anamnestic and physical examination findings, revealing a total of 5/22 cases positive for KSD/CEV. In this study, two paradigmatic cases are presented in detail. Results together with molecular evidence shaped the pattern of the first diagnosis of KSD/CEV in fish from Austrian ponds. In the light of the positive cases detected from archived material, and the spread of the disease through live stock, imported from a neighbouring country, the need for epidemiological investigations in Austria and surrounding countries is emphasized. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  11. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Veeneman, D.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated

  12. Radiolarian zonation and volcanic ash layers in two Quaternary sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.

    , Lamprocyrtis neopheteroporos and Lamprocyrtis heteroporos are proposed and described to modify Nigrini's and Goll's zonations. A hiatus of 0.2-0.3 M.Y., correspondings to Pseudocubus warrenin zone (Goll, 1980) in core F-88 B, suggest the erosion...

  13. Atmosphere aerosol/dust composition over central Asia and western Siberia derived from snow/ice core records and calibrated with NASA remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Joswiak, D. R.; Surazakov, A. B.; Takeuchi, N.

    2007-12-01

    The vast arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia, Mongolia, and Northern China are the world's second largest source of atmospheric mineral dust. In recent years, severe dust storms in Asia have intensified in frequency, duration, and areal coverage. However, limited spatial and temporal extent of aerosol measurements precludes definitive statements to be made regarding relationship between the Asian aerosol generation and climate. It has been well known that glaciers are the natural archives of environmental records related to past climate and aerosol generation. In our research, we utilized central Asian and western Siberia shallow ice-core records recovered from Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir mountain glaciers. Despite the fact that ice-core data may extend climate/aerosol records back in time, their sparse coverage is inadequate to document aerosol spatial distribution. The NASA products from Aura, Terra and Aqua satellite missions address this gap identifying aerosol sources, transport pathways, and area of deposition. The main objective of our research is to evaluate an affect of climate variability on dynamics of Asian aerosol loading to atmosphere and changes in aerosol transport pathways. Dust particle, major and rare earth element analysis from dust aerosols deposited and accumulated in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers suggests that loess from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and north-western China are main sources of aerosol loading into the upper troposphere over the central Asia and western Siberia. At the same time, the soluble ionic component of the ice-cores, related to aerosol generated from evaporate deposits, demonstrated both anthropogenic and natural impacts on atmospheric chemistry over these regions. Large perturbations of Ca2+ derived from CaCO3- rich dust transported from Goby Desert to Altai and Tien Shan. Origin and pathway of the ice-core aerosol depositions for the last 10-years were identified through calibrating ice-core records with dust

  14. The application of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the study of diseased central nervous system tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Sally; Heraud, Philip; Tobin, Mark J; McNaughton, Donald; Bernard, Claude C A

    2012-02-15

    In the last two decades the field of infrared spectroscopy has seen enormous advances in both instrumentation and the development of bioinformatic methods for spectral analysis, allowing the examination of a large variety of healthy and diseased samples, including biological fluids, isolated cells, whole tissues, and tissue sections. The non-destructive nature of the technique, together with the ability to directly probe biochemical changes without the addition of stains or contrast agents, enables a range of complementary analyses. This review focuses on the application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to analyse central nervous system tissues, with the aim of understanding the biochemical and structural changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, multiple sclerosis, as well as brain tumours. Modern biospectroscopic methods that combine FTIR microspectroscopy with bioinformatic analysis constitute a powerful new methodology that can discriminate pathology from normal healthy tissue in a rapid, unbiased fashion, with high sensitivity and specificity. Notably, the ability to detect protein secondary structural changes associated with Alzheimer's plaques, neurons in Parkinson's disease, and in some spectra from meningioma, as well as in the animal models of Alzheimer's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and multiple sclerosis, illustrates the power of this technology. The capacity to offer insight into the biochemical and structural changes underpinning aetio-pathogenesis of diseases in tissues provides both a platform to investigate early pathologies occurring in a variety of experimentally induced and naturally occurring central nervous system diseases, and the potential to evaluate new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  16. Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Ciro; Virtuoso, Assunta; Maggio, Nicola; Papa, Michele

    2017-10-12

    Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix. The pleiotropy of these effects is produced through different receptors, expressed in various cell types, in a dose- and time-dependent pattern. We reviewed how these pathways may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and post-ischemic epilepsy, CNS cancer, addiction, and mental health. These data open up a new path for the potential therapeutic use of the agonist/antagonist of these proteins in the management of several central nervous system diseases.

  17. Central and peripheral circadian clocks and their role in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Chauhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and cellular oscillations constitute an internal clock that tracks the time of day and permits organisms to optimize their behaviour and metabolism to suit the daily demands they face. The workings of this internal clock become impaired with age. In this review, we discuss whether such age-related impairments in the circadian clock interact with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Findings from mouse and fly models of Alzheimer's disease have accelerated our understanding of the interaction between neurodegeneration and circadian biology. These models show that neurodegeneration likely impairs circadian rhythms either by damaging the central clock or by blocking its communication with other brain areas and with peripheral tissues. The consequent sleep and metabolic deficits could enhance the susceptibility of the brain to further degenerative processes. Thus, circadian dysfunction might be both a cause and an effect of neurodegeneration. We also discuss the primary role of light in the entrainment of the central clock and describe important, alternative time signals, such as food, that play a role in entraining central and peripheral circadian clocks. Finally, we propose how these recent insights could inform efforts to develop novel therapeutic approaches to re-entrain arrhythmic individuals with neurodegenerative disease.

  18. Core or Cusps: The Central Dark Matter Profile of a Strong Lensing Cluster with a Bright Central Image at Redshift 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Lin, Huan; Bacon, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Nord, Brian; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Amara, Adam; Birrer, Simon; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; More, Anupreeta; Papovich, Casey; Romer, Kathy K.; Tessore, Nicolas; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Allam, Sahar; Annis, James; Benoit-Lévy, Aurlien; Brooks, David; Burke, David L.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Castander, Francisco Javier J.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Flaugher, Brenna; Frieman, Josh; Gerdes, David W.; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Gruen, Daniel; Gschwend, Julia; Gutierrez, Gaston; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve; Lahav, Ofer; Li, Ting S.; Lima, Marcos; Maia, Marcio A. G.; March, Marisa; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrs A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Sanchez, Eusebio; Scarpine, Vic; Schindler, Rafe; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Mathew; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Tucker, Douglas L.; Walker, Alistair R.

    2017-07-10

    We report on SPT-CLJ2011-5228, a giant system of arcs created by a cluster at $z=1.06$. The arc system is notable for the presence of a bright central image. The source is a Lyman Break galaxy at $z_s=2.39$ and the mass enclosed within the 14 arc second radius Einstein ring is $10^{14.2}$ solar masses. We perform a full light profile reconstruction of the lensed images to precisely infer the parameters of the mass distribution. The brightness of the central image demands that the central total density profile of the lens be shallow. By fitting the dark matter as a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile---with a free parameter for the inner density slope---we find that the break radius is $270^{+48}_{-76}$ kpc, and that the inner density falls with radius to the power $-0.38\\pm0.04$ at 68 percent confidence. Such a shallow profile is in strong tension with our understanding of relaxed cold dark matter halos; dark matter only simulations predict the inner density should fall as $r^{-1}$. The tension can be alleviated if this cluster is in fact a merger; a two halo model can also reconstruct the data, with both clumps (density going as $r^{-0.8}$ and $r^{-1.0}$) much more consistent with predictions from dark matter only simulations. At the resolution of our Dark Energy Survey imaging, we are unable to choose between these two models, but we make predictions for forthcoming Hubble Space Telescope imaging that will decisively distinguish between them.

  19. Herpesvirus-associated central nervous system diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiqing; Huang, Fen; Jiang, Xinmiao; Fan, Zhiping; Zhou, Hongsheng; Liu, Can; Jiang, Qianli; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ke; Xuan, Li; Zhai, Xiao; Zhang, Fuhua; Yin, Changxin; Sun, Jing; Feng, Ru; Liu, Qifa

    2013-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Herpesvirus-DNA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells were sampled from 58 recipients with herpesvirus-associated diseases or with unexplainable CNS manifestations. Results showed that 23 patients were diagnosed as herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases, including 15 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases (4 encephalitis and 11 lymphoproliferative diseases), 5 herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis, 2 cytomegalovirus encephalitis/myelitis and 1 varicella zoster virus encephalitis. The median time of diseases onset was 65 (range 22-542) days post-transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidence of herpesvirus-associated encephalitis/myelitis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 6.3% ± 1.9% and 4.1% ± 1.2%, respectively. Of the evaluable cases, CSF cells mainly consisted of CD19(+)CD20(+) B cells (7/11) and had clonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes (3/11) in patients with CNS-PTLD. On the contrary, in patients with encephalitis/myelitis, CSF cells were comprised of different cell populations and none of the gene rearrangement was detected. Herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases are common in the early stages of allo-HSCT, wherein EBV is the most frequent causative virus. The immunophenotypic and clonal analysis of CSF cells might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between encephalitis and lymphoproliferative diseases.

  20. Can Single Positive Core Prostate Cancer at biopsy be Considered a Low-Risk Disease after Radical Prostatectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kupka da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Single positive core in a prostate biopsy is usually associated with indolent prostate cancer (PCa and is one of the active surveillance (AS inclusion criteria. We investigated whether single positive core PCa at biopsy could define an archetype of low-risk disease. Materials and Methods A total of 1320 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 249 patients with single positive core PCa were followed up, and the clinical and pathological parameters influencing prognosis were analyzed. Results Out of the 249 patients, 172 (69.0% had pathological findings ≥ pT2c and 87 (34.9% had an undergraded Gleason Score (GS based on the biopsy. Positive surgical margins (PSMs, extraprostatic extension (EPE and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI were found in 20.8%, 10.0% and 6.0% of patients, respectively. In a comparative analysis, we found that the PSA level, prostate weight and number of cores at biopsy are essential to correctly predict an indolent PCa. A total of 125 patients (67.3% with nonpalpable tumors became high-risk tumors (pT2c-T3. Analyzing only nonpalpable tumors with a GS of 6 at biopsy (156 patients, we noted that 106 (67.9% of cT1 progressed from cT1c to pT2c-pT3. Conclusions Single core PCa have clinically significant disease in the Radical Prostatectomy specimens, with considerable rates of overgrading for the GS, pT2c-pT3, PSMs, EPE and SVI. The treatment plan must be evaluated individually for patients with single core PCa and must take into account other prognostic factors when determining whether a patient should be managed with AS.

  1. Associations of centrally acting ACE inhibitors with cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Karim; Perera, Gayan; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Robert; Stewart, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. In the 9 months after Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, MMSE scores significantly increased by 0.72 and 0.19 points per year in patients on C-ACEIs and neither respectively, but deteriorated by 0.61 points per year in those on NC-ACEIs. There were no significant group differences in score trajectories from 9 to 36 months and no differences in survival. In people with Alzheimer's disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, those also taking C-ACEIs had stronger initial improvement in cognitive function, but there was no evidence of longer-lasting influence on dementia progression. R.S. has received research funding from Pfizer, Lundbeck, Roche, Janssen and GlaxoSmithKline. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  2. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Cadmium-Polyethylene (CdPoly) Bucket Located in the Central Cavity on the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naranjo, Gerald E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kaiser, Krista Irene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, James F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lippert, Lance L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clovis, Ralph D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Lonnie E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Quirk, Thomas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the cadmium-polyethylene (CdPoly) bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-CdPoly-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra, uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work. Also thanks to Drew Tonigan for helping field the activation experiments in ACRR, David Samuel for helping to finalize the drawings and get the parts fabricated, and Elliot Pelfrey for preparing the active dosimetry plots.

  3. Metabolic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Bioenergetics, Redox Homeostasis and Central Carbon Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Jacome, Maria S; Lei, Shulei; Hernandez-Franco, Pablo; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic processes in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival. Importantly, both bioenergetics and redox homeostasis are coupled to neuro-glial central carbon metabolism. We and others have recently established a link between the alterations in central carbon metabolism induced by PD risk factors, redox homeostasis and bioenergetics and their contribution to the survival/death of dopaminergic cells. In this review, we focus on the link between metabolic dysfunction, energy failure and redox imbalance in PD, making an emphasis in the contribution of central carbon (glucose) metabolism. The evidence summarized here strongly supports the consideration of PD as a disorder of cell metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The integrated disease surveillance and response system in northern Ghana: challenges to the core and support functions

    OpenAIRE

    Adokiya, Martin Nyaaba; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Beiersmann, Claudia; Müller, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: The integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) strategy was adopted in Ghana over a decade ago, yet gaps still remain in its proper functioning. The objective of this study was to assess the core and support functions of the IDSR system at the periphery level of the health system in northern Ghana. Methods: A qualitative study has been conducted among 18 key informants in two districts of Upper East Region. The respondents were from 9 health facilities considered repres...

  5. A study of the Eocene S-type granites of Chapedony metamorphic core complex (northeast of Yazd province, Central Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakipour, A.; Torabi, Gh.

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex, is located in western part of the Posht-e-Badam block. This complex is consisting of migmatite, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, micaschist and various types of granitoids. In middle part of this complex (Kalut-e-Chapedony), an Eocene granitic rock unit cross cuts the other rocks. The minerals of this granite are plagioclase (An 9 Ab 8 7O r 4), potassium feldspars (orthoclase), quartz, euhedral garnet (Alm 7 7Sps 1 3Prp 9 Grs 1 ), zircon, apatite, fibrolitic sillimanite and muscovite. Petrology and geochemical studies reveal calc-alkaline, peraluminous and S-type nature of the studied granites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns represent evident negative anomaly of Eu and low values of the REEs. Continental crust and North American shale composite (NASC) - normalized multi-elements spider diagrams indicate trace elements depletion. These granites are formed by melting of continental crust sedimentary rocks, resulted by emplacement of mantle-derived magma at the bottom of continental crust which formed the Chapedony metamorphic core complex. The source rock of these granites should be a clay-rich sedimentary rock with low amount of plagioclase and CaO/Na 2 O ratio.

  6. Disease prevalence in a rural Andean population of central Peru: a focus on autoimmune and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caturegli, Giorgio; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2016-12-01

    The hygiene hypothesis, formulated to explain the increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases observed in industrialized countries, remains controversial. We reflected upon this hypothesis during a medical mission to rural and impoverished villages of central Peru. The mission was carried out in July 2015 to aid three Andean villages located near Cusco, and comprised 10 American physicians, 4 nurses, and 24 students. After recording the vital signs, patients were triaged by nurses based on the major complaint, visited by physicians, and prescribed medications. Physicians wrote their notes on a one-page form and established diagnoses purely on clinical grounds, without laboratory or imaging testing. Physician notes were then analyzed retrospectively in a de-identified and double-blinded fashion. A total of 1075 patients (357 men and 718 women) were visited during 5 consecutive clinic days, 840 being adults and 235 disease prevalence in rural Andean villages of central Peru. The study could serve as a basis to implement basic public health interventions and prepare for future missions to the same or comparable regions.

  7. Evaluation of central nervous system in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Yusuf; Gürakan, Figen; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Demir, Hülya; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Topçu, Meral; Özen, Hasan; Yüce, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate structure and functions of central nervous system (CNS) in children with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a. Neurological examination, psychometric tests, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed. The results were compared between patients with good and poor metabolic control and healthy children. Twenty-three patients with GSD type 1a were studied. Twelve patients were in poor metabolic control group and 11 patients in good metabolic control group. Five patients had intellectual disability, 10 had EEG abnormalities, seven had abnormal VEP and two had abnormal BAEP results. MRI was abnormal in five patients. There was significant correlation between the number of hypoglycemic attacks and MRI abnormalities. Central nervous system may be affected in GSD type 1a even in patients with normal neurologic examination. Accumulation of abnormal results in patients with poor metabolic control supports the importance of metabolic control in GSD type 1a.

  8. Determination of the neutrons energy spectrum in the central thimble of the reactor core TRIGA Mark III; Determinacion del espectro de energia de los neutrones en el dedal central del nucleo del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra M, M. A.; Luis L, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Division de Ciencias Basicas, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Raya A, R.; Cruz G, H. S., E-mail: roberto.raya@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento del Reactor, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the measurement of the neutrons spectrum in energies in the central thimble of the reactor TRIGA Mark III to a power of 1 MW in stationary state, with the core in the center of the pool. To achieve this objective, several thin sheets were irradiated (one at the time) in the same position of the core. The activation probes were selected in such a way that covered the energy range (1 x 10{sup -10} to 20 MeV) of the neutrons spectrum in the reactor core, for this purpose thin sheets were used of {sup 197}Au, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 115}In, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 59}Co and {sup 63}Cu. After the irradiation, the high energy gamma emissions of the activated thin sheets were measured by means of gamma spectrometry, in a counting system of high resolution, with a Hyper pure Germanium detector, obtaining this way the activity induced in the thin sheets whose magnitude is proportional to the intensity of the neutrons flow, this activity together to a theoretical initial spectrum are the main entrance data of the computational code SANDBP (Hungarian version of the code Sand-II) that uses the unfolding method for the calculation of the spectrum. (Author)

  9. Immunotherapeutics in Pediatric Autoimmune Central Nervous System Disease: Agents and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosadini, Margherita; Sartori, Stefano; Sharma, Suvasini; Dale, Russell C

    2017-08-01

    Beyond the major advances produced by careful clinical-radiological phenotyping and biomarker development in autoimmune central nervous system disorders, a comprehensive knowledge of the range of available immune therapies and a deeper understanding of their action should benefit therapeutic decision-making. This review discusses the agents used in neuroimmunology and their mechanisms of action. First-line treatments typically include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, while for severe disease second-line "induction" agents such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide are used. Steroid-sparing agents such as mycophenolate, azathioprine, or methotrexate are often used in potentially relapsing or corticosteroid-dependent diseases. Lessons from adult neuroimmunology and rheumatology could be translated into pediatric autoimmune central nervous system disease in the future, including the potential utility of monoclonal antibodies targeting lymphocytes, adhesion molecules for lymphocytic migration, cytokines or their receptors, or complement. Finally, many agents used in other fields have multiple mechanisms of action, including immunomodulation, with potential usefulness in neuroimmunology, such as antibiotics, psychotropic drugs, probiotics, gut health, and ketogenic diet. All currently accepted and future potential agents have adverse effects, which can be severe; therefore, a "risk-versus-benefit" determination should guide therapeutic decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in central nervous system Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Carlier, R. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Idir, A.B.C. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Masnou, P.O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Moulonguet, A. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Adams, D. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Doyon, D. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France))

    1993-02-01

    Two cases of central nervous system Behcet's disease, studied by gadolinium-enhanced MRI, are presented. In one patient, whose clinical picture was dominated by a brain stem syndrome, the gadolinium enhancement resolved with clinical improvement, although the hyperintense areas in the mesencephalon on T2-weighted images persisted. In the second, who had a pseudobulbar palsy and a mild right hemiparesis, there were many abnormal areas, but an enhancing focus in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was probably the lesion responsible for the hemiparesis. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of central nervous system in lysosomal storage diseases: A pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Nathan; Alexander, Allen; Irani, Neville; Saade, Charbel; Naffaa, Lena

    2017-06-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) are a complex group of genetic disorders that are a result of inborn errors of metabolism. These errors result in a variety of metabolic dysfunction and build-up certain molecules within the tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). Although, they have discrete enzymatic deficiencies, symptomology and CNS imaging findings can overlap with each other, which can become challenging to radiologists. The purpose of this paper is to review the most common CNS imaging findings in LSD in order to familiarize the radiologist with their imaging findings and help narrow down the differential diagnosis. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  13. [Finite element analysis of the maxillary central incisor with traditional and modified crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of crown-root fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, M; Wei, Y P; Hu, W J; Rong, Q G; Zhang, H

    2016-06-01

    To construct three-dimensional finite element models with modified crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration in management of various crown-root fracture types, to investigate the intensity and distribution of stressin models mentioned above, and to compare and analyze the indications of traditional and modified crown lengthening surgeries from the mechanic point of view. Nine three-dimensional finite element models with modified crown lengthening surgery and post-core restoration were established and analyzed by micro-CT scanning technique, dental impression scanner, Mimics 10.0, Geomagic studio 9.0 and ANSYS 14.0 software. The von Mises stress of dentin, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, post and core, as well as the periodontal ligament area and threshold limit value were calculated and compared with the findings of traditional crown lengthening models which had been published earlierby our research group. The von Mises stress intensity of modified crown lengthening models were: dentin>post>core>alveolar bone>periodontal ligament. The maximum von Mises stress of dentin(44.37-80.58 MPa)distributed in lingual central shoulder. The periodontal ligament area of the modified crown lengthening surgery was reduced by 6% to 28%, under the same crown-root fracture conditions, the periodontal ligament area of modified crown lengthening models was larger than that of the traditional crown lengthening models. In modified crown lengthening surgery models, the von Mises stress of periodontal ligament of B3L1m, B3L2m, B3L3m models exceeded their limit values, however, the von Mises stress of periodontal ligament of the B2L2c, B2L3c, B3L1c, B3L2c, B3L3c models exceeded their limit values in traditional crown lengthening surgery models. The modified crown lengthening surgery conserves more periodontal supporting tissues, which facilitates the long-term survival of teeth. The indication of modified crown lengthening surgery is wider than traditional method. The

  14. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T.; Oven, Mannis; Wallace, D.C.; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J.; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR ...

  15. Working Memory in Children With Neurocognitive Effects From Sickle Cell Disease: Contributions of the Central Executive and Processing Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kelsey E.; Schatz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley’s working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship betwee...

  16. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  17. Calamitic Smectic A-Polar Smectic APA Transition Observed in Bent Molecules with Large Bent-Angle Central Core of 4,6-Dichlorobenzene and Alkylthio Terminal Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Kang, Sungmin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji

    2011-07-01

    New homologs of bent molecules with a large bent-angle central core of 4,6-dichloro benzene and an alkylthio terminal tail have been synthesized. Although the corresponding alkoxy-tail homologs show only the calamitic phases because of its large bent angles around 160°, the new homologs with an alkylthio tail exhibit the antiferroelectric smectic APA (SmAPA) banana phase that is transformed on cooling from the calamitic smectic A (SmA) phase. The biaxial polar packing of bent molecules in the SmAPA phase is considered to arise from the hindered rotation around the molecular long axis due to the expansion of the mesophase temperatures to a lower temperature region. This study indicates that the bent molecules, even with a large bent angle, have the potential to form a switchable banana phase with a remarkable decrease in its phase temperature range to around 60 °C.

  18. Working Memory in Children With Neurocognitive Effects From Sickle Cell Disease: Contributions of the Central Executive and Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelsey E.; Schatz, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for working memory deficits due to multiple disease processes. We assessed working memory abilities and related functions in 32 school-age children with SCD and 85 matched comparison children using Baddeley’s working memory model as a framework. Children with SCD performed worse than controls for working memory, central executive function, and processing/rehearsal speed. Central executive function was found to mediate the relationship between SCD status and working memory, but processing speed did not. Cognitive remediation strategies that focus on central executive processes may be important for remediating working memory deficits in SCD. PMID:27759435

  19. Marek’s Disease Virus influences the core gut microbiome of the chicken during the early and late phases of viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an important neoplastic disease of chickens caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. In this study, dysbiosis induced by MDV on the core gut flora of chicken was assessed using next generation sequence (NGS) analysis. Total fecal and cecum-der...

  20. Structural Characterization of Fibrils from Recombinant Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide by Solid-State NMR: The Central FGAILS Segment Is Part of the β-Sheet Core.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Weirich

    Full Text Available Amyloid deposits formed from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP are a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus and are known to be cytotoxic to pancreatic β-cells. The molecular structure of the fibrillar form of IAPP is subject of intense research, and to date, different models exist. We present results of solid-state NMR experiments on fibrils of recombinantly expressed and uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled human IAPP in the non-amidated, free acid form. Complete sequential resonance assignments and resulting constraints on secondary structure are shown. A single set of chemical shifts is found for most residues, which is indicative of a high degree of homogeneity. The core region comprises three to four β-sheets. We find that the central 23-FGAILS-28 segment, which is of critical importance for amyloid formation, is part of the core region and forms a β-strand in our sample preparation. The eight N-terminal amino acid residues of IAPP, forming a ring-like structure due to a disulfide bridge between residues C2 and C7, appear to be well defined but with an increased degree of flexibility. This study supports the elucidation of the structural basis of IAPP amyloid formation and highlights the extent of amyloid fibril polymorphism.

  1. Structural Characterization of Fibrils from Recombinant Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide by Solid-State NMR: The Central FGAILS Segment Is Part of the β-Sheet Core

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    Weirich, Franziska; Gremer, Lothar; Mirecka, Ewa A.; Schiefer, Stephanie; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Heise, Henrike

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid deposits formed from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) are a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus and are known to be cytotoxic to pancreatic β-cells. The molecular structure of the fibrillar form of IAPP is subject of intense research, and to date, different models exist. We present results of solid-state NMR experiments on fibrils of recombinantly expressed and uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled human IAPP in the non-amidated, free acid form. Complete sequential resonance assignments and resulting constraints on secondary structure are shown. A single set of chemical shifts is found for most residues, which is indicative of a high degree of homogeneity. The core region comprises three to four β-sheets. We find that the central 23-FGAILS-28 segment, which is of critical importance for amyloid formation, is part of the core region and forms a β-strand in our sample preparation. The eight N-terminal amino acid residues of IAPP, forming a ring-like structure due to a disulfide bridge between residues C2 and C7, appear to be well defined but with an increased degree of flexibility. This study supports the elucidation of the structural basis of IAPP amyloid formation and highlights the extent of amyloid fibril polymorphism. PMID:27607147

  2. PAH fluxes in the Laja Lake of south central Chile Andes over the last 50 years: Evidence from a dated sediment core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Roberto; Popp, Peter; Urrutia, Roberto; Bauer, Coretta; Araneda, Alberto; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposition inferred from a sediment core of an Andean lake in south central Chile. Sediments were carefully collected from one of the deepest section of the lake and sliced every 1 cm. The samples were analyzed for PAHs, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, organic carbon and grain-size. The stratigraphic chronology and the sedimentation rates were estimated using the sedimentary signature left by the 137 Cs and 210 Pb fallout as temporal markers. PAHs were quantified by HPLC-fluorescence detection (HPLC-Fluorescence). 15 priority EPA PAHs were analyzed in this study. Based on these results, PAH deposition over the last 50 years was estimated (a period characterized by an important intervention in the area). PAH concentration ranged from 226 to 620 ng g -1 d.w. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found in the core's bottom. The PAH profile is dominated by the presence of perylene indicating a natural source of PAH. In addition, two clear PAH deposition periods could be determined: the most recent with two-four rings PAHs, the older one with five-seven rings predomination. Determined fluxes where 71 to 972 μg m -2 year -1 , dominated by perylene deposition. PAH levels and fluxes are lower compared to the levels found in sediments from remote lakes in Europe and North America. It is concluded that the main source of PAHs into the Laja Lake sediments are of natural origin

  3. Determination of the energy spectrum of the neutrons in the central thimble of the reactor core TRIGA Mark III; Determinacion del espectro de energia de los neutrones en el dedal central del nucleo del reactor Triga Mark III

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    Parra M, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    This thesis presents the neutron spectrum measurements inside the core of the TRIGA Mark III reactor at 1 MW power in steady-state, with the bridge placed in the center of the swimming pool, using several metallic threshold foils. The activation detectors are inserted in the Central Thimble of the reactor core, all the foils are irradiated in the same position and irradiation conditions (one by one). The threshold detectors are made of different materials such as: Au{sup 197}, Ni{sup 58}, In{sup 115}, Mg{sup 24}, Al{sup 27}, Fe{sup 58}, Co{sup 59} and Cu{sup 63}, they were selected to cover the full range the energies (10{sup -10} to 20 MeV) of the neutron spectrum in the reactor core. After the irradiation, the activation detectors were measured by means of spectrometry gamma, using a high resolution counting system with a hyper pure Germanium crystal, in order to obtain the saturation activity per target nuclide. The saturation activity is one of the main input data together with the initial spectrum, for the computational code SANDBP (hungarian version of the code SAND-II), which through an iterative adjustment, gives the calculated spectrum. The different saturation activities are necessary for the unfolding method, used by the computational code SANDBP. This research work is very important, since the knowledge of the energetic and spatial distribution of the neutron flux in the irradiation facilities, allows to characterize properly the irradiation facilities, just like, to estimate with a good precision various physics parameters of the reactor such as: neutron fluxes (thermal, intermediate and fast), neutronic dose, neutron activation analysis (NAA), spectral indices (cadmium ratio), buckling, fuel burnup, safety parameters (reactivity, temperature distribution, peak factors). In addition, the knowledge of the already mentioned parameters can give a best use of reactor, optimizing the irradiations requested by the users for their production process or

  4. The Prevalence of Chagas Heart Disease in a Central Bolivian Community Endemic for Trypanosoma Cruzi

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    Yager, Jessica E.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the incidence of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections has decreased significantly in endemic regions in the Americas, medical professionals continue to encounter a high burden of resulting Chagas disease among infected adults. The current prevalence of Chagas heart disease in a community setting is not known; nor is it known how recent insecticide vector control measures may have impacted the progression of cardiac disease in an infected population. Objectives and Methods Nested within a community serosurvey in rural and periurban communities in central Bolivia, we performed a cross-sectional cardiac substudy to evaluate adults for historical, clinical, and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. All adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old with T. cruzi infection and those with a clinical history, physical exam, or ECG consistent with cardiac abnormalities were also scheduled for echocardiography. Results and conclusions Of the 604 cardiac substudy participants with definitive serology results, 183 were seropositive for infection with T. cruzi (30.3%). Participants who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were more likely to have conduction system defects (1.6% versus 0 for complete right bundle branch block and 10.4% versus 1.9% for any bundle branch block; p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bradycardia among seropositive versus seronegative participants. Echocardiogram findings were not consistent with a high burden of Chagas cardiomyopathy: valvulopathies were the most common abnormality, and few participants were found to have low ejection fraction or left ventricular dilatation. No participants had significant heart failure. Though almost one third of adults in the community were seropositive for T. cruzi infection, few had evidence of Chagas heart disease. PMID:26407509

  5. Anticarbohydrate antibodies as markers of inflammatory bowel disease in a Central European cohort.

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    Malickova, Karin; Lakatos, Peter L; Bortlik, Martin; Komarek, Viktor; Janatkova, Ivana; Lukas, Milan

    2010-02-01

    The study discusses the role of antichitobioside carbohydrate antibody (ACCA), antilaminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and antimannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA) in Central European patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Twohundred and seventy-two serum samples were used - 116 Crohn's disease (CD), 84 ulcerative colitis, and 72 healthy control samples. All samples were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the following four anticarbohydrate assays: ACCA, ALCA, AMCA, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (gASCA). gASCA antibodies showed the highest sensitivity (67%) for a CD diagnosis, followed by AMCA (31%), ACCA (27%), and ALCA (25%). Positivity of at least one of the four assays increased the overall sensitivity of antibody testing in CD up to 85.5%. Mean serum gASCA levels were significantly higher in CD patients who were younger at diagnosis and had a longer disease duration before blood sampling (PACCA, and ALCA) antibodies and CD location, behavior, age at onset, and disease duration was found; however, that sample size of some of our subgroups was probably too small to make firm conclusions on associations with all CD phenotypes. None of the assessed anticarbohydrate assays was predictive of colonic CD in patients in whom the distinction between CD and ulcerative colitis is not obvious using routine diagnostic methods. There was no relationship between the presence or concentration of anticarbohydrate antibodies and the inflammation measured by C-reactive protein levels. The use of a panel of anticarbohydrate antibodies may provide additional help in distinguishing IBD from non-IBD disease patterns. The addition of AMCA, ALCA, and ACCA assays as IBD serology markers improves the overall sensitivity of immunological examinations in IBD; however, anticarbohydrate assays are not helpful for predicting CD behavior.

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus subgenotypes and basal core promoter, precore variants in patients with acute hepatitis B in central Vietnam.

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    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Katano, Yoshiaki; Chuong, Tran Xuan; Takeda, Yasushi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Itoh, Akihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Nakano, Isao; Huy, Tran Van; Minh, Nguyen Ngoc; Diem, Tran thi Minh; An, Dong thi Hoai; Phiet, Pham Hoang; Goto, Hidemi

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been classified into 8 genotypes that have different geographic distributions. The clinical outcomes of acute hepatitis are dependent on genotype. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HBV subgenotypes and basal core promoter (BCP)/precore (PC) regions in acute hepatitis patients in Central Vietnam to clarify the distributions and the clinical and virological differences. 27 patients with acute hepatitis B were studied. HBV subgenotypes and BCP/PC variants were determined by direct sequencing of the preS, BCP/PC regions, respectively. HBV subgenotypes B4/Ba (n = 22) and C1/Cs (n = 5) were detected. Of the 27 patients, 3 developed fulminant hepatic failure, and all were infected with B4/Ba. Three patients had a BCP mutation, and 10 patients had a PC mutation in subgenotype B4/Ba. Three patients with C1/Cs had a BCP mutation. Two of 3 patients who progressed to fulminant hepatic failure had T1762, A1764, and A1896 simultaneously. None of the patients with acute, self-limited hepatitis carried these triple mutations. The prevalent HBV subgenotypes in patients with acute hepatitis B in Central Vietnam were B4/Ba and C1/Cs. BCP/PC variants have an association with the development of fulminant hepatic failure in subgenotype B4/Ba. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Sedimentology of the Upper Maastrichtian chalk, Danish Central Graben. M-10X (Dan Field), E-5X (Tyra SE Field) facies and core logs

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    Ineson, J.R.

    2004-07-01

    Based on detailed logs presented here at 1:10, the cored Upper Maastrichtian succession of the M-10X (Dan Field) and E-5X (Tyra SE Field) wells in the southern Danish Central Graben is subdivided into eight lithofacies and five ichnofabrics. The dominant bioturbated or laminated chalk mudstones and subordinate sparse skeletal wackestones are largely the result of pelagic carbonate production, sedimented by suspension settling and small volume, low density turbidity currents. Evidence of winnowing/reduced sedimentation rates is yielded by rare incipient hardgrounds; a well-developed mature hardground profile is developed at the Cretaceous-Danian boundary (the ''Maastrichtian hardground''). Rare marl laminae are recorded and a discrete marly chalk bed associated with an interval of finegrained skeletal chalk wackestones near the top of the Maastrichtian is recognised in both wells. Comparison between the two wells demonstrates that the m-scale laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles described from the Dan Field area are both stratigraphically and areally restricted; this has implications for both cyclostratigraphic correlation and reconstruction of depositional environments and Late Maastrichtian evolution of the Danish Central Graben. (au)

  8. The central nervous system manifestation and CT findings of Fabry's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyonaga, Kazutaka; Nishihira, Takeo

    1983-01-01

    A case of Fabry's disease with central nervous system dysfunction is reported. This 27-year-old man had recurrent episodes of pains in the extremities when he was a child. Spontaneous clinical remission occured around puberty. He had been well until age 22 when he experienced transient weakness of the left arm. The following year he developed transient blindness of the right eye. Then, he developed weakness in the extremities, dysphagia, dysarthria, and was brought to the hospital in unconscious state. Several members of his family are affected with the same disease presenting leg pains, kidney disease and angiokeratoma. Physical examination disclosed an optic atrophy, pseudobulbar palsy with spastic weakness in the all extremities and multiple angiokeratoma in the flank, buttocks and thighs. Abnormal laboratory findings included leukocytosis, increased ESR and strongly positive CRP. Biopsy of the skin disclosed dilated capilaries with numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Thin-layer chromatography of the urine sediment showed a marked increase in ceramide trihexoside. Leukocyte alphagalactosidase level was abnormally low. CT scan showed diffuse cerebral atrophy and multiple low density areas in the thalamus, ventral pons and centrum semiovale. The CT findings and possible mechanism of the response to predonisolone were also discussed. (author)

  9. [Optimization of registry of deaths from chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities in Central America].

