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Sample records for central core disease

  1. Central core disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth Heinz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Central core disease (CCD is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1 gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1. Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s. The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome.

  2. Ankylosing spondylitis and central core disease: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Rosana Herminia; Lin, Kátia; Iwamoto, Fãbio Massaiti; Arruda, Walter Oleschko; Werneck, Lineu Cesar

    2003-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that primarily affects the axial skeleton. Neurological manifestations of AS are usually related to spinal deformities. Previous studies of the paraspinal muscles of AS patients showed muscle fiber atrophy, and core fibers. On the other hand, central core disease (CCD) is a genetic condition that primarily involves the skeletal muscles, but can present articular deformities secondary to muscular weakness. We report the case of a 45-year-old man with clinical and radiological diagnosis of AS and proximal muscular weakness in the lower limbs. Needle electromyography showed myopathic features and nerve conduction study was normal. Muscle biopsy disclosed almost complete predominance of type-1 fibers, and fibers with central cores. This is the first report of AS and CCD. Whether central core myopathy is coincidental or a new association with AS is discussed.

  3. The spectrum of pathology in central core disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, C A; Müller, C; Davis, M; Dwyer, J S M; Dove, J; Evans, G; Schröder, R; Fürst, D; Helliwell, T; Laing, N; Quinlivan, R C M

    2002-12-01

    Central core disease is a congenital myopathy with muscle weakness defined pathologically by the presence of extensive areas in muscle fibres that are devoid of oxidative enzyme activity. The gene responsible has been shown to be the ryanodine receptor 1 on chromosome 19q13 and mutations have now been identified in several patients. Some cases with the morphological defect remain molecularly undefined, particularly those studied before molecular studies were available. We have studied three families with congenital onset, each with a dominantly inherited mutation in a C-terminal exon of the ryanodine receptor 1. They illustrate the spectrum of pathology that can be observed in patients with the myopathic features of central core disease. We show that extensive fibrosis and fat may be present, type 1 fibre uniformity may occur in the absence of cores; cores may be central or peripheral, single or multiple; and that an appearance of multiple focal minicores might cause a diagnostic pathological dilemma. In addition, we show the value of immunocytochemistry in identifying cores, in particular the use of antibodies to desmin and gamma-filamin.

  4. Bilateral congenital lumbar hernias in a patient with central core disease--A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazier, Joanna; Mah, Jean K; Nikolic, Ana; Wei, Xing-Chang; Samedi, Veronica; Fajardo, Carlos; Brindle, Mary; Perrier, Renee; Thomas, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Congenital lumbar hernias are rare malformations caused by defects in the development of the posterior abdominal wall. A known association exists with lumbocostovertebral syndrome; however other associated anomalies, including one case with arthrogryposis, have been previously reported. We present an infant girl with bilateral congenital lumbar hernias, multiple joint contractures, decreased muscle bulk and symptoms of malignant hyperthermia. Molecular testing revealed an R4861C mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene, known to be associated with central core disease. This is the first reported case of the co-occurrence of congenital lumbar hernias and central core disease. We hypothesize that ryanodine receptor 1 mutations may interrupt muscle differentiation and development. Further, this case suggests an expansion of the ryanodine receptor 1-related myopathy phenotype to include congenital lumbar hernias.

  5. Successful use of albuterol in a patient with central core disease and mitochondrial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Albuterol, a selective beta-adrenergic agonist, has been used experimentally in combination with exercise therapy in a few inherited neuromuscular disorders to increase muscle strength and muscle volume . We report on a 9-year-old boy with central core disease and mitochondrial dysfunction due to compound heterozygous RYR1 mutations receiving albuterol treatment for 1 year. Throughout the period of albuterol administration, the patient underwent an aerobic exercise regime of training sessions...

  6. Clinical features and ryanodine receptor type 1 gene mutation analysis in a Chinese family with central core disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xingzhi; Jin, Yiwen; Zhao, Haijuan; Huang, Qionghui; Wang, Jingmin; Yuan, Yun; Han, Ying; Qin, Jiong

    2013-03-01

    Central core disease is a rare inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in ryanodine receptor type 1 gene. The clinical phenotype of the disease is highly variable. We report a Chinese pedigree with central core disease confirmed by the gene sequencing. All 3 patients in the family presented with mild proximal limb weakness. The serum level of creatine kinase was normal, and electromyography suggested myogenic changes. The histologic analysis of muscle biopsy showed identical central core lesions in almost all of the muscle fibers in the index case. Exon 90-106 in the C-terminal domain of the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. One heterozygous missense mutation G14678A (Arg4893Gln) in exon 102 was identified in all 3 patients. This is the first report of a familial case of central core disease confirmed by molecular study in mainland China.

  7. Functional Characterization of C-terminal Ryanodine Receptor 1 Variants Associated with Central Core Disease or Malignant Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Remai; Schiemann, Anja H; Langton, Elaine; Bulger, Terasa; Pollock, Neil; Bjorksten, Andrew; Gillies, Robyn; Hutchinson, David; Roxburgh, Richard; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2017-01-01

    Central core disease and malignant hyperthermia are human disorders of skeletal muscle resulting from aberrant Ca2+ handling. Most malignant hyperthermia and central core disease cases are associated with amino acid changes in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the skeletal muscle Ca2+-release channel. Malignant hyperthermia exhibits a gain-of-function phenotype, and central core disease results from loss of channel function. For a variant to be classified as pathogenic, functional studies must demonstrate a correlation with the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. We assessed the pathogenicity of four C-terminal variants of the ryanodine receptor using functional analysis. The variants were identified in families affected by either malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. Four variants were introduced separately into human cDNA encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Following transient expression in HEK-293T cells, functional studies were carried out using calcium release assays in response to an agonist. Two previously characterized variants and wild-type skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor were used as controls. The p.Met4640Ile variant associated with central core disease showed no difference in calcium release compared to wild-type. The p.Val4849Ile variant associated with malignant hyperthermia was more sensitive to agonist than wild-type but did not reach statistical significance and two variants (p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn) associated with central core disease were completely inactive. The p.Val4849Ile variant should be considered a risk factor for malignant hyperthermia, while the p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn variants should be classified as pathogenic for central core disease.

  8. Ankylosing spondylitis and central core disease: case report Espondilite anquilosante e doença do core central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Herminia Scola

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is an inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that primarily affects the axial skeleton. Neurological manifestations of AS are usually related to spinal deformities. Previous studies of the paraspinal muscles of AS patients showed muscle fiber atrophy, and core fibers. On the other hand, central core disease (CCD is a genetic condition that primarily involves the skeletal muscles, but can present articular deformities secondary to muscular weakness. We report the case of a 45-year-old man with clinical and radiological diagnosis of AS and proximal muscular weakness in the lower limbs. Needle electromyography showed myopathic features and nerve conduction study was normal. Muscle biopsy disclosed almost complete predominance of type-1 fibers, and fibers with central cores. This is the first report of AS and CCD. Whether central core myopathy is coincidental or a new association with AS is discussed.A espondilite anquilosante (EA é desordem inflamatória de causa desconhecida que afeta primariamente o esqueleto axial. Estudos prévios dos músculos para-espinhais em pacientes acometidos de EA demonstraram atrofia de fibras musculares e fibras com core central. Por outro lado, a doença do core central (DCC é condição genética que envolve primariamente a musculatura esquelética, podendo acarretar deformidades articulares devido a fraqueza muscular. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 45 anos com diagnóstico clínico e radiológico de espondilite anquilosante e fraqueza muscular proximal nos membros inferiores. A eletromiografia de agulha mostrou padrão miopático e a biópsia muscular evidenciou predominância quase total de fibras tipo 1 e fibras com cores, compatível com DCC. Este é o primeiro relato de EA e DCC. Discutimos se a EA é apenas coincidência ou uma nova associação com a DCC.

  9. Mild Clinical Features and Histopathologically Atypical Cores in Two Korean Families with Central Core Disease Harboring RYR1 Mutations at the C-Terminal Region.

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    Jung, Na-Yeon; Park, Yeong-Eun; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Chang Hun; Jung, Dae-Soo; Kim, Dae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy characterized by distinctive cores in muscle fibers. Mutations in the gene encoding ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) have been identified in most CCD patients. Two unrelated patients presented with slowly progressive or nonprogressive proximal muscle weakness since childhood. Their family history revealed some members with the same clinical problem. Histological analysis of muscle biopsy samples revealed numerous peripheral cores in the muscle fibers. RYR1 sequence analysis disclosed a novel mutation in exon 101 (c.14590T>C) and confirmed a previously reported mutation in exon 102 (c.14678G>A). We report herein two families with CCD in whom missense mutations at the C-terminal of RYR1 were identified. Although it has been accepted that such mutations are usually associated with a severe clinical phenotype and clearly demarcated central cores, our patients exhibited a mild clinical phenotype without facial muscle involvement and skeletal deformities, and atypical cores in their muscle biopsy specimens.

  10. Design and Implementation of the Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Disease Core Center Clinical Database: A Centralized Resource for Characterizing Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease and Other Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Diseases

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    Lisa M. Guay-Woodford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD and other hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases (HRFD are relatively rare recessive disorders that constitute an important set of childhood nephropathies. Little is known about fundamental pathogenesis, and advances toward clinical trials will require well-characterized patient cohorts and the development of predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Such studies in rare diseases require greater collaboration than the efforts in common diseases where large patient repositories can be built at a single site. For the HRFD, clinical and translational research studies would be well served by centralized case accrual that coordinates collection of clinical data, biospecimens (DNA and tissues, and genetic information. As a part of the NIH-funded Hepatorenal Fibrocystic Disease Core Center, we have established a web-accessible portal to enroll patients with ARPKD and other HRFD and compile baseline and longitudinal clinical information in a REDCap-based clinical database. This central database is structured to collect clinical data from patients throughout the Americas (North, Central, and South. By using informatic analyses, we have defined the first data-driven estimates of ARPKD-related neonatal mortality, as well as the incidence and prevalence of this disease. These data indicate that while ARPKD is a rare disorder, there are hundreds of patients potentially available for deep clinical phenotyping in the United States alone. The centralization and sharing of clinical information and biomaterials from ARPKD and other HRFD patients hold the potential to accelerate progress in understanding disease pathways. Once the database is mature, the well-characterized patient cohorts will provide an important resource for developing clinical trials to evaluate new targeted therapeutic interventions in this spectrum of disorders.

  11. Coexistence of central nucleus, cores, and rods: Diagnostic relevance

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    Dhinakaran, Sathiyabama; Kumar, Rashmi Santhosh; Thakkar, Ravindra; Narayanappa, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital myopathies (CMs) though considered distinct disorders, simultaneous occurrence of central nucleus, nemaline rods, and cores in the same biopsy are scarcely reported. Objective: A retrospective reassessment of cases diagnosed as CMs to look for multiple pathologies missed, if any, during the initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical-stained slides from 125 cases diagnosed as congenital myopathy were reassessed. Results: The study revealed 15 cases (12%) of congenital myopathy with more than one morphological feature. Central nucleus with cores (n = 11), central nucleus, nemaline rods and cores (n = 3), and nemaline rods with cores (n = 1). 4/11 cases were diagnosed as centronuclear myopathy (CNM) in the first instance; in addition, cores were revealed on reassessment. Discussion: The prevalence of CMs of all neuromuscular disorders is approximately 6 in 100,000 live births, with regional variations. Three main defined CMs include centro nuclear myopathy (CNM), nemaline rod myopathy (NRM), and central core disease (CCD). However, they are more diverse with overlapping clinical and histopathological features, thus broadening the spectra within each category of congenital myopathy. Conclusion: Identification of cases with overlap of pathological features has diagnostic relevance. PMID:27293330

  12. Coexistence of central nucleus, cores, and rods: Diagnostic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiyabama Dhinakaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital myopathies (CMs though considered distinct disorders, simultaneous occurrence of central nucleus, nemaline rods, and cores in the same biopsy are scarcely reported. Objective: A retrospective reassessment of cases diagnosed as CMs to look for multiple pathologies missed, if any, during the initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Enzyme histochemical, and immunohistochemical-stained slides from 125 cases diagnosed as congenital myopathy were reassessed. Results: The study revealed 15 cases (12% of congenital myopathy with more than one morphological feature. Central nucleus with cores (n = 11, central nucleus, nemaline rods and cores (n = 3, and nemaline rods with cores (n = 1. 4/11 cases were diagnosed as centronuclear myopathy (CNM in the first instance; in addition, cores were revealed on reassessment. Discussion: The prevalence of CMs of all neuromuscular disorders is approximately 6 in 100,000 live births, with regional variations. Three main defined CMs include centro nuclear myopathy (CNM, nemaline rod myopathy (NRM, and central core disease (CCD. However, they are more diverse with overlapping clinical and histopathological features, thus broadening the spectra within each category of congenital myopathy. Conclusion: Identification of cases with overlap of pathological features has diagnostic relevance.

  13. Ca2+ signaling in HEK-293 and skeletal muscle cells expressing recombinant ryanodine receptors harboring malignant hyperthermia and central core disease mutations.

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    Brini, Marisa; Manni, Sabrina; Pierobon, Nicola; Du, Guo Guang; Sharma, Parveen; MacLennan, David H; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2005-04-15

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease (CCD) are caused by mutations in the RYR1 gene encoding the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), a homotetrameric Ca(2+) release channel. Rabbit RyR1 mutant cDNAs carrying mutations corresponding to those in human RyR1 that cause MH and CCD were expressed in HEK-293 cells, which do not have endogenous RyR, and in primary cultures of rat skeletal muscle, which express rat RyR1. Analysis of intracellular Ca(2+) pools was performed using aequorin probes targeted to the lumen of the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), to the mitochondrial matrix, or to the cytosol. Mutations associated with MH caused alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis different from those associated with CCD. Measurements of luminal ER/SR Ca(2+) revealed that the mutations generated leaky channels in all cases, but the leak was particularly pronounced in CCD mutants. Cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients induced by caffeine stimulation were drastically augmented in the MH mutant, slightly reduced in one CCD mutant (Y523S) and completely abolished in another (I4898T). The results suggest that local Ca(2+) derangements of different degrees account for the specific cellular phenotypes of the two disorders.

  14. Anesthesia Management of an Emergent Caesarean Section Case with the History of Central Core Myopathy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagla Bali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Central core myopatyhy is a rarely seen hereditary neuromuscular disorder that is involved in congenitally myopathies group. The disease is characterized by muscular weakness, skeleton system deformities, increased malign hyperthermia sensitivity and anesthesia management is critically important. In these patients, prolonged muscular weakness and malign hyperthermia that can complicate the perioperative management are the most critical risks. In this case report, anesthesia management of an electively planned caesarean section patient, taken into emergency surgery that is also previously known to have central core myopathy diagnosis will be shared. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 770-773

  15. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    the surveillance of this zoonosis in Central Europe. The primary mode of transmission in the region is by direct contact of the skin or conjunctivae...This constitutes true parasitism and is essentially a zoonosis . Obligate myiasis is a serious pathology. In humans, obligate myiasis results...infectious agent. xerophilic - tolerant of dry environments. zoonosis - an infectious disease of animals transmissible under natural conditions from

  16. Central Nervous System Involvement in Whipple Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Compain, Caroline; Sacre, Karim; Puéchal, Xavier; Klein, Isabelle; Vital-Durand, Denis; Houeto, Jean-Luc; De Broucker, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Papo, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Whipple disease (WD) is a rare multisystemic infection with a protean clinical presentation. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in 3 situations: CNS involvement in classic WD, CNS relapse in previously treated WD, and isolated CNS infection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, diagnostic workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data in 18 patients with WD and CNS infection. Ten men and 8 women were included with a median ag...

  17. Diagenetic remobilization of rare earth elements in a sediment core from the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Banakar, V.K.

    Rare earth elements (REE) distribution in a 36 cm long sediment box core from the Central Indian Basin is studied. REE concentration is generally higher in the upper oxic zone than in intermediate suboxic zone suggesting REE diffusion upwards...

  18. Geotechnical properties of two siliceous cores from the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    Physical properties of the siliceous sediments from the Central Indian Basin are measured on two short cores. The properties such as water content, Atterberg limits, porosity specific gravity, wet density show the medium to high plastic sediment...

  19. Sulphur enrichment in a sediment core from the central western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Anomalous sulphur values in relation to organic carbon have been found in the sediments of a core collected from the central western continental margin of India. The relationship between organic carbon and sulphur is similar to that of the sediments...

  20. Early diagenetic processes affecting nutrients in the pore waters of Central Indian Ocean cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    Pore-water nutrients, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, pH and solid-phase organic carbon were analysed for one core from the Arabian Sea and three cores from the manganese nodule area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Possible denitrification...

  1. Atmospheric Pb variations in Central Asia since 1955 from Muztagata ice core record, eastern Pamirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen; YAO Tandong; TIAN Lide; XU Baiqing; LI Yuefang

    2006-01-01

    A Muztagata ice core recovered at 7010 m altitude in East Pamirs provides a Pb concentration record from 1955 to 2000. The result reveals increasing Pb concentrations from 1955 to 1993, with two Pb concentration peaks in 1980 and 1993. After 1993, Pb concentrations in ice core show an obviously declining trend. Analysis shows that the lead in the Muztagata ice core mainly came from anthropogenic emissions from countries in Central Asia, while the local emission had little contribution.

  2. Anesthesia Management of an Emergent Caesarean Section Case with the History of Central Core Myopathy: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Central core myopatyhy is a rarely seen hereditary neuromuscular disorder that is involved in congenitally myopathies group. The disease is characterized by muscular weakness, skeleton system deformities, increased malign hyperthermia sensitivity and anesthesia management is critically important. In these patients, prolonged muscular weakness and malign hyperthermia that can complicate the perioperative management are the most critical risks. In this case report, anesthesia management of an e...

  3. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  4. Ryanodine myopathies without central cores--clinical, histopathologic, and genetic description of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo Pires, Manuel; Oliveira, Jorge; Santos, Rosário; Santos, Manuela

    2014-08-01

    Mutations in ryanodine receptor 1 gene (RYR1) are frequent causes of myopathies. They classically present with central core disease; however, clinical variability and histopathologic overlap are being increasingly recognized. Patient 1 is a 15-year-old girl with mild proximal, four-limb weakness from age 5, presenting with a progressive scoliosis starting at age 10. Patient 2 is an 18-year-old girl with progressively worsening muscle hypotrophy and mild proximal, four-limb weakness. She developed a rapidly progressive scoliosis from age 11 and needed surgical treatment at age 14 years. Patient 3 is an 11-year-old boy with moderate proximal limb weakness and progressive neck flexor weakness, first noticed at age 2. Muscle biopsies revealed type 1 fiber predominance (Patients 1 and 2) or abnormal type 1 fiber uniformity (Patient 3). Different RYR1 variants were identified in all patients. In Patients 1 and 3, these changes were validated as being pathogenic. These patients illustrate early-onset, progressive myopathies with predominant axial involvement. Histopathologic findings were abnormal but not specific for a diagnosis, particularly central core myopathy. Genetic testing helped broaden the range of phenotypes included in the RYR1-related myopathies. Our patients reinforce the need to recognize the broad histopathologic variability of RYR1-related myopathies and sometimes lack of pathognomonic findings that may reduce the diagnostic threshold of this disease. We suggest that the predominance of type 1 fibers and involvement of axial muscles may be an important element to consider the RYR1 gene as candidate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Revealing Coelic Disease

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    Hana ZOUBEIDI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombosis has been widely reported in coeliac disease (CD but central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is rarely described. Case presentation: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute visual loss and was diagnosed with CRVO. Her protein S and protein C levels were low and CD was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic, immunological and histological results. A gluten-free diet resulted in favourable evolution. Conclusion: CD should be considered in young patients with thrombosis, especially if in an unusual location. Treatment is based on a gluten-free diet.

  6. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Geeta

    2010-08-01

    Parasitic infections, though endemic to certain regions, have over time appeared in places far removed from their original sites of occurrence facilitated probably by the increase in world travel and the increasing migration of people from their native lands to other, often distant, countries. The frequency of occurrence of some of these diseases has also changed based on a variety of factors, including the presence of intermediate hosts, geographic locations, and climate. One factor that has significantly altered the epidemiology of parasitic diseases within the central nervous system (CNS) is the HIV pandemic. In this review of the pathology of parasitic infections that affect the CNS, each parasite is discussed in the sequence of epidemiology, life cycle, pathogenesis, and pathology.

  7. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  8. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  9. Knotty-centrality: finding the connective core of a complex network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Shanahan

    Full Text Available A network measure called knotty-centrality is defined that quantifies the extent to which a given subset of a graph's nodes constitutes a densely intra-connected topologically central connective core. Using this measure, the knotty centre of a network is defined as a sub-graph with maximal knotty-centrality. A heuristic algorithm for finding subsets of a network with high knotty-centrality is presented, and this is applied to previously published brain structural connectivity data for the cat and the human, as well as to a number of other networks. The cognitive implications of possessing a connective core with high knotty-centrality are briefly discussed.

  10. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  11. Core - Corona Model describes the Centrality Dependence of v_2/epsilon

    CERN Document Server

    Aichelin, J

    2010-01-01

    Event by event EPOS calculations in which the expansion of the system is described by {\\it ideal} hydrodynamics reproduce well the measured centrality dependence of $v_2/\\epsilon_{part}$, although it has been claimed that only viscous hydrodynamics can reproduce these data. This is due to the core - corona effect which manifests itself in the initial condition of the hydrodynamical expansion. The centrality dependence of $v_2/\\epsilon_{part}$ can be understood in the recently advanced core-corona model, a simple parameter free EPOS inspired model to describe the centrality dependence of different observables from SPS to RHIC energies. This model has already been successfully applied to understand the centrality dependence of multiplicities and of the average transverse momentum of identified particles.

  12. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  13. Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 Clinical Core: Progress and plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisen, Paul S; Petersen, Ronald C; Donohue, Michael; Weiner, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of the Clinical Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), and summarizes planning for the next stage of the project. Clinical Core activities and plans were synthesized based on discussions among the Core leaders and external advisors. The longitudinal data in ADNI-2 provide natural history data on a clinical trials population and continue to inform refinement and standardization of assessments, models of trajectories, and clinical trial methods that have been extended into sporadic preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plans for the next phase of the ADNI project include maintaining longitudinal follow-up of the normal and mild cognitive impairment cohorts, augmenting specific clinical cohorts, and incorporating novel computerized cognitive assessments and patient-reported outcomes. A major hypothesis is that AD represents a gradually progressive disease that can be identified precisely in its long presymptomatic phase, during which intervention with potentially disease-modifying agents may be most useful. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DETERMINATION OF CENTRAL ENGINE POSITION AND ACCRETION DISK STRUCTURE IN NGC 4261 BY CORE SHIFT MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Takafumi; Doi, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro [Department of Space and Astronautical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5210 (Japan); Sudou, Hiroshi [Department of Mathematical and Design Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City 5011-1193 (Japan); Kameno, Seiji [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hada, Kazuhiro, E-mail: haga@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    We report multifrequency phase-referenced observations of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 4261, which has prominent two-sided jets, using the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4–43 GHz. We measured radio core positions showing observing frequency dependences (known as “core shift”) in both approaching jets and counterjets. The limit of the core position as the frequency approaches infinity, which suggests a jet base, is separated by 82 ± 16 μas upstream in projection, corresponding to (310 ± 60)R{sub s} (R{sub s}: Schwarzschild radius) as a deprojected distance, from the 43 GHz core in the approaching jet. In addition, the innermost component at the counterjet side appeared to approach the same position at infinity of the frequency, indicating that cores on both sides are approaching the same position, suggesting a spatial coincidence with the central engine. Applying a phase-referencing technique, we also obtained spectral index maps, which indicate that emission from the counterjet is affected by free–free absorption (FFA). The result of the core shift profile on the counterjet also requires FFA because the core positions at 5–15 GHz cannot be explained by a simple core shift model based on synchrotron self-absorption (SSA). Our result is apparently consistent with the SSA core shift with an additional disk-like absorber over the counterjet side. Core shift and opacity profiles at the counterjet side suggest a two-component accretion: a radiatively inefficient accretion flow at the inner region and a truncated thin disk in the outer region. We proposed a possible solution about density and temperature profiles in the outer disk on the basis of the radio observation.

  15. A ínsula e o conceito de bloco cerebral central The insula and the central core concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Carvalhal Ribas

    2007-03-01

    it enhances the tridimensional understanding of its structures and related lesions, and because it induces the development and the utilization of more standard microneurosurgical approaches. In this direction, it is noteworthy that each cerebral hemisphere harbors an evident central core constituted externally by the insula, internally by the basal ganglia and the thalamus, and with the internal capsule within. With a biconvex configuration when seen from above, and located between the sylvian cistern and the supratentorial ventricular cavities, morphologically this central core resembles a head of each brainstem half top, covered by the neocortical mantle of its hemisphere. The central core is attached to the rest of the cerebral hemisphere by isthmi constituted by the different internal capsule fibers. Anteriorly and under the anterior limiting sulcus of the insula there are fibers of the internal capsule anterior limb, superiorly and under the superior limiting sulcus there are the rest of the anterior limb fibers, and the knee and posterior limb fibers that harbors the corticonuclear and the corticospinal tracts, and inferiorly and under the insular inferior limiting sulcus there are the sub- and the retrolentiform internal capsule fibers that enclose the auditory and the optic radiations. Laterally the central core is composed by the insular surface that resembles a shield of the main cerebral subcortical structures. The options of microneurosurgical approaches to the central core related lesions should consider particularly their relationships with the thalamus and with the internal capsule fibers.

  16. Central skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmi, Danit; Smith, Stacy; Mulligan, Michael E. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that histologically typically shows non-caseating granulomas. The most common radiologic finding is hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Patients with widely disseminated disease may show involvement of the peripheral appendicular skeleton in 1-13% of such cases. A primary skeletal presentation without other manifestations typical of the disease is rare. We present a case of sarcoidosis in a middle-aged Caucasian man in whom the disease presented with widespread lytic lesions in the axial skeleton and long bones, mimicking metastatic disease. There was no involvement of the peripheral skeleton, skin or lungs. (orig.)

  17. Developing a Central “Point-of-Truth” Database for Core Facility Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S.; Webber, G.; Bourges-Waldegg, D.; Pearse, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Core facilities need customers, yet an average researcher is aware of a very small fraction of the facilities available near them. Diligent facilities combat this knowledge gap by broadcasting information about their facility either locally, or by publishing information on one or multiple public-facing websites or third-party repositories of information (e.g. VGN cores database or Science Exchange). Each additional site of information about a facility increases visibility but also impairs their ability to maintain up-to-date information on all sites. Additionally, most third-party repositories house their data in traditional relational databases that are not indexable by common search engines. To start addressing these problems, the eagle-i project (an free, open-source, open-access, publication platform), has begun integrating its core facility database with external websites and web applications allowing them to synchronize their information in real-time. We present here two experimental integrations. The Harvard Catalyst Cores webpage originally required independent updates which were not within the direct control of the core directors themselves. The eagle-i linked open data architecture developed now allows the Catalyst cores page to pull information from the Harvard eagle-i server and update all data on it's page accordingly. Additionally, Harvard's “Profiles” web application references eagle-i data and links resource information from eagle-i to personnel information in the Profiles database. Because of these direct links, updating information in Harvard's eagle-i server (which can be accessed directly by facility directors through an account on the eagle-i SWEET), automatically updates information on the Catalyst Cores webpage and updates resource counts linked to a researcher's public profile. This functionality of the eagle-i platform as a central “point-of-truth” for information has the potential to drastically reduce the effort required to

  18. Astrocytes : a central element in neurological diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekny, Milos; Pekna, Marcela; Messing, Albee; Steinhäuser, Christian; Lee, Jin Moo; Parpura, Vladimir; Hol, Elly M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/F-1891-2013; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    The neurone-centred view of the past disregarded or downplayed the role of astroglia as a primary component in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. As this concept is changing, so is also the perceived role of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased brain and spinal cord. We have started to unr

  19. Astrocytes : a central element in neurological diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekny, Milos; Pekna, Marcela; Messing, Albee; Steinhäuser, Christian; Lee, Jin Moo; Parpura, Vladimir; Hol, Elly M.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    The neurone-centred view of the past disregarded or downplayed the role of astroglia as a primary component in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. As this concept is changing, so is also the perceived role of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased brain and spinal cord. We have started to unr

  20. Determination of Central Engine Position and Accretion Disk Structure in NGC 4261 by Core Shift Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Haga, Takafumi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Sudou, Hiroshi; Kameno, Seiji; Hada, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    We report multifrequency phase-referenced observations of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 4261, which has prominent two-sided jets, using the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4-43 GHz. We measured radio core positions showing observing frequency dependences (known as "core shift") in both approaching jets and counter jets. The limit of the core position as the frequency approaches infinity, which suggests a jet base, is separated by 82$\\pm$16 ${\\mu}$as upstream in projection, corresponding to (310$\\pm$60)Rs (Rs: Schwarzschild radius) as a deprojected distance, from the 43 GHz core in the approaching jet. In addition, the innermost component at the counter jet side appeared to approach the same position at infinity of the frequency, indicating that cores on both sides are approaching the same position, suggesting a spatial coincidence with the central engine. Applying a phase referencing technique, we also obtained spectral index maps, which indicate that emission from the counter jet is affected by free-free absorpt...

  1. Astrocytes: a central element in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekny, Milos; Pekna, Marcela; Messing, Albee; Steinhäuser, Christian; Lee, Jin-Moo; Parpura, Vladimir; Hol, Elly M; Sofroniew, Michael V; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-03-01

    The neurone-centred view of the past disregarded or downplayed the role of astroglia as a primary component in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. As this concept is changing, so is also the perceived role of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased brain and spinal cord. We have started to unravel the different signalling mechanisms that trigger specific molecular, morphological and functional changes in reactive astrocytes that are critical for repairing tissue and maintaining function in CNS pathologies, such as neurotrauma, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. An increasing body of evidence shows that the effects of astrogliosis on the neural tissue and its functions are not uniform or stereotypic, but vary in a context-specific manner from astrogliosis being an adaptive beneficial response under some circumstances to a maladaptive and deleterious process in another context. There is a growing support for the concept of astrocytopathies in which the disruption of normal astrocyte functions, astrodegeneration or dysfunctional/maladaptive astrogliosis are the primary cause or the main factor in neurological dysfunction and disease. This review describes the multiple roles of astrocytes in the healthy CNS, discusses the diversity of astroglial responses in neurological disorders and argues that targeting astrocytes may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for Alexander disease, neurotrauma, stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease as well as other neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Pattern of Disease Occurrence among Prisoners in Owerri Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Disease Occurrence among Prisoners in Owerri Central Prison, Imo ... The study population consisted of 1743 inmates who were incarcerated for various ... Data collected was calculated manually and analyzed using a computer ...

  3. [Central congenital hypothyroidism due to Graves' disease in the mother

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, C.A.; Mol, A.C. de; Kempers, M.J.E.; Noordam, C.

    2006-01-01

    Two male twins were born at a gestational age of 30 weeks. Five days after delivery, the mother was diagnosed with Graves' disease. The thyroid function in the neonates was therefore evaluated, which led to the detection of central congenital hypothyroidism (central CHT), even though the neonatal

  4. Ice core precipitation record in central Tibetan plateau since AD 1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yao

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable long-term precipitation record from northern Tibetan Plateau has constrained the understanding of precipitation variation in this region. An ice core drilled from the Puruogangri Ice Field on central Tibetan Plateau in the year 2000 helped reveal the precipitation variations since AD 1600. Analysis of the annual accumulation data presented precipitation changes from AD 1600, indicative of wet and dry periods in the past 400 year in the central Tibetan Plateau. Accordingly, the 18th and 20th centuries experienced high precipitation period, whilst the 19th century experienced low precipitation period. Such a feature was consistent with precipitation recorded in ice cores from Dunde and Guliya Glaciers, northern Tibetan Plateau. Besides, the results also pointed to consistency in precipitation-temperature correlation on the northern Tibetan Plateau, in a way that temperature and precipitation were positively correlated. But this feature was contrary to the relationship revealed from Dasuopu ice cores, southern Tibetan Plateau, where temperature and precipitation were negatively correlated. The north-south contrast in precipitation amount and its relationship with temperature may shed light on the reconstruction of Asian monsoon since AD 1600.

  5. Relationship between chemical composition and magnetic susceptibility in sediment cores from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J N Pattan; G Parthiban; V K Banakar; A Tomer; M Kulkarni

    2008-04-01

    Three sediment cores in a north–south transect (3°N to 13°S) from different sediment types of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are studied to understand the possible relationship between magnetic susceptibility () and Al, Fe, Ti and Mn concentrations. The calcareous ooze core exhibit lowest (12.32 × 10-7m3 kg−1), Al (2.84%), Fe (1.63%) and Ti (0.14%), terrigenous clay core with moderate (29.9 × 10-7 m3 kg−1) but highest Al (6.84%), Fe (5.20%) and Ti (0.44%), and siliceous ooze core with highest (38.06 × 10-7 m3 kg−1) but moderate Al (4.49%), Fe (2.80%) and Ti (0.19%) contents. The distribution of and detrital proxy elements (Al, Fe, and Ti) are identical in both calcareous and siliceous ooze. Interestingly, in terrigenous core, the behaviour of is identical to only Ti content but not with Al and Fe suggesting possibility of Al and Fe having a non-detrital source. The occurrence of phillipsite in terrigenous clay is evident by the Al-K scatter plot where trend line intersects K axis at more than 50% of total K suggesting excess K in the form of phillipsite. Therefore, the presence of phillipsite might be responsible for negative correlation between and Al ( = −0.52). In siliceous ooze the strong positive correlations among , Alexc and Feexc suggest the presence of authigenic Fe-rich smectite. High Mn content (0.5%) probably in the form of manganese micronodules is also contributing to in both calcareous and siliceous ooze but not in the terrigenous core where mean Mn content (0.1%) is similar to crustal abundance. Thus, systematically records the terrigenous variation in both the biogenic sediments but in terrigenous clay it indirectly suggests the presence of authigenic minerals.

  6. Current situation of Chagas disease in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ponce

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease in Central America is known since 1913 when the first human case was reported in El Salvador. The other Central American countries reported their first cases between 1933 and 1967. On October 1997 was launched the Central American Initiative for Chagas Disease Control (IPCA. The objectives of this sub-regional Initiative are: (1 the elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America; (2 the reduction of the domiciliary infestation of Triatoma dimidiata; and (3 the elimination of the transfusion transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Significant advancements being close to the elimination of R. prolixus in Central America and the control of the transfusion transmission has been a transcendent achievement for the sub-region. The main challenges that the IPCA will have in the close future are: developing effective strategies for control and surveillance of T. dimidiata; and surveillance of other emerging triatominae species like R. pallescens, T. nitida, and T. ryckmani.

  7. Core stability training methods Métodos de treinamento da estabilização central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Felipe Pioli de Freitas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the need for the theoretical-empirical basis expansion of the core stability concept, already in progress in the therapeutic repertoire, mainly within the scope of Manual Therapy and Sports Physiotherapy, the demand of work that could bring, the methods of training for core stability was observed. As the low back pain affects or will affect 80% of people all over the world, this therapeutic method has shown effective results in several studies. In this article, several studies were collected from different databases (Scielo, Bireme, Cochrane as well as from our personal archive, in the period from 1987 to 2008. Despite the increase of this subject in Physiotherapy, there is a lack of randomized studies with controlled variables, which could enable exercises that are used empirically to be finally accepted scientifically. Therefore, core stability is an excellent therapeutic method used in several clinical situations, from beginning to the end of a treatment. However, more studies about the core stability training method are suggested. A necessidade de uma ampliação da base teórico-empírica do conceito de estabilização central, por ser uma realidade no arsenal terapêutico, principalmente no âmbito da Terapia Manual e Fisioterapia Desportiva, torna urgente a elaboração de um artigo que traga os métodos de treinamento da estabilização central. Como a lombalgia afeta ou afetará 80% das pessoas de todo o mundo, este método terapêutico mostrou-se eficaz em vários estudos. Para este artigo de revisão, foram utilizados artigos de 1987 a 2008, pesquisados em vários bancos de dados (Scielo, Bireme, Cochrane, além do acervo pessoal. Observou-se que apesar deste assunto estar em ascensão dentro da Fisioterapia, faltam estudos de base aleatória com variáveis controladas, para que mais exercícios usados empiricamente sejam finalmente aceitos cientificamente. Portanto, a estabilização central é um excelente método terap

  8. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  9. Optimization of the coherence function estimation for multi-core central processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremnov, A. G.; Faerman, V. A.; Avramchuk, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers use of parallel processing on multi-core central processing unit for optimization of the coherence function evaluation arising in digital signal processing. Coherence function along with other methods of spectral analysis is commonly used for vibration diagnosis of rotating machinery and its particular nodes. An algorithm is given for the function evaluation for signals represented with digital samples. The algorithm is analyzed for its software implementation and computational problems. Optimization measures are described, including algorithmic, architecture and compiler optimization, their results are assessed for multi-core processors from different manufacturers. Thus, speeding-up of the parallel execution with respect to sequential execution was studied and results are presented for Intel Core i7-4720HQ и AMD FX-9590 processors. The results show comparatively high efficiency of the optimization measures taken. In particular, acceleration indicators and average CPU utilization have been significantly improved, showing high degree of parallelism of the constructed calculating functions. The developed software underwent state registration and will be used as a part of a software and hardware solution for rotating machinery fault diagnosis and pipeline leak location with acoustic correlation method.

  10. Weak central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selina M(a)rdh

    2013-01-01

    Central coherence refers to the ability to interpret details of information into a whole. To date, the concept of central coherence is mainly used in research of autism, Asperger's syndrome and recently in the research on eating disorders. The main purpose of the present study was to examine central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Nine Alzheimer's disease patients and ten age- and gender-matched control subjects, who differed significantly in neurological assessment, were shown a picture of a fire. Compared to control subjects, the Alzheimer's disease patients described the picture in a fragmented way by mentioning details and separate objects without perceiving the context of the fire. In conclusion, patients with Alzheimer's disease are at the weak end of central coherence, and hence suffer from a fragmented view of their surroundings. The findings have important clinical implications for the understanding of patients with Alzheimer's diseaseand also for the possibility of caregivers to meet the Alzheimer's disease individual in an appropriate way in the everyday care.

  11. Centrality of paths and vertices in a graph: cores and pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    As criteria for the selection of a site at which to locate a facility in a graph or network, measures of the suitability of a vertex v include the eccentricity e(v), the distance d(v), and, when the graph is a tree, the branch weight bw(v). A vertex at which function e, d, or bw is minimized is called a center, a median, or a (branch weight) centroid, respectively. For a tree T the functions e, d, and bw are convex functions on vertex set V(T); and, in general, they measure how central a vertex is relative to the other vertices. The nature of the facility to be constructed (such as a pipeline) could necessitate selecting a structure (such as a path) rather than just a point at which to locate the facility. Similarly, the facility may be required to service structures or areas within the graph. Functions e, d, and bw can be applied to paths P in the graph and (minimum) paths P for which e(P), d(P), and bw(P) are minimized are called path centers, cores, and spines, respectively. With emphasis on these central paths, central structures are examined. 3 figures.

  12. Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas with massive central calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Goetze; Matthias Banasch; Klaus Junker; Wolfgang E. Schmidt; Christian Szymanski

    2005-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas is extremely rare, with only six cases described in the worldwide literature.An asymptomatic case of unicentric, hyaline, vascular-type Castleman's disease (UCD) localized to the tail of the pancreas with central calcification imitating a primary neoplasm of the pancreas is presented. This is the first description of endosonographic and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic findings of pancreatic UCD. Additionally, computed tomography, histological and serologic findings are reported.

  13. Central Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.

  14. Safety analysis for operating the Annular Core Research Reactor with Cintichem-type targets installed in the central region of the core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARMA JR.,EDWARD J.

    2000-01-01

    Production of the molybdenum-99 isotope at the Annular Core Research Reactor requires highly enriched, uranium oxide loaded targets to be irradiated for several days in the high neutron-flux region of the core. This report presents the safety analysis for the irradiation of up to seven Cintichem-type targets in the central region of the core and compares the results to the Annular Core Research Reactor Safety Analysis Report. A 19 target grid configuration is presented that allows one to seven targets to be irradiated, with the remainder of the grid locations filled with aluminum ''void'' targets. Analyses of reactor, neutronic, thermal hydraulics, and heat transfer calculations are presented. Steady-state operation and accident scenarios are analyzed with the conclusion that the reactor can be operated safely with seven targets in the grid, and no additional risk to the public.

  15. Cationic niosomes an effective gene carrier composed of novel spermine-derivative cationic lipids: effect of central core structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Leksantikul, Lalita; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2017-05-01

    Cationic niosomes formulated from Span 20, cholesterol (Chol) and novel spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) were successfully prepared for improving transfection efficiency in vitro. The niosomes composed of spermine cationic lipid with central core structure of di(oxyethyl)amino revealed the highest gene transfection efficiency. To investigate the factors affecting gene transfection and cell viability including differences in the central core structures of cationic lipids, the composition of vesicles, molar ratio of cationic lipids in formulations and the weight ratio of niosomes to DNA. Cationic niosomes composed of nonionic surfactants (Span20), cholesterol and spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures were formulated. Gene transfection and cell viability were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). The morphology, size and charge were also characterized. High transfection efficiency was obtained from cationic niosomes composed of Span20:Chol:cationic lipid at the molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:0.5 mM. Cationic lipids with di(oxyethyl)amino as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency. In addition, there was also no serum effect on transfection efficiency. These novel cationic niosomes may constitute a good alternative carrier for gene transfection.

  16. The Effect of Central Baryonic Cores in Dark Halos on the Evaluation of Strong Lensing Probabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang

    2004-01-01

    We present an estimate of the strong lensing probability by dark halos, with emphasis on the role of the baryonic matter arising purely from radiative cooling. We treat the contribution of the cooled baryons optimistically with all the cooled baryons confined within a central core, and including no feedback process from stellar evolution. Our two-component model provides a strong lensing probability that is in good agreement with the observed distribution of multiple images of quasars, provided that the cooled baryons are deposited within a spherical region of radius of 0.1 times the virial radius and follow an isothermal profile. It is pointed out that strong lensing may be used as an additional probe of baryon physics in dark halos though this may meanwhile complicate the test of the inner density profiles of dark matter in halos using the observed strong lensing probability.

  17. A first shallow firn-core record from Glaciar La Ollada, Cerro Mercedario, central Argentine Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolius, David; Schwikowski, Margit; Jenk, Theo; Gäggeler, Heinz W.; Casassa, Gino; Rivera, Andrés

    In January 2003, shallow firn cores were recovered from Glaciar Esmeralda on Cerro del Plomo (33°14‧ S, 70°13‧ W; 5300 ma.s.l.), central Chile, and from Glaciar La Ollada on Cerro Mercedario (31°58‧ S, 70°07‧ W; 6070 ma.s.l.), Argentina, in order to find a suitable archive for paleoclimate reconstruction in a region strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In the area between 28° S and 35° S, the amount of winter precipitation is significantly correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index, with higher values during El Niño years. Glaciochemical analysis indicates that the paleo-record at Glaciar La Ollada is well preserved, whereas at Glaciar Esmeralda the record is strongly influenced by meltwater formation and percolation. A preliminary dating of the Mercedario core by annual-layer counting results in a time-span of 17 years (1986-2002), yielding an average annual net accumulation of 0.45 m w.e.

  18. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight the impact of insomnia in central neurological disorders by providing information on its prevalence and give recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia in neurological disorders is a frequent, but underestimated symptom. Its occurrence may...... the cause of insomnia must be clearly identified. First line treatment aims at the underlying neurologic disease. The few high quality treatment studies show that short term treatment with hypnotics may be recommended in most disorders after having ruled out high risk for adverse effects. Sedating...... associated with most of the central neurological diseases. The prevalence and treatment of insomnia in neurological diseases still need to be studied in larger patient groups with randomized clinical trials to a) better understand their impact and causal relationship and b) to develop and improve specific...

  19. Central Mass Profiles of the Nearby Cool-core Galaxy Clusters Hydra A and A478

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, N; Tamura, T; Fujita, Y; Takizawa, M; Matsushita, K; Fukazawa, Y; Futamase, T; Kawaharada, M; Miyazaki, S; Mochizuki, Y; Nakazawa, K; Ohashi, T; Ota, N; Sasaki, T; Sato, K; Tam, S I

    2015-01-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A ($z=0.0538$) and A478 ($z=0.0881$), of which brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is well described either by a single Navarro--Frenk--White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of two uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host halo mass is well constrained by data. We perform a joint analysis of weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs.We find that the central mass profile ($r<300$ kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement wi...

  20. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modabber, Milad, E-mail: mmodabber@gmail.com [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Kundu, Sanjoy [Scarborough Hospital and Scarborough Vascular Ultrasound, The Vein Institute of Toronto (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  1. Central mass profiles of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters Hydra A and A478

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, N.; Umetsu, K.; Tamura, T.; Fujita, Y.; Takizawa, M.; Matsushita, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Futamase, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Miyazaki, S.; Mochizuki, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ota, N.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, K.; Tam, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A (z = 0.0538) and A478 (z = 0.0881), of which the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host the powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is described well by either a single Navarro-Frenk-White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of 2 uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host-halo mass is constrained well by data. We perform a joint analysis of the weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs. We find that the central mass profile (r < 300 kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement with those from independent measurements, including dynamical masses estimated from the cold gas disc component, X-ray hydrostatic total mass estimates, and the central stellar mass estimated with the Salpeter IMF. The observed dark matter fraction around the BCG for Hydra A is found to be smaller than those predicted by adiabatic contraction models, suggesting the importance of other physical processes, such as AGN feedback and/or dissipationless mergers.

  2. UAB HRFD Core Center: Core A: The Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Diseases Translational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-23

    Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Disease; Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease; Joubert Syndrome; Bardet Biedl Syndrome; Meckel-Gruber Syndrome; Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis; Caroli Syndrome; Oro-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I; Nephronophthisis; Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease

  3. [Eales' disease involving central nervous system white matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antigüedad, A; Zarranz, J J

    1994-01-01

    Eales' disease (ED) is a rare condition characterized by repeated retinal and vitreous hemorrhages. The only extraocular involvement described occasionally in the literature is neurological. Histologically, vasculitis in ED is usually restricted to the eye, but occasionally involves the central nervous system, where demyelinizing lesions may also occur. We present a 34-year-old male with ED and subclinical central nervous system involvement. Craneal magnetic resonance images (MR) suggested demyelinization; brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal. There was moderate pleocytosis in CSF and intratecal production of immunoglobulins with oligoclonal bands. Follow-up over a period of 2.5 years showed no clinical, MR or CSF changes in spite of continued opthamological impairment. Little is known about factors that affect the development or not of demyelinizing lesions in ED patients with neurological involvement demonstrated by intratecal production of immunoglobulins. Identification of such factors may contribute to our understanding of other diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

  4. CORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Hundebøll, Martin

    2013-01-01

    different flows. Instead of maintaining these approaches separate, we propose a protocol (CORE) that brings together these coding mechanisms. Our protocol uses random linear network coding (RLNC) for intra- session coding but allows nodes in the network to setup inter- session coding regions where flows...... intersect. Routes for unicast sessions are agnostic to other sessions and setup beforehand, CORE will then discover and exploit intersecting routes. Our approach allows the inter-session regions to leverage RLNC to compensate for losses or failures in the overhearing or transmitting process. Thus, we...... increase the benefits of XORing by exploiting the underlying RLNC structure of individual flows. This goes beyond providing additional reliability to each individual session and beyond exploiting coding opportunistically. Our numerical results show that CORE outperforms both forwarding and COPE...

  5. CORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Hundebøll, Martin

    2013-01-01

    different flows. Instead of maintaining these approaches separate, we propose a protocol (CORE) that brings together these coding mechanisms. Our protocol uses random linear network coding (RLNC) for intra- session coding but allows nodes in the network to setup inter- session coding regions where flows...... intersect. Routes for unicast sessions are agnostic to other sessions and setup beforehand, CORE will then discover and exploit intersecting routes. Our approach allows the inter-session regions to leverage RLNC to compensate for losses or failures in the overhearing or transmitting process. Thus, we...... increase the benefits of XORing by exploiting the underlying RLNC structure of individual flows. This goes beyond providing additional reliability to each individual session and beyond exploiting coding opportunistically. Our numerical results show that CORE outperforms both forwarding and COPE...

  6. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy.

  7. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  8. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in...

  9. Neutron Environment Characterization of the Central Cavity in the Annular Core Research Reactor *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parma Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the neutron environment in the central cavity of the Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR is important in order to provide experimenters with the most accurate spectral information and maintain a high degree of fidelity in performing reactor experiments. Characterization includes both modeling and experimental efforts. Building accurate neutronic models of the ACRR and the central cavity “bucket” environments that can be used by experimenters is important in planning and designing experiments, as well as assessing the experimental results and quantifying uncertainties. Neutron fluence characterizations of two bucket environments, LB44 and PLG, are presented. These two environments are used frequently and represent two extremes in the neutron spectrum. The LB44 bucket is designed to remove the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and significantly attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The PLG bucket is designed to enhance the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The neutron characterization for each bucket was performed by irradiating 20 different activation foil types, some of which were cadmium covered, resulting in 37 different reactions at the peak axial flux location in each bucket. The dosimetry results were used in the LSL-M2 spectrum adjustment code with a 640-energy group MCNP-generated trial spectrum, self-shielding correction factors, the SNLRML or IRDFF dosimetry cross-section library, trial spectrum uncertainty, and trial covariance matrix, to generate a least-squares adjusted neutron spectrum, spectrum uncertainty, and covariance matrix. Both environment character-izations are well documented and the environments are available for use by experimenters.