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    Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Báez, Jorge Lara; Peña, Rodolfo; Luna, Patricia Lorena Ruiz; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Several Central American countries are seeing continued growth in the number of deaths from chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) among farm workers and there is underreporting. This report presents the results of a consensus process coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH). This consensus seeks to increase the probability of detecting and recording deaths from these causes. There has been recognition of the negative impact of the lack of a standardized instrument and the lack of training in the medical profession for adequate registration of the cause or causes of death. As a result of the consensus, the following has been proposed: temporarily use a code from the Codes for Special Purposes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10); continue to promote use of the WHO international standardized instrument for recording causes and preceding events related to death; increase training of physicians responsible for filling out death certificates; take action to increase the coverage and quality of information on mortality; and create a decision tree to facilitate selection of CKDnT as a specific cause of death, while presenting the role that different regional and subregional mechanisms in the Region of the Americas should play in order to improve CKD and CKDnT mortality records.

  10. MicroRNAs: Key Regulators in the Central Nervous System and Their Implication in Neurological Diseases

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    Dan-Dan Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, well-conserved noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They have been demonstrated to regulate a lot of biological pathways and cellular functions. Many miRNAs are dynamically regulated during central nervous system (CNS development and are spatially expressed in adult brain indicating their essential roles in neural development and function. In addition, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that dysfunction of miRNAs contributes to neurological diseases. These observations, together with their gene regulation property, implicated miRNAs to be the key regulators in the complex genetic network of the CNS. In this review, we first focus on the ways through which miRNAs exert the regulatory function and how miRNAs are regulated in the CNS. We then summarize recent findings that highlight the versatile roles of miRNAs in normal CNS physiology and their association with several types of neurological diseases. Subsequently we discuss the limitations of miRNAs research based on current studies as well as the potential therapeutic applications and challenges of miRNAs in neurological disorders. We endeavor to provide an updated description of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in normal CNS functions and pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  11. Cushing disease revealed by bilateral atypical central serous chorioretinopathy: case report.

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    Giovansili, Iama; Belange, Georeges; Affortit, Aude

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Cushing disease revealed by bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). We present the clinical history, physical findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies of a 53-year-old Chinese woman with a Cushing disease revealed by bilateral CSCR. The association with CSCR and the pertinent literature are reviewed. A 53-year-old patient initially presented to the Department of Ophthalmology with a 4-week history of decreased vision in the left eye. Standard ophthalmologic examination and fluorescein angiography established the diagnosis of bilateral CSCR. Systemic clinical signs and biochemical analysis indicated hypercortisolism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland showed a left-side lesion compatible with a microadenoma. The diagnosis of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome secondary to a pituitary microadenoma was selected. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery was performed and the pituitary adenoma was successfully removed. The histology confirmed the presence of ACTH-immunopositive pituitary adenoma. Early postoperative morning cortisol levels indicated early remission. At 6 weeks postoperatively, the patient's morning cortisol remains undetectable, and serous retinal detachments had regressed. CSCR is an uncommon manifestation of endogenous Cushing syndrome. It can be the first presentation of hypercortisolism caused by Cushing disease. CSCR should be considered when assessing patients with Cushing syndrome complaining of visual disorders. On the other hand, it is useful in patients with an atypical form of CSCR to exclude Cushing's syndrome.

  12. Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA-DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure-function relationships.

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    Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding structure-function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450 km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235 m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130 m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions.

  13. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

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    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. Central cholinergic dysfunction could be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia in early Parkinson's disease.

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    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jang, Wooyoung

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is an important issue in the prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several studies have reported that oropharyngeal dysphagia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the exact relationship between cortical function and swallowing function in PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between an electrophysiological marker of central cholinergic function, which reflected cognitive function, and swallowing function, as measured by videofluoroscopic studies (VFSS). We enrolled 29 early PD patients. Using the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ), we divided the enrolled patients into two groups: PD with dysphagia and PD without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was applied to explore the nature of the dysphagia. To assess central cholinergic dysfunction, short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) was evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between central cholinergic dysfunction and oropharyngeal dysphagia and investigated the characteristics of the dysphagia. The SAI values were significantly different between the two groups. The comparison of each VFSS component between the PD with dysphagia group and the PD without dysphagia group showed statistical significance for most of the oral phase components and for a single pharyngeal phase component. The total score on the VDS was higher in the PD with dysphagia group than in the PD without dysphagia group. The Mini-Mental State Examination and SAI values showed significant correlations with the total score of the oral phase components. According to binary logistic regression analysis, SAI value independently contributed to the presence of dysphagia in PD patients. Our findings suggest that cholinergic dysfunction is associated with dysphagia in early PD and that an abnormal SAI value is a good biomarker for predicting the risk of dysphagia in PD patients.

  15. A framework for integrating heterogeneous clinical data for a disease area into a central data warehouse.

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    Karmen, Christian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Kohl, Christian D; Firnkorn, Daniel; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Structured collection of clinical facts is a common approach in clinical research. Especially in the analysis of rare diseases it is often necessary to aggregate study data from several sites in order to achieve a statistically significant cohort size. In this paper we describe a framework how to approach an integration of heterogeneous clinical data into a central register. This enables site-spanning queries for the occurrence of specific clinical facts and thus supports clinical research. The framework consists of three sequential steps, starting from a formal data harmonization process, to the data transformation methods and finally the integration into a proper data warehouse. We implemented reusable software templates that are based on our best practices in several projects in integrating heterogeneous clinical data. Our methods potentially increase the efficiency and quality for future data integration projects by reducing the implementation effort as well as the project management effort by usage of our approaches as a guideline.

  16. The Glymphatic System in Central Nervous System Health and Disease: Past, Present, and Future.

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    Plog, Benjamin A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-24

    The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute. Here, we review the role of the glymphatic pathway in CNS physiology, the factors known to regulate glymphatic flow, and the pathologic processes in which a breakdown of glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange has been implicated in disease initiation and progression. Important areas of future research, including manipulation of glymphatic activity aiming to improve waste clearance and therapeutic agent delivery, are also discussed.

  17. A STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE OF CENTRAL INDIA

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    Abhishek Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The presence of a lump in the breast is a great cause of anxiety and apprehension, to the female patients. This may be accrued to the increasing public awareness of breast cancer which is presently the most common female malignancy worldwide. The aim of th is study was to determine the frequency of benign breast diseases (BBD amongst patients in tertiary care institute of central India. MATERIAL AND METHOD: It was a cohort study. In this study all patients visiting the surgical OPD clinic with breast proble ms were included. This study was conducted at Chirayu Medical College and Hospital Bhopal over a period of four years starting from November 2010 to November 2014. All patients with definite symptoms and sign of malignancy or those who on evaluation were d iagnosed as carcinoma of breast were excluded from this study. RESULTS: A total of 112 patients were included in the study. About 54.4% (61/112 patients belonged to 3rd decade of life followed by 21.4% (24/112 from 4th decade (age between: 31 – 40 years . The most common benign breast disease, seen in 33.9% (38/112 of patients was fibro adenoma followed by fibrocystic disease seen in about 19.6% (22/112 patients. Breast abscess was seen in 20/112(17.8% and Mastalgia was present in 15/112 (13.3% patien ts. CONCLUSION: In females of reproductive age group Benign Breast Diseases (BBD are common problems. Fibro adenoma is the commonest of all benign breast disease mostly seen in 2nd and 3rd decade of life. Fibrocystic disease of the breast is the next comm on BBD whose incidence increases with increasing age. Routine mammographic screening of high risk groups aimed at early detection of these premalignant lesions is therefore indicated. A biopsy with histological diagnosis of all breast lumps is also recomme nded as this will aid in the detection of premalignant lesions particularly in low resource settings

  18. Expanding Role of T Cells in Human Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

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    Deepti Pilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is being increasingly recognized that a dysregulation of the immune system plays a vital role in neurological disorders and shapes the treatment of the disease. Aberrant T cell responses, in particular, are key in driving autoimmunity and have been traditionally associated with multiple sclerosis. Yet, it is evident that there are other neurological diseases in which autoreactive T cells have an active role in pathogenesis. In this review, we report on the recent progress in profiling and assessing the functionality of autoreactive T cells in central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disorders that are currently postulated to be primarily T cell driven. We also explore the autoreactive T cell response in a recently emerging group of syndromes characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins. Common methodology implemented in T cell biology is further considered as it is an important determinant in their detection and characterization. An improved understanding of the contribution of autoreactive T cells expands our knowledge of the autoimmune response in CNS disorders and can offer novel methods of therapeutic intervention.

  19. IgG4-Related Disease Presenting as Recurrent Mastoiditis With Central Nervous System Involvement

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    April L. Barnado MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented with right ear fullness and otorrhea. She was initially diagnosed with mastoiditis that was not responsive to multiple courses of antibiotics and steroids. She was then diagnosed with refractory inflammatory pseudotumor, and subsequent treatments included several mastoidectomies, further steroids, and radiation therapy. The patient went on to develop mastoiditis on the contralateral side as well as central nervous system involvement with headaches and right-sided facial paresthesias. Reexamination of the mastoid tissue revealed a significantly increased number of IgG4-positive cells, suggesting a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. The patient improved clinically and radiographically with rituximab and was able to taper off azathioprine and prednisone. IgG4-related disease should be considered in patients with otologic symptoms and be on the differential diagnosis in patients with inflammatory pseudotumor. Staining for IgG and IgG4 is essential to ensure a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Access in Central and Eastern Europe

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    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  1. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

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    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  2. Dysregulation of the HPA axis as a core pathophysiology mediating co-morbid depression in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eDu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of prodromal manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. These affective symptoms may be observed many years before the core diagnostic symptoms of the neurological condition. It is becoming more apparent that depression is a significant modifying factor of the trajectory of disease progression, and even treatment outcomes. It is therefore crucial that we understand the potential pathophysiologies related to the primary condition, which could contribute to the development of depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a key neuroendocrine signaling system involved in physiological homeostasis and stress response. Disturbances of this system lead to severe hormonal imbalances, and the majority of such patients also present with behavioural deficits and/or mood disorders. Dysregulation of the HPA axis is also strongly implicated in the pathology of major depressive disorder. Consistent with this, anti-depressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have been shown to alter HPA axis activity. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding HPA axis pathology in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, differentiating between prodromal and later stages of disease progression where possible. Both clinical and preclinical evidence will be examined, but we highlight animal model studies as being particularly useful for uncovering novel mechanisms of pathology related to co-morbid mood disorders. Finally, we purpose utilizing the pre-clinical evidence to better inform prospective, intervention studies.

  3. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Central Repositories: A Valuable Resource for Nephrology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, Beena; Spain, Lisa M.; Guill, Michael H.; Del Vecchio, Corey T.; Carroll, Leslie E.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are an important resource available to researchers and the general public. The Central Repositories house samples, genetic data, phenotypic data, and study documentation from >100 NIDDK-funded clinical studies, in areas such as diabetes, digestive disease, and liver disease research. The Central Repositories also have an exceptionally rich collection of studies related to kidney disease, including the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease landmark study and recent data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort and CKD in Children Cohort studies. The data are carefully curated and linked to the samples from the study. The NIDDK is working to make the materials and data accessible to researchers. The Data Repositories continue to improve flexible online searching tools that help researchers identify the samples or data of interest, and NIDDK has created several different paths to access the data and samples, including some funding initiatives. Over the past several years, the Central Repositories have seen steadily increasing interest and use of the stored materials. NIDDK plans to make more collections available and do more outreach and education about use of the datasets to the nephrology research community in the future to enhance the value of this resource. PMID:25376765

  5. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Central Repositories: a valuable resource for nephrology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Rebekah S; Akolkar, Beena; Spain, Lisa M; Guill, Michael H; Del Vecchio, Corey T; Carroll, Leslie E

    2015-04-07

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are an important resource available to researchers and the general public. The Central Repositories house samples, genetic data, phenotypic data, and study documentation from >100 NIDDK-funded clinical studies, in areas such as diabetes, digestive disease, and liver disease research. The Central Repositories also have an exceptionally rich collection of studies related to kidney disease, including the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease landmark study and recent data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort and CKD in Children Cohort studies. The data are carefully curated and linked to the samples from the study. The NIDDK is working to make the materials and data accessible to researchers. The Data Repositories continue to improve flexible online searching tools that help researchers identify the samples or data of interest, and NIDDK has created several different paths to access the data and samples, including some funding initiatives. Over the past several years, the Central Repositories have seen steadily increasing interest and use of the stored materials. NIDDK plans to make more collections available and do more outreach and education about use of the datasets to the nephrology research community in the future to enhance the value of this resource. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Parkinson, John A; Lachenal, Guillaume; Halkerston, Katherine M; Rudarakanchana, Nung; Hall, Jeremy; Morrison, Caroline H; Howes, Simon R; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2002-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are required for normal acquisition of tasks based on stimulus-reward associations. However, it is not known whether they are involved purely in the learning process or are required for behavioral expression of a learned response. Rats were trained preoperatively on a Pavlovian autoshaping task in which pairing a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) with food causes subjects to approach the CS+ while not approaching an unpaired stimulus (CS-). Subjects then received lesions of the AcbC, ACC, or CeA before being retested. AcbC lesions severely impaired performance; lesioned subjects approached the CS+ significantly less often than controls, failing to discriminate between the CS+ and CS-. ACC lesions also impaired performance but did not abolish discrimination entirely. CeA lesions had no effect on performance. Thus, the CeA is required for learning, but not expression, of a conditioned approach response, implying that it makes a specific contribution to the learning of stimulus-reward associations.

  7. Potential profiles in the central core of the cathode in the star mode operation in an inertial-electrostatic fusion neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Masuda, K.; Toku, H.

    2003-01-01

    After the successful measurements of the localized electric fields in the center-spot mode operation with relatively large space-charge effects by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method, measurements of potential profiles in the star mode operation with small space-charge effects on helium gas are made in the central cathode core region of an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) neutron source, which is most suitable to neutron calibration in the fusion devices. Since the high-voltage is required to the star mode operation on deuterium gas, it is predicted to bring about very small beam space charge-related potential. To increase accuracy, we adopted n=4 (2 1 S to 4 1 D:HeI) transition, instead of previous n=3, which is most sensitive to the local electric fields in the Stark transition, and verified using the well-known U-shaped hollow cathode potential. The localized electric fields thus measured by LIF method using n=4 transition show negligible electric fields in the star mode compared with the center-spot mode. (author)

  8. Application of remote source lighting system in different layouts of enclosed lift lobbies in highrise residential building of central core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, I.; Yang, H.X. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Building Services, Renewable Energy Research Group

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a simulation study that explored a new building philosophy that optimizes solar energy to minimize reliance on fossil fuels and to design energy conscious buildings that minimize the energy needed for lighting and cooling. The viability of applying a remote source lighting (RSL) system to transmit daylight into central core lobbies in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong was demonstrated. These lobbies are usually enclosed without any windows, thus requiring electric lighting to be switched on 24 hours continuously, consuming non-renewable energy in most cases. In this study, the RSL system was composed of small diameter light pipes and optic fibers. The system transports daylight from the exterior to illuminate the enclosed lobbies. The simulation was conducted to analyze and compare the light transmission efficiency when applying the RSL system to different layouts of the lift lobbies. It was concluded that the efficiency of the RSL system is governed by the length and number of turns in the lobby. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Societal and individual burden of illness among fibromyalgia patients in France: Association between disease severity and OMERACT core domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrot Serge

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with fibromyalgia (FM report widespread pain, fatigue, and other functional limitations. This study aimed to provide an assessment of the burden of illness associated with FM in France and its association with disease severity and core domains as defined by Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT for FM. Methods This cross-sectional, observational study recruited patients with a prior diagnosis of FM from 18 community-based physician offices in France. Patients completed questions about FM impact (Fibromyalgia-Impact Questionnaire [FIQ], core symptoms (defined by OMERACT, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D, current overall health status (rated on a scale from 0 to 100, productivity, treatment satisfaction, and out-of-pocket expenses related to FM. Site staff recorded patients' treatment and health resource use based on medical record review. Costs were extrapolated from 4-week patient-reported data and 3-month clinical case report form data and calculated in 2008 Euros using a societal perspective. Tests of significance used the Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher's Exact test where P Results Eighty-eight patients (mean 55.2 y; female:male 74:14 were recruited. The majority of patients (84.1% were prescribed medications for FM. Patients mainly described medications as a little/not at all effective (40.0% or somewhat effective (52.9%. Current Overall Health rating was 52.9 (± 17.8 and FIQ total score was 54.8 (± 17.3. FIQ total score was used to define FM severity, and 17 patients scored 0- Conclusions In a sample of 88 patients with FM from France, we found that FM poses a substantial economic and human burden on patients and society. FM severity level was significantly associated with patients' health status and core symptom domains.

  10. Relevance of Follow-Up in Patients with Core Clinical Criteria for Alzheimer Disease and Normal CSF biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Olivier; Paquet, Claire; Gabelle, Audrey; Delbeuck, Xavier; Blanc, Frederic; Wallon, David; Dumurgier, Julien; Magnin, Eloi; Martinaud, Olivier; Jung, Barbara; Bousiges, Olivier; Lehmann, Sylvain; Delaby, Constance; Quillard-Murain, Muriel; Peoc'h, Katell; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Hannequin, Didier; Sablonniere, Bernard; Buee, Luc; Hugon, Jacques; Schraen, Susanna; Pasquier, Florence; Bombois, Stephanie

    2018-01-09

    Few patients with a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile fulfill the clinical criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of misdiagnoses for these patients. Patients from the e-PLM centers fulfilling the core clinical criteria for probable AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to AD (AD-MCI), with normal CSF A1-42, T-tau and P-tau biomarkers and clinical follow-up, were included. Clinical and imaging data were reviewed by an independent board, from baseline (visit with clinical evaluation and CSF analysis) to the end of the follow-up, for a final diagnosis. In the e-PLM cohort of 1098 AD patients with CSF analysis, 37 (3.3%) patients (20 with AD dementia core clinical criteria and 17 with AD-MCI core clinical criteria) had normal CSF biomarker profile and a clinical follow-up. All patients presented with episodic memory impairment and 27 (73%) had medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI-scan. After a median follow-up of 36 months (range 7-74), the final diagnosis was AD MCI or dementia for 9 (24%) patients, and unlikely due to AD for 28 (76%) patients. A misdiagnosis was corrected in 18 (49%) patients (mood disorders, non-AD degenerative dementia, vascular cognitive impairment, alcohol cognitive disorders, temporal epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis), and 10 (27%) patients had cognitive disorders of undetermined etiology. AD diagnosis (MCI or dementia) with normal CSF biomarkers is a rare condition. A clinical follow-up is particularly recommended to consider an alternative diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. [Comparison of clinical effects of Co-Cr alloy cast post-core and everStick fiber post in restoration of labially or lingually inclined maxillary central incisor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu-Mei; Zhong, Qun; Chen, Shuang

    2017-02-01

    To compare the clinical effect of Co-Cr alloy cast post-core and everStick fiber post in restoration of maxillary central incisor with labial or lingual inclination, and provide theoretical basis for clinical application. Ninety-seven labially or lingually inclined maxillary central incisors were treated in our hospital from March 2012 to March 2014. The patients were randomly divided into group A (n=49) and group B (n=48), and received post -core and crown restoration. Patients in group A underwent Co-Cr alloy cast post and core restoration and patients in group B underwent everStick fiber post and core restoration. After two-year of follow-up, root fracture, post break, crown or post dislodgment and gingival marginal discoloration were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software package. Chi-square test showed that the success rate of restoration was significantly different between 2 groups (P<0.05). The incidence of root fracture and gingival marginal discoloration of Co-Cr alloy cast post-core was higher than that of everStick fiber post, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of post break, crown or post dislodgment. EverStick fiber post is better than Co-Cr alloy cast post and core to prevent root fracture and gingival marginal discoloration. Its fracture pattern is repairable and favorable for preserving tooth.

  12. Laparoscopic and Percutaneous Core Needle Biopsy Plays a Central Role for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Pancreatitis in a Single-Center Study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Kjærulf Pless, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    organ involvement was observed in 40% of type 1 and 13% of type 2, but inflammatory bowel disease only in type 2 (P = 0.001). One patient had IgG4-related chronic perisplenitis as a hitherto undescribed manifestation of IgG4-related disease. Nineteen (91%) of 21 biopsied patients had diagnostic CNB...... Hospital from 2007 to 2013 were included (n = 30; mean follow-up, 26.2 months). Data from laparoscopic or percutaneous ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB), resection specimens, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), EUS-guided CNB, computed tomography, serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), and pancreatography were...... retrospectively analyzed according to ICDC. RESULTS: Twenty patients were diagnosed with type 1, 8 with type 2, and 2 with not otherwise specified AIP. Twenty-eight patients (93%) could correctly be classified when ICDC were retrospectively applied. Serum IgG4 was elevated in 44% of type 1 and 0% of type 2. Other...

  13. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles. PMID:27121137

  14. Central Nervous System Disease, Education, and Race Impact Radiation Refusal in Pediatric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirayu G; Stavas, Mark; Perkins, Stephanie; Shinohara, Eric T

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the determinants of radiation therapy refusal in pediatric cancer, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to identify 24,421 patients who met the eligibility criteria, diagnosed between 1974 and 2012. Patients had any stage of cancer, were aged 0 to 19, and received radiation therapy or refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. One hundred twenty-eight patients (0.52%) refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. Thirty-two percent of patients who refused radiation therapy ultimately died from their cancer, at a median of 7 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3-11 mo), as compared with 29.0% of patients who did not refuse radiation therapy died from their cancer, at a median of 17 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 17-18 mo). On multivariable analysis, central nervous system (CNS) site, education, and race were associated with radiation refusal. The odds ratio for radiation refusal for patients with CNS disease was 1.62 (P=0.009) as compared with patients without CNS disease. For patients living in a county with ≥10% residents having less than ninth grade education, the odds ratio for radiation refusal was 1.71 (P=0.008) as compared with patients living in a county with education. Asian, Pacific Islander, Alaska Native, and American Indian races had an odds ratio of 2.12 (P=0.002) for radiation refusal as compared with black or white race. Although the radiation refusal rate in the pediatric cancer population is low, we show that CNS site, education level, and race are associated with a significant difference in radiation refusal.

  15. Respiratory virus infection and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in central Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In temperate climates, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD incidence tends to coincide with or closely follow peak incidence of influenza virus infection; at a seasonal level, increased influenza activity frequently correlates with increased seasonal risk of IMD. METHODS: We evaluated 240 cases of IMD reported in central Ontario, Canada, from 2000 to 2006. Associations between environmental and virological (influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV exposures and IMD incidence were evaluated using negative binomial regression models controlling for seasonal oscillation. Acute effects of weekly respiratory virus activity on IMD risk were evaluated using a matched-period case-crossover design with random directionality of control selection. Effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Multivariable negative binomial regression identified elevated IMD risk with increasing influenza A activity (per 100 case increase, incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.06, 1.31. In case-crossover models, increasing weekly influenza A activity was associated with an acute increase in the risk of IMD (per 100 case increase, odds ratio (OR  = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.28 to 3.23. Increasing weekly RSV activity was associated with increased risk of IMD after adjusting for RSV activity in the previous 3 weeks (per 100 case increase, OR = 4.31, 95% CI: 1.14, 16.32. No change in disease risk was seen with increasing influenza B activity. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified an acute effect of influenza A and RSV activity on IMD risk. If confirmed, these finding suggest that influenza vaccination may have the indirect benefit of reducing IMD risk.

  16. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiltawe Simwal Wungak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2. Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18 was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3 for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67 for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26 for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%. Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.

  17. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  18. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability in the precore and core promoter regions of HBV strains in Morocco: characterization and impact on liver disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Kitab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD, including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The persistence of active HBV replication and liver damage after the loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg has been frequently associated with mutations in the pre-core (pre-C and core promoter (CP regions of HBV genome that abolish or reduce HBeAg expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pre-C and CP mutations and their impact on the subsequent course of liver disease in Morocco. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 186 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection was studied (81 inactive carriers, 69 with active chronic hepatitis, 36 with AdLD. Pre-C and CP mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. The pre-C stop codon G1896A mutation was the most frequent (83.9% and was associated with a lower risk of AdLD development (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.15-1.04; p = 0.04. HBV-DNA levels in patients with G1896A were not significantly different from the other patients carrying wild-type strains (p = 0.84. CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were associated with higher HBV-DNA level and increased liver disease severity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (≥ 40 years, male sex, high viral load (>4.3 log(10 IU/mL and CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were independent risk factors for AdLD development. Combination of these mutations was significantly associated with AdLD (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.8-8; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time the association of HBV viral load and CP mutations with the severity of liver disease in Moroccan HBV chronic carriers. The examination of CP mutations alone or in combination could be helpful for prediction of the clinical outcome.

  20. Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Abraham, Thomas; Sarkar, Satyajit; Wysocki, Piotr; Cecconi, Sabrina; Apfel, Franklin; Nurm, Ülla-Karin

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication has been identified as a core competence for guiding public health responses to infectious disease threats. The International Health Regulations (2005) call for all countries to build capacity and a comprehensive understanding of health risks before a public health emergency to allow systematic and coherent communication, response and management. Research studies indicate that while outbreak and crisis communication concepts and tools have long been on the agenda of public health officials, there is still a need to clarify and integrate risk communication concepts into more standardised practices and improve risk communication and health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. To address these challenges, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) convened a group of risk communication experts to review and integrate existing approaches and emerging concepts in the development of a training curriculum. This curriculum articulates a new approach in risk communication moving beyond information conveyance to knowledge- and relationship-building. In a pilot training this approach was reflected both in the topics addressed and in the methods applied. This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation.

  1. Stable lead isotopic characterisation of the historical record of environmental lead contamination in dated freshwater lake sediment cores from northern and central Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eades, L.J.; Farmer, J.G. [Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, EH9 3JJ, Scotland Edinburgh (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, A.B. [Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kirika, A.; Bailey-Watts, A.E. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, EH26 0QB, Scotland Penicuik (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-20

    Sediment cores from three Scottish freshwater lakes, Loch Ness in the remote north and Loch Lomond and the Lake of Menteith, much closer to the heavily populated and industrialised central belt, were analysed for 210Pb, 137Cs, Pb and stable Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb). The radionuclide data were used to establish chronologies for the Loch Ness and Loch Lomond cores, but a chronology could not be developed for the Lake of Menteith core, in which the surface sediment had been subject to intense mixing. Although Pb concentrations generally started increasing during the mid-17th Century, a small peak occurred for Loch Ness in the early 16th Century, perhaps attributable to the influence of medieval mining and smelting in mainland Europe. Temporal trends in the pattern of Pb accumulation were similar for Loch Ness and both sites in Loch Lomond, with 40-50% of the anthropogenic Pb deposited prior to the 20th Century. Fluxes of anthropogenic Pb to the lake sediments peaked during the 1950s at all locations where chronologies could be established. The 5-fold increase in anthropogenic Pb inventory for the southern basin of Loch Lomond relative to Loch Ness reflected geographical proximity to the main polluting sources. The 206Pb/207Pb data for anthropogenic Pb in the sediments from Loch Ness and Loch Lomond exhibited largely similar trends related to five different time periods. Pre-1820, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio was close to that for coal (1.181). From 1820 to 1900, a fairly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.17 probably resulted from a combination of emissions from the smelting of indigenous Pb ore (1.170) and coal burning (1.181) in Scotland, and industrial activity to the south in England, where Australian Pb of characteristically low 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.04) was already in use. From 1901 to 1930, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio declined by <0.01, due to the increasing influence of Australian Pb. From 1931 to 1975/1985, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of anthropogenic Pb declined by a

  2. Stable lead isotopic characterisation of the historical record of environmental lead contamination in dated freshwater lake sediment cores from northern and central Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, L J; Farmer, J G; MacKenzie, A B; Kirika, A; Bailey-Watts, A E

    2002-06-20

    Sediment cores from three Scottish freshwater lakes, Loch Ness in the remote north and Loch Lomond and the Lake of Menteith, much closer to the heavily populated and industrialised central belt were analysed for 210Pb, 137Cs, Pb and stable Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb). The radionuclide data were used to establish chronologies for the Loch Ness and Loch Lomond cores, but a chronology could not be developed for the Lake of Menteith core, in which the surface sediment had been subject to intense mixing. Although Pb concentrations generally started increasing during the mid-17th Century, a small peak occurred for Loch Ness in the early 16th Century, perhaps attributable to the influence of medieval mining and smelting in mainland Europe. Temporal trends in the pattern of Pb accumulation were similar for Loch Ness and both sites in Loch Lomond, with 40-50% of the anthropogenic Pb deposited prior to the 20th Century. Fluxes of anthropogenic Pb to the lake sediments peaked during the 1950s at all locations where chronologies could be established. The 5-fold increase in anthropogenic Pb inventory for the southern basin of Loch Lomond relative to Loch Ness reflected geographical proximity to the main polluting sources. The 206Pb/207Pb data for anthropogenic Pb in the sediments from Loch Ness and Loch Lomond exhibited largely similar trends related to five different time periods. Pre-1820, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio was close to that for coal (1.181). From 1820 to 1900, a fairly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio of approximately 1.17 probably resulted from a combination of emissions from the smelting of indigenous Pb ore (1.170) and coal burning (1.181) in Scotland, and industrial activity to the south in England, where Australian Pb of characteristically low 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.04) was already in use. From 1901 to 1930, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio declined by <0.01, due to the increasing influence of Australian Pb. From 1931 to 1975/1985, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of anthropogenic Pb

  3. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting with subacute and fatal course of disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börnke Christian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is an idiopathic disorder characterized by vasculitis within the dural confines. The clinical presentation shows a wide variation and the course and the duration of disease are heterogeneous. This rare but treatable disease provides a diagnostic challenge owing to the lack of pathognomonic tests and the necessity of a histological confirmation. Case presentation A 28-year-old patient presenting with headache and fluctuating signs of encephalopathy was treated on the assumption of viral meningoencephalitis. The course of the disease led to his death 10 days after hospital admission. Postmortem examination revealed primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Conclusion Primary angiitis of the central nervous system should always be taken into consideration when suspected infectious inflammation of the central nervous system does not respond to treatment adequately. In order to confirm the diagnosis with the consequence of a modified therapy angiography and combined leptomeningeal and brain biopsy should be considered immediately.

  4. Methodological aspects in quantitative translational neuroimaging in central nervous system diseases with Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müllauer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from central nervous system (CNS) diseases crucially depend on a sufficient supply with CNS active drugs that help them to control and endure their illness. As the site of action of CNS drugs is in the brain, these substances need to pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a physiological barrier seperating the blood circulation and the brain. However, CNS drug treatment is often accompanied by pharmacoresistance (drug resistance). Multidrug transporters, such as permeable glycoprotein (Pgp) are responsible for a gradient dependent transport of substances over the BBB. Drug resistance is hypothesised as a result of overactivity of multidrug transporters at the BBB, with the result of insufficient and poor CNS drug levels in the brain. In the case of epilepsy in up to 20 - 40% of patients drug resistance is observed. The influence of Ppg overexpression on drug resistance in epilepsy was studied using positron emission tomography (PET), a novel non-invasive nuclear imaging method, together with radioligands that interact with Pgp. Radiolabeled Pgp-substrates ((R)-[11C]verapamil), and inhibitors ([11C]elacridar and [11C]tariquidar) were developed and used to study the influence of Pgp and other transporters at the BBB in a translational research approach; in animal models of epilepsy and in humans. The aim in translational PET research is a direct comparision of gathered animal and human data. Consequently diverse methodological challenges arise, that need to be addressed and observed in order to enable a translation between species. To achieve full quantification of the function and density of drug transporters at the BBB in both, humans and rodents, kinetic modeling (compartmental modeling) was applied to the PET pharmacokinetic data. Estimated modeling parameters were in succession used to estimate biological and physiological processes of Pgp at the BBB. Subsequently, nonlinear mixed effects modeling was deployed to increase the mechanistic

  5. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Stable, Comparative Analyses of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Human Disease Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Alison J; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2017-07-01

    Human campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli , remains a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries, but the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis outbreaks remains poorly defined, largely due to limitations in the resolution and comparability of isolate characterization methods. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data enable the improvement of sequence-based typing approaches, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), by substantially increasing the number of loci examined. A core genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme defines a comprehensive set of those loci present in most members of a bacterial group, balancing very high resolution with comparability across the diversity of the group. Here we propose a set of 1,343 loci as a human campylobacteriosis cgMLST scheme (v1.0), the allelic profiles of which can be assigned to core genome sequence types. The 1,343 loci chosen were a subset of the 1,643 loci identified in the reannotation of the genome sequence of C. jejuni isolate NCTC 11168, chosen as being present in >95% of draft genomes of 2,472 representative United Kingdom campylobacteriosis isolates, comprising 2,207 (89.3%) C. jejuni isolates and 265 (10.7%) C. coli isolates. Validation of the cgMLST scheme was undertaken with 1,478 further high-quality draft genomes, containing 150 or fewer contiguous sequences, from disease isolate collections: 99.5% of these isolates contained ≥95% of the 1,343 cgMLST loci. In addition to the rapid and effective high-resolution analysis of large numbers of diverse isolates, the cgMLST scheme enabled the efficient identification of very closely related isolates from a well-defined single-source campylobacteriosis outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Cody et al.

  6. Occupational therapy for patients with chronic diseases: CVA, rheumatoid arthritis and progressive diseases of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the patients treated by occupational therapists have a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to describe the outlines of occupational therapy treatment for three specific groups of chronic diseases: progressive neurological diseases, cerebrovascular accident and

  7. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lozier

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  8. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  9. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  10. The central molecular clock is robust in the face of behavioural arrhythmia in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Fan; Possidente, Bernard; Lomas, David A; Crowther, Damian C

    2014-04-01

    Circadian behavioural deficits, including sleep irregularity and restlessness in the evening, are a distressing early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have investigated these phenomena by studying the circadian behaviour of transgenic Drosophila expressing the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). We find that Aβ expression results in an age-related loss of circadian behavioural rhythms despite ongoing normal molecular oscillations in the central clock neurons. Even in the absence of any behavioural correlate, the synchronised activity of the central clock remains protective, prolonging lifespan, in Aβ flies just as it does in control flies. Confocal microscopy and bioluminescence measurements point to processes downstream of the molecular clock as the main site of Aβ toxicity. In addition, there seems to be significant non-cell-autonomous Aβ toxicity resulting in morphological and probably functional signalling deficits in central clock neurons.

  11. Signals of the change in monsoonal precipitation at around 2,000 years BP in a sediment core off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    A 4.80 m long shallow water sediment core, collected from the inner shelf (at 22 m water depth) off Karwar near Kali River mouth is studied for foraminiferal tracers of palaeomonsoons. The climatic history of this core which represents the last 4...