  10. Neutron Environment Characterization of the Central Cavity in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Edward J.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Lippert, Lance L.; Vehar, David W.

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of the neutron environment in the central cavity of the Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is important in order to provide experimenters with the most accurate spectral information and maintain a high degree of fidelity in performing reactor experiments. Characterization includes both modeling and experimental efforts. Building accurate neutronic models of the ACRR and the central cavity "bucket" environments that can be used by experimenters is important in planning and designing experiments, as well as assessing the experimental results and quantifying uncertainties. Neutron fluence characterizations of two bucket environments, LB44 and PLG, are presented. These two environments are used frequently and represent two extremes in the neutron spectrum. The LB44 bucket is designed to remove the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and significantly attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The PLG bucket is designed to enhance the thermal component of the neutron spectrum and attenuate the gamma-ray fluence. The neutron characterization for each bucket was performed by irradiating 20 different activation foil types, some of which were cadmium covered, resulting in 37 different reactions at the peak axial flux location in each bucket. The dosimetry results were used in the LSL-M2 spectrum adjustment code with a 640-energy group MCNP-generated trial spectrum, self-shielding correction factors, the SNLRML or IRDFF dosimetry cross-section library, trial spectrum uncertainty, and trial covariance matrix, to generate a least-squares adjusted neutron spectrum, spectrum uncertainty, and covariance matrix. Both environment character-izations are well documented and the environments are available for use by experimenters. Work supported by the United States Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned

  11. IODP Expedition 302, Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX: A First Look at the Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 302 Scientists

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The behavior and inf luence of the A rct ic Oceanthroughout the course of the global Cenozoic climateevolution have been virtually unknown. Only the uppermostfew meters of the Arctic’s sediment record, representingHolocene and late Pleistocene times, have been retrievedfrom ridges through a limited number of short piston,gravity, and box cores. Even less of the thick sedimentsequences, ~6 km in the Canada Basin and ~3 km in theNansen Basin(Grantz et al., 1990; Jokat et al., 1995, restingon the Arctic Ocean’s abyssal plains, have been cored.Prior to the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX, informationon Neogene or Paleogene conditions in the central Arcticwas limited to a 1.6-m interval in a 3.6-m-long T-3 gravitycore raised from the Alpha Ridge (Clark, 1974, providingthe sole evidence for marine conditions no older than themiddle Eocene in the central Arctic (Bukry, 1984.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro transfection efficiency of spermine-based cationic lipids with different central core structures and lipophilic tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomtham, Nattisa; Apiratikul, Nuttapon; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Opanasopit, Praneet; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2015-02-01

    Twelve spermine-based cationic lipids with four different central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) and three hydrophobic tails (lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid) were synthesized. The liposomes containing lipids and DOPE showed moderate to good in vitro DNA delivery into HeLa cells. GFP expression experiments revealed that liposomes composed of lipids with 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency under serum-free condition. Whereas, lipid with 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl core structure showed highest transfection under 10% serum condition. Moreover, the liposomes and lipoplexes composted of these cationic lipids exhibited low cytotoxicity.

  13. Parameters inversion of high central core rockfill dams based on a novel genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; LI ShaoLin; MA Gang; CHANG XiaoLin; MA Xing; ZHANG Chao

    2016-01-01

    Parameters identification of rockfill materials is a crucial issue for high rockfill dams.Because of the scale effect,random sampling and sample disturbance,it is difficult to obtain the actual mechanical properties of rockfill from laboratory tests.Parameters inversion based on in situ monitoring data has been proven to be an efficient method for identifying the exact parameters of the rockfill.In this paper,we propose a modified genetic algorithm to solve the high-dimension multimodal and nonlinear optimal parameters inversion problem.A novel crossover operator based on the sum of differences in gene fragments (SoDX) is proposed,inspired by the cloning of superior genes in genetic engineering.The crossover points are selected according to the difference in the gene fragments,defining the adaptive length.The crossover operator increases the speed and accuracy of algorithm convergence by reducing the inbreeding and enhancing the global search capability of the genetic algorithm.This algorithm is compared with two existing crossover operators.The modified genetic algorithm is then used in combination with radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) to perform the parameters back analysis of a high central earth core rockfill dam.The settlements simulated using the identified parameters show good agreement with the monitoring data,illustrating that the back analysis is reasonable and accurate.The proposed genetic algorithm has considerable superiority for nonlinear multimodal parameter identification problems.

  14. Ecosystem history of southern and central Biscayne Bay; summary report on sediment core analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, G.L.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Ishman, S.E.; Willard, D.A.; Holmes, C.W.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Williams, C.P.; Marot, M.E.; Murray, J.B.; Stamm, R.G.; Murray, J.H.; Budet, C.

    2003-01-01

    During the last century, the environs of Biscayne Bay have been greatly affected by anthropogenic alteration through urbanization of the Miami/Dade County area. The sources, timing, delivery, and quality of freshwater flow into the Bay have been changed by construction of a complex canal system that controls movement of water throughout south Florida. Changes in shoreline and sub-aquatic vegetation and marine organisms have been observed and changes in water delivery are believed to be the cause. Current restoration goals are attempting to restore natural flow of fresh water into Biscayne and Florida Bays and to restore the natural fauna and flora, but first we need to determine pre-alteration baseline conditions in order to establish targets and performance measures for restoration. This research is part of an ongoing study designed to address the needs of the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project (BBCW) of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). By establishing the natural patterns of temporal change in salinity, water quality, vegetation, and benthic fauna in Biscayne Bay and the nearby wetlands over the last 100- 500 years the USGS, in collaboration with our partners, will provide the data necessary to set realistic targets to achieve the BBCW Project goals. Six cores from three sites in Biscayne Bay were collected in April 2002 for multidisciplinary multi-proxy analyses. This report details the results of these analyses and compares the 2002 cores to cores collected in 1997. The following are our significant findings to date: ?\tThe salinity of central Biscayne Bay has become increasingly marine and increasingly stable over the last 100 years. o\tAt No Name Bank, prior to approximately 1915, the inter-decadal and decadal salinity fluctuations appear to have been greater than after 1915 when salinities stabilized at that site. o\tContinental shelf/open marine influence on the sites has increased during the 20th century. o\tThere is no indication

  15. Microglia emerge as central players in brain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael W; Stevens, Beth

    2017-09-08

    There has been an explosion of new findings recently giving us insights into the involvement of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A host of new molecular tools and mouse models of disease are increasingly implicating this enigmatic type of nervous system cell as a key player in conditions ranging from neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and chronic pain. Contemporaneously, diverse roles are emerging for microglia in the healthy brain, from sculpting developing neuronal circuits to guiding learning-associated plasticity. Understanding the physiological functions of these cells is crucial to determining their roles in disease. Here we focus on recent developments in our rapidly expanding understanding of the function, as well as the dysfunction, of microglia in disorders of the CNS.

  16. Comparison of northern and central Greenland ice cores records of methanesulfonate covering the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsell, U.; Hansson, M. E.; Siggaard-Andersen, M-L-

    2007-01-01

    Methanesulfonate (MS-) is measured in ice cores with the objective to obtain a proxy record of marine phytoplankton production of dimethylsulfide (DMS). We present a continuous MS- record covering the last glacial period from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice core and compare...... this record with the corresponding records previously presented from Greenland and, in particular, with the GISP2 ice core located 320 km south of NGRIP. Despite that the records have similar mean concentrations, their responses to climatic changes during the last glacial period are slightly different. NGRIP...... ice cores. Udgivelsesdato: 31 July...

  17. Pattern of skin diseases among Central African refugees in Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzi Ismael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to describe the pattern of skin diseases among refugees attending the dermatology clinic in refugee camps in southern Chad. Methods: A descriptive clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in two refugee camps of people from Republic of Central Africa in Southern Chad. Diagnosis of skin diseases was done through clinical examination by a single dermatologist along with the help of hand lens provided with illumination. Lack of investigations and other skin diagnostic tools prevented further confirmation of diagnosis. Data was manually analyzed and diagnosis was presented as number and percent using the ICD -10 of the World Health Organization. Results: A total of 366 dermatologic diseases were diagnosed in 361 patients. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases and dermatitis/ eczema were the commonest diagnostic categories (39.9% and 22.45; respectively followed by disorders of skin appendices (15% and infections of skin and subcutaneous tissues (13.1%. Tinea barbae /capitis, ringworm and impetigo are the commonest recorded infections (11.5%, 10.1% and 7.9%; respectively. Miliaria and acne vulgaris were the most frequent disorders of skin appendages. Conclusions: Infectious skin diseases are common among refugees. There are urgent needs for health education and promotion of personal hygiene with adequate sanitation as well as availability of diagnostic tests [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 324-328

  18. Visualizing 3D/4D Environmental Big Data Using Many-core Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and Multi-core Central Processing Unit (CPUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, C.; Huang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizing 3D/4D environmental Big Data is critical to understand and predict environmental phenomena for relevant decision making. This research explores how to best utilize Graphics Process Units (GPUs) and Central Processing Units (CPUs) collaboratively to speed up the visualization process. Taking the visualization of dust storm as an example, we developed a systematic visualization framework. To compare the potential speedup of using GPUs versus that of using CPUs, we implemented visualization components based on both multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. We found that 1) multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs can improve the efficiency of mathematical calculations and graphics rendering using multithreading techniques; 2) when increasing the size of blocks of GPUs for reprojecting, interpolating and rendering the same data, the executing time drops consistently before reaching a peak.; 3) GPU-based implementations is faster than CPU-based implementations. However, the best performance of rendering with GPUs is very close to that with CPUs. Therefore, visualization of 3D/4D environmental data using GPUs is a better solution than that of using CPUs.

  19. Chemokines and their receptors in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Knut; de Jong, Eiko K; van Weering, Hilmar R J; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M

    2006-01-01

    Almost a decade ago, it was discovered that the human deficiency virus (HIV) makes use of chemokine receptors to infect blood cells. This appreciation of the clinical relevance of specific chemokine receptors has initiated a considerable boost in the field of chemokine research. It is clear today that chemokine signaling orchestrates the immune system and is widely involved in both physiological and pathophysiological processes. Since the chemokine system offers various targets through which pathology could be influenced, most pharmaceutical companies have chosen this system as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases. Here recent developments concerning the role of chemokines in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as their possible therapeutic relevance are discussed.

  20. The effect of post-core and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhilnathan Dakshinamurthy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of post reinforcement, post type and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Sixty central incisor teeth were selected and grouped into six groups, viz. A, B, C, D, E, and F, each consisting of 10 specimens. Group A specimens were not subjected to any restorative treatment. Group B specimens were endodontically treated and crowned. Specimens of groups C and D were restored with custom cast post and core. Specimens of groups E and F were treated with prefabricated titanium post and composite core. Specimens of groups C and E were restored with porcelain-fused metal (PFM crown having 2 mm ferrule. Specimens of groups D and F were restored with PFM crown having no ferrule. All the specimens were subjected to load (newton, N on the lingual surface at a 135° angle to the long axis with a universal testing machine until it fractured. The fracture load and mode of fracture of each specimen were noted. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey honestly significant difference procedure was employed to identify the significant difference among the groups at 5% level (P < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences among the six groups studied (P < 0.0001. The highest fracture strength was recorded with specimen of group C (1376.7 N. There were significant differences between groups A and D versus groups B, E, and F. There were no significant differences between groups B, E, and F. Cervical root fracture was the predominant mode of failure in all the groups except group A. Conclusion: The results showed that endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post core were as strong as the untreated group. Teeth restored with custom cast post core were better resistant to fracture than teeth restored with prefabricated titanium post and composite core. Ferrule is more important in custom cast post core than in prefabricated post and composite core.

  1. Validation of the ICF core set for neuromuscular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Isaac; Stallinga, H. A.; Middel, B.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Wynia, K.

    Background. Understanding of the consequences of a neuromuscular disease (NMD) can improve when a valid sample of disease-specific categories based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities, and Health (ICF) is available. Objective. To examine the content validity of the

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  3. Endophenotype Network Models: Common Core of Complex Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassian, Susan Dina; Menche, Jörg; Chasman, Daniel I.; Giulianini, Franco; Wang, Ruisheng; Ricchiuto, Piero; Aikawa, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroshi; Müller, Christian; Zeller, Tania; Sharma, Amitabh; Wild, Philipp; Lackner, Karl; Singh, Sasha; Ridker, Paul M.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Barabási, Albert-László; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Historically, human diseases have been differentiated and categorized based on the organ system in which they primarily manifest. Recently, an alternative view is emerging that emphasizes that different diseases often have common underlying mechanisms and shared intermediate pathophenotypes, or endo(pheno)types. Within this framework, a specific disease’s expression is a consequence of the interplay between the relevant endophenotypes and their local, organ-based environment. Important examples of such endophenotypes are inflammation, fibrosis, and thrombosis and their essential roles in many developing diseases. In this study, we construct endophenotype network models and explore their relation to different diseases in general and to cardiovascular diseases in particular. We identify the local neighborhoods (module) within the interconnected map of molecular components, i.e., the subnetworks of the human interactome that represent the inflammasome, thrombosome, and fibrosome. We find that these neighborhoods are highly overlapping and significantly enriched with disease-associated genes. In particular they are also enriched with differentially expressed genes linked to cardiovascular disease (risk). Finally, using proteomic data, we explore how macrophage activation contributes to our understanding of inflammatory processes and responses. The results of our analysis show that inflammatory responses initiate from within the cross-talk of the three identified endophenotypic modules.

  4. Plasma current start-up experiments without a central solenoid in the iron core STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Tomney, G.; Rohollohi, A.; Lewis, E.; McColl, D.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2015-06-01

    Reproducible plasma current start-up without a central solenoid (CS) has been demonstrated using the outer ohmic heating (OH) coils in the iron core STOR-M tokamak (Mitarai et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 2467-71). Although the outer OH coil current saturates the iron core eventually, it has been demonstrated that the plasma current can be maintained during the iron core saturation phase. In this work, further studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of the turn number of the outer OH coils (N = 4 or N = 6) in the CS-less discharges and to evaluate the plasma stability with respect to the n-decay index of the vertical magnetic field. For the loose coupling of the iron core with N = 4 turns, the plasma current can be sustained after the additional third capacitor bank is applied near the iron core saturation phase, showing the slow transition from the unsaturated to the partially saturated phase. For the case of stronger coupling of N = 6 turns, the plasma current is increased at the same fast bank voltage, but the main discharge is shortened from 35 to 20 ms. As the magnetizing current is smaller due to stronger coupling between the OH coils and the plasma current, the transition from the unsaturated to the saturated phase is slightly difficult at present. The present experimental results suggest a feasible operation scenario in a future spherical tokamak (ST) at least using loose iron core coupling for smoother transition from the unsaturated to the saturated iron core phase. Thus, a reliable plasma current start-up by the outer OH coils and the current ramp-up to a steady state by additional heating power and vertical field coils could be considered as an operation scenario for future ST reactors with an iron core transformer.

  5. Relationship between chemical composition and magnetic susceptibility in sediment cores from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; Banakar, V.K.; Tomer, A.; Kulkarni, M.

    , Ti and Mn concentrations. The calcareous ooze core exhibit lowest Chi (12.32 x 10 sup(-7) m sup(3) kg sup(-1)), Al (2.84%), Fe (1.63%) and Ti (0.14%), terrigenous clay core with moderate Chi (29.93 x 10 sup(-7) m sup(3) kg sup(-1)) but highest Al (6...

  6. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Renchao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  7. Microstructural investigations on carbonate fault core rocks in active extensional fault zones from the central Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Silvia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The study of the microstructural and petrophysical evolution of cataclasites and gouges has a fundamental impact on both hydraulic and frictional properties of fault zones. In the last decades, growing attention has been payed to the characterization of carbonate fault core rocks due to the nucleation and propagation of coseismic ruptures in carbonate successions (e.g., Umbria-Marche 1997, L'Aquila 2009, Amatrice 2016 earthquakes in Central Apennines, Italy). Among several physical parameters, grain size and shape in fault core rocks are expected to control the way of sliding along the slip surfaces in active fault zones, thus influencing the propagation of coseismic ruptures during earthquakes. Nevertheless, the role of grain size and shape distribution evolution in controlling the weakening or strengthening behavior in seismogenic fault zones is still not fully understood also because a comprehensive database from natural fault cores is still missing. In this contribution, we present a preliminary study of seismogenic extensional fault zones in Central Apennines by combining detailed filed mapping with grain size and microstructural analysis of fault core rocks. Field mapping was aimed to describe the structural architecture of fault systems and the along-strike fault rock distribution and fracturing variations. In the laboratory we used a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 granulometer to obtain a precise grain size characterization of loose fault rocks combined with sieving for coarser size classes. In addition, we employed image analysis on thin sections to quantify the grain shape and size in cemented fault core rocks. The studied fault zones consist of an up to 5-10 m-thick fault core where most of slip is accommodated, surrounded by a tens-of-meters wide fractured damage zone. Fault core rocks consist of (1) loose to partially cemented breccias characterized by different grain size (from several cm up to mm) and variable grain shape (from very angular to sub

  8. Core or Cusps: The Central Dark Matter Profile of a Redshift One Strong Lensing Cluster with a Bright Central Image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Thomas E.; et al.

    2017-03-24

    We report on SPT-CLJ2011-5228, a giant system of arcs created by a cluster at $z=1.06$. The arc system is notable for the presence of a bright central image. The source is a Lyman Break galaxy at $z_s=2.39$ and the mass enclosed within the 14 arc second radius Einstein ring is $10^{14.2}$ solar masses. We perform a full light profile reconstruction of the lensed images to precisely infer the parameters of the mass distribution. The brightness of the central image demands that the central total density profile of the lens be shallow. By fitting the dark matter as a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile---with a free parameter for the inner density slope---we find that the break radius is $270^{+48}_{-76}$ kpc, and that the inner density falls with radius to the power $-0.38\\pm0.04$ at 68 percent confidence. Such a shallow profile is in strong tension with our understanding of relaxed cold dark matter halos; dark matter only simulations predict the inner density should fall as $r^{-1}$. The tension can be alleviated if this cluster is in fact a merger; a two halo model can also reconstruct the data, with both clumps (density going as $r^{-0.8}$ and $r^{-1.0}$) much more consistent with predictions from dark matter only simulations. At the resolution of our Dark Energy Survey imaging, we are unable to choose between these two models, but we make predictions for forthcoming Hubble Space Telescope imaging that will decisively distinguish between them.

  9. Canada's neglected tropical disease research network: who's in the core-who's on the periphery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study designed and applied accessible yet systematic methods to generate baseline information about the patterns and structure of Canada's neglected tropical disease (NTD research network; a network that, until recently, was formed and functioned on the periphery of strategic Canadian research funding. METHODOLOGY: MULTIPLE METHODS WERE USED TO CONDUCT THIS STUDY, INCLUDING: (1 a systematic bibliometric procedure to capture archival NTD publications and co-authorship data; (2 a country-level "core-periphery" network analysis to measure and map the structure of Canada's NTD co-authorship network including its size, density, cliques, and centralization; and (3 a statistical analysis to test the correlation between the position of countries in Canada's NTD network ("k-core measure" and the quantity and quality of research produced. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the past sixty years (1950-2010, Canadian researchers have contributed to 1,079 NTD publications, specializing in Leishmania, African sleeping sickness, and leprosy. Of this work, 70% of all first authors and co-authors (n = 4,145 have been Canadian. Since the 1990s, however, a network of international co-authorship activity has been emerging, with representation of researchers from 62 different countries; largely researchers from OECD countries (e.g. United States and United Kingdom and some non-OECD countries (e.g. Brazil and Iran. Canada has a core-periphery NTD international research structure, with a densely connected group of OECD countries and some African nations, such as Uganda and Kenya. Sitting predominantly on the periphery of this research network is a cluster of 16 non-OECD nations that fall within the lowest GDP percentile of the network. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The publication specialties, composition, and position of NTD researchers within Canada's NTD country network provide evidence that while Canadian researchers currently remain the overall gatekeepers

  10. Historical anthropogenic contributions to mercury accumulation recorded by a peat core from Dajiuhu montane mire, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanping; Ma, Chunmei; Zhu, Cheng; Huang, Run; Zheng, Chaogui

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) accumulation records spanning the last 16,000 years before present (yr BP, relative to AD 1950) were derived from a peat core collected from Dajiuhu mire, central China. The natural Hg concentration and accumulation rate (free from anthropogenic influence) were 135.5 ± 53.9 ng g(-1) and 6.5 ± 4.5 μg m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. The increase in Hg flux that started from a core depth of 96.5 cm (3358 cal yr BP) is independent of soil erosion and organic matter content. We attribute this to an increase in atmospheric Hg deposition derived from regional anthropogenic activities. Anthropogenic Hg accumulation rates (Hg-ARA) in the pre-industrial period peaked during the Ming and the early Qing dynasties (582-100 cal yr BP), with Hg-ARA of 9.9-24.6 and 10.7-24.4 μg m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. In the industrial interval (post∼1850 AD), Hg-ARA increased progressively and reached 32.7 μg m(-2) yr(-1) at the top of the core. Our results indicate the existence of regional atmospheric Hg pollution spanning the past ∼3400 years, and place recent Hg enrichment in central China in a broader historical context.

  11. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  12. Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central Tien Shan, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Glacioclimatological research in the central Tien Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central Tien Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the Tien Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in Tien Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. In-Core Computation of Geometric Centralities with HyperBall: A Hundred Billion Nodes and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Boldi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Given a social network, which of its nodes are more central? This question has been asked many times in sociology, psychology and computer science, and a whole plethora of centrality measures (a.k.a. centrality indices, or rankings) were proposed to account for the importance of the nodes of a network. In this paper, we approach the problem of computing geometric centralities, such as closeness and harmonic centrality, on very large graphs; traditionally this task requires an all-pairs shortest-path computation in the exact case, or a number of breadth-first traversals for approximated computations, but these techniques yield very weak statistical guarantees on highly disconnected graphs. We rather assume that the graph is accessed in a semi-streaming fashion, that is, that adjacency lists are scanned almost sequentially, and that a very small amount of memory (in the order of a dozen bytes) per node is available in core memory. We leverage the newly discovered algorithms based on HyperLogLog counters, making...

  14. Seasonal deuterium excess in a Tien Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2003-01-01

    Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.

  15. Geochemistry of deep-sea sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mudholkar, A.V.; Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    , thought to be of diagenetic origin. Metals are suppliEd. by upward migration from a suboxic to anoxic zone at an intermediate depth of 12-35 cm below the sediment-water interface in all the cores. Buried maxima in transition metal concentration at depth...

  16. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  17. Cell replacement therapy for central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danju Tso; Randall D. McKinnon

    2015-01-01

    The brain and spinal cord can not replace neurons or supporting glia that are lost through trau-matic injury or disease. In pre-clinical studies, however, neural stem and progenitor cell transplants can promote functional recovery. Thus the central nervous system is repair competent but lacks endogenous stem cell resources. To make transplants clinically feasible, this ifeld needs a source of histocompatible, ethically acceptable and non-tumorgenic cells. One strategy to generate pa-tient-speciifc replacement cells is to reprogram autologous cells such as ifbroblasts into pluripotent stem cells which can then be differentiated into the required cell grafts. However, the utility of pluripotent cell derived grafts is limited since they can retain founder cells with intrinsic neoplastic potential. A recent extension of this technology directly reprograms ifbroblasts into the ifnal graft-able cells without an induced pluripotent stem cell intermediate, avoiding the pluripotent caveat. For both types of reprogramming the conversion efficiency is very low resulting in the need to amplify the cells in culture which can lead to chromosomal instability and neoplasia. Thus to make reprogramming biology clinically feasible, we must improve the efifciency. The ultimate source of replacement cells may reside in directly reprogramming accessible cells within the brain.

  18. Nonlinear Density Enhancement of 3He in the Sun's Central Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jiu-Lin

    2000-01-01

    A flow velocity field that has a “sink” drives the core 3He nuclear reaction diffusion system to instability to jump from the original state to the new one, in which the total amour of 3He is enhanced. This alters the original competition between pp I and pp Ⅱ +pp Ⅲ chains, and thus potentially suppresses the production of both the 7Be and 8B neutrino fluxes.