  12. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: Evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.M. van den Berg (Linda); M.M. Favejee (Marein); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Methods: Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability

  13. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  15. On cerebrae blood circulation from data of radiocirculography in some diseases of central nervous system in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.G.; Stroganova, L.I.; Chirkin, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Results of radioisotope investigation of cerebral blood circulation in 202 children with different pathology of central nervous system are presented. Velocity of cerebral blood flow and time of semiaccumulation and semimoving a preparate were investigated by means of sup(113m)In. It is established that radiocirculography shows clearly the changes in the system of cerebral blood supply and in such diseases as vegetovascular distonia and hypertension syndrome, the radiocirculography data pass ahead the clinical picture

  16. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and ...

  17. Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system-the spectrum of imaging findings and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, Joseph M; Mtui, Edward; Pan, Yu-Ning; Li, Shan

    2017-12-01

    The infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spine can present with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, locations, and appearance. The purpose of this exhibit is to review the different patterns of their presentations, to illustrate their imaging characteristics and techniques, and to discuss their clinical features and pathology so that the correct diagnosis can be made and prompt intervention can be initiated on a timely fashion.

  18. Ranking candidate disease genes from gene expression and protein interaction: a Katz-centrality based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available Many diseases have complex genetic causes, where a set of alleles can affect the propensity of getting the disease. The identification of such disease genes is important to understand the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of pathogenesis, improve diagnosis and treatment of the disease, and aid in drug discovery. Current genetic studies typically identify chromosomal regions associated specific diseases. But picking out an unknown disease gene from hundreds of candidates located on the same genomic interval is still challenging. In this study, we propose an approach to prioritize candidate genes by integrating data of gene expression level, protein-protein interaction strength and known disease genes. Our method is based only on two, simple, biologically motivated assumptions--that a gene is a good disease-gene candidate if it is differentially expressed in cases and controls, or that it is close to other disease-gene candidates in its protein interaction network. We tested our method on 40 diseases in 58 gene expression datasets of the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database. On these datasets our method is able to predict unknown disease genes as well as identifying pleiotropic genes involved in the physiological cellular processes of many diseases. Our study not only provides an effective algorithm for prioritizing candidate disease genes but is also a way to discover phenotypic interdependency, cooccurrence and shared pathophysiology between different disorders.

  19. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakoun?, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopict...

  20. Structural changes of central white matter tracts in Kennedy's disease - a diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C C; Konrad, C; Sommer, J; Teismann, I; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-05-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy [Kennedy's disease (KD)] is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder of mainly spinal and bulbar motoneurons. Recent studies suggest a multisystem character of this disease. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize structural changes of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) in the central nervous system. Whole-brain-based voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses were applied to MRI data of eight genetically proven patients with KD and compared with 16 healthy age-matched controls. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis showed not only decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the brainstem, but also widespread changes in central WM tracts, whereas VBM analysis of the WM showed alterations primarily in the brainstem and cerebellum. There were no changes in GM volume. The FA value decrease in the brainstem correlated with the disease duration. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed subtle changes of central WM tract integrity, while GM and WM volume remained unaffected. In our patient sample, KD had more extended effects than previously reported. These changes could either be attributed primarily to neurodegeneration or reflect secondary plastic changes due to atrophy of lower motor neurons and reorganization of cortical structures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. The efficacy of an ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy with an 18G cutting needle for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hwa; Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Lee, Jae Kyo; Choi, Joon Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy with an 18G cutting needle in patients suspected of having a pancreatic disease by analyzing the diagnostic performance and complication rate. The study population comprised 35 consecutive patients who underwent an ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy using a high-speed biopsy gun accompanied with an 18G cutting-type needle between May of 2001 and October of 2005. The diagnostic performance (i.e., the acquisition rate and diagnostic accuracy) and complications associated with core needle biopsies were evaluated for its efficacy and safety. Thirty-six sessions of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsies were performed in 35 consecutive patients. All patients, except two (serous cystadenoma and autoimmune pancreatitis) were diagnosed with various subtypes of pancreatic cancer. The acquisition rate and diagnostic accuracy were 97% (35/36) and 94% (34/36), respectively. A complication occurred only in one patient (3%), which further proved to be a delayed complication (i.e., needle tract implantation). According to our findings, the ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy is a viable and safe method for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. Moreover, it enables the diagnosis of the pancreatic cancer subtype

  2. Central nervous system disease and genital disease in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are associated with different herpesviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van Elk; M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); De Jong, A. (Anton); S. Getu (Sarah); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHerpesvirus infection causes disease of variable severity in many species, including cetaceans. However, little is known about herpesvirus infection in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), despite being widespread in temperate coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, we

  3. Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: what consequences for emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Chistophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-03-31

    Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, and, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology and its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses and discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.

  4. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-01-01

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995

  5. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-05-30

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  6. Inflammatory bowel disease in central India: a single centre experience over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ajay K; Sircar, Shohini; Jain, Mayank; Adkar, Sagar; Waghmare, Chandrashekhar

    2012-10-01

    In this retrospective study, the records of all patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease between 2005 and 2010 were analysed. Ulcerative colitis is far more common than Crohn's disease in our setting. The incidence is similar in both sexes and the age at diagnosis for both is similar. Limited left-sided ulcerative colitis is more common. Crohn's disease is difficult to diagnose and is commonly treated as tuberculosis in our setting.

  7. NASH and atherosclerosis are two aspects of a shared disease : Central role for macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieghs, Veerle; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Hofker, Marten H.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    Macrophage infiltration into the atherosclerotic lesion is known to play a central role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. In contrast, the role of macrophages during the etiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been considered to be merely a late consequence of steatosis. However,

  8. [Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Xiong, C L; Zhou, Y B; Cao, H; Jiang, Q W

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014, the Aedes albopictus density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed; the sequence of Aedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad, and the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed. No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai. As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands, the proportion of Aedes albopictus in the residential area was significantly higher than that in the green lands(78.53% vs. 19.99%, χ(2) =15 525.168, PAedes albopictus in Shanghai and Aedes albopictus in Africa was quite far. No Aedes aegypti was found in Shanghai and its surrounding areas, while Aedes albopictus infestation in the central urban area of Shanghai was serious. Strict measures should be taken to reduce the Aedes albopictus density for the effective control Zika virus spread.

  9. Increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in central serous chorioretinopathy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Ni; Lian, Iebin; Chen, Yi-Chiao; Ho, Jau-Der

    2015-02-01

    To investigate peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) using a population-based database. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, longitudinal data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed. The study cohort comprised 835 patients with CSR and the control cohort comprised 4175 patients without CSR from January 2000 to December 2009. Conditional logistic regression was applied to examine the association of peptic ulcer disease and other possible risk factors for CSR, and stratified Cox regression models were applied to examine whether patients with CSR have an increased chance of peptic ulcer disease and hypertension development. The identifiable risk factors for CSR included peptic ulcer disease (adjusted odd ratio: 1.39, P = 0.001) and higher monthly income (adjusted odd ratio: 1.30, P = 0.006). Patients with CSR also had a significantly higher chance of developing peptic ulcer disease after the diagnosis of CSR (adjusted odd ratio: 1.43, P = 0.009). Peptic ulcer disease and higher monthly income are independent risk factors for CSR. Whereas, patients with CSR also had increased risk for peptic ulcer development.

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA encoding a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer's disease: Identification as the microtubule-associated protein tau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, M.; Wischik, C.M.; Crowther, R.A.; Walker, J.E.; Klug, A.

    1988-01-01

    Screening of cDNA libraries prepared from the frontal cortex of an Alzheimer's disease patient and from fetal human brain has led to isolation of the cDNA for a core protein of the paired helical filament of Alzheimer's disease. The partial amino acid sequence of this core protein was used to design synthetic oligonucleotide probes. The cDNA encodes a protein of 352 amino acids that contains a characteristic amino acid repeat in its carboxyl-terminal half. This protein is highly homologous to the sequence of the mouse microtubule-associated protein tau and thus constitutes the human equivalent of mouse tau. RNA blot analysis indicates the presence of two major transcripts, 6 and 2 kilobases long, with a wide distribution in normal human brain. Tau protein mRNAs were found in normal amounts in the frontal cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease. The proof that at least part of tau protein forms a component of the paired helical filament core opens the way to understanding the mode of formation of paired helical filaments and thus, ultimately, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease

  11. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijs, B.L.; Teunissen, C.E.; Goncharenko, N.; Betsou, F.; Blennow, K.; Baldeiras, I.; Brosseron, F.; Cavedo, E.; Fladby, T.; Froelich, L.; Gabryelewicz, T.; Gurvit, H.; Kapaki, E.; Koson, P.; Kulic, L.; Lehmann, S.; Lewczuk, P.; Lleo, A.; Maetzler, W.; Mendonca, A. de; Miller, A.M.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Mollenhauer, B.; Parnetti, L.; Rot, U.; Schneider, A.; Simonsen, A.H.; Tagliavini, F.; Tsolaki, M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Zboch, M.; Winblad, B.; Scheltens, P.; Zetterberg, H.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid

  12. A central role for TOR signalling in a yeast model for juvenile CLN3 disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Bond

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts provide an excellent genetically tractable eukaryotic system for investigating the function of genes in their biological context, and are especially relevant for those conserved genes that cause disease. We study the role of btn1, the orthologue of a human gene that underlies an early onset neurodegenerative disease (juvenile CLN3 disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCLs or Batten disease in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A global screen for genetic interactions with btn1 highlighted a conserved key signalling hub in which multiple components functionally relate to this conserved disease gene. This signalling hub includes two major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades, and centers on the Tor kinase complexes TORC1 and TORC2. We confirmed that yeast cells modelling CLN3 disease exhibit features consistent with dysfunction in the TORC pathways, and showed that modulating TORC function leads to a comprehensive rescue of defects in this yeast disease model. The same pathways may be novel targets in the development of therapies for the NCLs and related diseases.

  13. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS and the dissemination in time (DIT in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diagnosis list, including diseases with exacerbation, remitting periods and numerous treatable infectious diseases, which can mimic the MRI features of MS. We discuss the most relevant imaging features in several infectious diseases that resemble MS and examine the primary spatial distributions of lesions and the gadolinium enhancement patterns related to MS. Recognizing imaging "red flags" can be useful for the proper diagnostic evaluation of suspected cases of MS, facilitating the correct differential diagnosis by assessing the combined clinical, laboratory and MR imaging information.

  14. The association of Tarsonemus mites (Acari: Heterostigmata) with different apple developmental stages and apple core rot diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Van der Walt, Lené; Spotts, Robert A.; Smit, Francois J.; Jensen, Tamaryn; McLeod, Adéle

    2011-01-01

    Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine if there is a tendency of Tarsonemus mites to be associated with wet core rot (WCR) and dry core rot (DCR) apples, and (3) evalua...

  15. Household risk factors associated to infestation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Chagas disease vector in Central Region of Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Sandoval-Ruiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate risk factors facilitating the colonization of dwellings by Triatoma dimidiata in the central region of the state of Veracruz. Materials and methods. We applied socioeconomic questionnaires and entomologic surveys in three localities (Chavarrillo, Soyacuautla and Arroyo Agrio in central Veracruz involving 115 households. Results. We found that the main risk factors were the predominance of unplastered walls and particularly those made of light weight aggregate concrete blocks and wood. At Chavarrillo, houses usually have unplastered walls, whereas in Soyocuautla walls are commonly manufactured with wood. In Arroyo Agrio, the phenomenon was seasonal, and bugs were commonly found in the dry season, particularly in relatively new houses, less than 20 years old. Conclusions. These results help to improve the surveillance capacity for this vector and the control strategies to reduce the transmission of Chagas disease in the state of Veracruz and other sites where this species is present.

  16. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Central Cavity Free-Field Environment with the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-FF-CC-32-cl).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naranjo, Gerald E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lippert, Lance L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document presents the facilit y - recommended characteri zation o f the neutron, prompt gamma - ray, and delayed gamma - ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor ( ACRR ) for the cen tral cavity free - field environment with the 32 - inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environmen t is ACRR - FF - CC - 32 - cl. The neutron, prompt gamma - ray , and delayed gamma - ray energy spectra , uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma - ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the cavity . Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples . Acknowledgements The authors wish to th ank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work . Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  17. Applications of nutrient profiling: potential role in diet-related chronic disease prevention and the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, G; Rayner, M; Stockley, L; Scarborough, P; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2011-03-01

    A number of different nutrient-profiling models have been proposed and several applications of nutrient profiling have been identified. This paper outlines the potential role of nutrient-profiling applications in the prevention of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD), and considers the feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system, which could be modified for purpose, to underpin the multiple potential applications in a particular country. The 'Four 'P's of Marketing' (Product, Promotion, Place and Price) are used as a framework for identifying and for classifying potential applications of nutrient profiling. A logic pathway is then presented that can be used to gauge the potential impact of nutrient-profiling interventions on changes in behaviour, changes in diet and, ultimately, changes in DRCD outcomes. The feasibility of a core nutrient-profiling system is assessed by examining the implications of different model design decisions and their suitability to different purposes. There is substantial scope to use nutrient profiling as part of the policies for the prevention of DRCD. A core nutrient-profiling system underpinning the various applications is likely to reduce discrepancies and minimise the confusion for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. It seems feasible that common elements, such as a standard scoring method, a core set of nutrients and food components, and defined food categories, could be incorporated as part of a core system, with additional application-specific criteria applying. However, in developing and in implementing such a system, several country-specific contextual and technical factors would need to be balanced.

  18. Holocene eruptive activity of Yufu-Tsurumi volcano group found from piston cores in Beppu bay, Central Kyushu; Beppuwan core kara mita Yufu Tsurumi kazangun ni okeru kanshinsei no funka katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kusanagi, M. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Furusawa, A. [Dia Consultants Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan); Ui, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    With an objective to identify the Holocene eruptive activity of the Yufu-Tsurumi volcano group, analysis was made on the volcanic ash, Yufu-dake 1 (a product of the latest eruptive activity). The analysis used piston core samples collected in Beppu Bay. Volcanic ash deposited in lakes and inner bays are not subjected to erosion effect, hence remain in better condition than on-land deposits. A volcanic ash bed characteristically containing micro-crystal contained glass has existed, and so has a volcanic ash bed characteristically containing volcanic foam glass and polyhedral glass. The volcanic ash bed characteristically containing micro-crystal contained glass was found comparable with the Yufu-dake 1 volcanic ash bed originated in the Yufu-Tsurumi volcanic group, as proven from the stratigraphy, rock statement and refraction of the volcanic glass. As a result of performing a {sup 14}C age measurement on seashells in the core samples by using an accelerator mass analysis method, it was found that the eruption age of the Yufu-dake 1 volcanic ash dates back about 2,500 years ago. Core samples collected from lakes and inner bays contain much carbonic material used in the {sup 14}C age measurement. Therefore, investigation on volcanic ash deposited on ocean bottoms is effective. 25 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Gaucher disease in children: radiology of non-central nervous system manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, K.; Olsen, Oe.E.; Vellodi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The radiological findings in paediatric Gaucher disease (GD) are reviewed and future challenges for radiology are discussed. This overview is based on a literature review and our experience of children with GD in one of two national institutions for paediatric GD in the UK. GD is known to progress more rapidly in childhood. Current imaging is mainly suitable for ascertaining the complications of GD. The UK recommendations for routine radiological surveillance are discussed. With enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which dramatically modifies the course of the disorder, the challenge for radiology in the future is likely to be assessing treatment efficacy rather than the detection of disease complications. Disease manifestations are likely to change in those on ERT and the most notable recent alteration in the disease profile in childhood is the virtual disappearance of the acute bone crisis in this population

  20. Gaucher disease in children: radiology of non-central nervous system manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K. E-mail: kmchugh@gosh.nhs.uk; Olsen, Oe.E.; Vellodi, A

    2004-02-01

    The radiological findings in paediatric Gaucher disease (GD) are reviewed and future challenges for radiology are discussed. This overview is based on a literature review and our experience of children with GD in one of two national institutions for paediatric GD in the UK. GD is known to progress more rapidly in childhood. Current imaging is mainly suitable for ascertaining the complications of GD. The UK recommendations for routine radiological surveillance are discussed. With enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which dramatically modifies the course of the disorder, the challenge for radiology in the future is likely to be assessing treatment efficacy rather than the detection of disease complications. Disease manifestations are likely to change in those on ERT and the most notable recent alteration in the disease profile in childhood is the virtual disappearance of the acute bone crisis in this population.

  1. The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases.

  2. Simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion and optic nerve vasculitis in Crohn disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razek Georges Coussa

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: To our knowledge, this is the first case of unilateral CRAO and bilateral optic nerve occlusive vasculitis in Crohn disease, which should be considered as an etiology of retinal vascular occlusive disorders especially in young patients. It is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of the ophthalmic risks associated with Crohn disease as aggressive treatment with systemic steroids and immunosuppressive agents is often needed.

  3. Select tissue mineralconcentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from north-central Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Conner, Mary M.; Bedwell, Cathy L.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Miller, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of several North American cervid species. To begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and CWD in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (≥2 yr old) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging populati...

  4. Transient polyuria related to central diabetes insipidus caused by lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis in a patient treated for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masanori; Sato, Ai; Nishio, Shin-ichi; Uehara, Takeshi; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2010-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was hospitalized because of weight loss, finger tremor, thirst, polydipsia and increased urinary frequency. He was diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) and central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the enlarged posterior pituitary with thickened stalk. Histological examination obtained from biopsy of the pituitary revealed lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis. He received treatment with thiamazole (MMI) for GD and desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) for CDI. However, DDAVP administration could be discontinued as GD was gradually improved. This course indicates that not only the recovered renal response to arginine-vasopressin but also the immunomodulative effects of MMI might attribute to the improvement of polyuria.

  5. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Floroskoufi, Paraskewi; Raftopoulou, Maria; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr) which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on bra...

  6. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  7. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS): Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Byoung Dae

    2014-12-01

    Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS: Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Hur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. La enfermedad de Chagas en la zona central de Honduras: conocimientos, creencias y prácticas Knowledge, beliefs and practices about Chagas' disease in central Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ávila Montes

    1998-03-01

    December 1991 and in March 1993 a survey was conducted in 17 rural communities located in Central Honduras. The communities belonged to two areas where Chagas' disease is endemic. In one of them, disease control activities had been conducted. A total of 849 adults, one in each of an equal number of households, was interviewed. The objective of the survey was to investigate and compare in both locations knowledge about Chagas' disease and its routes of transmission, measures aimed at avoiding the presence of triatomines within households, beliefs surrounding the vector and its control, and the population's sources of information about the disease. A 23-item questionnaire was tested and precoded. Almost 100% of the subjects who were surveyed were able to identify the vector and to describe its habits, but only 30,1% knew that Triatoma is the vector for the disease and only about 6% associated it with a chronic heart condition. Around 47,9% of survey subjects indicated that eliminating triatomines from households is a personal responsibility, although 78% identified as the control measure the institutional application of insecticides. Personal contact between a health worker and community members was the chief source of information for those who mentioned having heard of Chagas' disease (41,0%. These results suggest that health education should be included as a component in the planification of control programs. The role played by triatomines in disease transmission should be emphasized, as well as the importance of carrying out household improvements, with community participation, as an effective and sustainable measure. To achieve greater impact, this component should be developed through interpersonal communication channels.

  10. Hereditary retinal eye diseases in childhood and youth affecting the central retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Nentwich

    2013-01-01

    Classic examinations for patients suffering from hereditary retinal dystrophies of the central retina are funduscopy - also using red-free light - visual-field tests, electrophysiologic tests as electro-retinogram [ERG] and multifocal ERG and tests evaluating color vision. Recently, new imaging modalities have been introduced into the clinical practice. The significance of these new methods such as high-resolution spectral-domain optic coherence tomography [SD-OCT] and fundus autofluorescence will be discussed as well as "next generation sequencing" as a new method for the analysis of genetic mutations in a larger number of patients.

  11. Survey of root rot diseases of sugar bett in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive survey was conducted during the summer and autumn of 2004 in sugar beet fields in the area of Larissa, Thessaly region, with plants showing symptoms of root rot diseases. The aim of the monitoring was to identify the causal agents of root rot diseases. In total, 76 sugar beet fields were surveyed and 5-10 diseased roots were examined from each field. Isolations, carried out on PDA, showed that two main fungal pathogens causing root rot were Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cryptogea. The former was isolated in 46% of the fields and the latter in 38% of the fields. In addition, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp., Scerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia violacea were isolated in 14%, 7%, 4% and 1% of the fields respectively. In most of the surveyed fields only one pathogen species was isolated and only in a few of them more than one fungal species was identified.

  12. Incidence of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria: Data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Angela O; Efekemo, Oghenevwairhe P; Soluade, Mojisola G; Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A

    2018-08-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most economically important viral diseases of cassava, an important staple food for over 800 million people in the tropics. Although several Cassava mosaic virus species associated with CMD have been isolated and characterized over the years, several new super virulent strains of these viruses have evolved due to genetic recombination between diverse species. In this data article, field survey data collected from 184 cassava farms in 12 South Western and North Central States of Nigeria in 2015 are presented and extensively explored. In each State, one cassava farm was randomly selected as the first farm and subsequent farms were selected at 10 km intervals, except in locations were cassava farms are sporadically located. In each selected farm, 30 cassava plants were sampled along two diagonals and all selected plant was scored for the presence or absence of CMD symptoms. Cassava mosaic disease incidence and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria are explored using relevant descriptive statistics, box plots, bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. In addition, correlation analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are performed to understand the relationship between the numbers of whiteflies counted, uninfected farms, infected farms, and the mean of symptom severity in and across the States under investigation. The data exploration provided in this data article is considered adequate for objective assessment of the incidence and symptom severity of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in farmers' fields in these parts of Nigeria where cassava is heavily cultivated.

  13. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Linda E M; Favejee, Marein M; Wens, Stephan C A; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Praet, Stephan F E; Reuser, Arnold J J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2015-07-19

    Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary outcome measures core stability, muscle function and body composition, were evaluated. Of 25 patients enrolled, 23 successfully completed the training. Improvements in endurance were shown by increases in maximum workload capacity (110 W before to 122 W after training, [95 % CI of the difference 6 · 0 to 19 · 7]), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (69 · 4 % and 75 · 9 % of normal, [2 · 5 to 10 · 4]), and maximum walking distance (6 min walk test: 492 meters and 508, [-4 · 4 to 27 · 7] ). There were increases in muscle strength of the hip flexors (156 · 4 N to 180 · 7 N [1 · 6 to 13 · 6) and shoulder abductors (143 · 1 N to 150 · 7 N [13 · 2 to 35 · 2]). As an important finding in secondary outcome measures the number of patients who were able to perform the core stability exercises rose, as did the core stability balancing time (p core stability exercises is feasible, safe and beneficial to adults with Pompe disease.

  14. Análisis de los efectos de 12 semanas de entrenamiento en la zona Central Core, en jugadoras de voleibol gimnastas de rítmica y su influencia en el dolor de espalda lumbar

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban García, Paula

    2016-01-01

    El dolor de espalda lumbar afecta entorno el 85-90% de la población, pudiendo también encontrarse como patología, en la población deportista. Se ha determinado, que deportes como la gimnasia rítmica y el voleibol, tienen como una de las lesiones con mayor incidencia, el dolor de espalda lumbar. Existe una gran tendencia en los últimos años, en la aplicación de programas de entrenamiento sobre la zona central CORE, en población con dolor crónico lumbar, encontrando reducciones en la intensidad...

  15. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Pitfalls on the replacement therapy for primary and central hypothyroidism in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Gisah Amaral; Paz-Filho, Gilberto; Mesa Junior, Cleo; Graf, Hans

    2018-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common hormone deficiencies in adults. Most of the cases, particularly those of overt hypothyroidism, are easily diagnosed and managed, with excellent outcomes if treated adequately. However, minor alterations of thyroid function determine nonspecific manifestations. Primary hypothyroidism due to chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is largely the most common cause of thyroid hormone deficiency. Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by decreased thyroid hormone secretion by an otherwise normal thyroid gland, due to lack of TSH. The standard treatment of primary and central hypothyroidism is hormone replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium (LT4). Treatment guidelines of hypothyroidism recommend monotherapy with LT4 due to its efficacy, long-term experience, favorable side effect profile, ease of administration, good intestinal absorption, long serum half-life and low cost. Despite being easily treatable with a daily dose of LT4, many patients remain hypothyroid due to malabsorption syndromes, autoimmune gastritis, pancreatic and liver disorders, drug interactions, polymorphisms in DIO2 (iodothyronine deiodinase 2), high fiber diet, and more frequently, non-compliance to LT4 therapy. Compliance to levothyroxine treatment in hypothyroidism is compromised by daily and fasting schedule. Many adult patients remain hypothyroid due to all the above mentioned and many attempts to improve levothyroxine therapy compliance and absorption have been made. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Gpr124 is essential for blood-brain barrier integrity in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junlei; Mancuso, Michael R; Maier, Carolina; Liang, Xibin; Yuki, Kanako; Yang, Lu; Kwong, Jeffrey W; Wang, Jing; Rao, Varsha; Vallon, Mario; Kosinski, Cynthia; Zhang, J J Haijing; Mah, Amanda T; Xu, Lijun; Li, Le; Gholamin, Sharareh; Reyes, Teresa F; Li, Rui; Kuhnert, Frank; Han, Xiaoyuan; Yuan, Jenny; Chiou, Shin-Heng; Brettman, Ari D; Daly, Lauren; Corney, David C; Cheshier, Samuel H; Shortliffe, Linda D; Wu, Xiwei; Snyder, Michael; Chan, Pak; Giffard, Rona G; Chang, Howard Y; Andreasson, Katrin; Kuo, Calvin J

    2017-04-01

    Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise is central to the etiology of diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders, endothelial receptor proteins that control BBB function are poorly defined. The endothelial G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr124 has been reported to be required for normal forebrain angiogenesis and BBB function in mouse embryos, but the role of this receptor in adult animals is unknown. Here Gpr124 conditional knockout (CKO) in the endothelia of adult mice did not affect homeostatic BBB integrity, but resulted in BBB disruption and microvascular hemorrhage in mouse models of both ischemic stroke and glioblastoma, accompanied by reduced cerebrovascular canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Constitutive activation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling fully corrected the BBB disruption and hemorrhage defects of Gpr124-CKO mice, with rescue of the endothelial gene tight junction, pericyte coverage and extracellular-matrix deficits. We thus identify Gpr124 as an endothelial GPCR specifically required for endothelial Wnt signaling and BBB integrity under pathological conditions in adult mice. This finding implicates Gpr124 as a potential therapeutic target for human CNS disorders characterized by BBB disruption.

  17. A High Explanatory Power Model of Foot and Mouth Disease Spread in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    millions of animals. Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, hedgehogs, elephants, llama, alpaca and...defines infectivity to be “a factor that determines the behavior of the disease, once individuals at a location become infected.” It includes the

  18. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  19. Antibody response against gastrointestinal antigens in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banati, M; Csecsei, P; Koszegi, E

    2013-01-01

    TG), intrinsic factor (IF), parietal cells (PC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) were screened in the sera of 45 patients with AQP4-seropositive neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum diseases (NMO/NMO-SD), 17 patients with AQP4-seronegative NMO, 85 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis...

  20. Feasibility of central co-ordinated EMA/CO for gestational trophoblastic disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, Clasien; Rietbroek, Ron C.; Lok, Christianne A. R.; ten Kate-Booij, Marianne J.; Lammes, Frits B.; Ansink, Anca C.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, high risk gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) patients are treated in different referral hospitals with a national working party on trophoblastic tumours having a co-ordinating function. Our purpose was to evaluate whether this policy is a satisfactory alternative to complete

  1. Time Estimation in Alzheimer's Disease and the Role of the Central Executive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Allegra, Adele; Cardaci, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of short-term memory and attention in time estimation. For this purpose we studied prospective time verbal estimation in 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and compared their performance with that of 21 matched normal controls in two different conditions: during a digit span task and during an…

  2. Central Nervous System Brucellosis Granuloma and White Matter Disease in Immunocompromised Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqwaifly, Mohammed; Al-Ajlan, Fahad S; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Al Semari, Abdulaziz

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a multisystem zoonotic disease. We report an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with seizures in an immunocompromised patient in Saudi Arabia who underwent renal transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffuse white matter lesions. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for Brucella sp. Granuloma was detected in a brain biopsy specimen.

  3. Property of lysosomal storage disease associated with midbrain pathology in the central nervous system of Lamp-2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akiko; Kikuchi, Hisae; Fujita, Hiromi; Yamada, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kabuta, Tomohiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Wada, Keiji; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) is the gene responsible for Danon disease, which is characterized by cardiomyopathy, autophagic vacuolar myopathy, and variable mental retardation. To elucidate the function of LAMP-2 in the central nervous system, we investigated the neuropathological changes in Lamp-2-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that Lamp-1 and cathepsin D-positive lysosomal structures increased in the large neurons of the mouse brain. Ubiquitin-immunoreactive aggregates and concanavalin A-positive materials were detected in these neurons. By means of ultrastructural studies, we found various-shaped accumulations, including lipofuscin, glycolipid-like materials, and membranous structures, in the neurons and glial cells of Lamp-2-deficient brains. In deficient mice, glycogen granules accumulated in hepatocyte lysosomes but were not observed in neurons. These pathological features indicate lysosomal storage disease; however, the findings are unlikely a consequence of deficiency of a single lysosomal enzyme. Although previous study results have shown a large amount of autophagic vacuoles in parenchymal cells of the visceral organs, these findings were rarely detected in the brain tissue except for some axons in the substantia nigra, in which abundant activated microglial cells with increased lipid peroxidation were observed. Thus, LAMP-2 in the central nervous system has a possible role in the degradation of the various macromolecules in lysosomes and an additional function concerning protection from oxidative stress, especially in the substantia nigra. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Percutaneous endoscopic sigmoid colostomy for irrigation in the management of bowel dysfunction of adults with central neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramwell, A; Rice-Oxley, M; Bond, A; Simson, J N L

    2011-10-01

    Bowel dysfunction results in a major lifestyle disruption for many patients with severe central neurologic disease. Percutaneous endoscopic sigmoid colostomy for irrigation (PESCI) allows antegrade irrigation of the distal large bowel for the management of both incontinence and constipation. This study prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of PESCI. A PESCI tube was placed endoscopically in the sigmoid colon of 25 patients to allow antegrade irrigation. Control of constipation and fecal incontinence was improved for 21 (84%) of the 25 patients. These patients were followed up for 6-83 months (mean, 43 months), with long-term success for 19 (90%) of the patients. No PESCI had to be removed for technical reasons or for PESCI complications. Late removal of the PESCI was necessary for 2 of the 21 patients. A modified St. Marks Fecal Incontinence Score to assess bowel function before and after PESCI showed a highly significant improvement (P irrigation in the management bowel dysfunction for selected patients with central neurologic disease. A successful PESCI is very likely to continue functioning satisfactorily for a long time without technical problems or local complications.

  5. Temporal relation of antigenaemia and loss of antibodies to core antigens to development of clinical disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Nielsen, C M; Vestergaard, B F

    1987-01-01

    and 16 months after the estimated time of seroconversion. These results show that the late stages of HIV infection are characterised by increased production of antigen and a decrease in antibodies directed against the core protein. Antigenaemia indicates a poor prognosis; and as the antigen test......A total of 276 sequential serum samples from 34 men with antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) followed up for two to seven years were analysed for HIV antigen and antibodies to the viral core and envelope proteins. Results were correlated with clinical outcome and CD4 T lymphocyte...... count. Both antigenaemia and the disappearance of antibodies to the core protein were associated with development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related complex and depletion of CD4 cells. Thus AIDS or AIDS related complex developed in eight out of 16 patients...

  6. Lack of differential pattern in central adiposity and metabolic syndrome in Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, L A

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the mechanism is unclear. A pathway from reflux to inflammation through metaplasia is the dominant hypothesis, and an added role relating to visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome has been mooted in Barrett\\'s esophagus (BE) patients. Whether BE differs from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obesity and metabolic syndrome profiles is unclear, and this was the focus of this study. Patients with proven BE or GERD were randomly selected from the unit data registry and invited to attend for metabolic syndrome screening, anthropometry studies including segmental body composition analysis, and laboratory tests including fasting lipids, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. One hundred and eighteen BE patients and 113 age- and sex-matched GERD controls were studied. The incidence of obesity (body mass index >30 kg\\/m(2)) was 36% and 38%, respectively, with the pattern of fat deposition predominantly central and an estimated trunk fat mass of 13 and 14 kg, respectively. Using the NCEP criteria, metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in the BE cohort (30% vs 20%, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference using IDF criteria (42% vs 37%, P= 0.340). Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome are common in both Barrett\\'s and GERD cohorts, but not significantly different, suggesting that central obesity and the metabolic syndrome does not per se impact on the development of BE in a reflux population. In BE, the importance of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in disease progression merits further study.

  7. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56% patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44% were female. Twenty-three (56% patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  8. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  9. Thermal response of core and central-cavity components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in the absence of forced convection coolant flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, R.L.; Sanders, J.P.

    1976-09-01

    A means of determining the thermal responses of the core and the components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor after loss of forced coolant flow is discussed. A computer program, using a finite-difference technique, is presented together with a solution of the confined natural convection. The results obtained are reasonable and demonstrate that the computer program adequately represents the confined natural convection

  10. Central Dog-ma Disease Detectives: A Molecular Biology Inquiry Activity for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, T. K.; Yuh, P.; Black, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) and Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) are programs at the University of California at Santa Cruz designed to support minority undergraduate students majoring in the sciences. Each summer MARC/MBRS sponsors a Summer Institute that involves week long "rotations" with different faculty mentors. In 2008, the Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Professional Development Program (PDP) was responsible for overseeing one week of the Summer Institute, and designed it to be a Biomedical Short Course. As part of this short course, we designed a four-hour activity in which students collected their own data and explored relationships between the basic biomolecules DNA, RNA, and protein. The goal was to have the students use experimental data to support their explanation of the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology. Here we describe details of our activity and provide a post-teaching reflection on its success.

  11. The ApoE receptors Vldlr and Apoer2 in central nervous system function and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    The LDL receptor (LDLR) family has long been studied for its role in cholesterol transport and metabolism; however, the identification of ApoE4, an LDLR ligand, as a genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease has focused attention on the role this receptor family plays in the CNS. Surprisingly, it was discovered that two LDLR family members, ApoE receptor 2 (Apoer2) and VLDL receptor (Vldlr), play key roles in brain development and adult synaptic plasticity, primarily by mediating Reelin signaling. This review focuses on Apoer2 and Vldlr signaling in the CNS and its role in human disease. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Andrew J.; Lips, Karen R.; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing...