  19. Multidimensional neutrino-transport simulations of the core-collapse supernova central engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Evan; Couch, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) mark the explosive death of a massive star. The explosion itself is triggered by the collapse of the iron core that forms near the end of a massive star's life. The core collapses to nuclear densities where the stiff nuclear equation of state halts the collapse and leads to the formation of the supernova shock. In many cases, this shock will eventually propagate throughout the entire star and produces a bright optical display. However, the path from shock formation to explosion has proven difficult to recreate in simulations. Soon after the shock forms, its outward propagation is stagnated and must be revived in order for the CCSNe to be successful. The leading theory for the mechanism that reenergizes the shock is the deposition of energy by neutrinos. In 1D simulations this mechanism fails. However, there is growing evidence that in 2D and 3D, hydrodynamic instabilities can assist the neutrino heating in reviving the shock. In this talk, I will present new multi-D neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of CCSNe performed with the FLASH hydrodynamics package. I will discuss the efficacy of neutrino heating in our simulations and show the impact of the multi-D hydrodynamic instabilities.

  20. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Informatics Core: A Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The Informatics Core of the Alzheimer’s Diseases Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has coordinated data integration and dissemination for a continually growing and complex dataset in which both data contributors and recipients span institutions, scientific disciplines and geographic boundaries. This article provides an update on the accomplishments and future plans. PMID:26194316

  1. Synthesis and mesomorphic properties of bent-shaped molecule with low bent-angle central core and long alkylthio tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Dong Li; Mao Sheng Zhan; Kai Wang

    2011-01-01

    Two homologous series of bent-shaped molecules composed of low bent-angle naphthalene central core and long alkoxy tail or alkylthio tail, N(1,7)-n-OPIMB and W(1,7)-n-SPIMB (n = 20, 22), respectively, were synthesized. The mesomorphic properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compared to the direct transition from the isotropic phase to the chiral B4 phase examined in N(1,7)-n-OPIMB, N(1,7)-n-SPIMB exhibited a rare Iso-Ncol-Colh-B4 phase sequence. The combination of the asymmetric low bent-angle 1,7-naphathalene central core and the flexible long alkylthio tail is considered to play an important role in the formation of such a novel phase sequence. (c) 2011 Mao Sheng Zhan. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Resting-state coupling between core regions within the central-executive and salience networks contributes to working memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing eFang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory. However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to working memory is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core working memory regions by linking working memory accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (a principal region in the central-executive network. Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with working memory accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and working memory performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex were correlated with working memory accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and from the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the left orbital fronto-insular cortex could predict individual differences in working memory. Because the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and orbital fronto-insular cortex are core regions of the salience network, we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the central-executive and salience networks is functionally relevant for working memory performance. In summary, the current study identified the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying working memory and suggests that individual differences in cognitive

  3. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment : The relevance of central network connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Gurol, Mahmut E.; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network c

  4. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  5. Infrared polarimetry of Mrk 231: Scattering off hot dust grains in the central core

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E; Jones, T J; Siebenmorgen, R; Roche, P F; Levenson, N A; Alonso-Herrero, A; Perlman, E; Ichikawa, K; Almeida, C Ramos; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Nikutta, R; Martinez-Paredes, M; Shenoy, D; Gordon, M S; Telesco, C M

    2016-01-01

    We present high-angular (0.17$-$0.35 arcsec) resolution imaging polarimetric observations of Mrk 231 in the 3.1 $\\mu$m filter using MMT-Pol on the 6.5-m MMT, and in the 8.7 $\\mu$m, 10.3 $\\mu$m, and 11.6 $\\mu$m filters using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. In combination with already published observations, we compile the 1$-$12 $\\mu$m total and polarized nuclear spectral energy distribution (SED). The total flux SED in the central 400 pc is explained as the combination of 1) a hot (731 $\\pm$ 4 K) dusty structure, directly irradiated by the central engine, which is at 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.1 pc away and attributed to be in the pc-scale polar region, 2) an optically-thick, smooth and disk-like dusty structure (`torus') with an inclination of 48 $\\pm$ 23$^{\\circ}$ surrounding the central engine, and 3) an extinguished (A$_{\\mbox{V}} =$ 36 $\\pm$ 5 mag) starburst component. The polarized SED decreases from 0.77 $\\pm$ 0.14 per cent at 1.2 $\\mu$m to 0.31 $\\pm$ 0.15 per cent at 11.6 $\\mu$m and follows a power...

  6. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  7. Chandra Observation of Abell 1142: A Cool-Core Cluster Lacking a Central Brightest Cluster Galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yuanyuan; Gastaldello, Fabio; van Weeren, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Abell~1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters with each containing one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ~1200 km/s. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ~ 2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L_X--T_X scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched "cool core" of eith...

  8. Central Pulse Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease: A CRIC Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R.; Chirinos, Julio A.; Parsa, Afshin; Weir, Matthew A.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Lash, James P.; Chen, Jing; Steigerwalt, Susan P.; Go, Alan S.; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Rafey, Mohammed; Wright, Jackson T.; Duckworth, Mark J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Joffe, Marshall P.

    2010-01-01

    Central pulse pressure can be non-invasively derived using the radial artery tonometric methods. Knowledge of central pressure profiles has predicted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several populations of patients, particularly those with known coronary artery disease and those receiving dialysis. Few data exist characterizing central pressure profiles in patients with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease who are not on dialysis. We measured central pulse pressure cross-sectionally in 2531 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study to determine correlates of the magnitude of central pulse pressure in the setting of chronic kidney disease. Tertiles of central pulse pressure (CPP) were 51 mmHg with an overall mean (± S.D.) of 46 ± 19 mmHg. Multivariable regression identified the following independent correlates of central pulse pressure: age, gender, diabetes mellitus, heart rate (negatively correlated), glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, glucose and PTH concentrations. Additional adjustment for brachial mean arterial pressure and brachial pulse pressure showed associations for age, gender, diabetes, weight and heart rate. Discrete intervals of brachial pulse pressure stratification showed substantial overlap within the associated central pulse pressure values. The large size of this unique chronic kidney disease cohort provides an ideal situation to study the role of brachial and central pressure measurements in kidney disease progression and cardiovascular disease incidence. PMID:20660819

  9. Infrared polarimetry of Mrk 231: scattering off hot dust grains in the central core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Roche, P. F.; Levenson, N. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Perlman, E.; Ichikawa, K.; Ramos Almeida, C.; González-Martín, O.; Nikutta, R.; Martinez-Paredez, M.; Shenoy, D.; Gordon, M. S.; Telesco, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present high-angular (0.17-0.35 arcsec) resolution imaging polarimetric observations of Mrk 231 in the 3.1 μm filter using MMT-Pol on the 6.5-m MMT, and in the 8.7, 10.3, and 11.6 μm filters using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. In combination with already published observations, we compile the 1-12 μm total and polarized nuclear spectral energy distribution (SED). The total flux SED in the central 400 pc is explained as the combination of (1) a hot (731 ± 4 K) dusty structure, directly irradiated by the central engine, which is at 1.6 ± 0.1 pc away and attributed to be in the pc-scale polar region, (2) an optically-thick, smooth and disc-like dusty structure (`torus') with an inclination of 48° ± 23° surrounding the central engine, and (3) an extinguished (AV = 36 ± 5 mag) starburst component. The polarized SED decreases from 0.77 ± 0.14 per cent at 1.2 μm to 0.31 ± 0.15 per cent at 11.6 μm and follows a power-law function, λ˜0.57. The polarization angle remains constant (˜108°) in the 1-12 μm wavelength range. The dominant polarization mechanism is explained as scattering-off hot dust grains in the pc-scale polar regions.

  10. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF ABELL 1142: A COOL-CORE CLUSTER LACKING A CENTRAL BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Weeren, Reinout van [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: yuanyuan.su@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF-IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-04-10

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s{sup −1}. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L{sub X}–T{sub X} scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  11. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renchao; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Yin, Wei; Fan, Aiping; Han, Zuozhen

    2016-09-01

    The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China). The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.

  12. Identification of benzofuran central cores for the inhibition of leukotriene A(4) hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Wendy; Blevitt, Jonathan M; Booker, Jamila N; Chrovian, Christa C; Crawford, Shelby; de Leon, Aimee Rose; Deng, Xiaohu; Fourie, Anne M; Grice, Cheryl A; Herman, Krystal; Karlsson, Lars; Kearney, Aaron M; Lee-Dutra, Alice; Liang, Jimmy; Luna, Rosa; Pippel, Dan; Rao, Navin; Riley, Jason P; Santillán, Alejandro; Savall, Brad; Tanis, Virginia M; Xue, Xiaohua; Young, Arlene L

    2013-02-01

    Leukotrienes (LT's) are known to play a physiological role in inflammatory immune response. Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a cystolic enzyme that stereospecifically catalyzes the transformation of LTA(4) to LTB(4). LTB(4) is a known pro-inflammatory mediator. This paper describes the identification and synthesis of substituted benzofurans as LTH(4)H inhibitors. The benzofuran series demonstrated reduced mouse and human whole blood LTB(4) levels in vitro and led to the identification one analog for advanced profiling. Benzofuran 28 showed dose responsive target engagement and provides a useful tool to explore a LTA(4)H inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  13. Identification of a pan-cancer oncogenic microRNA superfamily anchored by a central core seed motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark P.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Hartig, Sean M.; Reva, Boris; McLellan, Michael D.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Zack, Travis I.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Wheeler, David A.; Coarfa, Cristian; McGuire, Sean E.

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs modulate tumorigenesis through suppression of specific genes. As many tumour types rely on overlapping oncogenic pathways, a core set of microRNAs may exist, which consistently drives or suppresses tumorigenesis in many cancer types. Here we integrate The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pan-cancer data set with a microRNA target atlas composed of publicly available Argonaute Crosslinking Immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) data to identify pan-tumour microRNA drivers of cancer. Through this analysis, we show a pan-cancer, coregulated oncogenic microRNA ‘superfamily’ consisting of the miR-17, miR-19, miR-130, miR-93, miR-18, miR-455 and miR-210 seed families, which cotargets critical tumour suppressors via a central GUGC core motif. We subsequently define mutations in microRNA target sites using the AGO-CLIP microRNA target atlas and TCGA exome-sequencing data. These combined analyses identify pan-cancer oncogenic cotargeting of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, TGFβ and p53 pathways by the miR-17-19-130 superfamily members.

  14. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  15. The Performance of the PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ generic core scales (PedsQL™ questionnaire) in children with sickle cell disease. This was a cross-sectional study of children from an urban hospital-based sickle cell disease clinic and an urban primary care clinic. The study participants were children ages 2 to 18 years who presented to clinic for a routine visit. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was the ma...

  16. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  17. Update on the core and developing cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Mirjana; Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Mück-Šeler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Stanić, Gabrijela; Hof, Patrick R.; Šimić, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, whose prevalence will dramatically rise by 2050. Despite numerous clinical trials investigating this disease, there is still no effective treatment. Many trials showed negative or inconclusive results, possibly because they recruited only patients with severe disease, who had not undergone disease-modifying therapies in preclinical stages of AD before severe degeneration occurred. Detection of AD in asymptomatic at risk individuals (and a few presymptomatic individuals who carry an autosomal dominant monogenic AD mutation) remains impractical in many of clinical situations and is possible only with reliable biomarkers. In addition to early diagnosis of AD, biomarkers should serve for monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. To date, the most promising biomarkers are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers. Core CSF biomarkers (amyloid β1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau) showed a high diagnostic accuracy but were still unreliable for preclinical detection of AD. Hence, there is an urgent need for detection and validation of novel CSF biomarkers that would enable early diagnosis of AD in asymptomatic individuals. This article reviews recent research advances on biomarkers for AD, focusing mainly on the CSF biomarkers. In addition to core CSF biomarkers, the potential usefulness of novel CSF biomarkers is discussed. PMID:25165049

  18. Update on the core and developing cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Mirjana; Svob Štrac, Dubravka; Mück-Šeler, Dorotea; Pivac, Nela; Stanić, Gabrijela; Hof, Patrick R; Simić, Goran

    2014-08-28

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, whose prevalence will dramatically rise by 2050. Despite numerous clinical trials investigating this disease, there is still no effective treatment. Many trials showed negative or inconclusive results, possibly because they recruited only patients with severe disease, who had not undergone disease-modifying therapies in preclinical stages of AD before severe degeneration occurred. Detection of AD in asymptomatic at risk individuals (and a few presymptomatic individuals who carry an autosomal dominant monogenic AD mutation) remains impractical in many of clinical situations and is possible only with reliable biomarkers. In addition to early diagnosis of AD, biomarkers should serve for monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. To date, the most promising biomarkers are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers. Core CSF biomarkers (amyloid β1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau) showed a high diagnostic accuracy but were still unreliable for preclinical detection of AD. Hence, there is an urgent need for detection and validation of novel CSF biomarkers that would enable early diagnosis of AD in asymptomatic individuals. This article reviews recent research advances on biomarkers for AD, focusing mainly on the CSF biomarkers. In addition to core CSF biomarkers, the potential usefulness of novel CSF biomarkers is discussed.

  19. [Infectious disease outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers in Germany from 2004-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Anna; Gilsdorf, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Migration and imported infections are changing the distribution of infectious diseases in Europe. However little is known about the extent of transmission of imported diseases within Europe. Asylum seekers are of increasing importance for infectious disease epidemiology and can be particularly vulnerable for infections and disease progression due to stressful conditions of migration and incomplete vaccination status. The aim is to analyse transmission of infectious diseases in centralized homes for asylum seekers in national infectious disease surveillance data to identify relevant infectious diseases and possible public health measures to reduce transmission. German national notification data was systematically analysed from 2004 to 2014 for outbreaks reported to have occurred within centralized homes for asylum seekers followed by descriptive analysis of outbreak- and case-characteristics. From 2004 to 2014 the number of outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers per year increased, a total of 119 outbreaks with 615 cases were reported. Cases in these outbreaks were caused by chicken pox (30 %), measles (20 %), scabies (19 %), rota-virus-gastroenteritis (8 %) and others (each asylum seekers are reported increasingly often in Germany. Chicken pox, measles and scabies were the most frequent outbreak causing diseases. Spread of such outbreaks outside centralized homes for asylum seekers was rare and infectious diseases are mainly acquired in Germany. The majority of outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers would be preventable with vaccinations at arrival and appropriate hygiene measures.

  20. Meteorological variability and infectious disease in Central Africa: a review of meteorological data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Alexandra; Little, Eliza; Ng, Sophia; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Central African countries may bear high climate change-related infectious disease burdens because of preexisting high rates of disease, poor healthcare infrastructure, land use changes, and high environmental change vulnerabilities. However, making connections between climate and infectious diseases in this region is hampered by the paucity of high-quality meteorological data. This review analyzes the sources and quality of meteorological data used to study the interactions between weather and infectious diseases in Central African countries. Results show that 23% of studies used meteorological data that mismatched with the disease spatial scale of interest. Use of inappropriate weather data was most frequently identified in analyses using meteorological station data or gridded data products. These findings have implications for the interpretation of existing analyses and provide guidance for the use of climate data in future analyses of the connections between meteorology and infectious diseases in Central Africa.

  1. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  2. A Case of Neuro-Behcet’s Disease Presenting with Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M.; Saeed, Saba; Kaur, Jaspreet; Shams, Tanzila; De Georgia, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 46 Final Diagnosis: Central hyperventilation Symptoms: Hyperventilation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Behcet’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder usually characterized by the triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Central to the pathogenesis of Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune vasculitis. Neurological involvement, so called “Neuro-Behcet’s disease”, occurs in 10–20% of patients, usually from a meningoencephalitis or venous thrombosis. Case Report: We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease who presented with central neurogenic hyperventilation as a result of brainstem involvement from venulitis. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, central neurogenic hyperventilation has not previously been described in a patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease. PMID:26965646

  3. Core competencies to prevent and control chronic diseases of Tambol Health Centers' head in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerapan, Prasit; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Sompopcharoen, Malinee

    2012-06-01

    To assess the core competencies to prevent and control chronic diseases of the head of Tambol Health Centers (THC) in Thailand. This cross-sectional survey research was carried out with 2,049 heads of THC from the total population of 9,985. The samples were selected randomly from all provinces of every region. The data were collected through mail questionnaires and the reliability values of the three competency domains questionnaire were found to be between 0.75-0.93. Data analysis was done by computing frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, Independent's t-test and One-way ANOVA. The total core competency values of prevention and control of diabetes and hypertension of the THC heads were found at the high and moderate level (3.0% and 78.7%) respectively The similar finding was found in the competency domains in regard to "personal attribution", "intellectual capacity" while 8.0 percent and 46.2 percent of the respondents had the high and moderate level of "work skill" domain respectively. In addition, the differences of competency domains were found in accordance with the regions where the THC located, ability to develop a plan for disease prevention and readiness for changing behaviors of the risk groups. But the personal attributions with regard to gender age, family's economic status, and the location of the THC were not found to affect every competency domain. Except for the intellectual capacity domain found that the male THC heads had the higher level than the females and work skill domain of those THC heads working in the municipal areas had the higher level than those who worked outside the municipal areas. Core competencies of the heads of THC in chronic disease prevention and control were found at the "somewhat good" level except for the work skill domain which needed to be developed. Thus, the Ministry of Public Health should establish a specific policy and strategy on human resource development by using core competencies on chronic disease prevention

  4. Childhood acquired heart diseases in Jos, north central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelia Bode-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The patterns of childhood acquired heart diseases (AHD vary in different parts of the world and may evolve over time. We aimed to compare the pattern of childhood AHD in our institution to the historical and contemporary patterns in other parts of the country, and to highlight possible regional differences and changes in trend. Materials and Methods: Pediatric echocardiography records spanning a period of 10 years were reviewed. Echocardiography records of children with echocardiographic or irrefutable clinical diagnoses of AHD were identified and relevant data extracted from their records. Results: One hundred and seventy five children were diagnosed with AHD during the period, including seven that had coexisting congenital heart disease (CHD. They were aged 4 weeks to 18 years (mean 9.84΁4.5 years and comprised 80 (45.7% males and 95 (54.3% females. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD was the cause of the AHD in 101 (58.0% children, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (33 cases, 18.9% which was the most frequent AHD in younger (under 5 years children. Other AHD encountered were cor pulmonale in 16 (9.1%, pericardial disease in 15 (8.6%, infective endocarditis in 8 (4.6% and aortic aneurysms in 2 (1.1% children. Only one case each of endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF and Kawasaki Disease were seen during the period. Conclusions: The majority of childhood acquired heart diseases in our environment are still of infectious aeitology, with RHD remaining the most frequent, particularly in older children. Community-based screening and multicenter collaborative studies will help to better describe the pattern of AHD in our country. More vigorous pursuit of the Millennium development goals will contribute to reducing the burden of childhood acquired heart diseases in the country.

  5. Management of disease-modifying treatments in neurological autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, A; Gold, R; Chan, A

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, specifically multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, is steadily increasing, with a large spectrum of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents targeting different mechanisms of the immune system. However, increasingly efficacious treatment options also entail higher potential for severe adverse drug reactions. Especially in cases failing first-line treatment, thorough evaluation of the risk–benefit profile of treatment alternatives is necessary. This argues for the need of algorithms to identify patients more likely to benefit from a specific treatment. Moreover, paradigms to stratify the risk for severe adverse drug reactions need to be established. In addition to clinical/paraclinical measures, biomarkers may aid in individualized risk–benefit assessment. A recent example is the routine testing for anti-John Cunningham virus antibodies in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients to assess the risk for the development of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy. Refined algorithms for individualized risk assessment may also facilitate early initiation of induction treatment schemes in patient groups with high disease activity rather than classical escalation concepts. In this review, we will discuss approaches for individiualized risk–benefit assessment both for newly introduced agents as well as medications with established side-effect profiles. In addition to clinical parameters, we will also focus on biomarkers that may assist in patient selection. Other Articles published in this series Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 336–48. Disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: common and divergent current and future strategies. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 359–72. Monoclonal antibodies in treatment of multiple

  6. Herpesvirus-Associated Central Nervous System Diseases after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Herpesv...

  7. Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Smith, S.A.; Eynaud, F.; O'Regan, M.; King, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 in record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ???1.2-0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ???500 ka. Foraminiferal preservation in sediments from the Arctic is influenced by primary (sea ice, organic input, and other environmental conditions) and secondary factors (syndepositional, long-term pore water dissolution). Taking these into account, the ACEX 4C record shows distinct maxima in agglutinated foraminiferal abundance corresponding to several interglacials and deglacials between marine isotope stages (MIS) 13-37, and although less precise dating is available for older sediments, these trends appear to continue through the Matuyama. The MPT is characterized by nearly barren intervals during major glacials (MIS 12, 16, and 22-24) and faunal turnover (MIS 12-24). Abundant calcareous planktonic (mainly Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin.) and benthic foraminifers occur mainly in interglacial intervals during the Brunhes and very rarely in the Matuyama. A distinct faunal transition from calcareous to agglutinated foraminifers 200-300 ka in ACEX 4C is comparable to that found in Arctic sediments from the Lomonosov, Alpha, and Northwind ridges and the Morris Jesup Rise. Down-core disappearance of calcareous taxa is probably related to either reduced sea ice cover prior to the last few 100-ka cycles, pore water dissolution, or both. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Black Carbon Concentrations from ~1850-1980 from a High-Resolution Ice Core from Geladandong, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-fuels, is estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming behind CO2; when deposited on snow and ice BC reduces albedos, potentially enhancing surface melt and glacial retreat. The study of BC's past and present variability is imperative in order to better understand and estimate its potential impact on climate and water resources. This is especially important in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, a region that provides fresh water to over a billion people and where BC's climatic effects are estimated to be the largest (Flanner et al., 2007; Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). To more accurately constrain BC's past variability in this sensitive region, an ice core recovered in 2005 from Mt. Geladandong (5800 m a.s.l.) on the central Tibetan Plateau was analyzed for BC at high resolution using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Results indicate that 1) average BC concentrations at this location are higher than at other locations closer to BC sources and analyzed by the same method (Mt. Everest by Kaspari et al., 2011 and Muztagh Ata by Wang et al., in prep), and 2) BC exists in peak concentrations high enough (>10 μg/L) to cause a >1% reduction in surface albedo at the sampling location (Ming et al., 2009; Hadley et al., 2010). Potential causes of the higher BC concentrations at the Geladandong site include lower annual precipitation and the mechanical trapping and concentration of BC caused by surface melt and/or sublimation (Conway et al., 1996; Huang et al., 2011). Preliminary dating (Grigholm et al., in prep) has dated the top of the core to ~1980, suggesting that annual mass loss at the site has removed the upper portion of the record. This supports the findings of Kehrwald et al. (2008) who reported that glaciers below ~6050 m a.s.l. in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau are losing mass annually. Presented here is the record of BC on the central Tibetan Plateau over the time

  9. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    the cause of insomnia must be clearly identified. First line treatment aims at the underlying neurologic disease. The few high quality treatment studies show that short term treatment with hypnotics may be recommended in most disorders after having ruled out high risk for adverse effects. Sedating...... antidepressants may be an effective treatment for insomnia in stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Melatonin and light treatment can stabilize the sleep-wake circadian rhythm and shorten sleep latency in dementias and PD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective in treating insomnia symptoms...

  10. Deeply Embedded Protostellar Population in the Central Molecular Zone Suggested by H$_2$O Masers and Dense Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xing; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Longmore, Steven N; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), usually referring to the inner 500 pc of the Galaxy, contains a dozen of massive ($\\sim10^5$ $M_\\odot$) molecular clouds. Are these clouds going to actively form stars like Sgr B2? How are they affected by the extreme physical conditions in the CMZ, such as strong turbulence? Here we present a first step towards answering these questions. Using high-sensitivity, high angular resolution radio and (sub)millimeter observations, we studied deeply embedded star formation in six massive clouds in the CMZ, including the 20 and 50 km s$^{-1}$ clouds, Sgr B1 off (as known as dust ridge clouds e/f), Sgr C, Sgr D, and G0.253-0.016. The VLA water maser observations suggest a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates, many of which are new detections. The SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations reveal peaks in dust emission associated with the masers, suggesting the existence of dense cores. While our findings confirm that clouds such as G0.253-0.016 lack internal compact substructu...

  11. [Relationship between prevalent features of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Li, Yi-chong; Li, Xiao-yan; Wang, Li-min; Zhao, Wen-hua

    2013-09-01

    To study the relationship between prevalence of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people over 60 years old. A complex multistage stratified sampling survey on chronic diseases was conducted in 162 surveillance points, 31 provinces, China in 2010 by China CDC. The survey included face-to-face interview, physical measurement (body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure) and laboratory test (blood sugar, blood lipid and hemoglobin A1C), to collect the information about the prevalence of the risk factors as smoking, drinking, diet and physical activities and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. The survey selected 19 966 subjects who were over 60 years old. Central obesity was defined as WC ≥ 85 cm in males or ≥ 80 cm in females. The prevalence of central obesity among the elder people over 60 years old in different districts and populations was calculated; and the proportion of cardiometabolic diseases in groups of different WC was then analyzed. The prevalence of central obesity among elderly population over 60 years old was 48.6% (95%CI:46.1%-51.2%), including 39.7% (95%CI:37.2%-42.2%) males and 57.3% (95%CI:54.5%-60.1%) females. The proportion of females was higher than that of males (χ(2) = 474.63, P central obesity among elderly men. There was no significant association among females. The higher the family income, the higher the prevalence of central obesity. The prevalence of central obesity was 59.2% in urban area, which was much higher than that in rural area (43.5%) (χ(2) = 50.06, P central obese. The proportion of cardiometabolic diseases among central obesity was significantly higher than that among non-obese population. We should pay more concern about them in the future prevention and control of chronic diseases.