  13. Central syntropic effects elicited by trigeminal proprioceptive equilibrium in Alzheimer’s disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cicco Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presented patient, affected by Alzheimer’s disease, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation under occlusal proprioceptive un-balance and re-balance conditions. Saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic examinations were performed in order to detect connected trigeminal proprioceptive motor patterns able to interfere with reticular formation cerebellum functions linked to visual and procedural processes prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man, affected by Alzheimer’s disease and with a neuropsychological evaluation issued by the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit, underwent an electromyographic investigation of the masseter muscles in order to assess their functional balance. The patient showed a bilateral lack of all inferior molars. The extreme myoelectric asymmetry in dental occlusion suggested the rebalancing of masseter muscular functions through concurrent transcutaneous stimulation of the trigeminal nerve supramandibular and submandibular motor branches. The above-mentioned method allows detection of symmetric craniomandibular muscular relation that can be kept constant through the use of a cusp bite modeled on the inferior dental arch, called orthotic-syntropic bite. A few days later, the patient underwent a new neuropsychological investigation, together with a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, and saccadic, pupillometric video-oculographic examinations in occlusal un-balance and re-balance conditions. Conclusions Comparative data analysis has shown that a re-balanced occlusal condition can improve a patient’s cognitive-attentive functions. Moreover, the saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic investigations have proven useful both in analyzing reticulo-cerebellar subcortical systems, prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease, and in implementing neurological evaluations.

  14. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of disease in the central nervous system in employees at Danish electric companies; Udsaettelse for elektromagnetiske felter og risiko for sygdomme i det centrale nervesystem blandt ansatte ved danske elselskaber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2002-07-01

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields has been associated with neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Material and method: I studied the incidence of disease in the central nervous system in 30,631 persons employed at Danish electric companies between 1900 and 1993. I linked the cohort to the nationwide, population-based Danish National Register of Patients and compared the number of cases of these diseases found between 1978 and 1993 with the corresponding rates in the general population. In addition, I fit the data on utility workers to a multiplicative Poisson regression model in relation to estimated levels of exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Results: Overall, there was an increase in the risk of senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effects; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. Discussion: The increased risk of senile dementia and motor-neuron diseases may be associated with above average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields. (au)

  15. The Role of the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems in Rotator Cuff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachasson, Damien; Singh, Anshuman; Shah, Sameer; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) disease is an extremely common condition associated with shoulder pain, reduced functional capacities and impaired quality of life. It primarily involves alterations in tendon health and mechanical properties that can ultimately lead to tendon failure. RC tendon tears induce progressive muscular changes that negatively impact surgical reparability of the RC tendons and clinical outcomes. At the same time, a significant base of clinical data suggests a relatively weak relationship between RC integrity and clinical presentation, emphasizing the multifactorial aspects of RC disease. This review aims to summarize the potential contribution of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal neural factors that may: (i) exacerbate structural and functional muscle changes induced by tendon tear, (ii) compromise the reversal of these changes during surgery and rehabilitation, (iii) contribute to pain generation and persistence of pain, iv) impair shoulder function through reduced proprioception, kinematics and muscle recruitment, and iv) help to explain interindividual differences and response to treatment. Given the current clinical and scientific interest in peripheral nerve injury in the context of RC disease and surgery, we carefully reviewed this body of literature with a particular emphasis for suprascapular neuropathy that has generated a large number of studies in the past decade. Within this process, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and suggest research avenues for scientists and clinicians. PMID:26189809

  16. Economic losses due to important diseases of bovines in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the factors associated with morbidity and mortality rates as well as to evaluate economic losses due to important diseases of bovines, viz. mastitis, HS and surra in Purvanchal Region of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A sample of 300 livestock owners were selected from each of five divisions of Purvanchal region of the state of Uttar Pradesh using multistage stratified sampling with simple random sampling without replacement at village level. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates due to different diseases were determined using standard statistical indices. Association between cattle morbidity and mortality rates and different factors was calculated by χ2 Test. The total economic loss due to diseases in bovines was worked out as sum of mortality loss, loss in milk yield and cost of treatment of affected animals. Results: The overall morbidity rates of mastitis, HS and surra in cattle and buffaloes were 15.5%, 7.1% and 5.3%, respectively. The mortality and case fatality due to HS was found higher in the young calves as compared to the adults in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Mortality and case fatality due to surra was greater in the adult animals as compared to the younger ones in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Total losses due to mastitis per lactation in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 868.34, INR 1, 314.10 and INR 1, 272.36, respectively. Total losses due to HS per animal in ND cows, CB cows and buffaloes were INR 2, 355.78, INR 3, 228.52 and INR 4, 262.57, respectively. Total losses due to surra per animal in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 3, 328.18, INR 6, 193 and INR 9, 872.33, respectively. Conclusion: The study thus revealed significant losses due to diseases in large ruminants on. There is thus ample scope for preventive measures to control the disease bovines.

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF GBM HEPARAN-SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN CORE PROTEIN AND SIDE-CHAINS IN HUMAN GLOMERULAR-DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBORN, J; VANDENHEUVEL, LPWJ; BAKKER, MAH; VEERKAMP, JH; ASSMANN, KJM; WEENING, JJ; BERDEN, JHM

    Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing either the core protein or the heparan sulfate (HS) side chain of human GBM heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), we investigated their glomerular distribution on cryostat sections of human kidney tissues. The study involved 95 biopsies comprising twelve

  18. Comparative Study of Metadata Elements Used in the Website of Central Library of Universities Subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology with the Dublin Core Metadata Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Babaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been carried out with the aim of studying the web sites of central libraries of universities subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology usage of metadata elements and its comparison with Dublin Core standard elements. This study was a comparative survey, in which 40 websites of academic library by using Internet Explorer browser. Then the HTML pages of these websites were seen through the Source of View menu, and metadata elements of each websites were extracted and entered in the checklist. Then, with using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean analysis of data was discussed. Research findings showed that the reviewed websites did not use any Dublin Core metadata elements, general metadata Markup language used in design of all websites, the amount of metadata elements used in website, Central Library of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Iran Science and Industries with 57% in first ranked and Shahid Beheshti University with 49% in second ranked and the International University of Imam Khomeini with 40% was in third ranked. The approach to web designers was determined too that as follows: the content of source in first ranked and attention to physical appearance source in second ranked and also ownership of source in third position.

  19. Dynamic Changes Analysis and Hotspots Detection of Land Use in the Central Core Functional Area of Jing-Jin-Ji from 2000 to 2015 Based on Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article uses GIS spatial analysis and grid technologies to study the dynamic changes, hotspot regions, and driving forces in land use of the central core functional area of Jing-Jin-Ji. The research results are as follows: from 2000 to 2015, the main types of land use in the central core functional area of Jing-Jin-Ji are cultivated land, woodland, and built-up land. In the period of 2005–2010, the transfer between built-up land and cultivated land was frequent. The dynamic degree of single land use in unused land was highest. It also finds out that the dynamic degree of the integrated land use from 2005 to 2010 was higher. The center of gravity transfer of the dynamic degree of integrated land use was concentrated in research area. As for the hotspots, their number and scope are increasing, and the positions located in the edge of original main urban area and developed transportation network. The main characteristics of land use dynamic change in the study area are the rapid decrease of cultivated land area and rapid growth of built-up land. The spatial agglomeration of economic factors caused by human activities has an important influence on the spatial and temporal dynamic changes of land use.

  20. The central role of AMP-kinase and energy homeostasis impairment in Alzheimer's disease: a multifactor network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caberlotto, Laura; Lauria, Mario; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Scotti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia worldwide, affecting the elderly population. It is characterized by the hallmark pathology of amyloid-β deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and extensive neuronal degeneration in the brain. Wealth of data related to Alzheimer's disease has been generated to date, nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease is still unknown. Here we described a method for the combined analysis of multiple types of genome-wide data aimed at revealing convergent evidence interest that would not be captured by a standard molecular approach. Lists of Alzheimer-related genes (seed genes) were obtained from different sets of data on gene expression, SNPs, and molecular targets of drugs. Network analysis was applied for identifying the regions of the human protein-protein interaction network showing a significant enrichment in seed genes, and ultimately, in genes associated to Alzheimer's disease, due to the cumulative effect of different combinations of the starting data sets. The functional properties of these enriched modules were characterized, effectively considering the role of both Alzheimer-related seed genes and genes that closely interact with them. This approach allowed us to present evidence in favor of one of the competing theories about AD underlying processes, specifically evidence supporting a predominant role of metabolism-associated biological process terms, including autophagy, insulin and fatty acid metabolic processes in Alzheimer, with a focus on AMP-activated protein kinase. This central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis regulates a series of brain functions altered in Alzheimer's disease and could link genetic perturbation with neuronal transmission and energy regulation, representing a potential candidate to be targeted by therapy.

  1. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240} PU core : a cylindrical assemby with mixed (PU, U)-oxide fuel and a central high {sup 240} PU zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; Schaefer, R. W.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2007-10-01

    Over a period of 30 years more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. The term 'benchmark' in a ZPR program connotes a particularly simple loading aimed at gaining basic reactor physics insight, as opposed to studying a reactor design. In fact, the ZPR-6/7 Benchmark Assembly (Reference 1) had a very simple core unit cell assembled from plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U3O8, and plutonium. The ZPR-6/7 core cell-average composition is typical of the interior region of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) of the era. It was one part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program,a which provided integral experiments characterizing the important features of

  2. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) Bucket Located in the Central Cavity on the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-PLG-CC-32-cl).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J.,; Vehar, David W.; Lippert, Lance L.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2015-06-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the polyethylene-lead-graphite (PLG) bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-PLG-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra, uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work. Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  3. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  4. GREEN CORE HOUSE

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    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  5. The role of transposable elements in health and diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Dubnau, Joshua; Ponomarev, Igor; Gage, Fred H

    2013-11-06

    First discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1940s, transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that in some cases have the ability to move along chromosomes or "transpose" in the genome. This revolutionary finding was initially met with resistance by the scientific community and viewed by some as heretical. A large body of knowledge has accumulated over the last 60 years on the biology of TEs. Indeed, it is now known that TEs can generate genomic instability and reconfigure gene expression networks both in the germline and somatic cells. This review highlights recent findings on the role of TEs in health and diseases of the CNS, which were presented at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience meeting. The work of the speakers in this symposium shows that TEs are expressed and active in the brain, challenging the dogma that neuronal genomes are static and revealing that they are susceptible to somatic genomic alterations. These new findings on TE expression and function in the CNS have major implications for understanding the neuroplasticity of the brain, which could hypothetically have a role in shaping individual behavior and contribute to vulnerability to disease.

  6. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-03

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity.

  7. Meta-Review of CSF core biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease: the state-of-the-art after the new revised diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eFerreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current research criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD include Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF biomarkers into the diagnostic algorithm. However, spreading their use to the clinical routine is still questionable. Objective: To provide an updated, systematic and critical review on the diagnostic utility of the CSF core biomarkers for AD. Data sources: MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and CRD.Eligibility criteria: 1a Systematic reviews with meta-analysis; 1b Primary studies published after the new revised diagnostic criteria; 2 Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of at least one CSF core biomarker.Results: The diagnostic performance of CSF biomarkers is generally satisfactory. They are optimal for discriminating AD patients from healthy controls. Their combination may also be suitable for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI prognosis. However, CSF biomarkers fail to distinguish AD from other forms of dementia. Limitations: 1 use of clinical diagnosis as standard instead of pathological postmortem confirmation; 2 variability of methodological aspects; 3 insufficiently long follow-up periods in MCI studies; and 4 lower diagnostic accuracy in primary care compared with memory clinics. Conclusions: Additional work needs to be done to validate the application of CSF core biomarkers as they are proposed in the new revised diagnostic criteria. The use of CSF core biomarkers in clinical routine is more likely if these limitations are overcome. Early diagnosis is going to be of utmost importance when effective pharmacological treatment will be available and the CSF core biomarkers can also be implemented in clinical trials for drug development.

  8. Meta-Review of CSF Core Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease: The State-of-the-Art after the New Revised Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniel; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Sarría, Antonio; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Current research criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers into the diagnostic algorithm. However, spreading their use to the clinical routine is still questionable. Objective: To provide an updated, systematic and critical review on the diagnostic utility of the CSF core biomarkers for AD. Data sources: MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and CRD. Eligibility criteria: (1a) Systematic reviews with meta-analysis; (1b) Primary studies published after the new revised diagnostic criteria; (2) Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of at least one CSF core biomarker. Results: The diagnostic performance of CSF biomarkers is generally satisfactory. They are optimal for discriminating AD patients from healthy controls. Their combination may also be suitable for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prognosis. However, CSF biomarkers fail to distinguish AD from other forms of dementia. Limitations: (1) Use of clinical diagnosis as standard instead of pathological postmortem confirmation; (2) variability of methodological aspects; (3) insufficiently long follow-up periods in MCI studies; and (4) lower diagnostic accuracy in primary care compared with memory clinics. Conclusion: Additional work needs to be done to validate the application of CSF core biomarkers as they are proposed in the new revised diagnostic criteria. The use of CSF core biomarkers in clinical routine is more likely if these limitations are overcome. Early diagnosis is going to be of utmost importance when effective pharmacological treatment will be available and the CSF core biomarkers can also be implemented in clinical trials for drug development. PMID:24715863

  9. In vivo imaging in autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    Intravital imaging is becoming more popular and is being used to visualize cellular motility and functions. In contrast to in vitro analysis, which resembles in vivo analysis, intravital imaging can be used to observe and analyze cells directly in vivo. In this review, I will summarize recent imaging studies of autoreactive T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) and provide technical background. During their in vivo journey, autoreactive T cells interact with many different cells. At first, autoreactive T cells interact with endothelial cells in the airways of the lung or with splenocytes, where they acquire a migratory phenotype to infiltrate into the CNS. After arriving at the CNS, they interact with endothelial cells of the leptomeningeal vessels or the choroid plexus before passing through the blood-brain barrier. CNS-infiltrating T cells become activated by recognizing endogenous autoantigens presented by local antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This activation was visualized in vivo by using protein-based sensors. One such sensor detects changes in intracellular calcium concentration as an early marker of T cell activation. Another sensor detects translocation of Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) from cytosol to nucleus as a definitive sign of T cell activation. Importantly, intravital imaging is not just used to visualize cellular behavior. Together with precise analysis, intravital imaging deepens our knowledge of cellular functions in living organs and also provides a platform for developing therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The central nervous system phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a transient disorder of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mateen, Majeed; Craig, Alexa Kanwit; Chance, Phillip F

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 (CMTX1) disease and central nervous system manifestations and review 19 cases from the literature. Our first case had not been previously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the second case, although known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, was suspected of having CMTX1 after presentation with central nervous system manifestations. The most common central nervous system manifestations were transient and included dysarthria, ataxia, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis resembling periodic paralysis. Of the 21 patients, 19 presented at 21 years of age or younger, implicating CMTX1 with transient central nervous system manifestations as a disorder that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CMTX1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with transient central nervous system phenomena, including stroke-like episodes, tetraparesis suggestive of periodic paralysis, dysarthria, ataxia, or combinations of these deficits. Reversible, bilateral, nonenhancing white matter lesions and restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging are characteristic features of the central nervous system phenotype of CMTX1.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus typing from foot-and-mouth outbreaks in the central provinces of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Luong Hien

    2000-01-01

    A total of 167 tissue samples were collected from Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected animals from 57 FMD outbreaks to detect the sero-type of the FMD virus by the ELISA technique. The ELISA kit has been prepared and standardised by the World Reference Laboratory (WRL), UK and supplied under a Research Contract as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project. Eight tissue samples from cattle and one tissue sample from pig were sent to WRL for further study on the sero-type and to characterize the FMD viruses present in Viet Nam. The study was carried out from March 1996 to May 1998 in the central region of Viet Nam and the FMD type O virus was detected in these outbreaks only. The FMD type O virus from cattle and the FMD type O virus from pig are two distinct FMD type O viruses in Viet Nam. (author)

  12. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutsis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX, carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars. Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis.

  13. Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in x-linked charcot-marie-tooth disease with central nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Floroskoufi, Paraskewi; Raftopoulou, Maria; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr) which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars). Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis.

  14. Disease Transmission by Misfolded Prion-Protein Isoforms, Prion-Like Amyloids, Functional Amyloids and the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daus, Martin L

    2016-01-04

    In 1982, the term "prions" (proteinaceous infectious particles) was coined to specify a new principle of infection. A misfolded isoform of a cellular protein has been described as the causative agent of a fatal neurodegenerative disease. At the beginning of prion research scientists assumed that the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) was a virus, but some unconventional properties of these pathogens were difficult to bring in line with the prevailing viral model. The discovery that prions (obviously devoid of any coding nucleic acid) can store and transmit information similarly to DNA was initially even denoted as being "heretical" but is nowadays mainly accepted by the scientific community. This review describes, from a historical point of view, how the "protein-only hypothesis" expands the Central Dogma. Definition of both, the prion principle and the Central Dogma, have been essential steps to understand information storage and transfer within and among cells and organisms. Furthermore, the current understanding of the infectivity of prion-proteins after misfolding is summarized succinctly. Finally, prion-like amyloids and functional amyloids, as found in yeast and bacteria, will be discussed.

  15. Disease Transmission by Misfolded Prion-Protein Isoforms, Prion-Like Amyloids, Functional Amyloids and the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Daus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982, the term “prions” (proteinaceous infectious particles was coined to specify a new principle of infection. A misfolded isoform of a cellular protein has been described as the causative agent of a fatal neurodegenerative disease. At the beginning of prion research scientists assumed that the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE was a virus, but some unconventional properties of these pathogens were difficult to bring in line with the prevailing viral model. The discovery that prions (obviously devoid of any coding nucleic acid can store and transmit information similarly to DNA was initially even denoted as being “heretical” but is nowadays mainly accepted by the scientific community. This review describes, from a historical point of view, how the “protein-only hypothesis” expands the Central Dogma. Definition of both, the prion principle and the Central Dogma, have been essential steps to understand information storage and transfer within and among cells and organisms. Furthermore, the current understanding of the infectivity of prion-proteins after misfolding is summarized succinctly. Finally, prion-like amyloids and functional amyloids, as found in yeast and bacteria, will be discussed.

  16. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases: risk assessment, general considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Is'haqi, Arman; Is'haqi, Mohammad Ali; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahamaty, Fatemeh; Banki, Abdolali

    2014-08-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  17. Presence and characterization of Escherichia coli virulence genes isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Argentina

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    Fernando A. Bessone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main pathogen of neonatal and post weaning diarrhea and edema disease (ED is Escherichia coli and pathotypes involved are enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and shiga toxigenic (ETEC, EPEC, and STEC, respectively. Those diseases cause economic loss in pig production. Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of strains expressing virulence markers genes and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of E. coli from clinical cases of post weaning diarrhea and ED in farms in the central area of Argentina. Materials and Methods: Intensive pig farms from the central region of Argentina were sampled. Intestinal mucosa swabs from pigs with diarrhea were taken, seeded on MacConkey agar plates, biochemically typified and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antibiograms were made by disk-diffusion method. Results: A total of 54 strains from clinical cases studied showed PCR findings: 88.88% (48/54 expressed at least one gene coding for a virulence factor. Colonization factors found were: 39.58% of strains had F18, 33.33% were F4 and 31.25% adhesin involved in diffuse adherence-I; 29.17%, 25%, and 2.1% expressed LT, STb, and STa, respectively. 25% were STx and 16.67% were eae positive. Only 2.1% were STx2. The most active antibiotics against most strains were gentamicin and ceftiofur, but resistance profiles against many antibiotics were found. Conclusion: High circulation of pathogens strains of E. coli among pigs with diarrhea with an extended antibiotic resistance profile.

  18. Ethnic differences of intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Tham, Yih Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Zheng, Yingfeng; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-10-01

    To determine the ethnic differences in the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in a multi-ethnic Asian population by self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 10 033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3280 Malays, and 3400 Indians) aged >40 years. Participants underwent standardized systemic and ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. The IOP readings were obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry (Haag-Streit, Konig, Switzerland) before pupil dilation. The CCT was measured with ultrasound pachymetry. Genetic ancestry was derived using principal component (PC) analysis. Regression models were used to investigate the association of IOP and CCT with potential risk factors and genetic ancestry. Intraocular pressure and CCT. After excluding participants with a history of glaucoma surgery or medication, refractive surgery, corneal edema, or corneal dystrophy, IOP and CCT readings were available for 3251 Chinese, 3232 Malays, and 3317 Indians. The mean IOP readings in the Chinese, Malay, and Indian participants were 14.3±3.1, 15.3±3.7, and 15.8±2.9 mmHg, respectively (P Chinese, 6.2% in Malays, and 4% in Indians (P Malay and Indian participants on average had 0.81 and 1.43 mmHg higher IOP levels, respectively, than Chinese (P Chinese, 540.9±33.6 μm in Malays, and 540.4±33.6 μm in Indians (P Chinese, 68.5% in Malays, and 66.2% in Indians (P Chinese have the thickest CCT but lowest IOP among the 3 major ethnic groups. In addition, there is a higher proportion of Malays with IOP ≥21 mmHg and CCT Chinese or Indians. This disparity across ethnic groups should be taken into account by future studies investigating IOP and CCT as risk factors or diagnostic tests for glaucoma in Asian populations. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology-Polycystic Kidney Disease (SONG-PKD) : Study protocol for establishing a core outcome set in polycystic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Sautenet, Benedicte; Rangan, Gopala; Craig, Jonathan C.; Ong, Albert C. M.; Chapman, Arlene; Ahn, Curie; Chen, Dongping; Coolican, Helen; Kao, Juliana Tze-Wah; Gansevoort, Ron; Perrone, Ronald; Harris, Tess; Torres, Vicente; Pei, York; Kerr, Peter G.; Ryan, Jessica; Gutman, Talia; Howell, Martin; Ju, Angela; Manera, Karine E.; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Hamiwka, Lorraine A.; Tong, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common potentially life threatening inherited kidney disease and is responsible for 5-10% of cases of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Cystic kidneys may enlarge up to 20 times the weight of a normal kidney due to the

  20. Influence of Marek’s disease virus on the core-gut microbiome of chickens resistant or susceptible to Marek’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an a-herpesvirus and the causative agent for the lymphoproliferative disease of chickens known as Marek’s disease (MD). Worldwide poultry industry losses due to MD amount to $1-2 billion per year. Presently, there is limited knowledge on the potential influence of MDV ...

  1. Chronic cardiovascular disease mortality in mountaintop mining areas of central Appalachian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for counties in 4 Appalachian states where MTM occurs (N = 404) were linked with county coal mining data. Three groups of counties were compared: MTM, coal mining but not MTM, and nonmining. Covariates included smoking rate, rural-urban status, percent male population, primary care physician supply, obesity rate, diabetes rate, poverty rate, race/ethnicity rates, high school and college education rates, and Appalachian county. Linear regression analyses examined the association of mortality rates with mining in MTM areas and non-MTM areas and the association of mortality with quantity of surface coal mined in MTM areas. Prior to covariate adjustment, chronic CVD mortality rates were significantly higher in both mining areas compared to nonmining areas and significantly highest in MTM areas. After adjustment, mortality rates in MTM areas remained significantly higher and increased as a function of greater levels of surface mining. Higher obesity and poverty rates and lower college education rates also significantly predicted CVD mortality overall and in rural counties. MTM activity is significantly associated with elevated chronic CVD mortality rates. Future research is necessary to examine the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of MTM on health to reduce health disparities in rural coal mining areas. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Quantifying the influence of temperature on hand, foot and mouth disease incidence in Wuhan, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiao; Chen, Shi; Wu, Yang; Tong, Yeqing; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Min; Hu, Shuhua; Guan, Xuhua; Wei, Sheng

    2018-01-31

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a substantial burden throughout Asia, but the effects of temperature pattern on HFMD risk are inconsistent. To quantify the effect of temperature on HFMD incidence, Wuhan was chosen as the study site because of its high temperature variability and high HFMD incidence. Daily series of HFMD counts and meteorological variables during 2010-2015 were obtained. Distributed lag non-linear models were applied to characterize the temperature-HFMD relationship and to assess its variability across different ages, genders, and types of child care. Totally, 80,219 patients of 0-5 years experienced HFMD in 2010-2015 in Wuhan. The cumulative relative risk of HFMD increased linearly with temperature over 7 days (lag0-7), while it presented as an approximately inverted V-shape over 14 days (lag0-14). The cumulative relative risk at lag0-14 peaked at 26.4 °C with value of 2.78 (95%CI: 2.08-3.72) compared with the 5 th percentile temperature (1.7 °C). Subgroup analyses revealed that children attended daycare were more vulnerable to temperature variation than those cared for at home. This study suggests that public health actions should take into consideration local weather conditions and demographic characteristics.

  3. Distinguishing the Central Drive to Tremor in Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, John-Stuart; Cagnan, Hayriye; Mehta, Arpan R.; Saifee, Tabish A.; Edwards, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) are the two most common movement disorders. Both have been associated with similar patterns of network activation leading to the suggestion that they may result from similar network dysfunction, specifically involving the cerebellum. Here, we demonstrate that parkinsonian tremors and ETs result from distinct patterns of interactions between neural oscillators. These patterns are reflected in the tremors' derived frequency tolerance, a novel measure readily attainable from bedside accelerometry. Frequency tolerance characterizes the temporal evolution of tremor by quantifying the range of frequencies over which the tremor may be considered stable. We found that patients with PD (N = 24) and ET (N = 21) were separable based on their frequency tolerance, with PD associated with a broad range of stable frequencies whereas ET displayed characteristics consistent with a more finely tuned oscillatory drive. Furthermore, tremor was selectively entrained by transcranial alternating current stimulation applied over cerebellum. Narrow frequency tolerances predicted stronger entrainment of tremor by stimulation, providing good evidence that the cerebellum plays an important role in pacing those tremors. The different patterns of frequency tolerance could be captured with a simple model based on a broadly coupled set of neural oscillators for PD, but a more finely tuned set of oscillators in ET. Together, these results reveal a potential organizational principle of the human motor system, whose disruption in PD and ET dictates how patients respond to empirical, and potentially therapeutic, interventions that interact with their underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25589772

  4. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  5. The luminescence dating chronology of a deep core from Bosten Lake (NW China) in arid central Asia reveals lake evolution over the last 220 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Guoqiang; Duan, Yanwu; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    The lacustrine deposits of lakes in arid central Asia (ACA) potentially record palaeoclimatic changes on orbital and suborbital time scales, but such changes are still poorly understood due to the lack of reliable chronologies. Bosten Lake, the largest freshwater inland lake in China, is located...... in the southern Tianshan Mountains in central ACA. A 51.6-m-deep lacustrine succession was retrieved from the lake and 30 samples from the succession were used for luminescence dating to establish a chronology based on multi-grain quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL (pIRIR290) dating. Quartz OSL ages were only....... A stable deep lake occurred at c. 220, 210–180, c. 165, 70–60, 40–30 and 20–5 ka, while shallow levels occurred at c. 215, 180–165, 100–70, 60–40 and 30–20 ka. Bosten Lake levels decreased by at least ~29 m and possibly the lake even dried up between c. 160 and c. 100 ka. We suggest that the water...

  6. Diffusion abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus in Alzheimer's disease: diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis using a new method to measure the core of the tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Ohtomo, Kuni; Aoki, Shigeki; Sato, Noriko; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Arima, Kunimasa; Furuta, Nobuo; Uno, Masatake; Hirai, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to determine diffusion abnormalities in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) using a new method for measuring the core of the tract. We studied 19 patients with AD and 19 age-matched control subjects who underwent MRI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTT of the UF was generated. The mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the core of the tract were measured after voxelized tract shape processing. Student's t-test was used to compare results between patients with AD and controls. Intraobserver correlation tests were also performed. FA was significantly lower (P 0.93 for measured FA and r > 0.92 for measured MD. Our results suggest that FA reflects progression of AD-related histopathological changes in the UF of the white matter and may represent a useful biological index in monitoring AD. Diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis with voxelized tract shape processing to measure the core of the tract may be a sensitive tool for evaluation of diffusion abnormalities of white matter tracts in AD. (orig.)

  7. Usefulness of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in diseases of central nerve system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shimato; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Mimura, Hiroaki

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a new cerebral perfusion imaging radiopharmaceutical, 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), was clinically evaluated. The subjects of this study were 14 patients with neurological disorders including 10 patients with cerebral infarction and 4 patients with other diseases. A total of 15 examinations was performed. 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HM-PAO) or 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) SPECTs were performed simultaneously, and the findings from those examinations were compared with 99m Tc-ECD. As to the count ratio of lesions to normal area (L/N), the L/N ratio in severe ischemic patients was lower in 99m Tc-ECD than in 99m Tc-HM-PAO or 123 I-IMP. In mild ischemic patients, on the other hand, the L/N ratio was the lowest in 123 I-IMP. When the relationship between regional cerebral blood flows (rCBFs) obtained from 123 I-IMP and the values of L/N in 99m Tc-ECD or 99m Tc-HM-PAO was compared, the values of L/N in 99m Tc-ECD or 99m Tc-HM-PAO were found to have decreased linearity with increasing rCBF. In a patient showing luxury perfusion, the accumulation pattern of 99m Tc-ECD was different from that of the other two radiopharmaceuticals, and focal defect was revealed in 99m Tc-ECD SPECT. On the dynamic SPECT of 99m Tc-ECD in a patient with meningioma, the tumor showed a change from high to low perfusion with the passage of time. This finding indicated that care should be taken in the evaluation of accumulation of 99m Tc-ECD. Therefore, 99m Tc-ECD was found to be useful as a cerebral perfusion agent. In addition, as accumulation of 99m Tc-ECD might somehow reflect metabolism in some cases, further careful investigation of many cases should be carried out. (author)

  8. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2018-01-01

    disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Design This study involved cross-sectional and test-retest study designs. Method Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients in the cross-sectional study completed the Heart......QoL, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The HeartQoL structure, construct-related validity (convergent and discriminative) and reliability (internal consistency) were assessed. HeartQoL reproducibility (test-retest) was assessed in an independent sample of implantable...... psychometric attributes of validity and reliability in this implantable cardioverter defibrillator population. This study adds support for the HeartQoL as a core heart-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire in a broad group of patients with heart disease including implantable cardioverter...

  9. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  10. Development of a core outcome set for studies involving patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial disease: study protocol for a systematic review and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Graeme K; Bosanquet, David C; Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Edwards, Adrian G K; Twine, Christopher P

    2017-12-28

    The development of a standardised reporting set is important to ensure that research is directed towards the most important outcomes and that data is comparable. To ensure validity, the set must be agreed by a consensus of stakeholders including patients, healthcare professionals and lay representatives. There is currently no agreed core outcome set for patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) for either short- or medium-term research outcomes. By developing these sets we aim to rationalise future trial outcomes, facilitate meta-analysis and improve the quality and applicability of amputation research. We will undertake a comprehensive systematic review of studies of patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for PAD. Data regarding all primary and secondary outcomes reported in relevant studies will be extracted and summarised as outcome domains. We will then undertake focus groups with key stakeholders (patients, carers, health and social care workers) to collect qualitative data to identify the main short- and medium-term research outcomes for patients undergoing major lower limb amputation. Results of the systematic review and focus groups will be combined to create a comprehensive list of potential key outcomes. Stakeholders (patients, researchers and health and social care workers) will then be polled to determine which of the outcomes are considered to be important in a general context using a three-phase Delphi process. After preliminary analysis, results will be presented at a face-to-face meeting of key stakeholders for discussion and voting on the final set of core outcomes. This project is being run in parallel with a feasibility trial assessing perineural catheters in patients undergoing lower limb amputation (the PLACEMENT trial). Full ethical approval has been granted for the study (Wales REC 3 reference number 16/WA/0353). Core outcome sets will be developed for short- and medium-term outcomes of

  11. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  12. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

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    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  13. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  14. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Musculoskeletal Disease: Common Inflammatory Pathways Suggest a Central Role for Loss of Muscle Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey H. Collins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation can arise in response to a variety of stimuli, including infectious agents, tissue injury, autoimmune diseases, and obesity. Some of these responses are acute and resolve, while others become chronic and exert a sustained impact on the host, systemically, or locally. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic low-grade, systemic inflammatory state that predisposes to other chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS. Although obesity has received considerable attention regarding its pathophysiological link to chronic cardiovascular conditions and type 2 diabetes, the musculoskeletal (MSK complications (i.e., muscle, bone, tendon, and joints that result from obesity-associated metabolic disturbances are less frequently interrogated. As musculoskeletal diseases can lead to the worsening of MetS, this underscores the imminent need to understand the cause and effect relations between the two, and the convergence between inflammatory pathways that contribute to MSK damage. Muscle mass is a key predictor of longevity in older adults, and obesity-induced sarcopenia is a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes. Muscle is highly plastic, undergoes regular remodeling, and is responsible for the majority of total body glucose utilization, which when impaired leads to insulin resistance. Furthermore, impaired muscle integrity, defined as persistent muscle loss, intramuscular lipid accumulation, or connective tissue deposition, is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction. In fact, many common inflammatory pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the interrelated tissues of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., tendinopathy, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis. Despite these similarities, these diseases are rarely evaluated in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this review is to summarize the common pathways that lead to musculoskeletal damage and disease that result from and contribute to MetS. We propose the overarching

  15. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Musculoskeletal Disease: Common Inflammatory Pathways Suggest a Central Role for Loss of Muscle Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kelsey H; Herzog, Walter; MacDonald, Graham Z; Reimer, Raylene A; Rios, Jaqueline L; Smith, Ian C; Zernicke, Ronald F; Hart, David A

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation can arise in response to a variety of stimuli, including infectious agents, tissue injury, autoimmune diseases, and obesity. Some of these responses are acute and resolve, while others become chronic and exert a sustained impact on the host, systemically, or locally. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic low-grade, systemic inflammatory state that predisposes to other chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although obesity has received considerable attention regarding its pathophysiological link to chronic cardiovascular conditions and type 2 diabetes, the musculoskeletal (MSK) complications (i.e., muscle, bone, tendon, and joints) that result from obesity-associated metabolic disturbances are less frequently interrogated. As musculoskeletal diseases can lead to the worsening of MetS, this underscores the imminent need to understand the cause and effect relations between the two, and the convergence between inflammatory pathways that contribute to MSK damage. Muscle mass is a key predictor of longevity in older adults, and obesity-induced sarcopenia is a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes. Muscle is highly plastic, undergoes regular remodeling, and is responsible for the majority of total body glucose utilization, which when impaired leads to insulin resistance. Furthermore, impaired muscle integrity, defined as persistent muscle loss, intramuscular lipid accumulation, or connective tissue deposition, is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction. In fact, many common inflammatory pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the interrelated tissues of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., tendinopathy, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis). Despite these similarities, these diseases are rarely evaluated in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this review is to summarize the common pathways that lead to musculoskeletal damage and disease that result from and contribute to MetS. We propose the overarching hypothesis that there

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis in the adult population within the commonwealth of independent states: rationale and design of the CORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, Yuriy; Iashyna, Liudmyla; Nugmanova, Damilya; Gyrina, Olga; Polianska, Maryna; Markov, Alexander; Moibenko, Maryna; Makarova, Janina; Tariq, Luqman; Pereira, Marcelo Horacio S; Mammadbayov, Eljan; Akhundova, Irada; Vasylyev, Averyan

    2017-10-10

    Main treatable Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRDs) like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchial Asthma (BA) and Allergic Rhinitis (AR) are underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. CORE study was aimed to assess the point prevalence of COPD, BA and AR in the adult population of major cities of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine based on study questionnaires and/or spirometry, and to document risk factors, characterize the COPD, BA and AR population to provide a clearer "epidemiological data". A descriptive, cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study conducted from 2013 to 2015 with two-stage cluster geographical randomization. Interviewers conducted face-to-face visits at respondent's household after informed consent and eligibility assessment including interviews, anthropometry, spirometry (with bronchodilator test) and completion of disease-specific questionnaires. Two thousand eight hundred forty-two respondents (Ukraine: 964 from Ukraine; 945 from Kazakhstan; 933 Azerbaijan) were enrolled. Mean age was 40-42 years and males were 37%-42% across three countries. In Kazakhstan 62.8% were Asians, but in Ukraine and in Azerbaijan 99.7% and 100.0%, respectively, were Caucasians. Manual labourers constituted 40.5% in Ukraine, 22.8% in Kazakhstan and 22.0% in Azerbaijan, while office workers were 16.1%, 31.6% and 36.8% respectively. 51.3% respondents in Ukraine, 64.9% in Kazakhstan and 69.7% in Azerbaijan were married. CORE study collected information that can be supportive for health policy decision makers in allocating healthcare resources in order to improve diagnosis and management of CRDs. The detailed findings will be described in future publications. Study Protocol Summary is disclosed at GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Study Register on Jun 06, 2013, study ID 116757 .

  17. Results of forest insect and disease surveys in the central region of Ontario, 1994. Information report No. O-X-448. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    Report summarizing forest damage by insects, diseases and abiotic conditions in the Central Region of Ontario. Textual descriptions of pests are accompanied by maps and statistical tables. Pest conditions covered include pine false webworm, budworms, shoot borers, leafcutters, armillaria root rot and other diseases and insects. Abiotic damage reported on covers forest decline, frost injury, salt and wind damage, and winter drying. Forest health reports and special surveys are also described.

  18. Genomic analyses of the Chlamydia trachomatis core genome show an association between chromosomal genome, plasmid type and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; van der Ende, Arie; Harrison, Odile B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) plasmid has been shown to encode genes essential for infection. We evaluated the population structure of Ct using whole-genome sequence data (WGS). In particular, the relationship between the Ct genome, plasmid and disease was investigated. Results: WGS data

  19. Integrating the Holocene tephrostratigraphy for East Asia using a high-resolution cryptotephra study from Lake Suigetsu (SG14 core), central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Danielle; Albert, Paul G.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takehiko; Staff, Richard A.; Yamada, Keitaro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Junko; Smith, Victoria C.; SG14 Project Members

    2018-03-01

    Tephra (volcanic ash) layers have the potential to synchronise disparate palaeoenvironmental archives on regional to hemispheric scales. Highly productive arc regions, like those in East Asia, offer a considerable number of widespread isochrons, but before records can be confidently correlated using these layers, a refined and integrated framework of these eruptive events is required. Here we present the first high-resolution Holocene cryptotephra study in East Asia, using the Lake Suigetsu sedimentary archive in central Japan. The Holocene tephrostratigraphy has been extended from four to twenty ash layers using cryptotephra extraction techniques, which integrates the deposits from explosive eruptions from North Korea/China, South Korea and along the Japanese arc. This Lake Suigetsu tephrostratigraphy is now the most comprehensive record of East Asian volcanism, and the linchpin site for correlating sequences across this region. Major element glass geochemical compositions are presented for the tephra layers in the sequence, which have been compared to proximal datasets to correlate them to their volcanic source and specific eruptions. This study has significantly extended the ash dispersal of many key Holocene marker layers, and has identified the first distal occurrence of isochrons from Ulleungdo and Changbaishan volcanoes. Utilising the high-precision Lake Suigetsu chronology, we are able to provide constrained eruption ages for the tephra layers, which can be transferred into other site-specific age models containing these markers. This new framework indicates that several isochrons stratigraphically bracket abrupt climate intervals in Japan, and could be used to precisely assess the regional and hemispheric synchronicity of these events.

  20. Evidence for Cyclical Fractional Crystallization, Recharge, and Assimilation in Basalts of the Kimama Core, Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: A 5.5-million-year Highlight Reel of Petrogenetic processes in a Mid-Crustal Sill Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Katherine E.; Shervais, John W.; Christiansen, Eric H.; Vetter, Scott K.

    2018-02-01

    Basalts erupted in the Snake River Plain of central Idaho and sampled in the Kimama drill core link eruptive processes to the construction of mafic intrusions over 5.5 Ma. Cyclic variations in basalt composition reveal temporal chemical heterogeneity related to fractional crystallization and the assimilation of previously-intruded mafic sills. A range of compositional types are identified within 1912 m of continuous drill core: Snake River olivine tholeiite (SROT), low K SROT, high Fe-Ti, and evolved and high K-Fe lavas similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon National Monument. Detailed lithologic and geophysical logs document 432 flow units comprising 183 distinct lava flows and 78 flow groups. Each lava flow represents a single eruptive episode, while flow groups document chemically and temporally related flows that formed over extended periods of time. Temporal chemical variation demonstrates the importance of source heterogeneity and magma processing in basalt petrogenesis. Low-K SROT and high Fe-Ti basalts are genetically related to SROT as, respectively, hydrothermally-altered and fractionated daughters. Cyclic variations in the chemical composition of Kimama flow groups are apparent as 21 upward fractionation cycles, six recharge cycles, eight recharge-fractionation cycles, and five fractionation-recharge cycles. We propose that most Kimama basalt flows represent typical fractionation and recharge patterns, consistent with the repeated influx of primitive SROT parental magmas and extensive fractional crystallization coupled with varying degrees of assimilation of gabbroic to ferrodioritic sills at shallow to intermediate depths over short durations. Trace element models show that parental SROT basalts were generated by 5-10% partial melting of enriched mantle at shallow depths above the garnet-spinel lherzolite transition. The distinctive evolved and high K-Fe lavas are rare. Found at four depths, 319 m, 1045 m, 1078 m, and 1189 m, evolved and high K

  1. Masked assessment of MRI findings: is it possible to differentiate neuro-Behcet`s disease from other central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, O.; Bahar, S.; Akman-Demir, G.; Tasci, B.; Serdaroglu, P. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Neurology; Yurdakul, S.; Yazici, H. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1999-04-01

    Two neuroradiologists reviewed MRI studies of 34 patients with neuro-Behcet`s disease (NBD), 22 with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with central nervous system involvement, masked to the clinical diagnosis, age and sex of the patients. Of the patients with NBD 12 were in an acute attack; the others had chronic disease. MRI was assessed using a set of criteria, looking at atrophy, the site of discrete parenchymal lesions, regions of predominant involvement and the extent of the lesion(s). The observers also made a guess at the clinical diagnosis. The brain stem and/or basal ganglia were the most predominantly involved sites in all patients with acute NBD; 75 % of these lesions were large and confluent, mainly extending from the brain stem to the diencephalon and basal ganglia. However, in chronic cases, the predominant involvement was in the brain stem and/or basal ganglia in only 36 %, and in cerebral hemisphere white matter in another 36 %; 27 % of these patients showed no parenchymal lesion. Hemisphere white-matter lesions were equally distributed between periventricular and other areas in NBD, while in MS more were periventricular, and in SLE more were nonperiventricular. Brain-stem atrophy was seen in 21 % of patients with NBD, with a specificity of 96.5 %. In the absence of cortical atrophy, its specificity was 100 %. The attempt at making a radiological diagnosis was successful in all cases of acute NBD and 95.5 % of patients with MS, but in only 40 % of patients with chronic NBD. Most of this latter groups MRI studies were interpreted as MS. An extensive lesion involving the brain stem and basal ganglia seemed to be diagnostic of acute NBD. However, hemisphere white-matter lesions could not be differentiated from those in MS. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 tabs., 18 refs.

  2. Consumption of Big Game Remains by Scavengers: A Potential Risk as Regards Disease Transmission in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carrasco-Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role that facultative scavenger species may play in spreading infectious pathogens, and even becoming reservoirs for humans, domestic and wild ungulates or, on the contrary, preventing the spread of disease, requires a prior understanding of the pattern of carrion scavenging in specific scenarios. The objectives of this paper are (i to describe the guild of vertebrate scavengers and (ii to study the species-specific, habitat, and management-related factors involved in the usage of gut piles in South Central Spain (SCS, a tuberculosis (TB endemic area. We used camera trapping at 18 hunting piles on seven hunting estates. A total of eight bird and five mammal taxa were detected at the remains of hunting piles. The most frequently detected species in terms of number of gut piles visited (78% and scavenged (61% was the red fox Vulpes vulpes, followed by the griffon vulture Gyps fulvus (56% as regards both presence and scavenging and the raven Corvus corax (61 and 39% as regards presence and scavenging, respectively. We evidenced that griffon vultures accounted for most of the scavenging activity in open habitats, while facultative mammal scavengers, red fox, and wild boar Sus scrofa made the highest contribution to scavenging in vegetation-covered habitats. In the case of wild boar, the gut piles deposited during the evening and night favored higher rates of scavenging, while the opposite pattern was observed for griffons. Overall, our findings suggest that when disposing of hunting remains in areas of risk as regards disease transmission it is particularly important to consider the access that facultative mammals, and especially wild boar, have to material, while the presence of the resource needs to be safeguarded to protect specialist scavengers of conservation value. These results are of particular relevance in the case of wild boar in the current context of re-emerging TB and emerging African swine fever (ASF in Europe.

  3. Select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from North-central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Conner, Mary M; Bedwell, Cathy L; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    Trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of several North American cervid species. To begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and CWD in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging populations in north-central Colorado, United States, where CWD occurs naturally; we also measured copper concentrations in brain-stem (medulla oblongata at the obex) tissue from 181 of these deer. Analyses revealed a wide range of concentrations of all three minerals among sampled deer (copper: 5.6-331 ppm in liver, 1.5-31.9 ppm in obex; manganese: 0.1-21.4 ppm in liver; molybdenum: 0.5-4.0 ppm in liver). Bayesian multiple regression analysis revealed a negative association between obex copper (-0.097; 95% credible interval -0.192 to -0.006) and the probability of sampled deer also being infected with CWD, as well as a positive association between liver manganese (0.158; 95% credible interval 0.066 to 0.253) and probability of infection. We could not discern whether the tendencies toward lower brain-stem copper concentrations or higher systemic manganese concentrations in infected deer preceded prion infection or rather were the result of infection and its subsequent effects, although the distribution of trace mineral concentrations in infected deer seemed more suggestive of the latter.

  4. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Panaccione, Remo; Fedorak, Richard N; Parker, Claire E; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Sandborn, William J; Feagan, Brian G; Jairath, Vipul

    2017-06-09

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic, progressive and disabling disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the foundation of evidence that validates medical therapy for IBD, considerable heterogeneity exists in the measured outcomes used in these studies. Furthermore, in recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in IBD treatment targets, moving from symptom-based scoring to improvement or normalisation of objective measures of inflammation such as endoscopic appearance, inflammatory biomarkers and histological and radiographic end points. The abundance of new treatment options and evolving end points poses opportunities and challenges for all stakeholders involved in drug development. Accordingly, there exists a need to harmonise measures used in clinical trials through the development of a core outcome set (COS). The development of an IBD-specific COS includes four steps. First, a systematic literature review is performed to identify outcomes previously used in IBD RCTs. Second, semistructured qualitative interviews are conducted with key stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, researchers, pharmaceutical industry representatives, healthcare payers and regulators to identify additional outcomes of importance. Using the outcomes generated from literature review and stakeholder interviews, an international two-round Delphi survey is conducted to prioritise outcomes for inclusion in the COS. Finally, a consensus meeting is held to ratify the COS and disseminate findings for application in future IBD trials. Given that over 30 novel therapeutic compounds are in development for IBD treatment, the design of robust clinical trials measuring relevant and standardised outcomes is crucial. Standardising outcomes through a COS will reduce heterogeneity in trial reporting, facilitate valid comparisons of new therapies and improve

  5. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L′ubica Argalášová-Sobotová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 papers on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults were identified by literature search. The authors reviewed scientific international and local journals, conference proceedings, and local reports published in national languages. The major endpoints were high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction. The target populations were adults. Experimental and exposure-assessment studies, field, empirical studies, social surveys, and epidemiological studies are presented. The major sources of environmental noise were road and air traffic. The results were presented in tables and the most relevant articles were briefly discussed. The importance of this review is that it refers to some countries that no longer exist in the same political and governmental systems. The strength of this paper is that it includes publications that were not evaluated in earlier systematic reviews. Strategies for future noise-related research on national and global level are proposed.

  6. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Complicated with Central Nervous System Involvement in Taiwan in 1980–1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan-Yin Chang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen cases from the 1980-1981 Taiwan outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD associated with central nervous system involvement were identified: nine had polio-like syndrome, four had encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, one had cerebellitis, and two had aseptic meningitis. They all had fever, five (31% had documented myoclonic jerk, and 15 (93% had HFMD. Their mean blood leukocyte count was 12,490/mL, and five (31% had leukocytosis (> 15,000/mL; mean cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leukocyte count was 156/mL, CSF protein was 57 mg/dL and CSF glucose was 57 mg/dL. Two patients with HFMD plus encephalitis died within 1 day of hospitalization, and one of them had acute cardiopulmonary failure mimicking myocarditis. Twenty years later, at least one male patient had sequelae of polio-like syndrome and was therefore exempted from military service. Clinical severity was comparable to the 1998 EV71 epidemic. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:173-176

  7. Neonicotinoid concentrations in urine from chronic kidney disease patients in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Risako; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Harada, Kouji H; Chandrajith, Rohana; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Abeysekera, Tilak; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used around the world since the 1990s. Reports have been made since the 1990s of rice paddy farmers in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka suffering from chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu). A preliminary evaluation of the exposure of local farmers in the NCR of Sri Lanka to neonicotinoids was performed. We analyzed neonicotinoid and neonicotinoid metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples. We selected 40 samples, 10 from farmers with CKDu and 10 from controls from each of two areas, Medawachchiya and Girandurukotte. Imidacloprid and desmethyl-acetamiprid were found at significantly higher concentrations in the control samples (with medians of 51 ng/l and 340 ng/l, respectively) than in the CKDu samples (medians of 15 ng/l and 150 ng/l, respectively) when the results were not adjusted for the creatinine contents. None of the six compounds that were measured in the urine samples were found at significantly higher concentrations in the CKDu samples than in the control samples. None of the neonicotinoid concentrations in the samples analyzed in this study exceeded the concentrations that have been found in samples from the general population of Japan. Farmers (both with and without CKDu) living in CKDu-endemic areas in the NCR of Sri Lanka are exposed to lower neonicotinoid concentrations than non-occupationally exposed residents of Japan.

  8. Pathological and Clinical Features and Management of Central Nervous System Hemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kanno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS hemangioblastoma is the most common manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. It is found in 70-80% of VHL patients. Hemangioblastoma is a rare form of benign vascular tumor of the CNS, accounting for 2.0% of CNS tumors. It can occur sporadically or as a familial syndrome. CNS hemangioblastomas are typically located in the posterior fossa and the spinal cord. VHL patients usually develop a CNS hemangioblastoma at an early age. Therefore, they require a special routine for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. The surgical management of symptomatic tumors depends on many factors such as symptom, location, multiplicity, and progression of the tumor. The management of asymptomatic tumors in VHL patients is controversial since CNS hemangioblastomas grow with intermittent quiescent and rapid-growth phases. Preoperative embolization of large solid hemangioblastomas prevents perioperative hemorrhage but is not necessary in every case. Radiotherapy should be reserved for inoperable tumors. Because of complexities of VHL, a better understanding of the pathological and clinical features of hemangioblastoma in VHL is essential for its proper management.

  9. Assistive technology in occupational therapy practice with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácia Caroline de Lima Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to report the effects of the interventions, using the resource of assistive technology, carried out with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system at his home. This is a study case, which was conducted in seven meetings, addressing the child and his caregivers during a process of evaluation, preparation of assistive devices, family orientation, and evaluation of the family environment repercussion. The results showed that the child presents significant motor, cognitive, and psychosocial impairments, resulting in difficulties in performing activities of daily living, communication, and play. Adjustments were proposed to facilitate the child’s involvement and alleviate family difficulties on equipment and environments, such as wheelchair, bedroom, bathroom, orthosis, toys and communication. Finally, it was possible to note that the assistive technology resources were used according to the child’s needs and his own reality, and that the domiciliary visits contributed positively to the family’s life because they facilitated the child’s care, despite the limitations faced.

  10. AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE OF DIABETIC EYE DISEASE AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS PRESENTING TO EYE OPD IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Saluja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic eye disease can lead to permanent visual impairment or blindness if medical attention is delayed. Awareness and knowledge of diabetes-related eye complications is important for early medical presentation and maximisation of visual prognosis. The aim of the study is to study the level of awareness and knowledge of diabetic eye disease among diabetic patients presenting to eye OPD in central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based study was conducted on 300 diabetic patients presenting to eye OPD. A questionnaire was provided to the patients based on their awareness and knowledge of diabetic eye disease. On the basis of their response, answers were categorised into three groups for awareness (fully, partially and not aware and for knowledge (good, fair and poor knowledge. RESULTS Out of 300, the mean age of participants was 50.3 ± 12.4 years (range 20-79 years from which 123 (41% were males and 177 (59% were females. 106 (35.3% were from rural area and 194 (64.7% were from urban area. 164 (54.7% were literate and 136 (45.3% were illiterate. Maximum patients 172 (57.3% were diabetic since last 5 years with the average duration being 5.9 ± 4.1 years. Out of 300 patients, only 89 (29.7% were found to be fully aware and only 66 (22.0% had good knowledge (p<0.001. There was little knowledge of retinopathy risk factors or the need for routine eye examination. Most of the patients 152 (50.7% were not advised by their physician for screening. CONCLUSION The present study showed that there is poor awareness and knowledge among a larger portion of the sample among the illiterate patients, patients from rural area and those who were recently diagnosed diabetics. There is therefore a need for increasing awareness about diabetes in patients and physicians and providing access to retinopathy screening services to the patients.

  11. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  12. Upgrade of ductal carcinoma in situ on core biopsies to invasive disease at final surgery: a retrospective review across the Scottish Breast Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Y T; Litherland, J; Lindsay, E; Hendry, P; Brauer, K; Dobson, H; Cordiner, C; Gagliardi, T; Smart, L

    2015-05-01

    To identify factors affecting upgrade rates from B5a (non-invasive) preoperative core biopsies to invasive disease at surgery and ways to improve screening performance. This was a retrospective analysis of 1252 cases of B5a biopsies across all six Scottish Breast Screening Programmes (BSPs), ranging between 2004 and 2012. Final surgical histopathology was correlated with radiological and biopsy factors. Data were analysed using basic Microsoft Excel and standard Chi-squared test used for evaluating statistical significance. B5a upgrade rates for the units ranged from 19.2% to 29.2%, with an average of 23.6%. Mean sizes of invasive tumours were small (3-11 mm). The upgrade rate was significantly higher for cases where the main mammographic abnormality was mass, distortion, or asymmetry, compared with micro-calcification alone (33.2% versus 21.7%, p = 0.0004). The upgrade rate was significantly lower with the use of large-volume vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) devices than 14 G core needles (19.9% versus 26%, p = 0.013); in stereotactic than ultrasound-guided biopsies (21.2% versus 36.1%, p Scottish BSPs, including first-line biopsy technique and/or device; and it is of interest that a few centres maintain low upgrade rates despite not using VAB routinely for biopsy of micro-calcification. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burwinkle Tasha M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in biomedical science and technology have resulted in dramatic improvements in the healthcare of pediatric chronic conditions. With enhanced survival, health-related quality of life (HRQOL issues have become more salient. The objectives of this study were to compare generic HRQOL across ten chronic disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities from the perspectives of patients and parents. Comparisons were also benchmarked with healthy children data. Methods The analyses were based on over 2,500 pediatric patients from 10 physician-diagnosed disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities and over 9,500 healthy children utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Patients were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals. Results Pediatric patients with diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, cardiac conditions, asthma, obesity, end stage renal disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, rheumatologic conditions, and cerebral palsy self-reported progressively more impaired overall HRQOL than healthy children, respectively, with medium to large effect sizes. Patients with cerebral palsy self-reported the most impaired HRQOL, while patients with diabetes self-reported the best HRQOL. Parent proxy-reports generally paralleled patient self-report, with several notable differences. Conclusion The results demonstrate differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on patient HRQOL across diseases clusters, categories, and severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. The data contained within this study represents a larger and more diverse population of pediatric patients with chronic conditions than previously reported in the extant literature. The findings contribute important information on the differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on generic HRQOL from the perspectives of children and

  14. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Limbers, Christine A; Burwinkle, Tasha M

    2007-07-16

    Advances in biomedical science and technology have resulted in dramatic improvements in the healthcare of pediatric chronic conditions. With enhanced survival, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) issues have become more salient. The objectives of this study were to compare generic HRQOL across ten chronic disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities from the perspectives of patients and parents. Comparisons were also benchmarked with healthy children data. The analyses were based on over 2,500 pediatric patients from 10 physician-diagnosed disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities and over 9,500 healthy children utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Patients were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals. Pediatric patients with diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, cardiac conditions, asthma, obesity, end stage renal disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, rheumatologic conditions, and cerebral palsy self-reported progressively more impaired overall HRQOL than healthy children, respectively, with medium to large effect sizes. Patients with cerebral palsy self-reported the most impaired HRQOL, while patients with diabetes self-reported the best HRQOL. Parent proxy-reports generally paralleled patient self-report, with several notable differences. The results demonstrate differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on patient HRQOL across diseases clusters, categories, and severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. The data contained within this study represents a larger and more diverse population of pediatric patients with chronic conditions than previously reported in the extant literature. The findings contribute important information on the differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on generic HRQOL from the perspectives of children and parents utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. These findings

  15. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported health-related quality of life is increasingly used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and as a performance measure to evaluate quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Danish HeartQoL questionnaire, a core heart...... disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Design This study involved cross-sectional and test-retest study designs. Method Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients in the cross-sectional study completed the Heart......QoL, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The HeartQoL structure, construct-related validity (convergent and discriminative) and reliability (internal consistency) were assessed. HeartQoL reproducibility (test-retest) was assessed in an independent sample of implantable...

  16. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  17. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  18. A core avenue for transcultural research on dementia: on the cross-linguistic generalization of language-related effects in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Noelia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Muñoz, Edinson; García, Adolfo M

    2018-06-01

    Language is a key source of cross-cultural variability, which may have both subtle and major effects on neurocognition. However, this issue has been largely overlooked in two flourishing lines of research assessing the relationship between language-related neural systems and dementia. This paper assesses the limitations of the evidence on (i) the neuroprotective effects of bilingualism in Alzheimer's disease and (ii) specific language deficits as markers of Parkinson's disease. First, we outline the rationale behind each line of research. Second, we review available evidence and discuss the potential impact of cross-linguistic factors. Third, we outline ideas to foster progress in both fields and, with it, in cross-cultural neuroscience at large. On the one hand, studies on bilingualism suggest that sustained use of more than one language may protect against Alzheimer's disease symptoms. On the other hand, insights from the embodied cognition framework point to syntactic and action-verb deficits as early (and even preclinical) markers of Parkinson's disease. However, both fields share a key limitation that lies at the heart of cultural neuroscience: the issue of cross-linguistic generalizability. Relevant evidence for both research trends comes from only a handful of (mostly Indo-European) languages, which are far from capturing the full scope of structural and typological diversity of the linguistic landscape worldwide. This raises questions on the external validity of reported findings. Greater collaboration between linguistic typology and cognitive neuroscience seems crucial as a first step to assess the impact of transcultural differences on language-related effects across neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Necrotizing Liver Granuloma/Abscess and Constrictive Aspergillosis Pericarditis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Different Remarkable Phenotypes in Different Chronic Granulomatous Disease Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanem Eren Akarcan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a primary immune deficiency causing predisposition to infections with specific microorganisms, Aspergillus species and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common ones. A 16-year-old boy with a mutation in CYBB gene coding gp91phox protein (X-linked disease developed a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to medical therapy, surgical treatment was necessary for the management of the disease. A 30-month-old girl with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CYBA gene mutation affecting p22phox protein had invasive aspergillosis causing pericarditis, pulmonary abscess, and central nervous system involvement. The devastating course of disease regardless of the mutation emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and intervention of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible in children with CGD.

  20. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  1. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  2. [Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suhua; Ye, Hengpeng; Li, Mingjian; Xiong, Peisheng; Du, Dongyun; Wang, Jingwen

    2015-06-01

    To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater, hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region. Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived, in Xiantao and Honghu. Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well. Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water. The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t = 4.645 3, P arsenic concentration and Cl, HCO3(-), Fe, Mn. However, negative correlations were found between As and SO4(2-), NO3(-). The range of arsenic content in the sediment was 1.500 mg/kg to 17.289 mg/kg. The maximum arsenic content existed in the soil layer, while the minimum arsenic content existed in the sand layer. The concentration of arsenic varied widely with time and space at endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain. Characteristics of these water chemicals showed significant differences, when compared to the groundwater from Datong Basin, Shanxi Shanyin and Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, which presented a typical environment with high arsenic contents in the groundwater. The arsenic content in the sediment samples seemed related to the lithologic structure.

  3. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  4. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  5. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  6. Low physical activity and energy dense Malaysian foods are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in centrally obese but not in non-centrally obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wah-Kheong; Tan, Alexander Tong-Boon; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Tah, Pei-Chien; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    To study the dietary intake and level of physical activity (PA) of patients with diabetes mellitus and the association with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Consecutive adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus seen in our hospital diabetes clinic were enrolled. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire were used to assess PA and dietary intake, respectively. Diagnosis of NAFLD was ultrasound-based and following exclusion of significant alcohol intake and other causes of chronic liver disease. Data for 299 patients were analyzed (mean age 63.3±10.5 years old, 41.1% male). Prevalence of NAFLD was 49.2%. Patients with low PA were more likely to have NAFLD (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.03-2.99, p=0.029). There was no significant difference in energy intake, intake of macronutrients and percentage energy intake from each macronutrient, high sugar food, high cholesterol food and high SFA food between patients with and without NAFLD. Among centrally obese patients, patients with low PA and in the highest quartile of percentage energy intake from fat (OR=4.03, 95% CI=1.12-15.0, p=0.015), high cholesterol food (OR=3.61, 95% CI=1.37-9.72, p=0.004) and high SFA food (OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.08-6.67, p=0.019) were most likely to have NAFLD. Among those who were not centrally obese, PA and percentage energy intake from fat, high cholesterol food and high SFA food was not associated with NAFLD. Low PA and high percentage energy intake from fat, high cholesterol food and high SFA food is associated with NAFLD in centrally obese but not in non-centrally obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

  7. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysse M. Knight

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD and non-transgenic (Non-Tg control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months, 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  8. Upgrade of ductal carcinoma in situ on core biopsies to invasive disease at final surgery: a retrospective review across the Scottish Breast Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Y.T.; Litherland, J.; Lindsay, E.; Hendry, P.; Brauer, K.; Dobson, H.; Cordiner, C.; Gagliardi, T.; Smart, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To identify factors affecting upgrade rates from B5a (non-invasive) preoperative core biopsies to invasive disease at surgery and ways to improve screening performance. Material and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 1252 cases of B5a biopsies across all six Scottish Breast Screening Programmes (BSPs), ranging between 2004 and 2012. Final surgical histopathology was correlated with radiological and biopsy factors. Data were analysed using basic Microsoft Excel and standard Chi-squared test used for evaluating statistical significance. Results: B5a upgrade rates for the units ranged from 19.2% to 29.2%, with an average of 23.6%. Mean sizes of invasive tumours were small (3–11 mm). The upgrade rate was significantly higher for cases where the main mammographic abnormality was mass, distortion, or asymmetry, compared with micro-calcification alone (33.2% versus 21.7%, p = 0.0004). The upgrade rate was significantly lower with the use of large-volume vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) devices than 14 G core needles (19.9% versus 26%, p = 0.013); in stereotactic than ultrasound-guided biopsies (21.2% versus 36.1%, p < 0.001). Heterogeneity of data from different centres limited evaluation of other potential factors. Conclusion: Upgrade rates are lower for cases with micro-calcification as the sole mammographic feature with the use of VAB devices. Nevertheless, there is variation in practice across Scottish BSPs, including first-line biopsy technique and/or device; and it is of interest that a few centres maintain low upgrade rates despite not using VAB routinely for biopsy of micro-calcification. - Highlights: • Average B5a upgrade rate of 23.6% in our screening programme is comparable to published series. • Upgrade rate was lower in microcalcifications than non-calcific findings on mammography. • Upgrade rate was lower with use of vacuum-assisted biopsy devices than 14-gauge core needles

  9. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C. M.; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Allan, Stuart M.; Lawrence, Catherine B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD. PMID:22864021

  10. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M; Brown, Timothy M; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C M; Waters, Elizabeth J; Allan, Stuart M; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4-10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  11. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  12. Central Nervous System Infection with Borna Disease Virus Causes Kynurenine Pathway Dysregulation and Neurotoxic Quinolinic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Simone; Hornig, Mady; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Vasishtha, Mansi; Parsons, Loren H; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Williams, Brent L

    2017-07-15

    Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection. Gene expression analysis of rat brains following neonatal infection showed increased expression of kynurenine amino transferase II (KATII) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) enzymes. Additionally, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression was only modestly increased in a brain region- and time-dependent manner in neonatally infected rats; however, its expression was highly increased in adult infected rats. The most dramatic impact on gene expression was seen for KMO, whose activity promotes the production of neurotoxic quinolinic acid. KMO expression was persistently elevated in brain regions of both newborn and adult BDV-infected rats, with increases reaching up to 86-fold. KMO protein levels were increased in neonatally infected rats and colocalized with neurons, the primary target cells of BDV infection. Furthermore, quinolinic acid was elevated in neonatally infected rat brains. We further demonstrate increased expression of KATII and KMO, but not IDO, in vitro in BDV-infected C6 astroglioma cells. Our results suggest that BDV directly impacts the kynurenine pathway, an effect that may be exacerbated by inflammatory responses in immunocompetent hosts. Thus, experimental models of BDV infection may provide new tools for discriminating virus-mediated from immune-mediated impacts on the kynurenine pathway and their relative contribution to neurodegeneration. IMPORTANCE BDV causes persistent, noncytopathic infection in vitro yet still elicits

  13. Risk factors for diabetes, but not for cardiovascular disease, are associated with family history of Type 2 diabetes in subjects from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Brambila, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Independent of obesity, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (FHT2DM) is another important risk factor for developing diabetes. To establish the association among FHT2DM, risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in subjects from central Mexico. Clinical and biochemical studies were performed in 383 first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and 270 subjects unrelated to patients with type 2 diabetes-all subjects were from the city of Puebla in central Mexico. Logistic regressions were used to assess the association between FHT2DM and metabolic parameters. Cardiovascular risk was classified by dyslipidemia and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). FHT2DM was associated with risk factors for diabetes, such as increased fasting insulin levels (OR = 1.731, 95% CI = 1.041-2.877), decreased insulin sensitivity (OR = 1.951, 95% CI = 1.236-3.080) and pre-diabetes (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.14-2.33). FHT2DH was not associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as dyslipidemia (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.70-1.79) and FRS (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.40-1.36) when adjusted for gender, age, smoking and obesity. Diabetic risk factors, but not cardiovascular disease risk factors, are associated with a positive family history of diabetes in subjects from central Mexico, independent of the presence of obesity.

  14. Arterial aging and arterial disease : interplay between central hemodynamics, cardiac work, and organ flow-implications for CKD and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Gerard; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Wiecek, Andrzej; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ortiz, Alberto; Massy, Ziad; Lindholm, Bengt; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Fliser, Danilo; Agarwal, Rajiv; Jager, Kitty J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Zoccali, Carmine

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All epidemiological studies have clearly shown that accelerated arterial and cardiac aging is characteristic of these populations. Arterial

  15. Collapsing stellar cores and supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, R J [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noorgaard, H [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Bond, J R [Niels Bohr Institutet, Copenhagen (Denmark); California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.)

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of a stellar core is studied during its final quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The core structure and the (poorly known) properties of neutron rich matter are parametrized to include most plausible cases. It is found that the density-temperature trajectory of the material in the central part of the core (the core-center) is insensitive to nearly all reasonable parameter variations. The central density at the onset of the dynamic phase of the collapse (when the core-center begins to fall away from the rest of the star) and the fraction of the emitted neutrinos which are trapped in the collapsing core-center depend quite sensitively on the properties of neutron rich matter. We estimate that the amount of energy Ecm which is imparted to the core-mantle by the neutrinos which escape from the imploded core-center can span a large range of values. For plausible choices of nuclear and model parameters Ecm can be large enough to yield a supernova event.

  16. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting for Identification of a Core Group of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transmitters in the Population Attending a Clinic for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Spaargaren, Joke; Stoof, Jeroen; Fennema, Han; Coutinho, Roel; Savelkoul, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis seems well suited for studying the epidemiology of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae obtained from patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease Outpatient Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. It shows potential to identify the core group of transmitters.

  17. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Sakuma, H.; Takeda, K.; Yagishita, A.; Yamamoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. Careful attention to the SAS can provide additional useful information that may not be available with conventional MR sequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about CNS diseases and FLAIR images with abnormal hyperintensity within the SAS. We present several CNS diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, leptomeningeal metastases, acute infarction, and severe arterial occlusive diseases such as moya-moya disease. We also review miscellaneous diseases or normal conditions that may exhibit cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity on FLAIR images. Although the detection of abnormal hyperintensity suggests the underlying CNS diseases and narrows differential diagnoses, FLAIR imaging sometimes presents artifactual hyperintensity within the SAS that can cause the misinterpretation of normal SAS as pathologic conditions; therefore, radiologists should be familiar with such artifactual conditions as well as pathologic conditions shown as hyperintensity by FLAIR images. This knowledge is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Influence of inherited structures on the growth of basement-cored ranges, basin inversion and foreland basin development in the Central Andes, from apatite fission-track and apatite Helium thermochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, S.; Sobel, E. R.; Del Papa, C.; Jelinek, A. R.; Muruaga, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Andes in NW of Argentina is part of a long-lived subduction zone, active since the Paleozoic. This region experienced several tectonic cycles; each of which created an unique set of structures and may have reactivated preexisting structures. These inherited structures may exert a first-order control over the different foreland deformational styles observed along the strike in the Central Andes. Our study area is located between 26°S and 28°S on the transition between the broken foreland (Santa Barbara system), which expresses a combination of thin-skin and thick-skin styles, and the Sierras Pampeanas, which is deform in a thick-skin style. The Cumbres Calchaquies range and the associated Choromoro Basin are located in the northern part of the study area, and are the southern expression of the Santa Barbara system. Published thermochronology data suggest that the rocks from the basement experienced Late Cretaceous and Late Miocene exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks within the Choromoro basin experienced Paleogene and Late Miocene deformational phases. In contrast, the Sierra Aconquija range, located immediately south on the transition to the Sierras Pampeanas (thick skin) foreland basin, exhibit larger amounts of Miocene exhumation and lack of Cretaceous exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks from the Tucuman basin have not been deformed since the Cretaceous. Our goal is to understand the evolution of the structural blocks and the structures responsible for the along strike changes in foreland basin deformational styles and their relation with inherited structures from previous tectonic cycles. We are obtaining new apatite U-Th/He and fission track data to reconstruct the thermal history of the basement, accompanied by U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy to constrain the evolution of the associated sedimentary basins. Preliminary results combined with published data suggest that inherited structures within the study area have evolved

  19. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  20. Characterization of a Novel Chimeric Swine Enteric Coronavirus from Diseased Pigs in Central Eastern Europe in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Normann, Preben

    2016-01-01

    During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both of these co......During a severe outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting in a pig herd in Central Eastern Europe, faecal samples were tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and negative for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) using a commercial RT-qPCR assay that can detect both...