  12. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: South Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    in large numbers, but cases of febrile illness were observed among humans in the area. The zoonosis was first suspected to be sylvan yellow fever...Disease Distribution. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world. Distribution is worldwide in urban and rural areas of both...develop in living tissues. This constitutes true parasitism and is essentially a zoonosis . Obligate myiasis is a serious pathology. In humans

  13. Vestibulocerebellar disease impairs the central representation of self-orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Tarnutzer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of head-fixed otolith signals into a space-fixed frame of reference is essential for perception of self-orientation and ocular motor control. In monkeys the nodulus and ventral uvula of the vestibulo-cerebellum facilitate this transformation by computing an internal estimate of direction of gravity. These experimental findings motivated the hypothesis that degeneration of the vestibulo-cerebellum in humans alter perceptual and ocular motor functions that rely on accurate estimates of gravity, such as subjective visual vertical (SVV, static ocular counterroll (OCR, and gravity-dependent modulation of vertical ocular drifts. We assessed the SVV, OCR, and spontaneous vertical ocular drifts in 12 patients with chronic vestibulo-cerebellar disease and in ten controls. Substantially increased variability in estimated SVV was noted in the patients. Furthermore, gravity-dependent modulation of spontaneous vertical ocular drifts along the pitch plane was significantly (p < 0.05 larger in the patients. However, the gain and variability of static OCR and errors in SVV were not significantly different. In conclusion, in chronic vestibulo-cerebellar disease SVV and OCR remain intact except for an abnormal variability in the perception of verticality and impaired stabilization of gaze mediated by the otoliths. These findings suggest that OCR and perceived vertical are relatively independent from the cerebellum unless there is a cerebellar imbalance like an acute unilateral cerebellar stroke. The increased trial-to-trial SVV variability may be a general feature of cerebellar disease since a function of the cerebellum may be to compensate for such. SVV variability might be useful to monitor disease progression and treatment response in patients.

  14. Complete structural analysis of the Upper plate of Attica metamorphic core complex (Sub-Pelagonian Zone, Internal Hellenides, Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, A.

    2009-04-01

    rocks constitute 2nd order structural features resulting by non-coaxial strain, e) Cataclastic rocks dominate along the boundaries of the involved rocks as well as in footwall and hangingwall rocks, forming a complicated mix of sedimentary, volcanic, serpentinic and carbonate protolith rocks, f) Geometric analysis and description of asymmetric structures proves that a prominent non-coaxial strain toward north-northwest prevails, producing a heterogeneous cataclastic fabric in the rocks, g) Quantitative and qualitative analysis of asymmetric structures among Triassic-Jurassic rocks and Permo-Triassic rocks determined that two strain domains are formed in the footwalls, including structures of different strain state, h) Field evaluation of the structural geology and the tectonics connote the conjugate character of the cataclastic zones, causing almost complete decomposition of the pre-existed geometries. Deformation of the Paleocene flysch sediments by the inferred non-coaxial strain field indicates a post-Paleocene age of the observed geometry. Multi-directed steep-angle faults in Alpine and Neogene rocks cut the former shear zones and define elongated post-Early Miocene basins, ascribed to post-Late Miocene faulting activity. Combined these data of structural geology, we connoted that brittle decomposition of the UP, late-stage exhumation of the ductile-deformed lithologies towards the upper rigid crust and the formation of Athens basin progressed during Neogene. Diamantopoulos A., 2005. A cardinal problem of the kinematic path of Internal Hellenides (Pelagonian Cordillera, Northern Central Greece): Field evidences from Askion and eastern Vernon mountain ranges. IESCA 2005, iZMIR-Turkey, Book Abstracts, page 32. Diamantopoulos A., 2006. Late-orogenic stretching of the Upper Plate of Attica metamorphic core complex (Internal Hellenides, Central Greece): Field evidences from Parnis, Pastra and Kitheron mountains. International Conference on Neogene Magmatism of the

  15. Well-differentiated prostate cancer in core biopsy specimens may be associated with extraprostatic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cury

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Accurate determination of the Gleason score in prostate core biopsy specimens is crucial in selecting the type of prostate cancer treatment, especially for patients with well-differentiated tumors (Gleason score 2 to 4. For such patients, an inaccurate biopsy score may result in a therapeutic intervention that is too conservative. We evaluate the role of Gleason score 2-4 in prostate core-needle biopsies for predicting the final pathological staging following radical prostatectomy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: We analyzed the medical records of 120 consecutive patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy to treat clinical localized prostate cancer at our institution between December 2001 and July 2006. Thirty-two of these patients presented well-differentiated tumors (Gleason score 2 to 4 in biopsy specimens and were included in the study. The Gleason scores of the core-needle biopsies were compared with the pathological staging of the surgical specimens. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 32 patients (50% presented moderately differentiated tumors (Gleason score 5 to 7 in surgical specimens. Eighteen patients (56% had tumors with involvement of the prostate capsule and ten (31% had involvement of adjacent organs. Evaluating the 16 patients that maintained Gleason scores of 2 to 4 in the pathological staging of the surgical specimens, 11 (68.7% had focal invasion of the prostate capsule and five (31.25% had organ-confined disease. CONCLUSION: Well-differentiated tumors (Gleason score 2 to 4 seen in biopsies are not predictive of organ-confined disease.

  16. Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: From Central Nervous System to Periphery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mossello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's Disease (AD is the most frequent form of dementia and represents one of the main causes of disability among older subjects. Up to now, the diagnosis of AD has been made according to clinical criteria. However, the use of such criteria does not allow an early diagnosis, as pathological alterations may be apparent many years before the clear-cut clinical picture. An early diagnosis is even more valuable to develop new treatments, potentially interfering with the pathogenetic process. During the last decade, several neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters have been introduced to allow an early and accurate detection of AD patients, and, recently, they have been included among research criteria for AD diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice suffers from limitations both in accuracy and availability. The increasing amount of knowledge about peripheral biomarkers will possibly allow the future identification of reliable and easily available diagnostic tests.

  17. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period...... of exposure (≥1.0 µT), IRRs of 1.44, 1.78, 1.40 and 1.34 were observed for dementia, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, respectively. Conclusions: We observed elevated risks of dementia, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy and lower risks of Parkinson disease...

  18. Small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: The relevance of central network connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijmer, Yael D; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Piantoni, Giovanni; Boulouis, Gregoire; Kelly, Kathleen E; Gurol, Mahmut E; Leemans, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven M; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-07-01

    Central brain network connections greatly contribute to overall network efficiency. Here we examined whether small vessel disease (SVD) related white matter alterations in central brain network connections have a greater impact on executive functioning than alterations in non-central brain network connections. Brain networks were reconstructed from diffusion-weighted MRI scans in 72 individuals (75 ± 8 years) with cognitive impairment and SVD on MRI. The centrality of white matter connections in the network was defined using graph theory. The association between the fractional anisotropy (FA) of central versus non-central connections, executive functioning, and markers of SVD was evaluated with linear regression and mediation analysis. Lower FA in central network connections was more strongly associated with impairment in executive functioning than FA in non-central network connections (r = 0.41 vs. r = 0.27; P 50%-10% connections). Higher SVD burden was associated with lower FA in central as well as non-central network connections. However, only central network FA mediated the relationship between white matter hyperintensity volume and executive functioning [change in regression coefficient after mediation (95% CI): -0.15 (-0.35 to -0.02)]. The mediation effect was not observed for FA alterations in non-central network connections [-0.03 (-0.19 to 0.04)]. These findings suggest that the centrality of network connections, and thus their contribution to global network efficiency, appears to be relevant for understanding the relationship between SVD and cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2446-2454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Tectonic stratigraphy near a metamorphic core complex: Lessons from the Castaneda-signal area of west-central Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchitta, I. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)); Suneson, N.H. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A sequence of latest Oligocene through Quaternary sedimentary and volcanic rocks, when analyzed tectonically and combined with lithologically distinctive source terranes, clarifies the character and timing of Neogene extension just north of the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex (BRMCC) in west-central Arizona. The oldest strata (basal arkose of Lucchitta and Suneson) reflect regional stability and a southwesterly paleoslope. In latest Oligocene time, this drainage was ponded by an upwarp (now exposed as the BRMCC) rising to the southwest. The resulting lake beds contain a thin 26.6 MA airfall tuff that marks the beginning of volcanic activity in the region. A widespread breccia records the progressive unroofing of the still-rising CC. Mantle-driven crustal heating probably caused the upwarp and allowed the eruption of voluminous mantle-derived basalt and basaltic andesite about 19 MA (early basalts, Artillery Basalt). The overlying syntectonic conglomerate (arkose of Keenan Camp) was deposited during a period of extreme extension, low-angle detachment faulting, and block rotation, typical of highly extended terranes. The conglomerate is interlayered with widespread silicic volcanic rocks (15--10 MA) derived from the lower crust and large gravity-glide sheets lithologically identical to the breccia and similarly derived from the CC to the south. Unconformably overlying the conglomerate are locally derived fanglomerate and 13--8.5 MA (mesa-forming) basalt that accumulated in present-day basins of classic basin-range type. Untilted and nearly unfaulted 7.7--5.4 MA mantle-derived megacryst-bearing basalt marks the cessation of tectonic activity.

  20. Romanticism and schizophrenia. First part: The recency hypothesis and the core Gestalt of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan J; López-Ibor, María I

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of irrational, incomprehensible, or unconstrained behavior such as is common nowadays in patients suffering from severe mental disorders can be found in the Bible, in Mesopotamian scripts, in classical Greek and Roman literature, and in the writings of many non-Western cultures. However, the presence of full-blown features of schizophrenia as seen today in psychiatric settings is controversial. Typical symptoms, the expected onset, duration and outcome, the impact of the disease on psychic functioning and the associated disability of the disease are mostly absent in those texts. Torrey (1980) and Hare (1988) have claimed that the disease did not exist before the year 1800 (this is known as the recency hypothesis). This would be the consequence of biological factors such as viruses, genetic or dietary factors or environmental contaminants associated to civilization. Others have put the emphasis on industrialization and its repercussions on social conditions such as family structure and migration. After analyzing the many manifestations of insanity in literary characters, in medical texts and in key historical figures, the arguments presented in this paper tend to support the recency hypothesis. A review of the core characteristics of schizophrenia and its impact on selfhood, intersubjetivity and ipseity, topics relatively neglected in recent psychiatric literature, opens the doors to consider in a second part the relationship between the features of Romanticism, starting by the “discovery of intimacy”, and its articulation with the disturbance of ipseity and selfhood characteristic of the disease.

  1. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  2. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Shukla, Sharvari; Shardul, Savita; Ashtekar, Nutan; Valsa, Sapna; Awate, Pradip; Marx, Michael

    2013-06-13

    Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded "project" to a state owned surveillance "program". Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training, supervision, human and other resources) are particularly weak at the district level. Structural integration and establishing permanent state and district surveillance officer positions will ensure leadership; improve performance; support continuity; and offer sustainability to the program. Institutionalizing the integrated disease surveillance strategy through skills based personnel development and infrastructure strengthening at district levels is the only way to avoid it from ending up isolated! Improving surveillance

  3. [Transfusion transmission of Chagas disease in Honduras and other Central American countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, C

    1999-01-01

    The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through blood transfusion is the second most important way of acquiring Chagas disease. This form of transmission transcends the vectorial transmission in many geographical areas. Honduras has developed a successful program for the control of transfusional transmission, based on the serological screening of blood donors, which is supported by law, making it mandatory. This experience has been extended to other Central American countries, supported by PAHO. Actually in the framework of the Initiative of the Central American countries for the elimination of the transmission of Chagas disease, launched in 1997, the control of transfusional transmission is becoming a reality.

  4. Neutron activation analysis of the central nervous system tissues in neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1994-07-01

    As the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and the metals of their causes, Minamata disease due to Hg, itai-itai disease due to Cd, dialysis brain disease due to Al, hemochromatosis due to Fe, Wilson disease due to Cu and so on have been known. Also as the neural diseases, in which the possibility that metals take part in them is presumed, there are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism dementia and so on. In order to know the causes of the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and neurological diseases, the authors have measured Cu, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn and Fe in central nervous system tissues by activation analysis nondestructive method. The cases investigated were 4 cases of hepatocerebral diseases, 6 cases of ALS, 4 cases of Parkinson disease, 4 cases of Parkinsonism dementia, 4 cases of multiple sclerosis and 5 cases without CNS disease for the control. The method of measurement is described. The results for respective diseases are reported. Cu and Fe are in the relation of mirror images, and Cu formed Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD) similarly to Zn and Mn as SOD carrier metals, and protects living bodies and CNS from oxidative stress. (K.I.).

  5. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijs, Babette L R; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Betsou, Fay; Blennow, Kaj; Baldeiras, Inês; Brosseron, Frederic; Cavedo, Enrica; Fladby, Tormod; Froelich, Lutz; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Gurvit, Hakan; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Koson, Peter; Kulic, Luka; Lehmann, Sylvain; Lewczuk, Piotr; Lleó, Alberto; Maetzler, Walter; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miller, Anne-Marie; Molinuevo, José L; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Rot, Uros; Schneider, Anja; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Tsolaki, Magda; Verbeek, Marcel M; Verhey, Frans R J; Zboch, Marzena; Winblad, Bengt; Scheltens, Philip; Zetterberg, Henrik; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized pre-analytical procedures and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8,600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank.

  6. The central biobank and virtual biobank of BIOMARKAPD: a resource for studies on neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babette eReijs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease (BIOMARKAPD is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND, that aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized preanalytical procedures (SOP and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg (IBBL. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, vascular dementia (VaD, multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank.

  7. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijs, Babette L. R.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Betsou, Fay; Blennow, Kaj; Baldeiras, Inês; Brosseron, Frederic; Cavedo, Enrica; Fladby, Tormod; Froelich, Lutz; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Gurvit, Hakan; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Koson, Peter; Kulic, Luka; Lehmann, Sylvain; Lewczuk, Piotr; Lleó, Alberto; Maetzler, Walter; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miller, Anne-Marie; Molinuevo, José L.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Rot, Uros; Schneider, Anja; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Tsolaki, Magda; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Zboch, Marzena; Winblad, Bengt; Scheltens, Philip; Zetterberg, Henrik; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized pre-analytical procedures and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8,600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank. PMID:26528237

  8. Biological characteristics of brain natriuretic peptide and its association with central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yubao Huang; Changxiang Yan; Chunjiang Yu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explain the mechanisms of tuhe synthesis, secretion and regulation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and analyze its role in central nervous system diseases.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Pubmed was undertaken to identify articles related to BNP published in English from January 1990 to February 2007 by using the Key words of "brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), central nervous system, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain edema, epilepsy". Other articles were searched in China Hospital Knowledge Database (CHKD) by concrete name of journals and title of articles.STUDY SELECTION: The collected articles were primarily screened, those about BNP and its association with central nervous system diseases were selected, whereas the obviously irrelative ones excluded, and the full-texts of the other literatures were searched manually.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 96 articles were collected, 40 of them were enrolled, and the other 56 were excluded due to repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: At present, there are penetrating studies on BNP in the preclinical medicine and clinical medicine of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and the investigative outcomes have been gradually applied in clinical practice, and satisfactory results have been obtained. However, the application of BNP in diagnosing and treating central nervous system diseases is still at the experimental phase without -outstanding outcomes, thus the preclinical and clinical studies should be enhanced.CONCLUSION: As a kind of central medium or modulator, BNP plays a certain role in the occurrence,development and termination of central nervous system diseases, the BNP level in serum has certain changing law in AH,brainedema,epilepsy,etc., but the specific mechanisms are unclear.

  9. Durability of central venous catheters. A randomized trial in children with malignant diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Jungersen, D; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study the durability of tunnelled and non-tunnelled central venous catheters was investigated in children with malignant diseases. Twenty children were included in the study but four (two in each group) had to be excluded; three because the entry criteria turned out......, respectively. In conclusion cuffed, tunnelled central venous catheters are less prone to displacement than traditional percutaneous central venous catheters when used in children with malignant diseases....... not to be fulfilled and one because of lack of data. The median duration of the tunnelled catheters was 224 days with a range of 25-846 days which was significantly longer than that of conventional catheters (39.5 days, range 9-228 days). In addition six of eight conventional catheters were accidentally removed...

  10. Marek's disease in local chicken strains of Ethiopia reared under confined management regime in central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duguma, R.; Yami, A.; Dana, N.; Hassen, H.H.; Esatu, W.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence, clinical and pathological manifestations and extent of mortality due to Marek’s disease (MD) was investigated from November 2003 to January 2004 among indigenous chickens of Ethiopia reared under confined management at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia.

  11. Alzheimer disease: evidence for a central pathogenic role of iron-mediated reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadesus, Gemma; Smith, Mark A; Zhu, Xiongwei; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Cash, Adam D; Honda, Kazuhiro; Petersen, Robert B; Perry, George

    2004-04-01

    Free radical formation, abnormalities in iron and copper distribution, and metal-catalyzed oxidation have all been noted in Alzheimer disease and are thought to play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Metal-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation results in damage to every category of macromolecule found in the vulnerable neuronal populations in Alzheimer disease. In fact, redox activity resides within the cytosol of vulnerable neurons. Since oxidative damage represents one of the earliest pathological changes in Alzheimer disease, it is likely that aberrant redox activity is among the earliest changes in the transition to the disease state. In this review, we consider the wealth of evidence implicating a central role for metals in Alzheimer disease.

  12. An 80-year summer temperature history from the Xiao Dongkemadi ice core in the central Tibetan Plateau and its association with atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangying; Ding, Yongjian; Yu, Zhongbo; Mika, Sillanpää; Liu, Shiyin; Shangguan, Donghui; Lu, Chengyang

    2015-02-01

    The climate significance of oxygen isotopes from the central Tibetan Plateau (cTP) ice cores is a debated issue because of large scale atmospheric circulation. A high-resolution δ18O record was recovered from the Xiao Dongkemadi (XD) ice core, which expanded the spatial coverage of δ18O data in this region. Annual average δ18O correlated significantly with nearby MJJAS air temperatures, suggesting the δ18O can be used as a proxy to reconstruct regional climate change. The reconstructed temperature anomaly is related to the regional and global warming trends, and the greater warming amplitude since 1970s is related to the elevation dependency of the warming signal. The close relationship of the warming to variations in glacier mass balances and discharge reveal that recent warming has led to obvious glacier shrinkage and runoff increase. Correlation analysis suggests that monsoon and westerly moisture substantially influence the cTP ice core records, along with an increase in their level of contribution to the XD core accumulation in recent decades, and confirms a teleconnection of regional climate of the cTP ice cores with climate parameters in the Indian and North Atlantic Oceans.

  13. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  14. Probability of Extraprostatic Disease According to the Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago N. Valette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjectivePrediction of extraprostatic disease in clinically localized prostate cancer is relevant for treatment planning of the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the percentage of positive biopsy cores to predict the chance of extraprostatic cancer.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated 1787 patients with localized prostate cancer submitted to radical prostatectomy. The percentage of positive cores in prostate biopsy was correlated with the pathologic outcome of the surgical specimen. In the final analysis, a correlation was made between categorical ranges of positive cores (10% intervals and the risk of extraprostatic extension and/or bladder neck invasion, seminal vesicles involvement or metastasis to iliac lymph nodes. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis.ResultsFor each 10% of positive cores we observed a progressive higher prevalence of extraprostatic disease. The risk of cancer beyond the prostate capsule for ConclusionThe percentage of positive cores in prostate biopsy can predict the risk of cancer outside the prostate. Our study shows that the percentage of positive prostate biopsy fragments helps predict the chance of extraprostatic cancer and may have a relevant role in the patient's management.

  15. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in the Central Region of Portugal. Added Value of Automated 'Disease/No Disease' Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luisa; Oliveira, Carlos Manta; Neves, Catarina; Ramos, João Diogo; Ferreira, Hélder; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2014-11-26

    Purpose: To describe the procedures of a nonmydriatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening program in the Central Region of Portugal and the added value of the introduction of an automated disease/no disease analysis. Methods: The images from the DR screening program are analyzed in a central reading center using first an automated disease/no disease analysis followed by human grading of the disease cases. The grading scale used is as follows: R0 - no retinopathy, RL - nonproliferative DR, M - maculopathy, RP - proliferative DR and NC - not classifiable. Results: Since the introduction of automated analysis in July 2011, a total of 89,626 eyes (45,148 patients) were screened with the following distribution: R0 - 71.5%, RL - 22.7%, M - 2.2%, RP - 0.1% and NC - 3.5%. The implemented automated system showed the potential for human grading burden reduction of 48.42%. Conclusions: Screening for DR using automated analysis allied to a simplified grading scale identifies DR vision-threatening complications well while decreasing human burden. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Detection of Visual Field Loss in Pituitary Disease: Peripheral Kinetic Versus Central Static.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Cheyne, Christopher P; García-Fiñana, Marta; Noonan, Carmel P; Howard, Claire; Smith, Jayne; Adeoye, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    Visual field assessment is an important clinical evaluation for eye disease and neurological injury. We evaluated Octopus semi-automated kinetic peripheral perimetry (SKP) and Humphrey static automated central perimetry for detection of neurological visual field loss in patients with pituitary disease. We carried out a prospective cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study comparing Humphrey central 30-2 SITA threshold programme with a screening protocol for SKP on Octopus perimetry. Humphrey 24-2 data were extracted from 30-2 results. Results were independently graded for presence/absence of field defect plus severity of defect. Fifty patients (100 eyes) were recruited (25 males and 25 females), with mean age of 52.4 years (SD = 15.7). Order of perimeter assessment (Humphrey/Octopus first) and order of eye tested (right/left first) were randomised. The 30-2 programme detected visual field loss in 85%, the 24-2 programme in 80%, and the Octopus combined kinetic/static strategy in 100% of eyes. Peripheral visual field loss was missed by central threshold assessment. Qualitative comparison of type of visual field defect demonstrated a match between Humphrey and Octopus results in 58%, with a match for severity of defect in 50%. Tests duration was 9.34 minutes (SD = 2.02) for Humphrey 30-2 versus 10.79 minutes (SD = 4.06) for Octopus perimetry. Octopus semi-automated kinetic perimetry was found to be superior to central static testing for detection of pituitary disease-related visual field loss. Where reliant on Humphrey central static perimetry, the 30-2 programme is recommended over the 24-2 programme. Where kinetic perimetry is available, this is preferable to central static programmes for increased detection of peripheral visual field loss.

  17. The application values of cerebrospinal fluid cytological examination by slide centrifugation for diagnosis of central nervous system infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Ting-ting

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of cerebrospnial fluid (CSF cytological examination (by slide centrifugation results of 15 940 central nervous system infectious cases, this cytologic examination method shows definite diagnostic values as follows: 1 better etiological diagnostic value for central nervous system infectious diseases, such as purulent, viral, tuberculous, fungus and parasitic encephalitis meningitis and meningoencephalitis; 2 better differential diagnostic value for acute infectious toxic encephalopathy, meningeal carcinomatosis and central nervous system non-infectious diseases such as tumorous, leukemic and hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis and encephalopathy; 3 better clinical value for severity monitoring and prognostic judgement of central nervous system infectious diseases.

  18. Development of a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species for improvement of wheat for activity against chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santra Meenakshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species as a resource for the identification and characterization of wheat lines with preventive activity against chronic diseases. Given that cancer is the leading cause of mortality in the world and shares risk factors with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and given that wheat has been reported to protect against these diseases, the core collection was developed based on cancer prevalence. Methods The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database was used to identify Triticum and Aegilops species grown in regions of the world that vary in cancer prevalence based on the International Agency for Cancer Research GLOBOCAN world map of cancer statistics (2008. Cancer incidence data drove variety selection with secondary consideration of ploidy, center of origin, and climate. Results Analysis indicated that the geographic regions from which wheat is considered to have originated have a lower incidence of cancer than other geographic regions (P Conclusions A diverse core collection of wheat germplasm has been established from a range of regions worldwide. This core collection will be used to identify wheat lines with activity against chronic diseases using anticancer activity as a screening tool.

  19. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  20. An 800-year record of atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb in central Asia in high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungmin; Lee, Khanghyun; Hou, Shugui; Hur, Soon Do; Ren, Jiawen; Burn, Laurie J; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2009-11-01

    As, Mo, Sn, and Sb have been determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) in 143 depth intervals of high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Everest, covering an 800-year time period from 1205 to 2002 AD. The results clearly demonstrate the long-term historical record of atmospheric transport and deposition of As, Mo, Sn, and Sb that has prevailed at high altitudes in the central Himalayas. Natural contributions, mainly from mineral dust, have dominated the atmospheric cycles of As, Mo, Sn, and to some extent Sb during the 700 years prior to the 20th century. Compared to those of the pre-1900 period, pronounced increases of both concentrations and crustal enrichment factors are observed since the 1970s, with the highest increase factor for Sn and the lowest for As. Such increases are attributed to anthropogenic emissions of these elements, largely from stationary fossil fuel combustion and nonferrous metals production, particularly in India. Our central Himalayan ice core record provides an explicit recognition of rising atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb pollution in response to rapid economic growth in central Asia.

  1. Modal dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fibers encompass a central dip in the core index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; El-Hennawi, H. A.; El-Ghandoor, H.; Soliman, Mona A.

    2013-12-01

    Intermodal and intramodal dispersions signify one of the problems in graded-index multi-mode optical fibers (GRIN) used for LAN communication systems and for sensing applications. A central index dip (depression) in the profile of core refractive-index may occur due to the CVD fabrication processes. The index dip may also be intentionally designed to broaden the fundamental mode field profile toward a plateau-like distribution, which have advantages for fiber-source connections, fiber amplifiers and self-imaging applications. Effect of core central index dip on the propagation parameters of GRIN fiber, such as intermodal dispersion, intramodal dispersion and root-mean-square broadening, is investigated. The conventional methods usually study optical signal propagation in optical fiber in terms of mode characteristics and the number of modes, but in this work multiple-beam Fizeau interferometry is proposed as an inductive but alternative methodology to afford a radial approach to determine dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fiber having a central index dip.

  2. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  3. Body mass index is associated with biological CSF markers of core brain pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Michael; Schmitz, Susanne; Hansson, Oskar; Walsh, Cathal; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Bennett, David; Minthon, Lennart; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Vellas, Bruno; Dubois, Bruno; Blennow, Kaj; Buerger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan J; Weiner, Michael; Hampel, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Weight changes are common in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and postmortem findings suggest a relation between lower body mass index (BMI) and increased AD brain pathology. In the current multicenter study, we tested whether lower BMI is associated with higher core AD brain pathology as assessed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based biological markers of AD in 751 living subjects: 308 patients with AD, 296 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 147 elderly healthy controls (HC). Based upon a priori cutoff values on CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid (Aβ(1-42)), subjects were binarized into a group with abnormal CSF biomarker signature (CSF+) and those without (CSF-). Results showed that BMI was significantly lower in the CSF+ when compared with the CSF- group (F = 27.7, df = 746, p < 0.001). There was no interaction between CSF signature and diagnosis or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In conclusion, lower BMI is indicative of AD pathology as assessed with CSF-based biomarkers in demented and nondemented elderly subjects.

  4. The role of whey acidic protein four-disulfide-core proteins in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Donna M; Doherty, Declan F; Dougan, Caoifa M; Weldon, Sinéad; Taggart, Clifford C

    2017-04-01

    Members of the whey acidic protein (WAP) or WAP four-disulfide-core (WFDC) family of proteins are a relatively under-explored family of low molecular weight proteins. The two most prominent WFDC proteins, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and elafin (or the precursor, trappin-2), have been shown to possess multiple functions including anti-protease, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. It is therefore of no surprise that both SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 have been developed as potential therapeutics. Given the abundance of SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 in the human lung, most work in the area of WFDC research has focused on the role of WFDC proteins in protecting the lung from proteolytic attack. In this review, we will outline the current evidence regarding the expanding role of WFDC protein function with a focus on WFDC activity in lung disease as well as emerging data regarding the function of some of the more recently described WFDC proteins.

  5. Specific mutations of basal core promoter are associated with chronic liver disease in hepatitis B virus subgenotype D1 prevalent in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Mustafa; Sugiyama, Masaya; Kurbanov, Fuat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Khan, Anis; Elkady, Abeer; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi

    2013-02-01

    The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genetics in the clinical manifestations of infection is being increasingly recognized. Genotype D is one of eight currently recognized major HBV genotypes. The virus is ubiquitous worldwide, but shows different features in different regions. One hundred and ninety-eight patients with chronic HBV infection were enrolled in this study, 38 of whom had been diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV DNA was isolated from the patients' blood samples and the entire genome and/or the basal core promoter/core promoter region sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes revealed that subgenotype D1 is the most prevalent subgenotype in Turkey, but there was no definite phylogenetic grouping according to geography for isolates from different regions within Turkey, or for isolates in Turkey relative to other parts of the world. Turkish isolates tended to be genetically similar to European and central Asian isolates. Overall, HBV-infection in Turkey appears to be characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion, a high incidence of the A1896 core promoter mutation and a small viral load. Genotype D characteristic mutations A1757 and T1764/G1766 were found in the BCP region. T1773 was associated with T1764/G1766 and a larger viral load. In conclusion, infection with HBV genotype D in Turkey has a similar clinical outcome to that of Europe and central Asia. Genotypic mutations in genotype D may be linked with disease prognosis in Turkey, but further studies with higher sample numbers and balanced clinical groups are needed to confirm this.

  6. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control.

  7. Central pontine myelinolysis in advanced HIV infection with tuberculosis and multicentric Castleman's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, J; Branding, G; Stocker, H

    2013-07-01

    We present a case of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) in a patient with advanced HIV infection and miliary tuberculosis. While hospitalized the patient developed an unusual ataxic variant of CPM with full clinical recovery. Follow-up imaging revealed resolution of pontine lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinical and radiological recovery from CPM in advanced HIV disease. Our report extends our knowledge of neurological presentations in patients with advanced HIV infection. It highlights the importance of considering CPM in patients with advanced HIV disease presenting with an ataxic syndrome, even in the absence of an electrolyte derangement.

  8. Effectiveness of low-dose pregabalin in three patients with Lewy body disease and central neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Katsuyuki; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Ozaki, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Many patients with Lewy body disease complain of pain, and their pain may be associated with this disease. Recently, pain has become a focus of attention in Parkinson's disease, but there is little information regarding pain in patients who have dementia with Lewy bodies. We used pregabalin to treat three Lewy body disease patients with chronic pain that may have been related to degeneration of central neurons. All three patients responded well to pregabalin at 25-50 mg/day. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of pregabalin showing efficacy for central neuropathic pain in Parkinson's disease or Lewy body disease.

  9. Glucocerebrosidase L444P Mutation Confers Genetic Risk for Parkinson’s Disease in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mutations of the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene have reportedly been associated with Parkinson disease (PD) in various ethnic populations such as Singaporean, Japanese, Formosan, Canadian, American, Portuguese, Greek, Brazilian, British, Italian, Ashkenazi Jewish, southern and southwestern Chinese. The purpose of this study is to determine in central China whether or not the reported GBA mutations remain associated with PD. Methods In this project, we conducted a controlled...

  10. 75 FR 22816 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel: Revitalizing Core Environmental Health Programs Through the Environmental... initial review, discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Revitalizing...

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2012-06-01

    Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson's disease and two other synucleinopathies, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Cerebrospinal fluid catechols were assayed in 146 subjects-108 synucleinopathy patients (34 Parkinson's disease, 54 multiple system atrophy, 20 pure autonomic failure) and 38 controls. In 14 patients cerebrospinal fluid was obtained before or within 2 years after the onset of parkinsonism. The Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure groups all had lower cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [0.86 ± 0.09 (SEM), 1.00 ± 0.09, 1.32 ± 0.12 nmol/l] than controls (2.15 ± 0.18 nmol/l; P Parkinson's disease than in pure autonomic failure. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was 100% sensitive at 89% specificity in separating patients with recent onset of parkinsonism from controls but was of no value in differentiating Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy. Synucleinopathies feature cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical evidence for central dopamine and norepinephrine deficiency. Parkinson's disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid seems to provide a sensitive means to identify even early Parkinson's disease.

  12. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. Methods 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. Results No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson’s disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson’s disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced

  13. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  14. Herpesvirus-associated central nervous system diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqing Wu

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT recipients. Herpesvirus-DNA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cells were sampled from 58 recipients with herpesvirus-associated diseases or with unexplainable CNS manifestations. Results showed that 23 patients were diagnosed as herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases, including 15 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated diseases (4 encephalitis and 11 lymphoproliferative diseases, 5 herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis, 2 cytomegalovirus encephalitis/myelitis and 1 varicella zoster virus encephalitis. The median time of diseases onset was 65 (range 22-542 days post-transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidence of herpesvirus-associated encephalitis/myelitis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD was 6.3% ± 1.9% and 4.1% ± 1.2%, respectively. Of the evaluable cases, CSF cells mainly consisted of CD19(+CD20(+ B cells (7/11 and had clonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes (3/11 in patients with CNS-PTLD. On the contrary, in patients with encephalitis/myelitis, CSF cells were comprised of different cell populations and none of the gene rearrangement was detected. Herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases are common in the early stages of allo-HSCT, wherein EBV is the most frequent causative virus. The immunophenotypic and clonal analysis of CSF cells might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between encephalitis and lymphoproliferative diseases.

  15. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, PHeart Association, Inc.

  16. Associations of centrally acting ACE inhibitors with cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Karim; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Robert; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). Aims To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. Method Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. Results In the 9 months after Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis, MMSE scores significantly increased by 0.72 and 0.19 points per year in patients on C-ACEIs and neither respectively, but deteriorated by 0.61 points per year in those on NC-ACEIs. There were no significant group differences in score trajectories from 9 to 36 months and no differences in survival. Conclusions In people with Alzheimer’s disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, those also taking C-ACEIs had stronger initial improvement in cognitive function, but there was no evidence of longer-lasting influence on dementia progression. Declaration of interest R.S. has received research funding from Pfizer, Lundbeck, Roche, Janssen and GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28713585

  17. Associations of centrally acting ACE inhibitors with cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Karim; Perera, Gayan; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Robert; Stewart, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. In the 9 months after Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, MMSE scores significantly increased by 0.72 and 0.19 points per year in patients on C-ACEIs and neither respectively, but deteriorated by 0.61 points per year in those on NC-ACEIs. There were no significant group differences in score trajectories from 9 to 36 months and no differences in survival. In people with Alzheimer's disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, those also taking C-ACEIs had stronger initial improvement in cognitive function, but there was no evidence of longer-lasting influence on dementia progression. R.S. has received research funding from Pfizer, Lundbeck, Roche, Janssen and GlaxoSmithKline. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  18. Syringomyelia in demyelinating disease of the central nervous system: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Syringomyelia is a cavitary extension inside the spinal cord which can be either symptomatic or congenitally-idiopathic. Syringomyelia during the course of the disease in patients presenting with clinically definite multiple sclerosis was described earlier. Syringomyelia in patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis is unusual. Case Outline. We present two patients presenting with demy-elinating disease of the central nervous system with syringomyelia in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. We did not find classical clinical signs of syringomyelia in our patients, but we disclosed syringomyelia incidentally during magnetic resonance exploration. Magnetic resonance exploration using the gadolinium contrast revealed the signs of active demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord in one patient but not in the other. Conclusion. Syringomyelia in demyelinating disease of the central nervous system opens the question whether it is a coincidental finding or a part of clinical features of the disease. Differentiation of the significance of syringomyelia finding in these patients plays a role in the choice of treatment concept in such patients.

  19. Can Single Positive Core Prostate Cancer at biopsy be Considered a Low-Risk Disease after Radical Prostatectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kupka da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Single positive core in a prostate biopsy is usually associated with indolent prostate cancer (PCa and is one of the active surveillance (AS inclusion criteria. We investigated whether single positive core PCa at biopsy could define an archetype of low-risk disease. Materials and Methods A total of 1320 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 249 patients with single positive core PCa were followed up, and the clinical and pathological parameters influencing prognosis were analyzed. Results Out of the 249 patients, 172 (69.0% had pathological findings ≥ pT2c and 87 (34.9% had an undergraded Gleason Score (GS based on the biopsy. Positive surgical margins (PSMs, extraprostatic extension (EPE and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI were found in 20.8%, 10.0% and 6.0% of patients, respectively. In a comparative analysis, we found that the PSA level, prostate weight and number of cores at biopsy are essential to correctly predict an indolent PCa. A total of 125 patients (67.3% with nonpalpable tumors became high-risk tumors (pT2c-T3. Analyzing only nonpalpable tumors with a GS of 6 at biopsy (156 patients, we noted that 106 (67.9% of cT1 progressed from cT1c to pT2c-pT3. Conclusions Single core PCa have clinically significant disease in the Radical Prostatectomy specimens, with considerable rates of overgrading for the GS, pT2c-pT3, PSMs, EPE and SVI. The treatment plan must be evaluated individually for patients with single core PCa and must take into account other prognostic factors when determining whether a patient should be managed with AS.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in infectious and noninfectious central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud; Ertner, Gideon; Langholz Kristensen, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most important tool for assessing central nervous system (CNS) disease. An elevated CSF leukocyte count rarely provides the final diagnosis, but is almost always an indicator of inflammation within the CNS.The present study investigated the variety....... Infections were the most common cause of CSF pleocytosis (61.4%) followed by miscellaneous causes (12.7%), vascular (9.7%), neurodegenerative (7%), neoplastic (5%), and inflammatory conditions (4.2%). Only infections presented with leukocyte counts >10,000 × 10/L. Infections represented 82.6% of all cases...... with a leukocyte count >100 × 10/L whereas 56.3% of cases with at leukocyte counts infection.The present study may serve as a reminder to clinicians of what diseases and disease categories to suspect when patients present with CSF biochemistry indicating CNS...

  1. High-resolution detrital flux and provenance records from the Lake Suigetsu (SG06/12 cores) and climate changes in Central Japan during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Tada, R.; Sugisaki, S.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; Bryant, C. L.; Staff, R.; Brauer, A.; Lamb, H.; Schlolaut, G.; Tarasov, P. E.; Gotanda, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Yonenobu, H.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Stalagmites in Chinese caves (e.g., Wang et al., 2001, 2005), loess/paleosol sequence of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and lacustrine sediments in Asian countries are favorable to monitor the past changes in East Asian monsoon and the path and intensity of the Westerly Jet. However, not much is known about these changes during the last deglaciation mostly due to the large uncertainty in the chronologies of the lacustrine and loess/paleosol sediments. Lake Suigetsu in Central Japan is known for the varved sediments which cover at least last 70 kyr. Recently, precise Age-Model is established for SG06 core based on varve counting and more than 800 radiocarbon dates (e.g., Ramsey et al., 2012; Staff et al., 2013). Here we examine the precipitation and wind-system changes in Central Japan during the last deglaciation from the flux and provenance changes of the detrital materials in the sediments of SG06 core. We reconstructed flux of detrital materials for the last glacial part of the SG06 core (1402-1810 cm interval of the SG06 composite depth) with 1 cm resolution (corresponded to 7-13 yrs) and estimated provenance of the detrital materials using color, chemical compositions (please see a poster presented by Suzuki et al), grain sizes, and electron spin resonance intensity and crystallinity of the quartz (these methods were detailed in Nagashima et al., 2007, 2011). The reconstructed flux of detrital materials are characterized by the millennial-scale increases exceeding 12 mg/cm2/yr at 16,600-14,800 and 13,700-12,800 SG062012 yr BP and short-lived (centennial to decadal) episodes of higher flux repeated more than thirty times throughout the deglaciation. The grain sizes, color, and crystallinity of quartz suggest that the content of the detrital materials increased during 16,600-14,800 SG062012 yr BP, which was mostly due to suspended particles supplied from Hasu river through Lake Mikata, that is located immediately upstream of Lake Suigetsu and trapping most of coarse

  2. Borna disease virus accelerates inflammation and disease associated with transgenic expression of interleukin-12 in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freude, Susanna; Hausmann, Jürgen; Hofer, Markus; Pham-Mitchell, Ngan; Campbell, Iain L; Staeheli, Peter; Pagenstecher, Axel

    2002-12-01

    Targeted expression of biologically active interleukin-12 (IL-12) in astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) results in spontaneous neuroimmunological disease of aged mice. Borna disease virus (BDV) can readily multiply in the mouse CNS but does not trigger disease in most strains. Here we show that a large percentage of IL-12 transgenic mice developed severe ataxia within 5 to 10 weeks after infection with BDV. By contrast, no disease developed in mock-infected IL-12 transgenic and wild-type mice until 4 months of age. Neurological symptoms were rare in infected wild-type animals, and if they occurred, these were milder and appeared later. Histological analyses showed that the cerebellum of infected IL-12 transgenic mice, which is the brain region with strongest transgene expression, contained large numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as lower numbers of B cells, whereas other parts of the CNS showed only mild infiltration by lymphocytes. The cerebellum of diseased mice further showed severe astrogliosis, calcifications and signs of neurodegeneration. BDV antigen and nucleic acids were present in lower amounts in the inflamed cerebellum of infected transgenic mice than in the noninflamed cerebellum of infected wild-type littermates, suggesting that IL-12 or IL-12-induced cytokines exhibited antiviral activity. We propose that BDV infection accelerates the frequency by which immune cells such as lymphocytes and NK cells enter the CNS and then respond to IL-12 present in the local milieu causing disease. Our results illustrate that infection of the CNS with a virus that is benign in certain hosts can be harmful in such normally disease-resistant hosts if the tissue is unfavorably preconditioned by proinflammatory cytokines.

  3. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Resolving After Orbital Decompression in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Seanna R; Yoon, Michael K

    A 49-year-old male presented with proptosis and was found to have optic nerve edema with peripapillary hemorrhages. Diagnostic testing showed a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone. CT orbits showed homogenous tendon-sparing enlargement of the medial and inferior rectus muscles, characteristic of thyroid eye disease. Intravenous methylprednisolone was administered given the concern for compressive optic neuropathy. He initially had improvement of his symptoms, so orbital decompression was deferred. Subsequently he presented with worsening diplopia and right proptosis, a new afferent pupillary defect, and a cecocentral visual field defect. Dilated examination revealed significant optic nerve head edema and diffuse retinal hemorrhages in all 4 quadrants consistent with a central retinal vein occlusion. The patient underwent an urgent 3-wall orbital decompression on the right. Close follow up postoperatively showed resolution of the central retinal vein occlusion and the associated optic disc edema, peripapillary hemorrhages, and macular edema. Orbital decompression is known to improve many manifestations of thyroid eye disease, but this is the first report of orbital decompression resulting in resolution of a central retinal vein occlusion.

  4. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Cadmium-Polyethylene (CdPoly) Bucket Located in the Central Cavity on the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naranjo, Gerald E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kaiser, Krista Irene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, James F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lippert, Lance L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clovis, Ralph D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Lonnie E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Quirk, Thomas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the cadmium-polyethylene (CdPoly) bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-CdPoly-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra, uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work. Also thanks to Drew Tonigan for helping field the activation experiments in ACRR, David Samuel for helping to finalize the drawings and get the parts fabricated, and Elliot Pelfrey for preparing the active dosimetry plots.

  5. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Cadmium-Polyethylene (CdPoly) Bucket Located in the Central Cavity on the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J.,; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Kaiser, Krista Irene; Arnold, James F.; Lippert, Lance L.; Clovis, Ralph D.; Martin, Lonnie E.; Quirk, Thomas J.; Vehar, David W.

    2016-10-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the cadmium-polyethylene (CdPoly) bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-CdPoly-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra, uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work. Also thanks to Drew Tonigan for helping field the activation experiments in ACRR, David Samuel for helping to finalize the drawings and get the parts fabricated, and Elliot Pelfrey for preparing the active dosimetry plots.

  6. Metabolic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Bioenergetics, Redox Homeostasis and Central Carbon Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Jacome, Maria S; Lei, Shulei; Hernandez-Franco, Pablo; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic processes in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival. Importantly, both bioenergetics and redox homeostasis are coupled to neuro-glial central carbon metabolism. We and others have recently established a link between the alterations in central carbon metabolism induced by PD risk factors, redox homeostasis and bioenergetics and their contribution to the survival/death of dopaminergic cells. In this review, we focus on the link between metabolic dysfunction, energy failure and redox imbalance in PD, making an emphasis in the contribution of central carbon (glucose) metabolism. The evidence summarized here strongly supports the consideration of PD as a disorder of cell metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Central nervous system involvement in pediatric rheumatic diseases: current concepts in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzova, Ali; Bakkaloglu, Aysin

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are not rare in pediatric rheumatic diseases. They may be a relatively common feature of the disease, as in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Behçet's disease. Direct CNS involvement of a systemic rheumatic disease, primary CNS vasculitis, indirect involvement secondary to hypertension, hypoxia and metabolic changes, and drug associated adverse events may all result in CNS involvement. We have reviewed the CNS manifestations of SLE, Behçet's disease, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, familial Mediterranean fever, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, Takayasu's arteritis, CINCA syndrome, Kawasaki disease, and primary CNS vasculitis; and adverse CNS effects of anti-rheumatic drugs in pediatric patients. The manifestations are diverse; ranging from headache, seizures, chorea, changes in personality, depression, memory and concentration problems, cognitive impairment, cerebrovascular accidents to coma, and death. The value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination (pleocytosis, high level of protein), auto-antibodies in serum and CSF, electroencephalography, neuroimaging with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT, PET, and angiography depends on the disease. Brain biopsy is gold standard for the diagnosis of CNS vasculitis, however it may be inconclusive in 25% of cases. A thorough knowledge of the rheumatic diseases and therapy-related adverse events is mandatory for the management of a patient with rheumatic disease and CNS involvement. Severe CNS involvement is associated with poor prognosis, and high mortality rate. High dose steroid and cyclophosphamide (oral or intravenous) are first choice drugs in the treatment; plasmapheresis, IVIG, thalidomide, and intratechal treatment may be valuable in treatment-resistant, and serious cases.

  8. Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).

  9. Determination of the neutrons energy spectrum in the central thimble of the reactor core TRIGA Mark III; Determinacion del espectro de energia de los neutrones en el dedal central del nucleo del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra M, M. A.; Luis L, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Division de Ciencias Basicas, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Raya A, R.; Cruz G, H. S., E-mail: roberto.raya@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento del Reactor, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the measurement of the neutrons spectrum in energies in the central thimble of the reactor TRIGA Mark III to a power of 1 MW in stationary state, with the core in the center of the pool. To achieve this objective, several thin sheets were irradiated (one at the time) in the same position of the core. The activation probes were selected in such a way that covered the energy range (1 x 10{sup -10} to 20 MeV) of the neutrons spectrum in the reactor core, for this purpose thin sheets were used of {sup 197}Au, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 115}In, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 59}Co and {sup 63}Cu. After the irradiation, the high energy gamma emissions of the activated thin sheets were measured by means of gamma spectrometry, in a counting system of high resolution, with a Hyper pure Germanium detector, obtaining this way the activity induced in the thin sheets whose magnitude is proportional to the intensity of the neutrons flow, this activity together to a theoretical initial spectrum are the main entrance data of the computational code SANDBP (Hungarian version of the code Sand-II) that uses the unfolding method for the calculation of the spectrum. (Author)

  10. PATTERN OF CUTANEOUS DISEASES IN INMATES OF CENTRAL JAIL, LUDHIANA, PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prisons are fertile breeding places for many skin infections and infestations; also the prevalent stressful conditions may aggravate preexisting skin problems. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern of cutaneous diseases in Central Jail, Ludhiana, Punjab (male prison. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The jail inmates were examined as a part of special skin camp organized in the Central Jail Ludhiana by the dermatologist after eliciting a brief history. RESULTS: Of the 157 patients examined, 70% were infectious; commonest being scabies followed by pyodermas, dermatophytosis, pityriasis versicolor, warts. Eczemas and Acne vulgaris were the most common non-infectious conditions seen. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend screening of new inmates by a dermatologist and periodic skin camps to be conducted in prisons at regular intervals.

  11. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.

  12. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis disease in dogs of central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Ana Luísa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®. In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304 was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83 were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83. By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.

  13. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  14. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2017-06-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  15. Bone marrow stromal cells. An alternative source of restorative therapy in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberti-Amador, E; García-Miniet, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of bone marrow cells to limit or slow down the damage and chronic neuronal degeneration produced by degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS...

  16. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  17. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunis, G. A.; Zicker, F.; Pinheiro, F.; Brandling-Bennett, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six...

  18. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA......) with 258 matched controls from the general population. Diagnoses were based on data from the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 32.9 years, and mean age at follow-up was 48.5 years. Of the 89 individuals with AA, 20 (22.5%) were registered with at least one...