  1. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of patients with EBV-associated central nervous system diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q-F; Ling, Y-W; Fan, Z-P; Jiang, Q-L; Sun, J; Wu, X-L; Zhao, J; Wei, Q; Zhang, Y; Yu, G-P; Wu, M-Q; Feng, R

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of monitoring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood for the patients with EBV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), 172 patients undergoing allo-HSCT were enrolled in the study. The EBV DNA levels of blood were monitored regularly in recipients of transplants for 3 years post transplantation. The EBV DNA levels of CSF were monitored in patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases before the treatment and at different points following the treatment. Post-transplant EBV-associated diseases developed in 27 patients, including 12 patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases. The 3-year cumulative incidences of EBV-associated diseases and EBV-associated CNS diseases were 19.5 ± 3.5% and 8.6 ± 2.4%, respectively. Patients with EBV-associated diseases showed higher loads of EBV DNA in their blood compared with patients with EBV DNA-emia. No difference was seen between the EBV DNA levels of blood in patients with CNS involvement and patients without CNS involvement. The EBV DNA loads of blood increased 3-14 days before the clinical manifestations of EBV-associated diseases emerged. The EBV DNA loads of CSF were higher than that of blood in patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases. In 12 patients with EBV-associated CNS diseases, EBV DNA levels were declining in both blood and CSF with the control of diseases, and the EBV DNA loads of CSF decreased faster than that of blood in 5 patients who responded to treatment, and the EBV DNA levels of CSF increased in 5 patients who were unresponsive to treatment. On multivariate analysis, the use of anti-thymocyte globulin and intensified conditioning regimens were independent risk factors for EBV-associated diseases and EBV-associated CNS diseases. EBV-associated CNS diseases are not rare after allo-HSCT. The EBV DNA loads of CSF could act as an important

  2. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patients with Dermatological Diseases Attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shivakumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity is a unique environment where systemic maladies may be amplified by the oral mucosa. Sometimes, oral lesions are the first indication of a systemic problem. Oral mucosal lesions may be the initial feature or the only clinical sign of mucocutaneous diseases commonly observed in a dermatologic practice. Aim and Objectives: To assess the frequency of the oral manifestations in patients who suffer from dermatologic diseases, emphasizing the aspects referring to their, sex and age of the patients. Material and Methods:A cross sectional hospital-based study was carried out focusing on patients with skin lesions, for data gathering only patients included in the research were clinically examined aiming at identifying oral and cuteneous alterations. Information was recorded in individual clinical cards, as well as personal information, health conditions, family diseases and current and previous diseases. The structured interview was done in the local language containing questions regarding socio-demographics (gender, age, education and occupation general and oral health related characteristics and lifestyle. Results: In our study, the prevalence rate of oral mucosal lesions in patients with dermatological diseases is relatively low (94/489. Our study results showed that there is a positive correlation of oral manifestations with their respective dermatological diseases Conclusion: Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseases deserve special attention, Documenting the frequency of oral mucosal lesions in dermatological diseases may alert the dental surgeons and gives scope for early diagnosis and progress for such diseases and a multidisciplinary approach

  3. Two-Port Pars Plana Anterior and Central Core Vitrectomy (Lam Floaterectomy) in Combination With Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation Under Topical Anesthesia for Patients with Cataract and Significant Floaters: Results of the First 50 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis S C; Leung, Hiu Ying; Liu, Shu; Radke, Nishant; Yuan, Ye; Lee, Vincent Y W

    2017-01-01

    To study the safety and efficacy of 2-port pars plana anterior and central core vitrectomy (Lam floaterectomy) in combination with phacoemulsification (phaco) and intraocular lens implantation (IOL) for patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia. Retrospective review of the first 50 consecutive cases. A standardized treatment protocol was used for patients with cataract and significant (moderate to severe) floaters (duration > 3 months). Data analysis included intraoperative and postoperative complications, floater status, and patient satisfaction. There were 50 eyes (38 patients) with a male-to-female ratio of 1 to 2.3. Twelve patients had bilateral eye surgeries. Mean age was 58.10 ± 9.85 years (range, 39-83). All patients completed the 3-month follow-up. One eye had mild vitreous hemorrhage at the end of surgery arising from sclerotomy wound oozing. No other intraoperative compli-cations were encountered. Postoperatively, there was 1 case of transient hypotony and 1 case of congestion at sclerotomy wound. No cases of retinal break or detachment, or clinically significant macular edema, were reported. There were 5 cases (10%) of mild residual floaters and 1 case (2%) of floater recurrence. Total floater clearance rate was 88%. Patient satisfaction rates were 80%, 14%, 6%, and 0% for very satisfied, satis-fied, acceptable, and unsatisfied, respectively. The 3-month results in terms of safety and efficacy of the Lam floaterectomy in combination with phaco and IOLfor patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia are encouraging. Further larger-scale, prospective, multicenter studies seem warranted. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  4. The central biobank and virtual biobank of BiOMarKaPD: a resource for studies on neurodegenerative diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijs, B.L.R.; Teunissen, C.E.; Goncharenko, N.; Betsou, F.; Blennow, K.; Baldeiras, I.; Brosseron, F.; Cavedo, E.; Fladby, T.; Froelich, L.; Gabryelewicz, T.; Gurvit, H.; Kapaki, E.; Koson, P.; Kulic, L.; Lehmann, S.; Lewczuk, P.; Lleo, A.; Maetzler, W.; de Mendonca, A.; Miller, A.M.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Mollenhauer, B.; Parnetti, L.; Rot, U.; Schneider, A.; Simonsen, A.H.; Tagliavini, F.; Tsolaki, M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Verhey, F. R. J.; Zboch, M.; Winblad, B.; Scheltens, P.; Zetterberg, H.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid

  5. Different Relevance of Peripheral, Central or Nighttime Blood Pressure Measurements in the Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Patients with Mild or No-Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Kwiecień, Katarzyna; Adamczak, Marcin; Bączkowska, Teresa; Gozdowska, Jolanta; Madziarska, Katarzyna; Augustyniak-Bartosik, Hanna; Klinger, Marian; Durlik, Magdalena; Ritz, Eberhard; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2018-05-10

    Arterial hypertension is one of the leading factors aggravating the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It seems that the novel parameters used in the assessment of the blood pressure (BP) load (i.e. central blood pressure, nighttime blood pressure) may be more precise in predicting the cardiovascular risk and the progression of CKD in comparison with the traditional peripheral blood pressure measurements in the office conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the central, or nighttime blood pressure on the progression of CKD in patients with mild or no-proteinuria (autosomal, dominant polycystic kidney disease or IgA nephropathy). In each of the enrolled 46 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4, serum creatinine concentration was assessed, eGFR (MDRD) was calculated, also central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was assessed and the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was conducted at the beginning of the study and then repeated after one-year observation period. During the observation period mean eGFR decreased from 44.1 (33.2-50.6) mL/min to 36.7 (29.7-46.3) mL/min. No significant differences were observed in the peripheral blood pressure or central blood pressure parameters. After one-year observation period the values of diastolic blood pressure dipping during the night significantly decreased from 16 (13-19) mmHg to 12 (10-15) mmHg; pblood pressure did not change significantly during a one-year observation period despite the significant decline of eGFR and seems not to participate in the CKD progression. 2. Reduced magnitude of the diastolic dipping, which reflects the increase of diastolic blood pressure load during the nighttime, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of deterioration of kidney function in these patients. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Organizational leadership perspectives in implementation of the One Health approach: A case of the Zoonotic Disease Unit and core One Health implementers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Manyibe Nyariki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined organizational leadership as a cross-sectoral collaboration factor in the implementation of the One Health (OH approach using Kenya’s Zoonotic Disease Unit and its core OH implementers as an example. Materials and Method: The study used a mixed methods research design. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 71 respondents, and key informants were interviewed using an interview guide. All the seven key informants and 53 (74% of the respondents participated in the study. Data were checked for consistency, coded, entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Results: From the analysis, 41/53 (77.2% of the respondents were senior personnel, 51/53 (85% of them had worked for 5 years and above in their organizations, and 38/53 (71.7% had at least a Master’s degree. The study established that although most leaders in the organizations had embraced the OH approach, they were not actively involved in its implementation due to constraints such as inadequate funding. There were moderate and statistically significant positive correlations between participation in leadership roles in implementing the OH approach and the level of awareness (Rs (51=0.54, p<0.001 as well as level of sensitization (Rs (51=0.52, p<0.001. Majority (86% of respondents acknowledged that top government leaders were not well sensitized about the OH approach. Conclusion: Organizational leadership plays an important role in the implementation of the OH approach. However, sensitization of leaders about the OH approach needs to be enhanced and expanded.

  7. Reactor core and initially loaded reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo.

    1989-01-01

    In BWR type reactors, improvement for the reactor shutdown margin is an important characteristic condition togehter with power distribution flattening . However, in the reactor core at high burnup degree, the reactor shutdown margin is different depending on the radial position of the reactor core. That is , the reactor shutdown margin is smaller in the outer peripheral region than in the central region of the reactor core. In view of the above, the reactor core is divided radially into a central region and as outer region. The amount of fissionable material of first fuel assemblies newly loaded in the outer region is made less than the amount of the fissionable material of second fuel assemblies newly loaded in the central region, to thereby improve the reactor shutdown margin in the outer region. Further, the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower portion of the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower region of the second fuel assemblies, to thereby obtain a sufficient thermal margin in the central region. (K.M.)

  8. Central hemodynamics and left-ventricural contractility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and stable pulmonary hypertension: a radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleev, N.R.; Malov, G.A.; Cherejskaya, N.K.; Oblovatskaya, O.G.; Tsar'kova, L.N.; Zil'berman, E.Eh.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Serdechno-Sosudistoj Khirurgii)

    1987-01-01

    Systemic, central and intracardiac hemodynamics and left-ventricular contractility were studied radiocardiographically and radioventriculographically in 22 patients with stable pulmanory hypertension, developing in the presence of chronic obstructive pulmanory diseases. A tendency to increased circulating blood volume, significantly elevated end diastolic and end systolic indices, reduced total ejection fraction, and a tendency to decreased segmental ejection fractions were demonstrated. A significant reduction of the speed and percetage of left-ventricular myocardial circular fibre contraction is another evedence of incompetent left-ventricular contractility, in addition to the reduced ejection fraction

  9. A longitudinal study of epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in individuals with and without a history of infantile autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register (DNHR). The average observation time was 30.3years (range 27-30years), and mean age at follow-up was 42.7years (range 27-57years). Results: Of the 118 individuals with IA, 29 (24.6%) were registered with at least one epilepsy diagnosis against 5 (1......Objective: To compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. Methods: All participants were screened through...

  10. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  11. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease, with special emphasis on chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology, in the north central region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Kithsiri Bandara; Dissanayake, Dhammika Menike; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Ranasinghe, Asanga; Karunarathna, Ranawaka Hewage; Priyantha Kumara, Gardiye Waligamage Gamini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out by analyzing health statistics, and three cohort studies were conducted (n = 15 630, 3996, and 2809) to analyze the demographic information, age-specific prevalence, etiology, and stage of presentation. We screened 7604 individuals for chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. The results showed that the male:female ratio was 2.4:1, the mean age of patients was 54.7 ± 8 years, 92% of the patients were farmers, and 93% consumed water from shallow dug wells. Familial occurrence was common (36%). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in different age groups was 3% in those aged 30-40 years; 7% in those aged 41-50 years, 20% in those aged 51-60 years, and 29% in those older than 60 years. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology was diagnosed in 70.2% of patients, while 15.7% and 9.6% were due to hypertension and diabetic mellitus, respectively. The majority of patients were stage 4 (40%) at first presentation, while 31.8% were stage 3 and 24.5% were stage 5. Stage 1 and 2 presentation accounted for only 3.4%. Low prevalence of CKDU was noticed (1.5%) among those who consumed water from natural springs. Prevalence was highest among males, rice farming communities, and those presenting at later disease stages.

  12. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  13. Núcleo central e periferia das representações sociais de ciclos de aprendizagem entre professores Centro y periferia de las representaciones sociales de ciclos de aprendizaje entre maestros Core and periphery of social representation cycles between learning teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laêda Bezerra Machado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo identifica as representações sociais de ciclos de aprendizagem entre professores de Recife e suas implicações práticas, demarcando a saliência e estrutura dessas representações. Participaram do estudo 103 professores. O procedimento de coleta utilizado foi a associação livre de palavras. Os dados foram processados pelo software EVOC, que oferece um gráfico com quatro quadrantes onde localizamos o provável núcleo central e sistema periférico da representação social. Os resultados apontam um discurso racionalizado, ou seja, a saliência dessa representação permite afirmar que os docentes, embora na prática critiquem e rechacem os ciclos de aprendizagem, nas suas representações revelam sintonia com a proposta da rede municipal. Sugerimos, portanto, estudos mais densos das práticas cotidianas desses docentes, para depreender aspectos das representações sociais que nos pareceram pouco revelados.El artículo identifica las representaciones sociales de los ciclos de aprendizaje entre los profesores de Recife y sus implicaciones prácticas, señalando la importancia y la estructura de estas representaciones. Los participantes fueron 103 docentes. El procedimiento de recolección utilizado fue la asociación libre de palabras. Los datos fueron procesados por software EVOC, que ofrece un gráfico con cuatro cuadrantes donde localizamos el probable núcleo central y sistema periférico de la representación social. Los resultados muestran un discurso racional, es decir, la importancia de esta representación permite afirmar que los profesores, aunque en la práctica critican y niegan los ciclos de aprendizaje, en sus representaciones muestran de acuerdo con la propuesta de la red municipal. Sugerimos, por lo tanto, los estudios más densos de las prácticas cotidianas de los profesores, para inferir aspectos de las representaciones sociales que nos parezcan poco revelados.This article identifies the social

  14. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: Application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. Results The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8 (p ≈ 0, desmin (DES (p = 2.71 × 10-6 and enolase 1 (ENO1 (p = 4.19 × 10-5], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9 (p = 1.50 × 10-4 and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30 (p = 1.50 × 10-4] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and

  15. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia; Rao, Shaoqi; Wang, Lihong; Du, Lei; Li, Chuanxing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yadong; Yang, Baofeng

    2008-08-10

    With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8) (p approximately 0), desmin (DES) (p = 2.71 x 10(-6)) and enolase 1 (ENO1) (p = 4.19 x 10(-5))], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4)) and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4))] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and the sub-network that

  16. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  17. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-18 Level in Periodontal Health and Disease in Central Maharashtra (India) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajani, Monica J; Jadhao, Varsha A; Wankhade, Pooja S; Samson, Emmanuel; Acharya, Vishwas D; Tekale, Pawankumar D

    2017-11-01

    The incidence and progression of the periodontal disease depend on periodontal microflora and the multifaceted response of the host, and these interactions are mediated by cytokines and chemokines. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the periodontal therapy in IL-18 level in periodontal disease and health. Based on clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) patients were divided into three groups: Group I with healthy patients, group II with chronic periodontitis, and group III with posttreatment patients having periodontitis. Mean PI, PPD, CAL, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume were significantly higher in groups II and III compared with group I. However, there were no significant differences between GI in groups I, II, and III. The total amount of IL-18 in GCF was significantly higher in group II when compared with groups I and III (p periodontally involved patients, and reduced at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. The IL-18 might be hypothetically beneficial in distinguishing health from disease and monitoring periodontal disease activity.

  18. Cys34 Adductomes Differ between Patients with Chronic Lung or Heart Disease and Healthy Controls in Central London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Edmands, William M B; Dagnino, Sonia; Sinharay, Rudy; Cullinan, Paul; Collins, Peter; Chung, Kian Fan; Barratt, Benjamin; Kelly, Frank J; Vineis, Paolo; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2018-02-20

    Oxidative stress generates reactive species that modify proteins, deplete antioxidant defenses, and contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). To determine whether protein modifications differ between COPD or IHD patients and healthy subjects, we performed untargeted analysis of adducts at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA). Biospecimens were obtained from nonsmoking participants from London, U.K., including healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with COPD (n = 20) or IHD (n = 10). Serum samples were digested with trypsin and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Effects of air pollution on adduct levels were also investigated based on estimated residential exposures to PM 2.5 , O 3 and NO 2 . For the 39 adducts with sufficient data, levels were essentially identical in blood samples collected from the same subjects on two consecutive days, consistent with the 28 day residence time of HSA. Multivariate linear regression revealed 21 significant associations, mainly with the underlying diseases but also with air-pollution exposures (p-value < 0.05). Interestingly, most of the associations indicated that adduct levels decreased with the presence of disease or increased pollutant concentrations. Negative associations of COPD and IHD with the Cys34 disulfide of glutathione and two Cys34 sulfoxidations, were consistent with previous results from smoking and nonsmoking volunteers and nonsmoking women exposed to indoor combustion of coal and wood.

  19. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  20. Role of T cell – glial cell interactions in creating and amplifying Central Nervous System inflammation and Multiple Sclerosis disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Huseby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS that causes the demyelination of nerve cells and destroys oligodendrocytes, neurons and axons. Historically, MS has been thought of as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of CNS white matter. However, recent studies have identified gray matter lesions in MS patients, suggesting that CNS antigens other than myelin proteins may be involved during the MS disease process. We have recently found that T cells targeting astrocyte-specific antigens can drive unique aspects of inflammatory CNS autoimmunity, including the targeting of gray matter and white matter of the brain and inducing heterogeneous clinical disease courses. In addition to being a target of T cells, astrocytes play a critical role in propagating the inflammatory response within the CNS through cytokine induced NF-ΚB signaling. Here, we will discuss the pathophysiology of CNS inflammation mediated by T cell – glial cell interactions and its contributions to CNS autoimmunity.

  1. Central sensitivity syndromes: a new paradigm and group nosology for fibromyalgia and overlapping conditions, and the related issue of disease versus illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2008-06-01

    To discuss the current terminologies used for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and related overlapping conditions, to examine if central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) is the appropriate nosology for these disorders, and to explore the issue of disease versus illness. A literature search was performed through PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect using a number of keywords, eg, functional somatic syndromes, somatoform disorders, medically unexplained symptoms, organic and nonorganic, and diseases and illness. Relevant articles were then reviewed and representative ones cited. Terminologies currently used for CSS conditions predominantly represent a psychosocial construct and are inappropriate. On the other hand, CSS seems to be the logical nosology based on a biopsychosocial model. Such terms as "medically unexplained symptoms," "somatization," "somatization disorder," and "functional somatic syndromes" in the context of CSS should be abandoned. Given current scientific knowledge, the concept of disease-illness dualism has no rational basis and impedes proper patient-physician communication, resulting in poor patient care. The concept of CSS is likely to promote research, education, and proper patient management. CSS seems to be a useful paradigm and an appropriate terminology for FMS and related conditions. The disease-illness, as well as organic/non-organic dichotomy, should be rejected.

  2. Sickle cell disease in Madhya Pradesh, Central India: A comparison of clinical profile of sickle cell homozygote vs. sickle-beta thalassaemia individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajiv; Lazarus, Monica; Ghanghoria, Pawan; Singh, Mpss; Gupta, Rasik Behari; Kumar, Surendra; Sharma, Ravendra K; Shanmugam, Rajasubramaniam

    2016-10-01

    The clinical manifestation in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients varies from one individual to another due to factors like the presence of alpha-thalassaemia mutation, foetal haemoglobin, and β-globin gene haplotype. The present study enumerates the clinical profile of sickle cell anaemia patients from Central India. Seven hundred seventy-six SCD patients from Jabalpur and surrounding districts (Madhya Pradesh) in central India were registered with the sickle cell clinic of NIRTH, Jabalpur. The present study reveals recorded signs and symptoms of genetically confirmed sickle cell anaemia (404) and sickle beta thalassaemia (92) patients. Majority of the patients were from scheduled caste communities (47.9%) and Gond tribal community (13.8%). Splenomegaly was the most common clinical manifestation observed (71.4%). Overall, 63.5% patients had a history of blood transfusion. The most frequent signs and symptoms observed were Pallor, Icterus, Joint pain, Fever, and Fatigue. Majority of the patients revealed onset of disease prior to attaining the age of 3 years (sickle cell anaemia 44.3% and sickle beta thalassaemia 35.9%). Mean haemoglobin levels among SCA individuals were marginally higher than SBT patients. On the other hand, mean foetal haemoglobin levels among SBT individuals showed the reverse trend. Notably, the present study reports the first incidence of priapism recorded in Central India. The study revealed a high prevalence of SCD among scheduled caste, backward caste, and tribal communities. Dissemination of study findings, screening, pre-marriage counselling, and pre-natal diagnosis are fundamental to preventing or lowering of birth of sickle cell anaemia children in the affected populations.

  3. Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity in a Primary Care Context of Central Argentina: A Web-Based Interactive and Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. V. Olivares

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global health agencies estimate an increase of chronic diseases in South America. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated chronic diseases and their risk factors in the perspective of multimorbidity. This research aimed to identify these aspects in a primary health care setting of central Argentina. The Pan America version of the STEP wise approach surveillance (STEPS instrument of the World Health Organization was applied to 1044 participants, 365 men and 679 women, with a mean age of 43 years. High prevalence of overweight (33.5%, obesity (35.2%, central obesity (54%, dyslipidemia (43.5%, metabolic syndrome (21.1%, low intake of fruit and vegetables (91.8%, low levels of physical activity (71.5%, risky alcohol consumption (28%, and smoking (22.5% were detected. Hypertension and diabetes were the most prevalent chronic conditions and the total prevalence of multimorbidity was 33.1%, with 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 chronic conditions found in 19.9%, 9.1%, 2.6%, 1.1% and 0.4% of the population, respectively. Multimorbidity affected 6.4% of the young, 31.7% of the adults, and 60.6% of the elderly, and was more prevalent among women, and in participants with lower levels of education. Having multimorbidity was significantly associated with obesity, central obesity, and higher concentrations of total blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. A website was made available to the participants in order to share the experimental results and health-promoting information.

  4. Distemper virus as a cause of central nervous disease and death in badgers (Meles meles) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, H. H.; Andersen, T. H.

    2004-01-01

    During the summer of 2002 a distemper-like disease was observed in the free-ranging badger population in Denmark. It was characterised by grand seizures, abnormal behaviour and death; the badgers all had severe chronic pneumonia and some had non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. in this study, eight...... of the affected badgers were examined by gross pathological, histological, immunohistological, bacteriological, parasitological and virological methods, and were diagnosed with distemper; canine distemper virus was identified....

  5. Successful treatment with cladribine of Erdheim-Chester disease with orbital and central nervous system involvement developing after treatment of langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD is a rare, systemic form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the juvenile xantho-granuloma family with characteristic bilateral symmetrical long bone osteosclerosis, associated with xanthogranulomatous extras-keletal organ involvement. In ECD, central nervous system (CNS and orbital lesions are frequent, and more than half of ECD patients carry the V600E mutation of the proto-oncogene BRAF. The synchronous or metachronous development of ECD and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH in the same patients is rare, and the possible connection between them is still obscure. Cladribine is a purine substrate analogue that is toxic to lymphocytes and monocytes with good hematoencephalic penetration. Case report. We presented a 23-year-old man successfully treated with cladribine due to BRAF V600E-mutation-negative ECD with bilateral orbital and CNS involvement. ECD developed metachronously, 6 years after chemotherapy for multisystem LCH with complete disease remission and remaining central diabetes insipidus. During ECD treatment, the patient received 5 single-agent chemotherapy courses of cladribine (5 mg/m2 for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks, with a reduction in dose to 4 mg/m2 in a fifth course, delayed due to severe neutropenia and thoracic dermatomal herpes zoster infection following the fourth course. Radiologic signs of systemic and CNS disease started to resolve 3 months after the end of chemotherapy, and CNS lesions completely resolved within 2 years after the treatment. After 12-year follow-up, there was no recurrence or appearance of new systemic or CNS xanthogranu-lomatous lesions or second malignancies. Conclusion. In accordance with our findings and recommendations provided by other authors, cladribine can be considered an effective alternative treatment for ECD, especially with CNS involvement and BRAF V600E-mutation-negative status, when interferon-α as the first-line therapy fails.

  6. Superposed orogenic collision and core-complex formation at the present contact between the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin: The Bukulja and Cer Mountains in central and western Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu; Toljic, Marinko; Ducea, Mihai; Stojadinovic, Uros

    2010-05-01

    Formation of large extensional detachments during orogenic collapse can follow inherited weakness zones such as major asymmetries given by pre-existing subduction zones active during mountain building processes. This is valid in particular in low-topography foreland coupling orogens of Mediterranean type where large amounts of deformation is concentrated in their lower plates, favoring weakness zones activated during a subsequent phase of extensional collapse. One good place to study the orogenic collapse post-dating major collision is the NE margin of the Dinarides in central and western Serbia, where Cretaceous-Eocene shortening and collision was recorded in the Alpine Tethys Sava zone between the European-derived Dacia and Tisza mega-units and the lower Adriatic plate. This is the same place where the Pannonian basin formed as a Miocene back-arc basin in response to a different subduction and roll-back taking place along the external Carpathians. A lineament of Paleogene and Miocene plutons is observed at the northern and eastern margin of the Dinarides, interpreted to be the product of both syn- to post-orogenic subduction magmatism and of decompressional melting during the Pannonian extension. Two of these plutons, Cer and Bukulja, located in western and respectively central Serbia, are intruded in the Jadar-Kopaonik composite thrust sheet, part of the lower Adriatic plate, near the contact with the main suture formed during the Cretaceous-Eocene subduction of the Sava zone. The Lower Miocene age (19-17Ma) Bukulja intrusion is a S-type granite with rare aplitic veins (Cvetkovic et al., 2007). The Cer intrusive complex is a S type two mica granite of around 16Ma in age with an older I-type quartz monzonite component (Koroneos et al. in press). Both granitoids are intruded into the Jadar-Kopaonik metamorphic series, which are in direct contact along the northern, eastern and southern flank with non-metamorphosed, mainly clastic sediments of Cretaceous-Miocene in

  7. Doenças do sistema nervoso central em caprinos e ovinos no semi-árido Diseases of the central nervous system in goats and sheep of the semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla M.R. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das doenças dos animais domésticos, nas diferentes regiões do Brasil é importante para determinar formas eficientes de profilaxia e controle. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central (SNC de caprinos e ovinos, que ocorreram de janeiro de 2000 a maio de 2006 no semi-árido, principalmente do estado da Paraíba. Durante o período, 365 casos ou surtos foram diagnosticados em caprinos e 270 em ovinos. Desses, 63 (9,92% eram doenças do SNC, sendo 34 (9,31% em caprinos e 29 (10,7% em ovinos. As principais enfermidades foram abscessos (19,04%, tétano (15,9%, raiva (9,52% intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia (7,93%, listeriose (6,34%, trauma (6,34%, polioencefalomalacia (4,77%, toxemia da prenhez (3,17%, ataxia enzoótica (3,17% e meningite (3,17%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (1,59% foram intoxicações por Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea carnea, Ipomoea sericophylla e Prosopis juliflora, otite com encefalite, malformação, linfossarcoma linfoblástico, meduloblastoma e necrose simétrica focal. Em 6,34% dos casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo.The knowledge of the diseases of domestic animals in the different Brazilian regions is important to determine measures for their control and prevention. The objective of this paper is to report the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the diseases of the central nervous system (CNS of goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid, mainly in the state of Paraíba, diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, from January 2000 to May 2006. During the period, 365 cases or outbreaks were diagnosed in goats and 270 in sheep. From these, 63 (9.92% were of diseases of the CNS, being 34 (9.31% in goats and 29 (10.7% in sheep. The main diseases were abscesses (19.04%, tetanus (15.9%, rabies (9.52% poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (7

  8. Electromagnetic fields and health effects-epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, C.

    2004-07-01

    This epidemiologic investigation comprised separate studies of the risk of cancer, cause-specific mortality rates, risks for neurodegenerative diseases, and the risk of arrhythmia-related heart disease among employees exposed to extremely low- frequency (50-Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the Danish utility industry. All the employees in this industry were followed-up in several registers. The risk of disease was analyzed in relation to occupational exposure to EMF, latency, and duration of employment. A specific job-exposure matrix was developed and validated by comparison with direct measurements of EMF during a workday. Linkage with the Danish Cancer Register did not identify increased risks for the cancers suggested a priori to be associated with exposure to EMF, including leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer. Significantly increased risks for lung cancer and mesothelioma were identified for workers highly exposed to asbestos. Linkage with the National Mortality Register revealed a significantly increased overall mortality rate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with an increasing trend with duration of employment and EMF exposure. In addition, a significantly increased mortality rate from electric accidents was observed. It was hypothesized that the observation of increased mortality from ALS was associated with exposure to EMF or electric shocks. No increased mortality rate from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease was observed. Linkage with the National Hospital Register also revealed an increased risk of ALS and, thereby confirmed the finding of an increased mortality rate for this disease in the previous study. Linkage of the cohort with the Multiple Sclerosis Register revealed an increased risk of multiple sclerosis, which was not, however, significant Linkage with the Pacemaker Register showed no increased risk of severe arrhythmia-related heart disease. The second part of the study included the establishment of a large, nationwide

  9. Challenges for proteomics core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kathryn S; Deery, Michael J; Gatto, Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Many analytical techniques have been executed by core facilities established within academic, pharmaceutical and other industrial institutions. The centralization of such facilities ensures a level of expertise and hardware which often cannot be supported by individual laboratories. The establishment of a core facility thus makes the technology available for multiple researchers in the same institution. Often, the services within the core facility are also opened out to researchers from other institutions, frequently with a fee being levied for the service provided. In the 1990s, with the onset of the age of genomics, there was an abundance of DNA analysis facilities, many of which have since disappeared from institutions and are now available through commercial sources. Ten years on, as proteomics was beginning to be utilized by many researchers, this technology found itself an ideal candidate for being placed within a core facility. We discuss what in our view are the daily challenges of proteomics core facilities. We also examine the potential unmet needs of the proteomics core facility that may also be applicable to proteomics laboratories which do not function as core facilities. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Clinical features and course of Kawasaki disease in central Tunisia: a study about 14 cases collected over a period of three years (2000-2002)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemli, Jalel; Kchaou, Habib; Amri, Fethi; Belkadhi, Adel; Essoussi, Ahmed Sahloul; Gueddiche, Neji; Harbi, Abdelaziz

    2005-08-01

    To analyze the clinical features and course of Kawasaki disease in central Tunisia. We studied retrospectively 14 cases of children with Kawasaki disease collected in tunisian center during three years (2000-2002). The study is about 11 boys and 3 girls (sex - ratio: 3.6/1) aged from 6 months to 8 years (mean age : 4 years). Twelve patients had at least 5 diagnostic criteria of the illness, the two others had an incomplete form. We noted cardiac complications in seven patients treated belatedly, beyond 10 days of progression, because of atypical clinical presentations. All patients had all a middle caliber coronary aneurysm that was complicated by a thrombus in three cases, associated with pericarditis and minimal mitral insufficiency in a case and with a cardiac rhythm disturbance (block of branch) in another case. Besides the cardiac complications, several other visceral manifestation could be noted: joint symptoms in five cases, GI tract symptomes in three cases, neuro-meningeal in two cases and urinary trad symptomes in two other cases. Specific treatment (aspirin with antiinflammatory dose and intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)) has been instituted in all patients. The course was favorable for 12 patients with fast regression of clinical manifestation and progressive normalisation of biologic values. Two patients did not respond to the initial IVIG treatment, and had to recense received an additional course of IGIV but without clinical nor biological improvement. These two patients were treated with corticosteroids. Cardiac lesions disappeared completely in all patients even for those with thrombosis and in patients with IVIG-resistant Kawasaki disease. Only one patient had kept neurologic sequellae: aphasia, bevavioral problemes and partial epilepsy. Kawasaki disease is not rare in our region. Incomplete or atypical presentations are frequent and are a source of diagnostic delay. Coronary aneurysm due to the delay of treatment often regresses even in patients

  11. Oral Manifestations of Tropical Infectious Diseases of Central and South America. Part II. Bacterial and Mycotic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-24

    resemble pulmonary tuberculosis , in which 8% of the patients develop ora l or pha ryngea l lesions. In patients with disseminated paracocc idioido...ions , par t icularl y Mexico , Panama , and northern South America .1 The disease occurs most fre- quentl y before the age of ten years and is rare...30-50 years of age.7’’8 Infect i on most comon l y occurs through inhalation of spores resulting in a pulmonary infection which may or may not become

  12. Efficacy and safety of infliximab induction therapy in Crohn's Disease in Central Europe - a Hungarian nationwide observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon László

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infliximab (IFX has proven to be an effective addition to the therapeutic arsenal for refractory, fistulizing, and steroid dependent Crohn's disease (CD, with efficacy in the induction and maintenance of clinical remission of CD. Our objective in this study is to report the nationwide, multicenter experience with IFX induction therapy for CD in Hungary. Methods During a 6-year-period, beginning in 2000, a total of 363 CD patients were treated with IFX as induction therapy (5 mg/kg IFX infusions given at week 0, 2 and 6 at eleven centers in Hungary in this observational study. Data analysis included patient demographics, important disease parameters and the outcome of IFX induction therapy. Results Three hundred and sixty three patients (183 women and 180 men were treated with IFX since 2000. Mean age was 33.5 ± 11.2 years and the mean duration of disease was 6.7 ± 6.1 years. The population included 114 patients (31.4% with therapy-refractory CD, 195 patients (53.7% with fistulas, 16 patients (4.4% with both therapy-refractory CD and fistulas, and 26 patients (7.2% with steroid dependent CD. Overall response rate was 86.2% (313/363. A higher response rate was observed in patients with shorter disease duration (p = 0.05, OR:0.54, 95%CI:0.29-0.99 and concomitant immunosuppressant therapy (p = 0.05, OR: 2.03, 95%CI:0.165-0.596. Concomitant steroid treatment did not enhance the efficacy of IFX induction therapy. Adverse events included 34 allergic reactions (9.4%, 17 delayed type hypersensitivity (4.7%, 16 infections (4.4%, and 3 malignancies (0.8%. Conclusion IFX was safe and effective treatment in this cohort of Hungarian CD patients. Based on our experience co-administration of immunosuppressant therapy is suggested in patients receiving IFX induction therapy. However, concomitant steroid treatment did not enhanced the efficacy of IFX induction therapy.

  13. Aquaporin-4 Immuneglobulin G testing in 36 consecutive Jamaican patients with inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease

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    Sherri Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO in Jamaica are lacking. Here we reviewed the clinical records of 700 patients undergoing neurological evaluation at the Kingston Public Hospital, the largest tertiary institution in Jamaica over a 4 month period. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Aquaporin-4 ImmuneglobulinG (AQP4-IgG testing in 36 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of an inflammatory demyelinating disorder (IDD of the central nervous system (CNS. Patients were classified into 3 categories: i NMO, n=10; ii multiple sclerosis (MS, n=14 and iii unclassified IDD (n=12. All sera were tested for AQP-IgG status by cell binding assay (Euroimmun. No MS cases were positive. Ninety per cent of NMO cases were positive. Four of 12 patients with unclassified IDD tested positive for AQP4-IgG. AQP4-IgG seropositivity was associated with a lower socioeconomic status, higher EDSS (P=0.04 and lower pulmonary function than the seronegative cases (P=0.007. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity may account for a significant proportion of Jamaican CNS IDDs.