  19. Nicotinic systems in central nervous systems disease: degenerative disorders and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, P A; Kelton, M

    2000-03-01

    Advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and distribution of central nervous system (CNS) nicotinic receptors has provided the impetus for new studies examining the role(s) that these receptors and associated processes may play in CNS functions. Further motivation has come from the realization that such receptors are changed in degenerative neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Ongoing investigations of the molecular substructure of CNS nicotinic receptors and their pharmacology have begun to open up new possibilities for novel CNS therapeutics with nicotinic agents. Exploiting these possibilities will require understanding of the role(s) that these receptor systems play in human cognitive, behavioral, motor, and sensory functioning. Clues from careful studies of human cognition and behavior are beginning to emerge and will provide direction for studies of potentially therapeutic novel nicotinic agents. Modulation of these receptors with the ultimate goal of producing therapeutic benefits is the goal of these investigations and drug development. This paper will review studies from our laboratory and others that point to the importance of CNS nicotinic mechanisms in normal human cognitive and behavioral functioning as well as their role in disease states. In addition, this paper will examine potential clinical applications of nicotine and/or nicotinic agonists in a variety of CNS disorders with particular emphasis on structural brain disease including: movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Tourette's syndrome, cognitive/behavioral disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia, and other more speculative applications. Important results from early therapeutic studies of nicotine and/or nicotinic agonists in these disease states are presented. For example, recent studies with nicotine and novel nicotinic agonists such as ABT-418 by our group

  20. Density functional theory calculation on many-cores hybrid central processing unit-graphic processing unit architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan

    2009-07-21

    We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.

  1. Dynamics of sediments along with their core properties in the Monastir-Bekalta coastline (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Khalil, Nadia; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-10-01

    The authors report on two campaigns of high-resolution samplings along the shores of Monastir Bay in Tunisia: the first being a study of sediment dynamics, grain size and mineral composition in surface sediment, and the second, eight months later, using four sediment cores to study grain-size distribution in bottom sediments. Particle size analysis of superficial sediment shows that the sand in shallow depths is characterized by S-shaped curves, indicating a certain degree of agitation, possible transport by rip currents near the bottom and hyperbolic curves illustrating heterogeneity of sand stock. The sediments settle in a relatively calm environment. Along the bay shore (from 0 to 2 m depth), the bottom is covered by medium sand. Sediment transport is noted along the coast; from north to south and from south to north, caused by longshore drift and a rip current in the middle of the bay. These two currents are generated by wind and swell, especially by north to northeast waves which transport the finest sediment. Particle size analysis of bottom sediment indicates a mean grain size ranging from coarse to very fine sands while vertical distribution of grain size tends to decrease from surface to depth. The increase in particle size of sediment cores may be due to the coexistence of terrigenous inputs along with the sedimentary transit parallel to the coast due to the effect of longshore drift. Mineralogical analysis shows that Monastir's coastal sands and bottom sediment are composed of quartz, calcite, magnesium calcite, aragonite and hematite. The existence of a low energy zone with potential to accumulate pollutants indicates that managerial action is necessary to help preserve Monastir Bay.

  2. ELR chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV into the central nervous system (CNS of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice that survive the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating diseases characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Early following JHMV infection, there is a dynamic expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors that contribute to neuroinflammation by regulating innate and adaptive immune responses as well influencing glial biology. In response to JHMV infection, we have shown that signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 contributes to host defense through recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs to the CNS that enhance permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and facilitating entry of virus-specific T cells into the parenchyma. Further, CXCR2 promotes the protection of oligodendroglia from cytokine-induced apoptosis and restricts the severity of demyelination. This review covers aspects related to the role of CXCR2 in host defense and disease in response to JHMV infection.

  3. Content Validity of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: An International Delphi Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberger, Inge; Cieza, Alarcos; Stucki, Gerold; Stucki, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The "Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)" is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and represents the typical spectrum of problems in functioning of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to validate this ICF Core Set from the perspective of physicians. Physicians experienced in COPD treatment were asked about the patients' problems treated by physicians in patients with COPD in a three-round electronic mail survey using the Delphi technique. Responses were linked to the ICF. Seventy-six physicians in 44 countries gave a total of 1330 responses that were linked to 148 different ICF categories. Nine ICF categories were not represented in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for COPD although at least 75% of the participants have rated them as important. Nineteen concepts were linked to the not yet developed ICF component personal factors and seventeen concepts were not covered by the ICF. The high percentage of ICF categories represented in the ICF Core Set for COPD indicates satisfactory content validity from the perspective of the physicians. However, some issues were raised that were not covered and need to be investigated further.

  4. Anterior hypopituitarism is rare and autoimmune disease is common in adults with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, M J; Orr, C; Moran, C; Behan, L A; Agha, A; Ball, S G; Thompson, C J

    2012-05-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, although many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data have suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood-onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone magnetic resonance imaging scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. Thirty-three percent had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not, therefore, be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Cytokine expression in the rat central nervous system following perinatal Borna disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, C; de la Torre, J C

    1999-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) causes central nervous system (CNS) disease in several vertebrate species, which is frequently accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. In the adult rat, intracerebral (i.c.) BDV infection leads to immunomediated meningoencephalitis. In contrast, i.c. infection of neonates causes a persistent infection in the absence of overt signs of brain inflammation. These rats (designated PTI-NB) display distinct behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms for these virally induced CNS disturbances are unknown. Cytokines play an important role in CNS function, both under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Astrocytes and microglia are the primary resident cells of the central nervous system with the capacity to produce cytokines. Strong reactive astrocytosis is observed in the PTI-NB rat brain. We have used a ribonuclease protection assay to investigate the mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in different brain regions of PTI-NB and control rats. We show here evidence of a chronic upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins-1alpha, and -1beta in the hippocampus and cerebellum of the PTI-NB rat brain. These brain regions exhibited only a very mild and transient immune infiltration. In contrast, in addition to reactive astrocytes, a strong and sustained microgliosis was observed in the PTI-NB rat brains. Our data suggest that CNS resident cells, namely astrocytes and microglia, are the major source of cytokine expression in the PTI-NB rat brain. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  7. Heat Shock Proteins: Old and Novel Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Johannes M; Bugiani, Marianna; Amor, Sandra

    2016-10-31

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are families of molecular chaperones that play important homeostatic functions in the central nervous system (CNS) by preventing protein misfolding, promoting degradation of improperly folded proteins, and protecting against apoptosis and inflammatory damage especially during hyperthermia, hypoxia, or oxidative stress. Under stress conditions, HSPs are upregulated to protect cells from damage that accumulates during ageing as well as pathological conditions. An important, yet frequently overlooked function of some HSPs is their ability to function as extracellular messengers (also termed chaperokines) that modulate immune responses within the CNS. Given the strong association between protein aggregation, innate immune cell activation and neurodegeneration, the expression and roles of HSPs in the CNS is attracting attention in many neurodegenerative disorders including inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, protein folding diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and genetic white matter diseases. This is especially so since several studies show that HSPs act therapeutically by modulating innate immune activation and may thus serve as neuroprotective agents. Here we review the evidence linking HSPs with neurodegenerative disorders in humans and the experimental animal models of these disorders. We discuss the mechanisms by which HSP protect cells, and how the knowledge of their endogenous functions can be exploited to treat disorders of the CNS.

  8. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Jon; Westman, Marie; Kadetoff, Diana; Agréus, Anna Nordenstedt; Le Maître, Erwan; Gillis-Haegerstrand, Caroline; Andersson, Magnus; Khademi, Mohsen; Corr, Maripat; Christianson, Christina A; Delaney, Ada; Yaksh, Tony L; Kosek, Eva; Svensson, Camilla I

    2012-07-31

    During peripheral immune activation caused by an infection or an inflammatory condition, the innate immune response signals to the brain and causes an up-regulation of central nervous system (CNS) cytokine production. Central actions of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-1β, are pivotal for the induction of fever and fatigue. In the present study, the influence of peripheral chronic joint inflammatory disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on CNS inflammation was investigated. Intrathecal interleukin (IL)-1β concentrations were markedly elevated in RA patients compared with controls or with patients with multiple sclerosis. Conversely, the anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-4 were decreased in RA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 levels in the CSF did not differ between patients and controls. Concerning IL-1β, CSF concentrations in RA patients were higher than in serum, indicating local production in the CNS, and there was a positive correlation between CSF IL-1β and fatigue assessments. Next, spinal inflammation in experimental arthritis was investigated. A marked increase of IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor, but not IL-6 mRNA production, in the spinal cord was observed, coinciding with increased arthritis scores in the KBxN serum transfer model. These data provide evidence that peripheral inflammation such as arthritis is associated with an immunological activation in the CNS in both humans and mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic target for centrally affecting conditions as fatigue in chronic inflammatory diseases, for which to date there are no specific treatments.

  9. [MDCT features and anatomic-pathological basis of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yilan; Yang, Zhigang; Li, Hua; Deng, Wen; Li, Yuan; Guo, Yingkun

    2012-02-01

    This paper is to determine relationship between MDCT features and anatomic-pathology of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region. 3 cadavers were cut transversely and another 3 vertically to observe the anatomy of thoracic-abdominal junctional zone. 93 patients with diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional zone were scanned with MDCT. The correlation between MDCT features of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region and the anatomic-pathology of the diseases in this region was evaluated. On cadaver sections, central thoracic-abdominal junctional region was an area between anterior chest wall and dorsal spine in vertical direction. The region was separated into upper and lower sections by diaphragm. The upper section mainly contains heart and pericardium, while the lower contains broad ligament and left lobe of liver. The hiatus of diaphragm are vena caval foramen, esophageal foramen and aortic foramen in anterior-posterior turn. In the present study, 23 patients had portal hypertension, 18 had dissection of aorta, 8 got diseases in inferior vena cava, 9 had lymphoma, 12 got diseases in multiple vertebrae, 7 had lower thoracic esophageal carcinoma accompanied with metastasis in upper abdominal lymph nodes, 9 had carcinoma of abdominal esophagus and/or gastric cardia, 4 had esophageal hiatal hernia and 3 patients had neurogenic tumor in posterior mediastinum and/or superior spatium retroperitoneale. The MDCT features and distribution of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region influence the anatomic-pathology characteristics in this region.

  10. Lead optimization of the VU0486321 series of mGlu1 PAMs. Part 1: SAR of modifications to the central aryl core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Cho, Hyekyung P; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2015-11-15

    This Letter describes the lead optimization of the VU0486321 series of mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). While first generation PAMs from Roche were reported in the late 1990s, little effort has focused on the development of mGlu1 PAMs since. New genetic data linking loss-of-function mutant mGlu1 receptors to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and other neuropsychiatric disorders has rekindled interest in the target, but the ideal in vivo probe, for example, with good PK, brain penetration and low plasma protein binding, for robust target validation has been lacking. Here we describe the first modifications to the central aryl core of the VU0486321 series, where robust SAR was noted. Moreover, structural variants were identified that imparted selectivity (up to >793-fold) versus mGlu4.

  11. Calamitic Smectic A-Polar Smectic APA Transition Observed in Bent Molecules with Large Bent-Angle Central Core of 4,6-Dichlorobenzene and Alkylthio Terminal Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Kang, Sungmin; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji

    2011-07-01

    New homologs of bent molecules with a large bent-angle central core of 4,6-dichloro benzene and an alkylthio terminal tail have been synthesized. Although the corresponding alkoxy-tail homologs show only the calamitic phases because of its large bent angles around 160°, the new homologs with an alkylthio tail exhibit the antiferroelectric smectic APA (SmAPA) banana phase that is transformed on cooling from the calamitic smectic A (SmA) phase. The biaxial polar packing of bent molecules in the SmAPA phase is considered to arise from the hindered rotation around the molecular long axis due to the expansion of the mesophase temperatures to a lower temperature region. This study indicates that the bent molecules, even with a large bent angle, have the potential to form a switchable banana phase with a remarkable decrease in its phase temperature range to around 60 °C.

  12. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMcArthur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for

  13. The safety of ultrasound guided central venous cannulation in patients with liver disease

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    Shweta A Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central venous cannulation (CVC is frequently required during the management of patients with liver disease with deranged conventional coagulation parameters (CCP. Since CVC is known to be associated with vascular complications, it is standard practice to transfuse Fresh-Frozen Plasma or platelets to correct CCP. These CCP may not reflect true coagulopathy in liver disease. Additionally CVC when performed under ultrasound guidance (USG-CVC in itself reduces the incidence of complications. Aim: To assess the safety of USG-CVC and to evaluate the incidence of complications among liver disease patients with coagulopathy. Setting and Design: An audit of all USG-CVCs was performed among adult patients with liver disease in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Data was collected for all the adult patients (18-60 years of either gender suffering from liver disease who had required USG-CVC. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was done to identify possible risk factors for complications. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.1 ± 11.6 years. Mean international normalized ratio was 2.17 ± 1.16 whereas median platelet count was 149.5 (range, 12-683 × 10 9 /L. No major vascular or non-vascular complications were recorded in our patients. Overall incidence of minor vascular complications was 18.6%, of which 13% had significant ooze, 10.3% had hematoma formation and 4.7% had both hematoma and ooze. Arterial puncture and multiple attempts were independent risk factors for superficial hematoma formation whereas low platelet count and presence of ascites were independent risk factors for significant oozing. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance -CVC in liver disease patients with deranged coagulation is a safe and highly successful modality.

  14. A record of the upper Olduvai geomagnetic polarity transition from a sediment core in southern Yokohama City, Pacific side of central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusu, Chie; Okada, Makoto; Nozaki, Atsushi; Majima, Ryuichi; Wada, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic record of the upper Olduvai polarity transition was obtained from a 106.72 m-long sediment core drilled in southern Yokohama City, located on the northern Miura Peninsula, on the Pacific side of central Japan. The core spans the upper part of the Nojima Formation and the lowermost part of the Ofuna Formation, both of which correspond to the middle Kazusa Group (Lower Pleistocene forearc basin fill). The record was reconstructed using discrete specimens taken throughout mudstone and/or sandy mudstone sequences in the Nojima Formation. In this record, the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) fluctuation accompanying the polarity transition was determined to occur between depths of 66.99 and 63.60 m. These depths have been dated at 1784.4 and 1779.9 ka, respectively, and the duration of the polarity transition is estimated to be 4.5 kyr using an age model based on a δ18O record from that core. The VGP paths during the transition do not appear to show any preferred longitudinal bands. However, the VGP positions cluster in five areas: (A) eastern Asia near Japan, (B) the Middle East, (C) eastern North America (North Atlantic), (D) off southern Australasia, and (E) the southern South Atlantic off South Africa. The primary locations of the observed VGP clusters coincide with the areas on the Earth's surface that possess a strong downward flux of the vertical component of the present geomagnetic non-axial dipole field. The relative paleointensity rapidly decreased approximately 1 kyr before the beginning of the polarity transition and gradually recovered to its initial level in 12 kyr.

  15. Neonatal Screening and the Clinical Outcome in Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti S Upadhye

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is a major health burden in India. The objective of the study was to establish a neonatal screening program and to understand the clinical course of children with SCD in central India.Pregnant mothers were screened for sickle hemoglobin using the solubility test. Babies were screened by high performance liquid chromatography if the mother was positive for sickle hemoglobin. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis. They received early prophylactic treatment and vaccination. Of 2134 newborns screened, 104 were sickle homozygous (SS, seven had sickle β-thalassemia (S-β thal and 978 were sickle heterozygous (AS. The other hemoglobin abnormalities detected included HbS-δβ thalassemia-1, HbSD disease-2, HbE traits-5, β-thalassemia traits-4, alpha chain variants-3 and HbH disease-1.These babies were followed up regularly for hematological and clinical evaluation. Pain, severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and acute febrile illness were the major complications with 59.7, 45.1 and 42.6 cases per 100 person years. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF levels were inversely associated with vaso-oclussive crisis (VOC and severe anemia while presence of alpha thalassemia increased the rate of painful events and sepsis. Six early deaths occurred among the SS babies.A systematic follow up of this first newborn SCD cohort in central India showed that 47% of babies presented within 1 year of age. In spite of the presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype many babies had severe manifestations.

  16. Response properties of neurons in the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Hermann; Mazer, James A; von Campenhausen, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) is particularly important for the processing of interaural time differences (ITDs). In the barn owl, neuronal best frequencies in a subnucleus of the ICC, the ICCcore, span the animal's entire hearing range (approximately equal to 200-10 000 Hz). This means that low-frequency ITD-sensitive ICCcore neurons in the owl can be directly compared to ITD-sensitive mammalian ICC neurons with similar best frequencies as well as to the high-frequency ITD-sensitive neurons usually studied in owls. This report represents a first attempt to systematically describe important physiological properties of ICCcore neurons in the barn owl, with particular attention to the low-frequency region (owl's physiological ITD range. ITD tuning widths were inversely correlated with neuronal best frequency. None of the ICCcore neurons studied were sensitive to interaural level differences. Monaural inputs to ICCcore cells were typically binaurally balanced, i.e. they exhibited similar response thresholds, dynamic ranges, slopes and saturation levels, for both left and right ear monaural stimulation.

  17. Anticarbohydrate antibodies as markers of inflammatory bowel disease in a Central European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malickova, Karin; Lakatos, Peter L; Bortlik, Martin; Komarek, Viktor; Janatkova, Ivana; Lukas, Milan

    2010-02-01

    The study discusses the role of antichitobioside carbohydrate antibody (ACCA), antilaminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and antimannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA) in Central European patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Twohundred and seventy-two serum samples were used - 116 Crohn's disease (CD), 84 ulcerative colitis, and 72 healthy control samples. All samples were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the following four anticarbohydrate assays: ACCA, ALCA, AMCA, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (gASCA). gASCA antibodies showed the highest sensitivity (67%) for a CD diagnosis, followed by AMCA (31%), ACCA (27%), and ALCA (25%). Positivity of at least one of the four assays increased the overall sensitivity of antibody testing in CD up to 85.5%. Mean serum gASCA levels were significantly higher in CD patients who were younger at diagnosis and had a longer disease duration before blood sampling (PACCA, and ALCA) antibodies and CD location, behavior, age at onset, and disease duration was found; however, that sample size of some of our subgroups was probably too small to make firm conclusions on associations with all CD phenotypes. None of the assessed anticarbohydrate assays was predictive of colonic CD in patients in whom the distinction between CD and ulcerative colitis is not obvious using routine diagnostic methods. There was no relationship between the presence or concentration of anticarbohydrate antibodies and the inflammation measured by C-reactive protein levels. The use of a panel of anticarbohydrate antibodies may provide additional help in distinguishing IBD from non-IBD disease patterns. The addition of AMCA, ALCA, and ACCA assays as IBD serology markers improves the overall sensitivity of immunological examinations in IBD; however, anticarbohydrate assays are not helpful for predicting CD behavior.

  18. The Prevalence of Chagas Heart Disease in a Central Bolivian Community Endemic for Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jessica E.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the incidence of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections has decreased significantly in endemic regions in the Americas, medical professionals continue to encounter a high burden of resulting Chagas disease among infected adults. The current prevalence of Chagas heart disease in a community setting is not known; nor is it known how recent insecticide vector control measures may have impacted the progression of cardiac disease in an infected population. Objectives and Methods Nested within a community serosurvey in rural and periurban communities in central Bolivia, we performed a cross-sectional cardiac substudy to evaluate adults for historical, clinical, and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. All adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old with T. cruzi infection and those with a clinical history, physical exam, or ECG consistent with cardiac abnormalities were also scheduled for echocardiography. Results and conclusions Of the 604 cardiac substudy participants with definitive serology results, 183 were seropositive for infection with T. cruzi (30.3%). Participants who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were more likely to have conduction system defects (1.6% versus 0 for complete right bundle branch block and 10.4% versus 1.9% for any bundle branch block; p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bradycardia among seropositive versus seronegative participants. Echocardiogram findings were not consistent with a high burden of Chagas cardiomyopathy: valvulopathies were the most common abnormality, and few participants were found to have low ejection fraction or left ventricular dilatation. No participants had significant heart failure. Though almost one third of adults in the community were seropositive for T. cruzi infection, few had evidence of Chagas heart disease. PMID:26407509

  19. Sedimentology of the Upper Maastrichtian chalk, Danish Central Graben. M-10X (Dan Field), E-5X (Tyra SE Field) facies and core logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.R.

    2004-07-01

    Based on detailed logs presented here at 1:10, the cored Upper Maastrichtian succession of the M-10X (Dan Field) and E-5X (Tyra SE Field) wells in the southern Danish Central Graben is subdivided into eight lithofacies and five ichnofabrics. The dominant bioturbated or laminated chalk mudstones and subordinate sparse skeletal wackestones are largely the result of pelagic carbonate production, sedimented by suspension settling and small volume, low density turbidity currents. Evidence of winnowing/reduced sedimentation rates is yielded by rare incipient hardgrounds; a well-developed mature hardground profile is developed at the Cretaceous-Danian boundary (the ''Maastrichtian hardground''). Rare marl laminae are recorded and a discrete marly chalk bed associated with an interval of finegrained skeletal chalk wackestones near the top of the Maastrichtian is recognised in both wells. Comparison between the two wells demonstrates that the m-scale laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles described from the Dan Field area are both stratigraphically and areally restricted; this has implications for both cyclostratigraphic correlation and reconstruction of depositional environments and Late Maastrichtian evolution of the Danish Central Graben. (au)

  20. Demonstration of aluminum in amyloid fibers in the cores of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Sakae; Kakimi, Shigeo; Ohsaki, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Akira

    2009-11-01

    Aluminum (Al) exposure has been reported to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer type), although the role of Al in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. We examined the presence of Al in the Alzheimer's brain using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM-EDX). TEM-EDX analysis allows simultaneous imaging of subcellular structures with high spatial resolution and analysis of small quantities of elements contained in the same subcellular structures. We identified senile plaques by observation using TEM and detected Al in amyloid fibers in the cores of senile plaques located in the hippocampus and the temporal lobe by EDX. Phosphorus and calcium were also present in the amyloid fibers. No Al could be detected in the extracellular space in senile plaques or in the cytoplasm of nerve cells. In this study, we demonstrated colocalization of Al and beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides in amyloid fibers in the cores of senile plaques. The results support the following possibilities in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease: Al could be involved in the aggregation of Abeta peptides to form toxic fibrils; Al might induce Abeta peptides into the beta-sheet structure; and Al might facilitate iron-mediated oxidative reactions, which cause severe damage to brain tissues.

  1. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  2. MicroRNAs: Key Regulators in the Central Nervous System and Their Implication in Neurological Diseases

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    Dan-Dan Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, well-conserved noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They have been demonstrated to regulate a lot of biological pathways and cellular functions. Many miRNAs are dynamically regulated during central nervous system (CNS development and are spatially expressed in adult brain indicating their essential roles in neural development and function. In addition, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that dysfunction of miRNAs contributes to neurological diseases. These observations, together with their gene regulation property, implicated miRNAs to be the key regulators in the complex genetic network of the CNS. In this review, we first focus on the ways through which miRNAs exert the regulatory function and how miRNAs are regulated in the CNS. We then summarize recent findings that highlight the versatile roles of miRNAs in normal CNS physiology and their association with several types of neurological diseases. Subsequently we discuss the limitations of miRNAs research based on current studies as well as the potential therapeutic applications and challenges of miRNAs in neurological disorders. We endeavor to provide an updated description of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in normal CNS functions and pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  3. MicroRNAs: Key Regulators in the Central Nervous System and Their Implication in Neurological Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan-Dan; Li, Lu; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2016-05-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, well-conserved noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They have been demonstrated to regulate a lot of biological pathways and cellular functions. Many miRNAs are dynamically regulated during central nervous system (CNS) development and are spatially expressed in adult brain indicating their essential roles in neural development and function. In addition, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that dysfunction of miRNAs contributes to neurological diseases. These observations, together with their gene regulation property, implicated miRNAs to be the key regulators in the complex genetic network of the CNS. In this review, we first focus on the ways through which miRNAs exert the regulatory function and how miRNAs are regulated in the CNS. We then summarize recent findings that highlight the versatile roles of miRNAs in normal CNS physiology and their association with several types of neurological diseases. Subsequently we discuss the limitations of miRNAs research based on current studies as well as the potential therapeutic applications and challenges of miRNAs in neurological disorders. We endeavor to provide an updated description of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in normal CNS functions and pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  4. Inflammatory Demyelinating Central Nervous System Diseases in Childhood: Clinical and Paraclinical Profiles in 133 Patients

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    Derya Kaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a retrospective review of patients with acquired demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system, 133 patients (5.6% whose diseases started in childhood, were selected from 2369 patients, who had medical records in the Neurology Department of Dokuz Eylul University. Out of 133, 98 had relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, 21 had secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, 8 had clinically isolated syndrome, 3 had neuromyelitis optica, 2 had Marburg disease, and 1 had radiologically isolated syndrome. In 55 patients (41.3%, disease onset was before age 16. Polysymptomatic presentation (22.6% was the most common initial feature. The EDSS scores ranged from 0 to 9 with a median of 2.0 ( for 126 patients. MRI records of 111 patients were obtained. 97 patients had clinically definite multiple sclerosis. 11 MS patients (11.3% did not initially present the diagnostic MRI features. All of the remaining multiple sclerosis patients fulfilled Barkhof-Tintore criteria (100% and 88.7% fulfilled KIDMUS criteria. Cranial MRI of NMO patients was normal. Our findings demonstrate some important clinical and paraclinical features that can help the literature on acquired demyelinating disorders of childhood by utilizing data from Western Turkey.