  14. Common genetic variants near the Brittle Cornea Syndrome locus ZNF469 influence the blinding disease risk factor central corneal thickness.

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    Yi Lu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Central corneal thickness (CCT, one of the most highly heritable human traits (h(2 typically>0.9, is important for the diagnosis of glaucoma and a potential risk factor for glaucoma susceptibility. We conducted genome-wide association studies in five cohorts from Australia and the United Kingdom (total N = 5058. Three cohorts were based on individually genotyped twin collections, with the remaining two cohorts genotyped on pooled samples from singletons with extreme trait values. The pooled sample findings were validated by individual genotyping the pooled samples together with additional samples also within extreme quantiles. We describe methods for efficient combined analysis of the results from these different study designs. We have identified and replicated quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 13 and 16 for association with CCT. The locus on chromosome 13 (nearest gene FOXO1 had an overall meta-analysis p-value for all the individually genotyped samples of 4.6x10(-10. The locus on chromosome 16 was associated with CCT with p = 8.95x10(-11. The nearest gene to the associated chromosome 16 SNPs was ZNF469, a locus recently implicated in Brittle Cornea Syndrome (BCS, a very rare disorder characterized by abnormal thin corneas. Our findings suggest that in addition to rare variants in ZNF469 underlying CCT variation in BCS patients, more common variants near this gene may contribute to CCT variation in the general population.

  15. The demography of Atelopus decline: Harlequin frog survival and abundance in central Panama prior to and during a disease outbreak

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    Rebecca McCaffery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus are a species-rich genus of Neotropical toads that have experienced disproportionately severe population declines and extinctions caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. The genus Atelopus is of high conservation concern, but relatively little is known about the population dynamics and life history of the majority of species. We examined the demography of one population of Atelopus zeteki and two populations of A. varius in central Panama using three to six years of mark-recapture data collected prior to and during an outbreak of Bd. We estimated male survival probabilities prior to the arrival of Bd and sex-specific population sizes for these three populations using state-space Bayesian population models. Prior to the arrival of Bd, monthly apparent survival probabilities were higher for A. varius males than for A. zeteki males, and recaptures among years were low in both species. Abundance of both species varied over time and declined rapidly after the arrival of Bd. Male densities were generally greater than female densities, though female densities were higher or equivalent to males after the arrival of Bd. Estimates of survival and abundance over time may be explained by differences in the use of stream habitat by the two sexes and three populations, both during and between breeding seasons. These estimates provide key baseline population information that can be used to inform reintroductions from captive assurance colonies and studies of extant Atelopus populations as part of conservation and management programs.

  16. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  17. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system: isolated small-vessel vasculitis represents distinct disease pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boysson, Hubert; Boulouis, Grégoire; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Guillevin, Loïc; Zuber, Mathieu; Touzé, Emmanuel; Naggara, Olivier; Pagnoux, Christian

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to identify whether presentations and outcomes in adult patients with isolated small-vessel primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS) would differ from other patients with large/medium-vessel involvement. In the French PACNS cohort, we compared the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with isolated small-vessel disease (normal CT, MR and/or conventional angiograms, brain biopsy positive for vasculitis) with other patients who had large/medium-vessel involvement (vessel abnormalities on CT, MR or conventional angiograms). A good functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale ⩽2 at last follow-up, regardless of the occurrence of relapse. Among the 102 patients in the cohort, 26 (25%) had isolated small-vessel PACNS, whereas the 76 others demonstrated large/medium-vessel involvement. Patients with isolated small-vessel PACNS had more seizures (P adult patients with isolated small-vessel PACNS presented some distinct disease features and relapsed more often than other PACNS patients who had large/medium-vessel involvement. Functional outcomes and mortality did not differ. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. The familial dysautonomia disease gene IKBKAP is required in the developing and adult mouse central nervous system

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    Marta Chaverra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs are a genetically and clinically diverse group of disorders defined by peripheral nervous system (PNS dysfunction. HSAN type III, known as familial dysautonomia (FD, results from a single base mutation in the gene IKBKAP that encodes a scaffolding unit (ELP1 for a multi-subunit complex known as Elongator. Since mutations in other Elongator subunits (ELP2 to ELP4 are associated with central nervous system (CNS disorders, the goal of this study was to investigate a potential requirement for Ikbkap in the CNS of mice. The sensory and autonomic pathophysiology of FD is fatal, with the majority of patients dying by age 40. While signs and pathology of FD have been noted in the CNS, the clinical and research focus has been on the sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and no genetic model studies have investigated the requirement for Ikbkap in the CNS. Here, we report, using a novel mouse line in which Ikbkap is deleted solely in the nervous system, that not only is Ikbkap widely expressed in the embryonic and adult CNS, but its deletion perturbs both the development of cortical neurons and their survival in adulthood. Primary cilia in embryonic cortical apical progenitors and motile cilia in adult ependymal cells are reduced in number and disorganized. Furthermore, we report that, in the adult CNS, both autonomic and non-autonomic neuronal populations require Ikbkap for survival, including spinal motor and cortical neurons. In addition, the mice developed kyphoscoliosis, an FD hallmark, indicating its neuropathic etiology. Ultimately, these perturbations manifest in a developmental and progressive neurodegenerative condition that includes impairments in learning and memory. Collectively, these data reveal an essential function for Ikbkap that extends beyond the peripheral nervous system to CNS development and function. With the identification of discrete CNS cell types and structures that depend on

  19. Right ventricular performance and central circulatory hemodynamics during upright exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, D.A.; Brent, B.N.; Loke, J.; Zaret, B.L.; Matthay, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide approach was used to evaluate right ventricular performance during upright exercise in 12 male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To assess the influence of intrathoracic pressure on hemodynamic parameters, pleural pressure was measured using an esophageal balloon. Mean age was 58.5 +/- 6.7 yr (+/- SD), and all had dyspnea on physical exertion. For the group, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 1.04 +/- 0.40 L and arterial oxygen-tension (PaO 2 ) was 77 +/- 11 mmHg. During steady-state, upright exercise on the bicycle ergometer at 58% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max): (1) mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) increased significantly; (2) right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) failed to augment appropriately (less than 5% increase); and (3) right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) increased significantly, whereas right ventricular end-systolic volume index (RVESVI) did not change. A diminished pulmonary vascular bed, the change in PaO 2 , and possibly increased alveolar pressure appeared to contribute to the increased load placed on the right ventricle. Both RVEDVI and RVESVI were significantly correlated with Ppa at rest and during exercise. In 2 of the 12 patients, stroke volume index and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index showed minimal change with exercise. VO 2 max was correlated with the FEV1 (r . 0.75; p . 0.01) as well as resting (r . -0.60; p . 0.02) and exercise (r . -0.61; p . 0.02) PVRI. These results suggest that exercise performance may be limited by right ventricular dysfunction in addition to respiratory impairment in some patients with chronic airway disease

  20. Neutron activation analysis in the central nervous system tissues of neurological diseases and rats maintained on minerally unbalanced diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa.

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys on Guam have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and high Al and Mn in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Experimentally, low Ca-Mg diets with or without added Al have been found to accelerate Al deposition in the CNS of rats and monkeys. Although excessive deposition of Mn produces neurotoxic action similar to Al in CNS tissues, the mechanism of Mn deposition coupled with Al loading in the presence of low Ca-Mg intake is not yet known. In this animal study, the deposition and metal-metal interaction of both Al and Mn in the CNS, visceral organs and bones of rats fed unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn content were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, kidney, muscle, abdominal aorta, femur and lumbar spine using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the high concentrations of Mn and Al in bones and in the frontal cortex. It is likely that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the unequal distribution of Al and Mn in bones and ultimately in the CNS inducing CNS degeneration. On the other hand, concentrations of copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) for 26 subanatomical regions of the CNS were measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two cases of Wilson's disease, two of portal systemic encephalopathy, six pathologically verified cases of ALS, four of Parkinson's disease and five neurologically normal controls. Also zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations were measured by NAA for frontal and occipital lobes of parkinsonism-dementia. (author)

  1. A survey of pre-harvest ear rot diseases of maize and associated mycotoxins in south and central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanga, Mweshi; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Laing, Mark D

    2010-07-15

    Maize ear rots reduce grain yield and quality with implication on food security and health. Some of the pathogenic fungi produce mycotoxins in maize grain posing a health risk to humans and livestock. Unfortunately, the levels of ear rot and mycotoxin infection in grain produced by subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan countries are not known. A survey was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of the ear rot problem and levels of mycotoxins in maize grain. A total of 114 farmsteads were randomly sampled from 11 districts in Lusaka and southern provinces in Zambia during 2006. Ten randomly picked cobs were examined per farmstead and the ear rot disease incidence and severity were estimated on site. This was followed by the standard seed health testing procedures for fungal isolation in the laboratory. Results indicated that the dominant ear rots were caused by Fusarium and Stenocarpella. Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides ranged from 2 to 21%, whereas that of Stenocarpella maydis reached 37% on ear rot diseased maize grain. In addition, 2-7% F. verticillioides, and 3-18% Aspergillus flavus, respectively, were recovered from seemingly healthy maize grain. The mean rank of fungal species, from highest to lowest, was F. verticillioides, S. maydis, A. flavus, Fusarium graminearum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Botrydiplodia spp., and Cladosporium spp. The direct competitive ELISA-test indicated higher levels of fumonisins than aflatoxins in pre-harvest maize grain samples. The concentration of fumonisins from six districts, and aflatoxin from two districts, was 10-fold higher than 2 ppm and far higher than 2 ppb maximum daily intake recommended by the FAO/WHO. The study therefore suggested that subsistence farmers and consumers in this part of Zambia, and maybe also in similar environments in sub-Saharan Africa, might be exposed to dangerous levels of mycotoxins due to the high levels of ear rot infections in maize grain. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Cost of Operating Central Cancer Registries and Factors That Affect Cost: Findings From an Economic Evaluation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Program of Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K L; Subramanian, Sujha; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Weir, Hannah K; Trebino, Diana; Babcock, Frances; Ewing, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) evaluated the economics of the National Program of Cancer Registries to provide the CDC, the registries, and policy makers with the economics evidence-base to make optimal decisions about resource allocation. Cancer registry budgets are under increasing threat, and, therefore, systematic assessment of the cost will identify approaches to improve the efficiencies of this vital data collection operation and also justify the funding required to sustain registry operations. To estimate the cost of cancer registry operations and to assess the factors affecting the cost per case reported by National Program of Cancer Registries-funded central cancer registries. We developed a Web-based cost assessment tool to collect 3 years of data (2009-2011) from each National Program of Cancer Registries-funded registry for all actual expenditures for registry activities (including those funded by other sources) and factors affecting registry operations. We used a random-effects regression model to estimate the impact of various factors on cost per cancer case reported. The cost of reporting a cancer case varied across the registries. Central cancer registries that receive high-quality data from reporting sources (as measured by the percentage of records passing automatic edits) and electronic data submissions, and those that collect and report on a large volume of cases had significantly lower cost per case. The volume of cases reported had a large effect, with low-volume registries experiencing much higher cost per case than medium- or high-volume registries. Our results suggest that registries operate with substantial fixed or semivariable costs. Therefore, sharing fixed costs among low-volume contiguous state registries, whenever possible, and centralization of certain processes can result in economies of scale. Approaches to improve quality of data submitted and increasing electronic reporting can also reduce cost.

  3. Demography, maternal health and the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases in the rural department Tsamba-Magotsi, Ngounie Province, in central African Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zoleko Manego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations. To address this question for a remote rural region located in the central African rainforest region of Gabon, this study was conducted to assess reasons for health care attendance and to characterize the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases for the department of Tsamba Magotsi. Methods Major causes for health care attendance were collected from local hospital records. Cross sectional population based surveys were performed for the assessment of local malaria epidemiology. Pregnant women attending antenatal care services were surveyed as a sentinel population for the characterization of chronic viral and parasitic infections in the community. Results Infectious diseases were responsible for 71% (7469 of a total of 10,580 consultations at the formal health care sector in 2010. Overall, malaria – defined by clinical syndrome – remained the most frequent cause for health care attendance. A cross sectional malaria survey in 840 asymptomatic individuals residing in Tsamba Magotsi resulted in a Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence of 37%. The infection rate in 2–10 year old asymptomatic children – a standard measure for malaria endemicity – was 46% (100 of 217 with P. falciparum as predominant species (79%. Infection with other plasmodial species (P. ovale and P. malariae presented most commonly as coinfections (23.2%. Prevalence of HIV, HBV, and syphilis were 6.2, 7.3, and 2.5%, respectively, in cross-sectional assessments of antenatal care visits of pregnant women. Urogenital schistosomiasis and the filarial pathogens Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are highly prevalent chronic parasitic infections

  4. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Four novel connexin 32 mutations in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Phenotypic variability and central nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Georgia; Koutsis, Georgios; Raftopoulou, Maria; Floroskufi, Paraskewi; Karletidi, Karolina-Maria; Panas, Marios

    2014-06-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, the most common hereditary neuropathy, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. X-linked CMT (CMTX) is usually caused by mutations in the gap junction protein b 1 gene (GJB1) coding for connexin 32 (Cx32). The clinical manifestations of CMTX are characterized by significant variability, with some patients exhibiting central nervous system (CNS) involvement. We report four novel mutations in GJB1, c.191G>A (p.Cys64Tyr), c.508G>T (p.Val170Phe), c.778A>G (p.Lys260Glu) and c.300C>G (p.His100Gln) identified in four unrelated Greek families. These mutations were characterized by variable phenotypic expression, including a family with the Roussy-Lévy syndrome, and three of them were associated with mild clinical CNS manifestations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Diseases and injuries associated with travel among students, employees and teachers of the Central University of Venezuela during the national summer vacations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, Alejandro; Marrero, Aiskel; Naranjo, Niurka; Palacios, Yanine; Rossomando, Maria T; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of disease and injuries associated with travel, etiology, risk factors and medical management in a cross-sectional evaluation of university students, employees and teachers of the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela, who returned from domestic travel. A questionnaire completed by 500 individuals was used to evaluate the incidence of disease and injuries associated with travel, the etiology, risk factors and medical management in university students, employees and teachers of Caracas, Venezuela. From the total who accepted and responded to the interview (460, 92%), 50.8% were females. Almost half of them had some vaccination before travel for: measles 78%, rubella 73.6%, hepatitis B 57%, Yellow fever 53.7%. After travel, 53.9% of the individuals reported disease or injury related with travel, including insect bites (22%), which was reported most commonly. Occurrence of disease and injuries was higher for those who traveled to the jungle (OR=5.23, 95% CI 0.62-43.80), followed by those who travel to two areas (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.06-3.13). Drinking alcohol during travel was identified in 73.8%, was significantly higher in men (ptravel. The results indicated the importance of education and training in travel medicine, a relatively new medical discipline in Venezuela. Venezuela has a significant number of people visiting areas at risk for the acquisition of tropical and non-tropical conditions. Occasionally, travelers were without adequate preventive measures and pre-travel advice which is considered of utmost importance. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge, risk perception and mitigation measures towards Ebola virus disease by potentially exposed bushmeat handlers in north-central Nigeria: Any critical gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Yatswako, S; Oddoh, E Y

    2018-02-01

    The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among public health officials for its influence on zoonotic diseases transmission, such as Ebola virus disease (EVD), a rare and severe infectious disease of humans and non-human primates. This survey assessed knowledge/awareness, risk perceptions and mitigation practices towards EVD among bushmeat handlers in north-central Nigeria. These characteristics are premise to level of preparedness against appropriate risk prevention and control. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2015 on 395 bushmeat handlers. Descriptive and analytical statistical analyses were performed using Epi-Info 3.5.3 software, and p knowledge than the hunters. Handlers with tertiary education were more likely (OR 3.22; 95% CI: 1.56-6.67) to possess significant satisfactory knowledge/awareness about EVD. Also, vendors were more likely (OR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.01-3.42) to practice satisfactory mitigation measures than the hunters. Only handlers with tertiary education were more likely (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.26-4.89) to significantly practice satisfactory mitigation measures against EVD. Although most of the handlers possessed significant knowledge/awareness about EVD, few applied mitigation measures against its infection, which is the challenging gap. There is a need for collaborations between the public health, veterinary and wildlife authorities in the provision of health information to bushmeat handlers on better management of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic viral diseases of wildlife origin. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  9. Cardiac function and central haemodynamics in severe chronic obstructive lung disease. Acute and long-term effects of felodipine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratel, T; Hedenstierna, G; Lundquist, H; Nyquist, O; Ripe, E

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients, with advanced chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), received an infusion of the calcium antagonist felodipine at a rate of 0.9 mg/h. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances (PVR and SVR) at rest were reduced by 18% and 33%, respectively. Cardiac output increased by 33%. The right venticular and left venticular ejection fractions (RVEF and LVEF), measured by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography, Increased by 32% and 25%, respectively. During exercise both PVR and SVR fell by a mean of 30%. RVEF and LVEF both increased by about 14%. After three months of oral felopdipine treatment, a dose-related decrease in PVR was noted at rest (r=-0.83) compared with pretreatment values. There was an increase in RVEF which correlated to a reduction in PVR. Three patiens discontinued the trial due to side effects. It is concluded that the reduction of PVR induced by felodipine is accompanied by an improvement in right heart function as measured by ejection fraction measurements.

  10. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  11. Multimodal imaging of central retinal disease progression in a 2 year mean follow up of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujirakul, Tharikarn; Lin, Michael K.; Duong, Jimmy; Wei, Ying; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the rate of progression and optimal follow up time in patients with advanced stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comparing the use of fundus autofluorescence imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Design Retrospective analysis of progression rate. Methods Longitudinal imaging follow up in 71 patients with retinitis pigmentosa was studied using the main outcome measurements of hyperautofluoresent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter along with ellipsoid zone line width from spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Test-retest reliability and the rate of progression were calculated. The interaction between the progression rates was tested for sex, age, mode of inheritance, and baseline measurement size. Symmetry of left and right eye progression rate was also tested. Results Significant progression was observed in >75% of patients during the 2 year mean follow up. The mean annual progression rates of ellipsoid zone line, and hyperautofluorescent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter were 0.45° (4.9%), 0.51° (4.1%), and 0.42° (4.0%), respectively. The e llipsoid zone line width, and hyperautofluorescent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter had low test-retest variabilities of 8.9%, 9.5% and 9.6%, respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate asymmetrical structural progression rate between right and left eye, which was found in 19% of patients. The rate of progression was significantly slower as the disease approached the fovea, supporting the theory that RP progresses in an exponential fashion. No significant interaction between progression rate and patient age, sex, or mode of inheritance was observed. Conclusions Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography detect progression in patients with RP reliably and with strong correlation. These parameters may be useful alongside functional assessments as the outcome measurements for future therapeutic trials. Follow-up at 1 year

  12. Determinants of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases in Central and Eastern Europe: Rationale and design of the HAPIEE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikhart Hynek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last five decades, a wide gap in mortality opened between western and eastern Europe; this gap increased further after the dramatic fluctuations in mortality in the former Soviet Union (FSU in the 1990s. Recent rapid increases in mortality among lower socioeconomic groups in eastern Europe suggests that socioeconomic factors are powerful determinants of mortality in these populations but the more proximal factors linking the social conditions with health remain unclear. The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of classical and non-conventional risk factors and social and psychosocial factors on cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases in eastern Europe and the FSU. The main hypotheses of the HAPIEE study relate to the role of alcohol, nutrition and psychosocial factors. Methods and design The HAPIEE study comprises four cohorts in Russia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Lithuania; each consists of a random sample of men and women aged 45–69 years old at baseline, stratified by gender and 5 year age groups, and selected from population registers. The total planned sample size is 36,500 individuals. Baseline information from the Czech Republic, Russia and Poland was collected in 2002–2005 and includes data on health, lifestyle, diet (food frequency, socioeconomic circumstances and psychosocial factors. A short examination included measurement of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lung function and cognitive function, and a fasting venous blood sample. Re-examination of the cohorts in 2006–2008 focuses on healthy ageing and economic well-being using face-to-face computer assisted personal interviews. Recruitment of the Lithuanian cohort is ongoing, with baseline and re-examination data being collected simultaneously. All cohorts are being followed up for mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular

  13. Epidemiology and phospholipase activity of oral Candida spp. among patients with central nervous system diseases before and after dental cleaning procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Silva Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering of diseases that affect central nervous system may be considered more susceptible to the infectious diseases of mouth. Sixty-nine patients suffering of cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation were submitted to saliva examination for the presence of Candida spp. before and after a procedure of dental cleaning. The isolates were submitted to assay for verifying phospholipase production. 55.10% of the patients provided isolation of Candida spp. The frequency of isolation obtained before dental procedure was: C. albicans (83.33%, C. krusei (8.33% and C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (2.78% each. The frequency after the procedure was: C. albicans (68.57%, C. parapsilosis (11.43%, C. krusei and C. kefyr (8.57% each and Candida glabrata (2.86%. We verified significantly difference (p < 0.01 between populations obtained at the two examinations. Phospholipase production was verified only among C. albicans strains and the proportion of producers was higher when testing isolates obtained after dental cleaning procedure. Studies focused on Candida spp. isolation are useful for better comprehension of the role of these yeasts on the oral flora from patients with cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation.

  14. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  15. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods.

  16. Comparison of central and intraesophageal factors between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and those with GERD-related noncardiac chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M; Simantov, R; Yair, M; Leitman, M; Blatt, A; Scapa, E; Broide, E

    2012-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) causes a wide range of symptoms. Some patients present with typical symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation and others with atypical symptoms such as chest pain. The mechanism responsible for the varying clinical presentation of GERD is still not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate differences in central and local intraesophageal factors between patients with typical GERD symptoms and those with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP). Patients presenting with typical and atypical symptoms suspicious of GERD underwent upper endoscopy and 24-hour pH monitoring with four sensors, each positioned at a different esophageal level. All patients completed GERD symptom, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Symptom Stress Rating questionnaires. From January 2006 to December 2009, 50 patients were recruited, 29 with typical symptoms, and 21 with NCCP. Patients with proven GERD and NCCP had higher proximal extension of acid during reflux episodes than patients with typical symptoms. They were found to be older, had a shorter history of symptom onset, worse anxiety scores, and more endoscopic findings compatible with gastritis. Proximal extension of acid during the reflux episodes in patients with GERD presenting with NCCP may play a role in symptom generation. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. INSULIN AND INSULIN RESISTANCE: NEW MOLECULE MARKERS AND TARGET MOLECULE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Salmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summarizes current data on the role of insulin in the regulation of t glucose metabolism in the central nervous system at physiologic and pathologic conditions. For many years, the brain has been considered as an insulin-independent organ which utilizes glucose without insulin activity. However, it is become clear now that insulin not only regulates glucose transport and metabolism, but also has modulatory efftects in impact on excitability, proliferation and differentiation of brain progenitor cells, synaptic plasticity and memory formation, secretion of neurotransmitters, apoptosis. We have critically reviewed literature information and our own data on the role of insulin and insulin resistance in neuron-glia metabolic coupling, regulation of NAD+ metabolism and action of NAdependent enzymes, neurogenesis, brain development in (pathophysiological conditions. The paper clarifies interrelations between alterations in glucose homeostasis, development of insulin resistance and development of neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, autism, stroke, and depression. We discuss the application of novel molecular markers of insulin resistance (adipokines, α-hydroxybutyrate, BDNF, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, provasopressin and molecular targets for diagnostics and treatment of brain disorders associated with insulin resistance.

  18. Nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F

    1974-07-11

    The core of the fast neutron reactor consisting, among other components, of fuel elements enriched in plutonium is divided into modules. Each module contains a bundle of four or six elongated components (fuel elements and control rods). In the arrangement with four components, one is kept rigid while the other three are elastically yielding inclined towards the center and lean against the rigid component. In the modules with six pieces, each component is elastically yielding inclined towards a central cavity. In this way, they form a circular arc. A control rod may be placed in the cavity. In order to counteract a relative lateral movement, the outer surfaces of the components which have hexagonal cross-sections have interlocking bearing cushions. The bearing cushions consist of keyway-type ribs or grooves with the wedges or ribs gripping in the grooves of the neighbouring components. In addition, the ribs have oblique entering surfaces.

  19. The Biology of the Triatomine Bugs Native to South Central Texas and Assessment of the Risk They Pose for Autochthonous Chagas Disease Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Edward J; Lawrence, Gena; Gorchakov, Rodion; Alamgir, Hasanat; Dotson, Ellen; Sissel, Blake; Sarkar, Sahotra; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-10-01

    Triatomine bugs are a group of hematophagous arthropods that can serve as biological vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Because of differences in the biology and feeding habits among triatomine species, some are more likely than others to be involved in zoonotic and/or human-to-human transmission cycles of T. cruzi . In an attempt to assess the risk for Chagas disease exposure in south-central Texas, human habitations across Texas Health Service Region 8 (HSR 8) and surrounding counties were surveyed for triatomines to characterize the geographic distribution, species-specific biology, and T. cruzi -infection prevalence better. Between May 2010 and August 2013, a total of 545 triatomines representing all 5 known indigenous species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma indictiva, Triatoma lecticularia, Triatoma sanguisuga, and Triatoma protracta woodi) were collected from 59 sites across the region. Triatoma gerstaeckeri was the species most commonly found in domestic and peridomestic ecotopes across Texas HSR 8, representing over 80% of the triatomines collected. Adult T. gerstaeckeri exhibited a seasonal dispersal pattern that began in late April, peaked in mid-May, and then continued into August. On homes with available crevices in the exterior walls, adult T. gerstaeckeri were observed emerging from or entering these protective microhabitats, suggesting possible opportunistic colonization of some exterior walls compartments. Laboratory testing of triatomine hindgut contents for T. cruzi by PCR demonstrated the adult T. gerstaeckeri-infection prevalence across Texas HSR 8 to be 64%. Monitoring peridomestic adult T. gerstaeckeri over the seasonal dispersal peak demonstrated statistically significant increases in both their T. cruzi -infection prevalence (P < 0.01) and tendency to invade human dwellings (P < 0.01) in the later aspect of the emergence peak. In addition to the adult insects, variably sized

  20. Prospective study of catheter-related central vein thrombosis in home parenteral nutrition patients with benign disease using serial venous Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerda, Cristina; Joly, Francisca; Corcos, Olivier; Concejo, Javier; Puiggrós, Carolina; Gil, Carmen; Pironi, Loris

    2016-02-01

    Catheter-related central vein thrombosis (CRVT) is a severe complication of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) that may be clinically manifest or subclinical. The aims of the study were to prospectively investigate the incidence of CRVT in patients on HPN with benign disease and determine the influence of different variables on this complication. A prospective, multicentre, observational study in the Home Artificial Nutrition-Chronic Intestinal Failure ESPEN group was performed. Patients with benign disease starting HPN or already on HPN after the insertion of a new catheter, were recruited and followed up with Color Doppler Duplex Sonography (CDDS) evaluations at baseline, 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months after catheter insertion. Fisher's exact test was used to calculate the association of different variables (related to the patient, type of catheter, vascular access, insertion method, catheter care and anticoagulant treatment) with CRVT events. Sixty-two patients (31 males, 31 females) aged 50 ± 19 (19-83) years were included and followed for a median 363 days, with an Inter Quartile Range of 180-365 days, and a total of 16,186 catheter-days. Six patients had previous CRVT and 16 had history of thromboembolic disease (pulmonary and mesenteric). Forty one patients were receiving anticoagulant treatment. Fifty two patients had tunneled catheters and 10 implanted ports. Two patients had symptomatic thrombosis at 3 and 12 months of follow-up (2 and 3 weeks after normal routine CDDS evaluation). The incidence of CRVT was 0.045/catheter/year. CRVT was not significantly associated with any of the variables analyzed. The incidence of CRVT in patients on HPN for benign disease followed by CDDS is low in the first year of catheterization. We did not observe any case of asymptomatic CRVT. Based on our data, CDDS seems to have low effectiveness as a screening tool for CRVT in asymptomatic patients on HPN with benign disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for

  1. Acidente vascular cerebral e outras complicações do sistema nervoso central nas doenças falciformes Stroke and other vascular complications of the central nervous system in sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Angulo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A principal complicação da doença falciforme na infância é a das artérias cerebrais, mas após os 20 anos também pode se manifestar, como seqüela de lesões anteriores ou neoformadas. A vasculopatia tem a maior importância no desenvolvimento da criança e na qualidade de vida. Além do acidente vascular cerebral completo ou incompleto ("silencioso", existem outras complicações do sistema nervoso central, porém não exclusivas. O diagnóstico da vasculopatia cerebral falciforme necessita auxílio neurorradiológico. O tratamento se faz basicamente com transfusões de eritrócitos contendo hemoglobina A. O objetivo deste trabalho é rever a literatura médica, procurando selecionar a melhor conduta em diagnóstico e tratamento que seja possível empregar de imediato, para reduzir a morbidade e mortalidade da vasculopatia cerebral e elevar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes, principalmente na infância. Os fatores de risco clínicos e laboratoriais, incluindo a triagem por ultra-sonografia Doppler das artérias cerebrais e imagens de ressonância magnética, devem influenciar a decisão de instituir transfusões crônicas e a quelação do ferro transfusional deve acompanhar este tratamento.In children with sickle cell disease, cerebral arteries are prone to lesions that may cause deficiencies and poor quality of life. After the age of 20, new lesions may also occur. Besides stroke and silent cerebral ischemia, other lesions may occur. Radiologic images are necessary to diagnose and blood transfusions to treat. We reviewed the literature to choose best practices and guidelines to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of children with sickle cell disease. Risk factors identified from clinical and laboratory data and screening by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance must be used in order to make decisions about transfusion and iron chelation therapy.

  2. Grain alignment in starless cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A V ∼48. We find that P K /τ K continues to decline with increasing A V with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A V ≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A V ∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  3. A rapid and convergent synthesis of the integrastatin core

    KAUST Repository

    Tadross, Pamela M.; Bugga, Pradeep; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The tetracyclic core of the integrastatin natural products has been prepared in a convergent and rapid manner. Our strategy relies upon a palladium(ii)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization to form the central [3.3.1]-dioxabicycle of the natural product core. Overall, the core has been completed in only 4 linear steps from known compounds. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Diffusion abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus in Alzheimer's disease: diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis using a new method to measure the core of the tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Abe, Osamu; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan); Nemoto, Kiyotaka [Ibaraki Prefectural Tomobe Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ibaraki (Japan); Arima, Kunimasa; Furuta, Nobuo [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan); Uno, Masatake [Yoshioka Rehabilitation Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Hirai, Shigeo [Iruma Hirai Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Saitama (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Our aim was to determine diffusion abnormalities in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) using a new method for measuring the core of the tract. We studied 19 patients with AD and 19 age-matched control subjects who underwent MRI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTT of the UF was generated. The mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the core of the tract were measured after voxelized tract shape processing. Student's t-test was used to compare results between patients with AD and controls. Intraobserver correlation tests were also performed. FA was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the UF of patients with AD than of controls. There was no significant difference in MD along the UF between the two groups. Intraobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) for the first and second measurement was r > 0.93 for measured FA and r > 0.92 for measured MD. Our results suggest that FA reflects progression of AD-related histopathological changes in the UF of the white matter and may represent a useful biological index in monitoring AD. Diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis with voxelized tract shape processing to measure the core of the tract may be a sensitive tool for evaluation of diffusion abnormalities of white matter tracts in AD. (orig.)

  5. Usefulness of the coaxial technique in US-guided breast core biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Ha, Jeon Ju; Lee, Keon; Kim, Won Ho; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dongkang general hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Soo Youn [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the coaxial technique in US-guided breast core biopsy. Using the coaxial technique, US-guided breast core biopsy was performed in 49 breast lesions (40 patients). Under US-guidance the 17-gauge, 13 cm long introducer needle was positioned proximal to the lesion. Once the needle was in place, the central trocar was removed and was replaced with the core biopsy needle. We used an 18-gauge, 16-cm-long core biopsy needle with a 17 mm specimen notch. Four to eight tissue specimens were obtained from each lesion, and the quality and quantity of specimens, procedure time, and complications and their rate were evaluated. For 48 of 49 lesions, specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis, and the findings were as follows : six cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, one of ductal carcinoma in situ, 29 of fibrocystic disease, eight of fibroadenoma, two of chronic inflammation, and two of sclerosing lesion. In 12 lesions agreement between the pathologic results of needle core biopsy and surgical results was 100%. The procedure time was about 15 minutes and no significant complications were noted. In breast core biopsy, the coaxial technique is simple and time-saving, and compared with standard breast core biopsy, may also be less traumatic and decrease the potential risk of seeding the biopsy tract with malignant cells.

  6. Usefulness of the coaxial technique in US-guided breast core biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Ha, Jeon Ju; Lee, Keon; Kim, Won Ho; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ham, Soo Youn

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the coaxial technique in US-guided breast core biopsy. Using the coaxial technique, US-guided breast core biopsy was performed in 49 breast lesions (40 patients). Under US-guidance the 17-gauge, 13 cm long introducer needle was positioned proximal to the lesion. Once the needle was in place, the central trocar was removed and was replaced with the core biopsy needle. We used an 18-gauge, 16-cm-long core biopsy needle with a 17 mm specimen notch. Four to eight tissue specimens were obtained from each lesion, and the quality and quantity of specimens, procedure time, and complications and their rate were evaluated. For 48 of 49 lesions, specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis, and the findings were as follows : six cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, one of ductal carcinoma in situ, 29 of fibrocystic disease, eight of fibroadenoma, two of chronic inflammation, and two of sclerosing lesion. In 12 lesions agreement between the pathologic results of needle core biopsy and surgical results was 100%. The procedure time was about 15 minutes and no significant complications were noted. In breast core biopsy, the coaxial technique is simple and time-saving, and compared with standard breast core biopsy, may also be less traumatic and decrease the potential risk of seeding the biopsy tract with malignant cells

  7. INSULIN IN THE BRAIN: ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR STATES RELATED WITH CENTRAL INSULIN RESISTANCE, TYPE 2 DIABETES AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENRIQUE eBLÁZQUEZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the brain has been considered an insulin-insensitive organ, recent reports on the location of insulin and its receptors in the brain have introduced new ways of considering this hormone responsible for several functions. The origin of insulin in the brain has been explained from peripheral or central sources, or both. Regardless of whether insulin is of peripheral origin or produced in the brain, this hormone may act through its own receptors present in the brain. The molecular events through which insulin functions in the brain are the same as those operating in the periphery. However, certain insulin actions are different in the CNS, such as hormone-induced glucose uptake due to a low insulin-sensitive GLUT-4 activity, and because of the predominant presence of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3. In addition, insulin in the brain contributes to the control of nutrient homeostasis, reproduction, cognition and memory, as well as to neurotrophic, neuromodulatory, and neuroprotective effects. Alterations of these functional activities may contribute to the manifestation of several clinical entities, such as central insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A close association between T2DM and AD has been reported, to the extent that AD is twice more frequent in diabetic patients, and some authors have proposed the name type 3 diabetes for this association. There are links between AD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM through mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress, altered energy and glucose metabolism, cholesterol modifications, dysfunctional protein OGlcNAcylation, formation of amyloid plaques, altered Aβ metabolism, and tau hyperphosphorylation. Advances in the knowledge of preclinical AD and T2DM may be a major stimulus for the development of treatment for preventing the pathogenic events of

  8. Prophylactic penicillin by the full moon: a novel approach in Central Australia that may help to reduce the risk of rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, T M; Schultz, R; McDonald, V; Andrews, R M

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of penicillin prophylaxis to prevent recurrent rheumatic fever and its sequela rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is not optimal in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Full Moon Strategy (the Strategy) was introduced in the Central Australian region in June 2006 to improve the uptake of prophylactic penicillin: clients and healthcare workers were encouraged to use the full moon as a cue for the timing of the 4 weekly prophylactic penicillin injection. To determine the impact and effectiveness of the Strategy on knowledge and uptake of benzathine penicillin prophylaxis for clients at risk of RHD, and for primary healthcare workers in Central Australia. Clients at risk of RHD in four remote Aboriginal communities and the town camps of Alice Springs were identified from the RHD database. Consenting clients or their carers were interviewed about their knowledge of the Strategy and the health promotional tools used. Their healthcare records were then reviewed for prophylaxis uptake 2 years prior to and 2 years following the introduction of the Strategy. Primary healthcare workers in the four remote communities who were available at the time of the study visit were interviewed about their knowledge and use of the Strategy and the health promotional tools. Fifty RHD clients and 19 healthcare workers were interviewed. Most were aware of the flipchart but less than half knew of the calendar poster, hand-held card or radio advertisement. Prophylaxis uptake increased significantly from 47% in the 2 years prior to the introduction of the Strategy, to 57% 2 years after the Strategy was introduced. Introduction of the Strategy coincided with an improvement in uptake of prophylaxis but not around the time of the full moon. Uptake of benzathine penicillin remains inadequate and further innovative measures are needed to control rheumatic fever and its sequela in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  9. Doenças neurológicas de ovinos na região central do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in sheep from central Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são descritos aspectos epidemiológicos e clinico-patológicos das principais doenças neurológicas de ovinos diagnosticadas no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM no período entre 1990 e 2007. A partir de uma busca nos arquivos do LPV-UFSM foram encontrados 586 exames de ovinos correspondentes a necropsias realizadas no laboratório ou a exames de amostras remetidas por veterinários de campo. Sessenta e nove casos experimentais foram excluídos do estudo. Os 517 casos restantes eram compostos de 361 casos (69,8% com diagnóstico conclusivo e 156 casos (30,2% com diagnóstico inconclusivo. Ovinos morreram em decorrência de doença neurológica em 58 casos (16% do grupo com diagnóstico conclusivo. As doenças diagnosticadas mais frequentemente foram cenurose (15 casos ou 25,8%, listeriose (nove casos ou 15,5%, tétano (oito casos ou 13,7%, abscessos vertebrais (quatro casos ou 6,8% e abscessos encefálicos (três casos ou 5,1%. Intoxicação por Erytroxylum argentinum, mielite supurativa pós-caudectomia, meningoencefalite fibrino-supurativa, polioencefalomalacia e raiva (dois casos ou 3,4% cada foram ocasionalmente diagnosticadas. Desmielinização medular, edema da substância branca encefálica, encefalomalacia focal simétrica, hidranencefalia, hipoplasia cerebelar, intoxicação por organofosforado, intoxicação por Solanum pseudocapsicum, mielite fibrino-supurativa e provável intoxicação por closantel (um caso ou 1,7% cada foram raramente observadas.A retrospective study of neurological diseases of sheep in southern Brazil was conducted over an 18-year period (1990-2007. A data base search was carried out in the files of the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology (LPV of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, central Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. A total of 586 sheep were examined. These cases corresponded to necropsies performed in the LPV-UFSM or to

  10. Simulated Online Adaptive Magnetic Resonance–Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Oligometastatic Disease of the Abdomen and Central Thorax: Characterization of Potential Advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, Lauren; Kashani, Rojano; Yang, Deshan; Zhao, Tianyu; Green, Olga; Olsen, Lindsey; Rodriguez, Vivian; Wooten, H. Omar; Li, H. Harold; Hu, Yanle; Bradley, Jeffrey; Robinson, Clifford; Parikh, Parag; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Olsen, Jeffrey R., E-mail: Jeffrey.R.Olsen@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize potential advantages of online-adaptive magnetic resonance (MR)-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to treat oligometastatic disease of the non-liver abdomen and central thorax. Methods and Materials: Ten patients treated with RT for unresectable primary or oligometastatic disease of the non-liver abdomen (n=5) or central thorax (n=5) underwent imaging throughout treatment on a clinical MR image guided RT system. The SBRT plans were created on the basis of tumor/organ at risk (OAR) anatomy at initial computed tomography simulation (P{sub I}), and simulated adaptive plans were created on the basis of observed MR image set tumor/OAR “anatomy of the day” (P{sub A}). Each P{sub A} was planned under workflow constraints to simulate online-adaptive RT. Prescribed dose was 50 Gy/5 fractions, with goal coverage of 95% planning target volume (PTV) by 95% of the prescription, subject to hard OAR constraints. The P{sub I} was applied to each MR dataset and compared with P{sub A} to evaluate changes in dose delivered to tumor/OARs, with dose escalation when possible. Results: Hard OAR constraints were met for all P{sub Is} based on anatomy from initial computed tomography simulation, and all P{sub As} based on anatomy from each daily MR image set. Application of the P{sub I} to anatomy of the day caused OAR constraint violation in 19 of 30 cases. Adaptive planning increased PTV coverage in 21 of 30 cases, including 14 cases in which hard OAR constraints were violated by the nonadaptive plan. For 9 P{sub A} cases, decreased PTV coverage was required to meet hard OAR constraints that would have been violated in a nonadaptive setting. Conclusions: Online-adaptive MRI-guided SBRT may allow PTV dose escalation and/or simultaneous OAR sparing compared with nonadaptive SBRT. A prospective clinical trial is underway at our institution to evaluate clinical outcomes of this technique.

  11. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  12. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ferreiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  13. An integrative study of the genetic, social and environmental determinants of chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Gunarathne, E D L; Yan, Junxia; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Muso, Eri; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo; Watanabe, Takao; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology characterized by tubulointerstitial damages (CKDu) in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka have supported the involvement of social, environmental and genetic factors in its pathogenesis. We conducted a social-environmental-and-genetic epidemiology study on a male population in NCR to investigate the genetic and environmental contributors. We recruited 311 case-series patients and 504 control candidates. Of the 504 control candidates, 218 (43%) were eliminated because of the presence of hypertension, proteinuria, high HbA1c, high serum creatinine or high alpha-1 microglobulin in urine. None of 18 metals measured (μg//) in urine, including Cd, As and Pb, showed significantly higher concentrations in cases compared with controls. As speciation results showed that 75-80% of total urinary As was in the form of arsenobetaine, which is non-toxic to humans. None of the metal concentrations in drinking water samples exceeded guideline values. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to determine the genetic contributors. The GWAS yielded a genome-wide significant association with CKDu for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs6066043; p=5.23 × 10(-9) in quantitative trait locus analysis; p=3.73 × 10(-9) in dichotomous analysis) in SLC13A3 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter member 3). The population attributable fraction and odds ratio for this SNP were 50% and 2.13. Genetic susceptibility was identified as the major risk factor for CKDu. However, 43% of the apparently healthy male population suffers from non-communicable diseases, suggesting their possible influence on CKDu progression.

  14. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Alejandro; Álvarez-Estévez, Guillermo; Cerdas-Calderón, Manuel; Cruz-Trujillo, Zulma; Mena, Elio; Reyes, Marina; Sandoval-Diaz, Mabel; Sánchez-Polo, Vicente; Valdés, Régulo; Ordúnez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  15. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Gregory N., E-mail: gregory.gan@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Camidge, D. Ross [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  16. The Effect of Adding Comorbidities to Current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Risk-Adjustment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah S; Leekha, Surbhi; Magder, Laurence S; Pineles, Lisa; Anderson, Deverick J; Trick, William E; Woeltje, Keith F; Kaye, Keith S; Stafford, Kristen; Thom, Kerri; Lowe, Timothy J; Harris, Anthony D

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND Risk adjustment is needed to fairly compare central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates between hospitals. Until 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) methodology adjusted CLABSI rates only by type of intensive care unit (ICU). The 2017 CDC models also adjust for hospital size and medical school affiliation. We hypothesized that risk adjustment would be improved by including patient demographics and comorbidities from electronically available hospital discharge codes. METHODS Using a cohort design across 22 hospitals, we analyzed data from ICU patients admitted between January 2012 and December 2013. Demographics and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) discharge codes were obtained for each patient, and CLABSIs were identified by trained infection preventionists. Models adjusting only for ICU type and for ICU type plus patient case mix were built and compared using discrimination and standardized infection ratio (SIR). Hospitals were ranked by SIR for each model to examine and compare the changes in rank. RESULTS Overall, 85,849 ICU patients were analyzed and 162 (0.2%) developed CLABSI. The significant variables added to the ICU model were coagulopathy, paralysis, renal failure, malnutrition, and age. The C statistics were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.51-0.59) for the ICU-type model and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.60-0.69) for the ICU-type plus patient case-mix model. When the hospitals were ranked by adjusted SIRs, 10 hospitals (45%) changed rank when comorbidity was added to the ICU-type model. CONCLUSIONS Our risk-adjustment model for CLABSI using electronically available comorbidities demonstrated better discrimination than did the CDC model. The CDC should strongly consider comorbidity-based risk adjustment to more accurately compare CLABSI rates across hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1019-1024.

  17. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it.

  18. Whole-exome sequencing reveals genetic variants associated with chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in North Central Region, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-09-01

    The familial clustering observed in chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka strongly suggests the involvement of genetic factors in its pathogenesis. The objective of the present study is to use whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic variants associated with CKDu. Whole-exome sequencing of eight CKDu cases and eight controls was performed, followed by direct sequencing of candidate loci in 301 CKDu cases and 276 controls. Association study revealed rs34970857 (c.658G > A/p.V220M) located in the KCNA10 gene encoding a voltage-gated K channel as the most promising SNP with the highest odds ratio of 1.74. Four rare variants were identified in gene encoding Laminin beta2 (LAMB2) which is known to cause congenital nephrotic syndrome. Three out of four variants in LAMB2 were novel variants found exclusively in cases. Genetic investigations provide strong evidence on the presence of genetic susceptibility for CKDu. Possibility of presence of several rare variants associated with CKDu in this population is also suggested.

  19. Thrombogenicity and central pulse pressure to enhance prediction of ischemic event occurrence in patients with established coronary artery disease: The MAGMA-ischemia score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliden, Kevin P; Chaudhary, Rahul; Navarese, Eliano P; Sharma, Tushar; Kaza, Himabindu; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2018-01-01

    Conventional cardiovascular risk estimators based on clinical demographics have limited prediction of coronary events. Markers for thrombogenicity and vascular function have not been explored in risk estimation of high-risk patients with coronary artery disease. We aimed to develop a clinical and biomarker score to predict 3-year adverse cardiovascular events. Four hundred eleven patients, with ejection fraction ≥40% undergoing coronary angiography, and found to have a luminal diameter stenosis ≥50%, were included in the analysis. Thrombelastography indices and central pulse pressure (CPP) were determined at the time of catheterization. We identified predictors of death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke and developed a numerical ischemia risk score. The primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI or stroke occurred in 22 patients (5.4%). The factors associated with events were age, prior PCI or CABG, diabetes, CPP, and thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength, and were included in the MAGMA-ischemia score. The MAGMA-ischemia score showed a c-statistic of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.80-0.87; pMAGMA-ischemia score greater than 5 had highest risk to develop clinical events, hazard ratio for the primary endpoint: 13.9 (95% CI 5.8-33.1, pMAGMA-ischemia score yielded a higher discrimination. Inclusion of CPP and assessment of thrombogenicity in a novel score for patients with documented CAD enhanced the prediction of events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Change of central cholinergic receptors following lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: search for an imaging index suitable for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kuge, Yugi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Akiko; Ueda, Masashi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Saji, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Cholinergic system in the central nervous system is involved in the memory function. Thus, because the dysfunction of cholinergic system that project to the cerebral cortex from nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) would be implicated in the memory function deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), evaluating cholinergic function may be useful for the early detection of AD. In this study, because the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats is equivalent to nbM in human, we investigated the change in cholinergic receptors in the frontal cortex of rats with unilateral lesion to the NBM to find an appropriate index for the early detection of AD using techniques of nuclear medicine. The right NBM was injected with ibotenic acid. [ 18 F]FDG-PET images were obtained 3 days later. Some rats were sacrificed at 1 week, whereas others were subjected to a second [ 18 F]FDG-PET at 4 weeks then sacrificed for membrane preparation. The prepared membranes were subjected to radioreceptor assays to measure the density of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Glucose metabolism had decreased on the damaged side compared to the control side at 3 days, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the sides. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had significantly decreased in density compared to the control side at both 1 and 4 weeks. However, muscarinic receptors were not affected. These results suggested that neuronal dysfunction in AD could be diagnosed at an early stage by imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  1. Theory of gastric CO2 ventilation and its control during respiratory acidosis: implications for central chemosensitivity, pH regulation, and diseases causing chronic CO2 retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jay B

    2011-02-15

    The theory of gastric CO(2) ventilation describes a previously unrecognized reflex mechanism controlled by neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) for non-alveolar elimination of systemic CO(2) during respiratory acidosis. Neurons in the cSC, which is a site of CO(2) chemosensitivity for cardiorespiratory control, also control various gastroesophageal reflexes that remove CO(2) from blood. CO(2) is consumed in the production of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the gastric epithelium and then reconstituted as CO(2) in the stomach lumen from the reaction between H(+) and HCO(3)(-). Respiratory acidosis and gastric CO(2) distension induce cSC/vagovagal mediated transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter to vent gastric CO(2) upwards by bulk flow along an abdominal-to-esophageal (=intrapleural) pressure gradient the magnitude of which increases during abdominal (gastric) compression caused by increased contractions of respiratory muscles. Esophageal distension induces cSC/nucleus ambiguus/vagovagal reflex relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and CO(2) is vented into the pharynx and mixed with pulmonary gas during expiration or, alternatively, during eructation. It is proposed that gastric CO(2) ventilation provides explanations for (1) the postprandial increase in expired CO(2) and (2) the negative P(blood - expired)CO₂difference that occurs with increased inspired CO(2). Furthermore, it is postulated that gastric CO(2) ventilation and alveolar CO(2) ventilation are coordinated under dual control by CO(2) chemosensitive neurons in the cSC. This new theory, therefore, presupposes a level of neural control and coordination between two previously presumed dissimilar organ systems and supports the notion that different sites of CO(2) chemosensitivity address different aspects of whole body pH regulation. Consequently, not all sites of central chemosensitivity are equal regarding the mechanism(s) activated for CO(2) elimination. A distributed CO(2

  2. Co-Circulation and Genomic Recombination of Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71 during a Large Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiyong; Wu, Shimin; Xiong, Ying; Li, Tongya; Wen, Zhou; Yan, Mingzhe; Qin, Kai; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), most of them were children of age 1–3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71), 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B–2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A–2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants. PMID:24776922

  3. Co-circulation and genomic recombination of coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 during a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyong Liu

    Full Text Available A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, most of them were children of age 1-3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16, 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71, 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B-2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A-2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants.

  4. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  5. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  6. CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network Coinfection and Concurrent Diseases Core: Canadian Guidelines for Management and Treatment of HIV/Hepatitis C Coinfection in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hull

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection occurs in 20% to 30% of Canadians living with HIV, and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. HIV-HCV management is more complex due to the accelerated progression of liver disease, the timing and nature of antiretroviral and HCV therapy, mental health and addictions management, socioeconomic obstacles and drug-drug interactions between new HCV direct-acting antiviral therapies and antiretroviral regimens.

  7. Core beliefs and psychological distress in patients with psoriasis and atopic eczema attending secondary care: the role of schemas in chronic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizara, A; Papadopoulos, L; McBride, S R

    2012-05-01

    The role of ingrained cognitive and emotional patterns (schemas) in patients with psoriasis and eczema has not previously been investigated. High levels of psychiatric morbidity and psychological distress observed in these populations suggest the presence of maladaptive schemas and therefore a possible target for future successful psychological intervention. To investigate the presence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) in patients with psoriasis and eczema and to explore their links with psychological distress. A sample of 185 adults (psoriasis n = 55, atopic eczema n = 54, chronic disease control n = 23, normal control n = 53) completed validated, self-administered questionnaires. Differences were found between dermatology patients and control groups. Patients with psoriasis differed on seven EMS from the normal control group: emotional deprivation (P = 0·011), social isolation (P emotional inhibition (P = 0·002). They differed from the chronic disease group on vulnerability to harm (P = 0·002) only. Patients with eczema differed from the normal control group on eight EMS: emotional deprivation (P eczema. Treatment protocols may benefit by targeting schemas. Further studies are needed to investigate the benefits of schema-focused therapy in patients with skin disease. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  9. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  10. Early-type galaxy core phase densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hartwick, F. D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-type galaxies have projected central density brightness profile logarithmic slopes, γ', ranging from about 0 to 1. We show that γ' is strongly correlated, r = 0.83, with the coarse grain phase density of the galaxy core, Q 0 ≡ ρ/σ 3 . The luminosity-γ' correlation is much weaker, r = –0.51. Q 0 also serves to separate the distribution of steep core profiles, γ' > 0.5, from shallow profiles, γ' < 0.3, although there are many galaxies of intermediate slope, at intermediate Q 0 , in a volume-limited sample. The transition phase density separating the two profile types is approximately 0.003 M ☉ pc –3 km –3 s 3 , which is also where the relation between Q 0 and core mass shows a change in slope, the rotation rate of the central part of the galaxy increases, and the ratio of the black hole to core mass increases. These relations are considered relative to the globular cluster inspiral core buildup and binary black hole core scouring mechanisms for core creation and evolution. Mass-enhanced globular cluster inspiral models have quantitative predictions that are supported by data, but no single model yet completely explains the correlations.

  11. CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network Coinfection and Concurrent Diseases Core: Canadian guidelines for management and treatment of HIV/hepatitis C coinfection in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Mark; Klein, Marina; Shafran, Stephen; Tseng, Alice; Giguère, Pierre; Côté, Pierre; Poliquin, Marc; Cooper, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20% to 30% of Canadians living with HIV, and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. HIV-HCV management is more complex due to the accelerated progression of liver disease, the timing and nature of antiretroviral and HCV therapy, mental health and addictions management, socioeconomic obstacles and drug-drug interactions between new HCV direct-acting antiviral therapies and antiretroviral regimens. OBJECTIVE: To develop national standards for the management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context. METHODS: A panel with specific clinical expertise in HIV-HCV co-infection was convened by The CIHR HIV Trials Network to review current literature, existing guidelines and protocols. Following broad solicitation for input, consensus recommendations were approved by the working group, and were characterized using a Class (benefit verses harm) and Level (strength of certainty) quality-of-evidence scale. RESULTS: All HIV-HCV coinfected individuals should be assessed for HCV therapy. Individuals unable to initiate HCV therapy should initiate antiretroviral therapy to slow liver disease progression. Standard of care for genotype 1 is pegylated interferon and weight-based ribavirin dosing plus an HCV protease inhibitor; traditional dual therapy for 24 weeks (for genotype 2/3 with virological clearance at week 4); or 48 weeks (for genotypes 2–6). Therapy deferral for individuals with mild liver disease may be considered. HIV should not be considered a barrier to liver transplantation in coinfected patients. DISCUSSION: Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. PMID:24489565

  12. Analysis of the three dimensional core kinetics NESTLE code coupling with the advanced thermo-hydraulic code systems, RELAP5/SCDAPSIM and its application to the Laguna Verde Central reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar C, J.H.; Nunez C, A.; Chavez M, C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the written present is to propose a methodology for the joining of the codes RELAP5/SCDAPSIM and NESTLE. The development of this joining will be carried out inside a doctoral program of Engineering in Energy with nuclear profile of the Ability of Engineering of the UNAM together with the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS). The general purpose of this type of developments, is to have tools that are implemented by multiple programs or codes such a that systems or models of the three-dimensional kinetics of the core can be simulated and those of the dynamics of the reactor (water heater-hydraulics). In the past, by limitations for the calculation of the complete answer of both systems, the developed models they were carried out for separate, putting a lot of emphasis in one but neglecting the other one. These methodologies, calls of better estimate, will be good to the nuclear industry to evaluate, with more high grades of detail, the designs of the nuclear power plant (for modifications to those already existent or for new concepts in the designs of advanced reactors), besides analysing events (transitory and have an accident), among other applications. The coupled system was applied to design studies and investigation of the Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV). (Author)

  13. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Updated Review of the Core Features, the RBD-Neurodegenerative Disease Association, Evolving Concepts, Controversies, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve, Bradley F.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia manifested by vivid, often frightening dreams associated with simple or complex motor behavior during REM sleep. Patients appear to “act out their dreams,” in which the exhibited behaviors mirror the content of the dreams, and the dream content often involves a chasing or attacking theme. The polysomnographic features of RBD include increased electromyographic tone +/- dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. Management with counseling and pharmacologic measures is usually straight-forward and effective. In this review, the terminology, clinical and polysomnographic features, demographic and epidemiologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and management strategies are discussed. Recent data on the suspected pathophysiologic mechanisms of RBD are also reviewed. The literature and our institutional experience on RBD are next discussed, with an emphasis on the RBD-neurodegenerative disease association and particularly the RBD-synucleinopathy association. Several issues relating to evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions are then reviewed, with an emphasis on idiopathic RBD representing an early feature of a neurodegenerative disease and particularly an evolving synucleinopathy. Planning for future therapies that impact patients with idiopathic RBD is reviewed in detail. PMID:20146689

  14. THE ENIGMATIC CORE L1451-mm: A FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE? OR A HIDDEN VeLLO?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arce, Hector G.; Tanner, Joel [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Schnee, Scott [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Tafalla, Mario [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: jaime.pineda@manchester.ac.uk [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2011-12-20

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L{sub Sun} is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation.

  15. THE ENIGMATIC CORE L1451-mm: A FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE? OR A HIDDEN VeLLO?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens; Arce, Héctor G.; Tanner, Joel; Schnee, Scott; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-01-01

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and 12 CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L ☉ is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect 12 CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation.

  16. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  18. Core construction for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettinger, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    HTR core construction with prismatic graphite blocks piled into columns. The front of the blocks is concavely curved. The lines of contact of two blocks are always not vertical, i.e. the blocks of one column are supported by the blocks of neighbouring columns so that ducts are formed. Groups of three or four of these columns may additionally be arranged around a central column which has recesses in order to lock the blocks of one group together. With this arrangement, dimensional changes of the graphite blocks under operating conditions can be taken up. (DG) [de

  19. Seismic core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, A.; Mullooly, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A core shroud is provided, comprising: a coolant boundary, following the shape of the core boundary, for channeling the coolant through the fuel assemblies; a cylindrical band positioned inside the core barrel and surrounding the coolant boundary; and support members extending from the coolant boundary to the band, for transferring load from the coolant boundary to the band. The shroud may be assembled in parts using automated welding techniques, and it may be adjusted to fit the reactor core easily

  20. Experimental observation of spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in side cores of a multicore fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    Spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) was experimentally observed in one of the side cores of an uncoated multicore fiber (MCF). The frequency bandwidth in the side core was up to ∼400 MHz, which is 0.5 times that in the central core. The GAWBS spectrum of the side core of the MCF included intrinsic peaks, which had different acoustic resonance frequencies from those of the central core. In addition, the spontaneous depolarized GAWBS in the central/side core was unaffected by that in the other core. These results will lead to the development of polarization/phase modulators using an MCF.

  1. Core Values | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core Values Core Values NREL's core values are rooted in a safe and supportive work environment guide our everyday actions and efforts: Safe and supportive work environment Respect for the rights physical and social environment Integrity Maintain the highest standard of ethics, honesty, and integrity

  2. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  3. Role of centrality for the identification of influential spreaders in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Barbieri, André Luiz; Rodríguez, Pablo Martín; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Moreno, Yamir; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2014-09-01

    The identification of the most influential spreaders in networks is important to control and understand the spreading capabilities of the system as well as to ensure an efficient information diffusion such as in rumorlike dynamics. Recent works have suggested that the identification of influential spreaders is not independent of the dynamics being studied. For instance, the key disease spreaders might not necessarily be so important when it comes to analyzing social contagion or rumor propagation. Additionally, it has been shown that different metrics (degree, coreness, etc.) might identify different influential nodes even for the same dynamical processes with diverse degrees of accuracy. In this paper, we investigate how nine centrality measures correlate with the disease and rumor spreading capabilities of the nodes in different synthetic and real-world (both spatial and nonspatial) networks. We also propose a generalization of the random walk accessibility as a new centrality measure and derive analytical expressions for the latter measure for simple network configurations. Our results show that for nonspatial networks, the k-core and degree centralities are the most correlated to epidemic spreading, whereas the average neighborhood degree, the closeness centrality, and accessibility are the most related to rumor dynamics. On the contrary, for spatial networks, the accessibility measure outperforms the rest of the centrality metrics in almost all cases regardless of the kind of dynamics considered. Therefore, an important consequence of our analysis is that previous studies performed in synthetic random networks cannot be generalized to the case of spatial networks.

  4. Effect of PF-00547659 on Central Nervous System Immune Surveillance and Circulating beta 7+T Cells in Crohn's Disease: Report of the TOSCA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, Geert; Vermeire, Séverine; Vogelsang, Harald; Allez, Matthieu; Desreumaux, Pierre; van Gossum, Andre; Sandborn, William J.; Baumgart, Daniel C.; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Comer, Gail M.; Ahmad, Alaa; Cataldi, Fabio; Cheng, John; Clare, Robert; Gorelick, Kenneth J.; Kaminski, Annamarie; Pradhan, Vivek; Rivers, Sunday; Sikpi, Matthew O.; Zhang, Yanhua; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina; Reinisch, Walter; Stuve, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aims: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy [PML], a brain infection associated with anti-integrin drugs that inhibit lymphocyte translocation from bloodstream to tissue, can be fatal. Decreased central nervous system [CNS] immune surveillance leading to this infection has been

  5. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-11-30

    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  6. Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and its importance for vector-borne diseases in a rural area of Central Western - Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alexandre Leal-Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study describes ecological data obtained in a rural area in the State of Mato Grosso, including the insects belonging to the family Culicidae, especially those framed as potential vectors of tropical diseases. In 2015, we collected adult mosquitoes in fragments of forest in a rural area located in Mato Grosso Central West of Brazil. We captured 18,256 mosquitoes of the sub-families Culicinae and Anophelinae and have identified 34 species belonging to 12 genera: Aedes (1 species, Anopheles (8 species, Coquillettidia (1 species, Haemagogus (1 species, Culex (5 species, Psorophora  (5 species, Ochlerotatus (4 species, Deinocerites (1 species,  Mansonia (4 species, Sabethes (2 species, Limatus (1 species, Wyeomyia (1 species. The family Culicidae presented high richness and abundance, established by diversity indexes (Margalef α =3.26; Shannon H' = 2.09; Simpson D = 0.19 with dominance of the species Anopheles (Nyssorhyncus darlingi Root (89.8%. This species has considerable epidemiological value, considered the main vector of malaria in Mato Grosso. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and domestic animals, transmitting pathogens including viruses (arboviruses, filaria worms (helminths and protozoa. Composição de espécies e distribuição da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e sua importância para doenças transmitidas por vetores em uma área rural do centro-ocidental - Mato Grosso, Brasil Resumo. Este estudo descreve dados ecológicos de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso e dos insetos da família Culicidae especialmente aqueles enquadrados como vetores potenciais de doenças tropicais. Em 2015, coletamos mosquitos adultos em fragmentos de floresta em localidades de áreas rurais no Mato Grosso região Centro Oeste do Brasil. Foram capturados 18.256 exemplares alados de mosquitos das subfamílias Culicinae e Anophelinae e identificadas 34 espécies pertencentes a 12 g

  7. Antibodies to the core proteins of Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus reveal details of the distribution of the proteins in infected cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasecka, Lidia; Bin-Tarif, Abdelghani; Bridgen, Anne; Juleff, Nicholas; Waters, Ryan A; Baron, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV; also called Ganjam virus in India) is a bunyavirus of the genus Nairovirus. It causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%. The virus is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Little is currently known about the biology of NSDV. We have generated specific antibodies against the virus nucleocapsid protein (N) and polymerase (L) and used these to characterise NSDV in infected cells and to study its distribution during infection in a natural host. Due to its large size and the presence of a papain-like protease (the OTU-like domain) it has been suggested that the L protein of nairoviruses undergoes an autoproteolytic cleavage into polymerase and one or more accessory proteins. Specific antibodies which recognise either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of the NSDV L protein showed no evidence of L protein cleavage in NSDV-infected cells. Using the specific anti-N and anti-L antibodies, it was found that these viral proteins do not fully colocalise in infected cells; the N protein accumulated near the Golgi at early stages of infection while the L protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, further supporting the multifunctional nature of the L protein. These antibodies also allowed us to gain information about the organs and cell types targeted by the virus in vivo. We could detect NSDV in cryosections prepared from various tissues collected post-mortem from experimentally inoculated animals; the virus was found in the mucosal lining of the small and large intestine, in the lungs, and in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), where NSDV appeared to target monocytes and/or macrophages.

  8. Antibodies to the core proteins of Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus reveal details of the distribution of the proteins in infected cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lasecka

    Full Text Available Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV; also called Ganjam virus in India is a bunyavirus of the genus Nairovirus. It causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%. The virus is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. Little is currently known about the biology of NSDV. We have generated specific antibodies against the virus nucleocapsid protein (N and polymerase (L and used these to characterise NSDV in infected cells and to study its distribution during infection in a natural host. Due to its large size and the presence of a papain-like protease (the OTU-like domain it has been suggested that the L protein of nairoviruses undergoes an autoproteolytic cleavage into polymerase and one or more accessory proteins. Specific antibodies which recognise either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of the NSDV L protein showed no evidence of L protein cleavage in NSDV-infected cells. Using the specific anti-N and anti-L antibodies, it was found that these viral proteins do not fully colocalise in infected cells; the N protein accumulated near the Golgi at early stages of infection while the L protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, further supporting the multifunctional nature of the L protein. These antibodies also allowed us to gain information about the organs and cell types targeted by the virus in vivo. We could detect NSDV in cryosections prepared from various tissues collected post-mortem from experimentally inoculated animals; the virus was found in the mucosal lining of the small and large intestine, in the lungs, and in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, where NSDV appeared to target monocytes and/or macrophages.

  9. Evaluation bias in objective response rate and disease control rate between blinded independent central review and local assessment: a study-level pooled analysis of phase III randomized control trials in the past seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianrong; Zhang, Yiyin; Tang, Shiyan; Liang, Hengrui; Chen, Difei; Jiang, Long; He, Qihua; Huang, Yu; Wang, Xinyu; Deng, Kexin; Jiang, Shuhan; Zhou, Jiaqing; Xu, Jiaxuan; Chen, Xuanzuo; Liang, Wenhua; He, Jianxing

    2017-12-01

    In previous studies, complete-case implementation of blind independent central review has been considered unnecessary based on no sign of systematic bias between central and local assessments. In order to further evaluate its value, this study investigated evaluation status between both assessments in phase III trials of anti-cancer drugs for non-hematologic solid tumors. Eligible trials were searched in PubMed with the date of Jan 1, 2010 to Jun 30, 2017. We compared objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) between central and local assessments by study-level pooled analysis and correlation analysis. In pooled analysis, direct comparison was measured by the odds ratio (OR) of central-assessed response status to local-assessed response status; to investigate evaluation bias between central and local assessments, the above calculated OR between experimental (exp-) and control (con-) arms were compared, measured by the ratio of OR. A total of 28 included trials involving 17,466 patients were included (28 with ORR, 16 with DCR). Pooled analysis showed central assessment reported lower ORR and DCR than local assessment, especially in trials with open-label design, central-assessed primary endpoint, and positive primary endpoint outcome, respectively. However, this finding could be found in both experimental [exp-ORR: OR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87), Pevaluation bias between two assessments was indicated through further analysis [ORR: ratio of OR=1.02 (0.97-1.07), P=0.42, I 2 =0%; DCR: ratio of OR=0.98 (0.93-1.03), P=0.37, I 2 =0%], regardless of mask (open/blind), sample size, tumor type, primary endpoint (central-assessed/local-assessed), and primary endpoint outcome (positive/negative). Correlation analysis demonstrated a high-degree concordance between central and local assessments (exp-ORR, con-ORR, exp-DCR, con-DCR: r>0.90, P<0.01). Blind independent central review remained irreplaceable to monitor local assessment, but its complete

  10. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  11. Doenças de caprinos diagnosticadas na região Central no Rio Grande do Sul: 114 casos Diseases of goats diagnosed in the Central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 114 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos arquivos do LPV-UFSM e examinados os laudos de necropsias de caprinos realizadas num período de 48 anos (1964 a 2011. Foram analisados 114 laudos de necropsias de caprinos. Deste total, 95 (83,33% tinham diagnóstico conclusivo e 19 (19,66% tinham diagnóstico inconclusivo. Dos 95 casos conclusivos, as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias foram as mais prevalentes, seguidas em ordem decrescente de prevalência, pelas doenças metabólicas e nutricionais, intoxicações e toxi-infecções e alterações do desenvolvimento. Outras alterações de diferentes naturezas e etiologias que não se enquadravam nos grupos de doenças acima afetaram cerca de 10% dos caprinos examinados. A hemoncose foi a principal causa de morte de caprinos na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM. Eimeriose e listeriose também foram causas importantes de morte. Dentre as doenças metabólicas e nutricionais, urolitíase, osteoporose, toxemia da prenhez, desnutrição e doença dos músculos brancos foram as mais prevalentes. Principalmente as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias e as metabólicas e nutricionais ocorreram muitas vezes na forma de surtos, acarretando maiores perdas econômicas associadas.A retrospective study of the goat necropsies performed over a period of 48 years (1964 to 2011 at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS state, Brazil, was performed. A total of 114 reports of goat necropsies were analyzed. Ninety five necropsies (83.33% had a conclusive diagnosis and 19 (19.66% had inconclusive diagnosis. Out of the conclusive cases, infectious and parasitary diseases were the most prevalent, followed, in decreasing order of prevalence, by metabolic and nutritional diseases, poisonings and toxi-infections, and developmental diseases. Other conditions or lesions that did not fit any of the above groups of diseases affected about 10% of the necropsied

  12. Highly efficient fluorescence sensing with hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Barth, Michael; Benson, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes.......We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes....

  13. Performance testing of a mixed TRIGA core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R F; Godsey, T A; Feltz, D E; Randall, J D [Texas A and M University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    The major operational problem experienced by the Nuclear Science Center Reactor at Texas A and M University is full burnup. With two shift operation caused by the high utilization of the facility, the reactor is operated more than 100 megawatt days per year. The solution chosen for this problem was conversion to FLIP fuel. Since funds were not available to load an entire FLIP core, a mixed core comprised of approximately one third FLIP fuel located in the central region was designed. The design core was loaded and went critical on July 1, 1973. The results of the following measurements on the mixed core are presented: Determination of Rod worths; Measurement of Reactivity Effects; Determination of Flux values; Measurement of Fuel temperatures; Preliminary Fuel Burnup Rate; Pulsing Calibration. (author)

  14. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  15. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.