  5. [Optimization of registry of deaths from chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities in Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Báez, Jorge Lara; Peña, Rodolfo; Luna, Patricia Lorena Ruiz; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Several Central American countries are seeing continued growth in the number of deaths from chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) among farm workers and there is underreporting. This report presents the results of a consensus process coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH). This consensus seeks to increase the probability of detecting and recording deaths from these causes. There has been recognition of the negative impact of the lack of a standardized instrument and the lack of training in the medical profession for adequate registration of the cause or causes of death. As a result of the consensus, the following has been proposed: temporarily use a code from the Codes for Special Purposes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10); continue to promote use of the WHO international standardized instrument for recording causes and preceding events related to death; increase training of physicians responsible for filling out death certificates; take action to increase the coverage and quality of information on mortality; and create a decision tree to facilitate selection of CKDnT as a specific cause of death, while presenting the role that different regional and subregional mechanisms in the Region of the Americas should play in order to improve CKD and CKDnT mortality records.

  6. A Storm-by-Storm Analysis of Alpine and Regional Precipitation Dynamics at the Mount Hunter Ice Core Site, Denali National Park, Central Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, P. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Winski, D.

    2014-12-01

    In May-June 2013, an NSF-funded team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two 1000-year ice cores to bedrock from the summit plateau of Mount Hunter in Denali National Park, Alaska (62.940291, -151.087616, 3912 m). The snow accumulation record from these ice cores will provide key insight into late Holocene precipitation variability in central Alaska, and compliment existing precipitation paleorecords from the Mt. Logan and Eclipse ice cores in coastal SE Alaska. However, correct interpretation of the Mt. Hunter accumulation record requires an understanding of the relationships between regional meteorological events and micrometeorological conditions at the Mt. Hunter ice core collection site. Here we analyze a three-month window of snow accumulation and meteorological conditions recorded by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) at the Mt. Hunter site during the summer of 2013. Snow accumulation events are identified in the Mt. Hunter AWS dataset, and compared on a storm-by-storm basis to AWS data collected from the adjacent Kahiltna glacier 2000 m lower in elevation, and to regional National Weather Service (NWS) station data. We also evaluate the synoptic conditions associated with each Mt. Hunter accumulation event using NWS surface maps, NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data, and the NOAA HYSPLIT back trajectory model. We categorize each Mt. Hunter accumulation event as pure snow accumulation, drifting, or blowing snow events based on snow accumulation, wind speed and temperature data using the method of Knuth et al (2009). We analyze the frequency and duration of events within each accumulation regime, in addition to the overall contribution of each event to the snowpack. Preliminary findings indicate that a majority of Mt. Hunter accumulation events are of pure accumulation nature (55.5%) whereas drifting (28.6%) and blowing (15.4%) snow events play a secondary role. Our results will characterize the local accumulation dynamics on

  7. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  8. Normal-Weight Central Obesity and Mortality Risk in Older Adults With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saurabh; Batsis, John A; Coutinho, Thais; Somers, Virend K; Hodge, David O; Carter, Rickey E; Sochor, Ondrej; Kragelund, Charlotte; Kanaya, Alka M; Zeller, Marianne; Park, Jong-Seon; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and central obesity and mortality in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified 7057 patients 65 years or older from 5 cohort studies assessing mortality risk using either waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) in patients with CAD from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2008. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were defined using standard BMI cutoffs. High WHR was defined as 0.85 or more for women and 0.90 or more for men. High WC was defined as 88 cm or more for women and 102 cm or more for men. Separate models examined WC or WHR in combination with BMI (6 categories each) as the primary predictor (referent = normal BMI and normal WC or WHR). Cox proportional hazards models investigated the relationship between these obesity categories and mortality. Patients' mean age was 73.0±6.0 years (3741 [53%] women). The median censor time was 7.1 years. A normal BMI with central obesity (high WHR or high WC) demonstrated highest mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.46; HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.50, respectively). High WHR was also predictive of mortality in the overall (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.93-2.38) as well as in the sex-specific cohort. In the overall cohort, high WC was not predictive of mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12); however, it predicted higher risk in men (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.24). In older adults with CAD, normal-weight central obesity defined using either WHR or WC is associated with high mortality risk, highlighting a need to combine measures in adiposity-related risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Central Nervous System Development and Associated Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ana Maria; Moreno-Ramos, Oscar Andrés; Haider, Neena B.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily is composed of a wide range of receptors involved in a myriad of important biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and maintenance. Regulation of such wide variety of functions requires a complex system of gene regulation that includes interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complex, and the proper recognition of ligands. NHRs are able to coordinate the expression of genes in numerous pathways simultaneously. This review focuses on the role of nuclear receptors in the central nervous system and, in particular, their role in regulating the proper development and function of the brain and the eye. In addition, the review highlights the impact of mutations in NHRs on a spectrum of human diseases from autism to retinal degeneration. PMID:27168725

  10. A framework for integrating heterogeneous clinical data for a disease area into a central data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmen, Christian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Kohl, Christian D; Firnkorn, Daniel; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Structured collection of clinical facts is a common approach in clinical research. Especially in the analysis of rare diseases it is often necessary to aggregate study data from several sites in order to achieve a statistically significant cohort size. In this paper we describe a framework how to approach an integration of heterogeneous clinical data into a central register. This enables site-spanning queries for the occurrence of specific clinical facts and thus supports clinical research. The framework consists of three sequential steps, starting from a formal data harmonization process, to the data transformation methods and finally the integration into a proper data warehouse. We implemented reusable software templates that are based on our best practices in several projects in integrating heterogeneous clinical data. Our methods potentially increase the efficiency and quality for future data integration projects by reducing the implementation effort as well as the project management effort by usage of our approaches as a guideline.

  11. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

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    Anil Kumar Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erdheim Chester disease (ECD is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT, 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement.

  12. IgG-index predicts neurological morbidity in patients with infectious central nervous system diseases

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    Deisenhammer Florian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognosis assessment of patients with infectious and neoplastic disorders of the central nervous system (CNS may still pose a challenge. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the prognostic value of basic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters in patients with bacterial meningitis, viral meningoencephalitis and leptomeningeal metastases were evaluated. Methods White blood cell count, CSF/serum glucose ratio, protein, CSF/serum albumin quotient and Immunoglobulin indices for IgG, IgA and IgM were analyzed in 90 patients with bacterial meningitis, 117 patients with viral meningoencephalitis and 36 patients with leptomeningeal metastases in a total of 480 CSF samples. Results In the initial spinal tap, the IgG-index was the only independent predictor for unfavorable outcome (GOS Conclusion The present study suggests that in infectious CNS diseases an elevated IgG-Index might be an additional marker for the early identification of patients at risk for neurological morbidity.

  13. [Immunology in medical practice. XIV. Central nervous system complications in systemic autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markusse, H M; van den Bent, M J; Vecht, C J

    1998-03-07

    Complications of the central nervous system (CNS) are common in systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome. Specific diagnostic tests are lacking and early intervention with immunosuppressive therapy is frequently necessary. Therefore knowledge of these CNS complications is essential for early diagnosis and treatment. Residual cognitive effects were observed in some but not in all tests after prolonged heavy cannabis use. The effects were mostly mild. The relationship of cannabis use, psychotic effects and schizophrenia was unclear; the cannabis conceivably gave relief, but it also appeared that cannabis caused schizophrenia in young people and (or) enhanced the symptoms, especially in young people poorly able to cope with stress or in whom the antipsychotic therapy was unsuccessful.

  14. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed.

  15. Alterations of cortical excitability and central motor conduction time in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Prashanth, D K; Netravathi, M; Nagaraju, B C; Pal, Pramod Kr

    2013-10-11

    Wilson's disease (WD) leads to widespread structural alterations of central nervous system and our objectives were to determine the cortical excitability changes in WD by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Thirteen patients with WD, diagnosed by the presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring and biochemical tests, were studied. TMS was performed using a figure-of-eight coil attached to Magstim 200 stimulator. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded from right first dorsal interosseous at rest. Resting motor threshold (RMT) was determined using standard techniques and central motor conduction time (CMCT) by 'F' wave method. Comparison was made with control data of our laboratory. Dysarthria was the presenting symptom in 5 patients (38.5%) and chorea, tremors, dystonia and abnormal gait in 2 patients each (15.4%). RMT was recordable in 10 patients and not recordable in 3. Compared to controls, patients in whom RMT was recordable, had significantly higher mean RMT (80.9 ± 14.8 vs. 41.1 ± 7, pRMT, MEP could be obtained with active contraction. CMCT in these 2 patients was also prolonged. Patients with WD have reduced cortical excitability and prolonged CMCT which may be due to the intracortical presynaptic motor dysfunction.

  16. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

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    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI, Vom, Nigeria between 2009 - 2014. A total of 306 turkeys from backyard flocks were presented to the Veterinary clinics between 2009-2014 with various health complaints by backyard flock owners. Viral (Pox and Newcastle disease and parasitic (Helminthosis, Coccidiosis and Ectoparasitism diseases were mostly diagnosed. During the same period, 42 samples comprising 25 carcasses and 17 cloacal swabs were submitted for post mortem examination, virus isolation and microbiological test. Colisepticaemia, colibacillosis, pullorum disease, airsacculitis and infectious sinusitis are the main diseases diagnosed at post-mortem examination and microbiological test, while none of the samples were positive for influenza by virus isolation. It was observed that turkey rearing was small-scaled and kept as backyard poultry in North-central Nigeria. It can therefore be concluded from this study that turkeys raised in north-central city of Jos are affected by diseases ranging from viral to bacterial and parasitic, which can adversely affect productivity. This can therefore be improved upon by controlling the diseases mostly affecting turkeys.

  17. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies and central nervous system involvement in Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Romy Christmann; Lage, Laís; Goldesntein-Schainberg, Cláudia; Macedo, André Regis; Carrasco, Solange; Gonçalves, Célio Roberto

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have detected the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). However, no real evidence exists whether these antibodies exert any influence on clinical presentation and/or activity of this disease. To determine the frequency of AECA in patients with BD and analyze possible clinical associations. 50 patients with BD who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were selected. Thirty-seven patients were females, and 13 were males; the mean age was 44 +/- 9 years with a mean follow-up time of 10 +/- 7.5 years. AECA were assayed by ELISA using ECV-304 cells as the antigenic substrate. The prevalence of AECA was determined, and their possible relationships with present and past clinical features were investigated. AECA were detected in the sera of 38% of the patients (IgG in 13, IgM in four, and IgG plus IgM in two). An association was observed between AECA and a previous history of central nervous system involvement (OR= 5.4, p= 0.03). This association was more evident for IgG-AECA (OR= 6.0, p= 0.02). A trend of an increased risk of aneurysms was also observed in patients with IgG-AECA (OR= 2.58, p= 0.77). None of the other clinical characteristics showed a relevant association with these antibodies. Our data suggest that IgG-AECA may be a marker of more severe lesions in patients with BD based on the higher frequency of previous central nervous system manifestations in patients who presently display circulating AECA.

  18. T2 hyperintense signal of the central tegmental tracts in children: disease or normal maturational process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Albesa, Sergio; Poretti, Andrea; Honnef, Dagmar; Aktas, Meral; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Häusler, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Cerebral central tegmental tract hyperintense signal on T2-weighted MRI (CTTH) is known from various clinical conditions, including children treated with vigabatrin (VGB) for West syndrome (WS), with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and metabolic diseases. Considering this clinical diversity, we hypothesized that CTTH might primarily mirror a physiologic process. We retrospectively analysed brain MRI data of the central tegmental tracts deriving from four different groups: (1) children with WS and VGB therapy (WS+VGB+), (2) children with WS but without VGB therapy (WS+VGB-), (3) children with different neurological diseases (WS-VGB-; maximum age 15 years), and (4) controls younger than 25 months of age (this age includes the peak age of WS). CTTH were detected in 4/17 WS+VGB+ children (24%), 4/34 WS+VGB- children (12%), 18/296 WS-VGB- children (6%), and 8/112 controls (7%). Independently from the underlying diagnosis, CTTH showed a peak age during early infancy and were not found before 4 months and after 7 years of life. The rate of CTTH among WS children ± VGB therapy was similar so that VGB therapy seems of minor etiological impact. However, comparison of WS patients younger than 25 months of age (CTTH present in 7/40) with age-matched controls (CTTH present in 8/112) revealed that CTTH tend to be more frequent among WS patients in general. Our study suggests that CTTH represents a physiological maturation-related process. The high prevalence of CTTH among patients with WS indicates that this physiological process may be modified by additional endo- or exogeneous factors.

  19. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's Disease: case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Renata Lazari; Zaconeta, Carlos Moreno; Margotto, Paulo Roberto; Cardoso, Maria Teresinha de Oliveira; França, Evely Mirella Santos; Medina, Cristina Touguinha Neves; Canó, Talyta Matos; de Faria, Aline Saliba

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To report the case of a newborn with recurrent episodes of apnea, diagnosed with Congenital Central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) associated with Hirschsprung's disease (HD), configuring Haddad syndrome. Case description: Third child born at full-term to a non-consanguineous couple through normal delivery without complications, with appropriate weight and length for gestational age. Soon after birth he started to show bradypnea, bradycardia and cyanosis, being submitted to tracheal intubation and started empiric antibiotic therapy for suspected early neonatal sepsis. During hospitalization in the NICU, he showed difficulty to undergo extubation due to episodes of desaturation during sleep and wakefulness. He had recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, abdominal distension, leukocytosis, increase in C-reactive protein levels, with negative blood cultures and suspected inborn error of metabolism. At 2 months of age he was diagnosed with long-segment Hirschsprung's disease and was submitted to segment resection and colostomy through Hartmann's procedure. A genetic research was performed by polymerase chain reaction for CCHS screening, which showed the mutated allele of PHOX2B gene, confirming the diagnosis. Comments: This is a rare genetic, autosomal dominant disease, caused by mutation in PHOX2B gene, located in chromosome band 4p12, which results in autonomic nervous system dysfunction. CCHS can also occur with Hirschsprung's disease and tumors derived from the neural crest. There is a correlation between phenotype and genotype, as well as high intrafamilial phenotypic variability. In the neonatal period it can simulate cases of sepsis and inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:26838603

  20. Risk for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmunis, G A; Zicker, F; Pinheiro, F; Brandling-Bennett, D

    1998-01-01

    We report the potential risk for an infectious disease through tainted transfusion in 10 countries of South and Central America in 1993 and in two countries of South America in 1994, as well as the cost of reagents as partial estimation of screening costs. Of the 12 countries included in the study, nine screened all donors for HIV; three screened all donors for hepatitis B virus (HBV); two screened all donors for Trypanosoma cruzi; none screened all donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV); and six screened some donors for syphilis. Estimates of the risk of acquiring HIV through blood transfusion were much lower than for acquiring HBV, HCV, or T. cruzi because of significantly higher screening and lower prevalence.rates for HIV. An index of infectious disease spread through blood transfusion was calculated for each country. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia (233 infections per 10,000 transfusions); in five other countries, it was 68 to 103 infections per 10,000. The risks were lower in Honduras (nine per 10,000), Ecuador (16 per 10,000), and Paraguay (19 per 10,000). While the real number of potentially infected units or infected persons is probably lower than our estimates because of false positives and already infected recipients, the data reinforce the need for an information system to assess the level of screening for infectious diseases in the blood supply. Since this information was collected, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Venezuela have made HCV screening mandatory; serologic testing for HCV has increased in those countries, as well as in El Salvador and Honduras. T. cruzi screening is now mandatory in Colombia, and the percentage of screened donors increased not only in Colombia, but also in Ecuador, El Salvador, and Paraguay. Laws to regulate blood transfusion practices have been enacted in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. However, donor screening still needs to improve for one or more diseases in most countries.

  1. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  2. Is Dysregulation of the HPA-Axis a Core Pathophysiology Mediating Co-Morbid Depression in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Pang, Terence Y

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of prodromal manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). These affective symptoms may be observed many years before the core diagnostic symptoms of the neurological condition. It is becoming more apparent that depression is a significant modifying factor of the trajectory of disease progression and even treatment outcomes. It is therefore crucial that we understand the potential pathophysiologies related to the primary condition, which could contribute to the development of depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is a key neuroendocrine signaling system involved in physiological homeostasis and stress response. Disturbances of this system lead to severe hormonal imbalances, and the majority of such patients also present with behavioral deficits and/or mood disorders. Dysregulation of the HPA-axis is also strongly implicated in the pathology of major depressive disorder. Consistent with this, antidepressant drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to alter HPA-axis activity. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding HPA-axis pathology in Alzheimer's, PD and HD, differentiating between prodromal and later stages of disease progression when evidence is available. Both clinical and preclinical evidence will be examined, but we highlight animal model studies as being particularly useful for uncovering novel mechanisms of pathology related to co-morbid mood disorders. Finally, we purpose utilizing the preclinical evidence to better inform prospective, intervention studies.

  3. IgG4-Related Disease Presenting as Recurrent Mastoiditis With Central Nervous System Involvement

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    April L. Barnado MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented with right ear fullness and otorrhea. She was initially diagnosed with mastoiditis that was not responsive to multiple courses of antibiotics and steroids. She was then diagnosed with refractory inflammatory pseudotumor, and subsequent treatments included several mastoidectomies, further steroids, and radiation therapy. The patient went on to develop mastoiditis on the contralateral side as well as central nervous system involvement with headaches and right-sided facial paresthesias. Reexamination of the mastoid tissue revealed a significantly increased number of IgG4-positive cells, suggesting a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. The patient improved clinically and radiographically with rituximab and was able to taper off azathioprine and prednisone. IgG4-related disease should be considered in patients with otologic symptoms and be on the differential diagnosis in patients with inflammatory pseudotumor. Staining for IgG and IgG4 is essential to ensure a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Central insulin dysregulation and energy dyshomeostasis in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Ramon; Tran, An; Ishimwe, Egide; Denner, Larry; Dave, Nikhil; Oddo, Salvatore; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. While the causes of AD are not known, several risk factors have been identified. Among these, type two diabetes (T2D), a chronic metabolic disease, is one of the most prevalent risk factors for AD. Insulin resistance, which is associated with T2D, is defined as diminished or absent insulin signaling and is reflected by peripheral blood hyperglycemia and impaired glucose clearance. In this study, we used complementary approaches to probe for peripheral insulin resistance, central nervous system (CNS) insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis in Tg2576 and 3xTg-AD mice, two widely used animal models of AD. We report that CNS insulin signaling abnormalities are evident months before peripheral insulin resistance. In addition, we find that brain energy metabolism is differentially altered in both mouse models, with 3xTg-AD mice showing more extensive changes. Collectively, our data suggest that early AD may reflect engagement of different signaling networks that influence CNS metabolism, which in turn may alter peripheral insulin signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  6. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT diseases in Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. In Kenya, upper respiratory infections are among the most common infections encountered in outpatient facilities. Some of these infections are becoming difficult to control because some of the causing microorganisms have acquired antibiotic resistance and hence the need to develop new drugs with higher efficacy. Ethnobotanical studies have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. In Kenya the majority of local people are turning to herbal remedies for primary health care needs. In most cases the sources of these remedies are undocumented and the knowledge about them passed orally form generation to generation, hence under threat of disappearing with current rates of modernisation. This study explored the traditional remedies used in managing various ENT diseases in seven districts of the Central Province of Kenya. The most common ENT conditions managed using traditional therapies include: common cold, cough, tonsillitis, otitis-media, chest pains and asthma. The results indicate that 67 species belonging to 36 plant families were utilized in this region. These plants were of varying habits; herbs (37.3%, shrubs (34.4%, trees (25.4% as well as some grasses and sedges (3%. The traditional preparations were found to be made mainly from leaves (49%, roots (20.5% and barks (12.5%. For each of the ENT conditions multiple species are utilized mainly as individual preparations but occasionally as polyherbal concoctions. In the case of common cold for example, 30 different species are used. Plants reported in this survey are important candidates for antimicrobial tests against ENT disease causing micro-organisms, especially those with antibiotic resistance.

  7. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases in Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Grace N; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2006-12-27

    Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. In Kenya, upper respiratory infections are among the most common infections encountered in outpatient facilities. Some of these infections are becoming difficult to control because some of the causing microorganisms have acquired antibiotic resistance and hence the need to develop new drugs with higher efficacy. Ethnobotanical studies have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. In Kenya the majority of local people are turning to herbal remedies for primary health care needs. In most cases the sources of these remedies are undocumented and the knowledge about them passed orally form generation to generation, hence under threat of disappearing with current rates of modernisation. This study explored the traditional remedies used in managing various ENT diseases in seven districts of the Central Province of Kenya. The most common ENT conditions managed using traditional therapies include: common cold, cough, tonsillitis, otitis-media, chest pains and asthma. The results indicate that 67 species belonging to 36 plant families were utilized in this region. These plants were of varying habits; herbs (37.3%), shrubs (34.4%), trees (25.4%) as well as some grasses and sedges (3%). The traditional preparations were found to be made mainly from leaves (49%), roots (20.5%) and barks (12.5%). For each of the ENT conditions multiple species are utilized mainly as individual preparations but occasionally as polyherbal concoctions. In the case of common cold for example, 30 different species are used. Plants reported in this survey are important candidates for antimicrobial tests against ENT disease causing micro-organisms, especially those with antibiotic resistance.

  8. Toxicity of inhaled particulate matter on the central nervous system: neuroinflammation, neuropsychological effects and neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xiong, Lilin; Tang, Meng

    2017-03-16

    Particulate matter (PM) combined with meteorological factors cause the haze, which brings inconvenience to people's daily life and deeply endanger people's health. Accumulating literature, to date, reported that PM are closely related to cardiopulmonary disease. Outpatient visits and admissions as a result of asthma and heart attacks gradually increase with an elevated concentration of PM. Owing to its special physicochemical property, the brain could be a potential target beyond the cardiopulmonary system. Possible routes of PM to the brain via a direct route or stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported in several documents concerning toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in rodents. Recent studies have demonstrated that PM have implications in oxidative stress, inflammation, dysfunction of cellular organelles, as well as the disturbance of protein homeostasis, promoting neuron loss and exaggerating the burden of central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, the smallest particles (nano-sized particles), which were involved in inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), microglial activation and neuron loss, may accelerate the process of the neurodevelopmental disorder and neurodegenerative disease. Potential or other undiscovered mechanisms are not mutually exclusive but complementary aspects of each other. Epidemiology studies have shown that exposure to PM could bring about neurotoxicity and play a significant role in the etiology of CNS disease, which has been gradually corroborated by in vivo and in vitro studies. This review highlights research advances on the health effects of PM with an emphasis on neurotoxicity. With the hope of enhancing awareness in the public and calling for prevention and protective measures, it is a critical topic that requires proceeding exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The central role of the non alcoholic fatty liver disease in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurjui, Daniela Maria; Niţă, Otilia; Graur, Lidia Iuliana; Mihalache, Laura; Popescu, Dana Stefana; Graur, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of liver disease from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Most NAFLD patients are hyperinsulinaemic and more insulin resistant compared with nonsteatotic healthy subjects, and there is a near universal association between NAFLD and insulinresistance (IR) irrespective of obesity. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is highly prevalent in the general adult population (approximatively 22%) and it carries an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologic considerations, clinical associations, and laboratory investigations support that IR and hyperinsulinaemia have a central role in pathogenesis of both MS and NAFLD. The fatty liver is resistant to the action of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production, which results in hyperglycaemia and, further, in hyperinsulinemia. The MS is associated with maldistribution of body fat, increased free fatty acids (FFAs) and IR, leading to type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia. Visceral fat is an important clinical marker of metabolic cardiovascular risk and a marker of IR in multiple tissues, independent of body mass index (BMI). NAFLD and atherosclerosis share common molecular mediators and NAFLD itself might play an early role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. These data suggest that NAFLD should be considered part of a multi-organ system derangement in insulin sensitivity, and help explain why NAFLD is so closely linked with diabetes, MS and is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease. NAFLD may be the hepatic manifestation of the MS and raises the possibility that it may play an early role in the etiology of MS.

  10. Inflammatory bowel diseases and the general practitioner’s role in a region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sossai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Sossai1,2, Fabio Filippetti3, Ali Ahmad Muselmani4, Giambattista Catalini41Department of Medicine, “Enrico Mattei” Hospital, Viale Europa, I-62024 Matelica, Italy; 2Center of Clinical Research, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Camerino, Via M Scalzino, 3, I-62032 Camerino, Italy; 3Epidemiological Unit, Marche Region, Via Gentile da Fabriano, 3, I-60125 Ancona, Italy; 4Department of Surgery, General Hospital, Via Caselle, I-62032 Camerino, ItalyBackground: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are a serious burden for both patients and health care providers because of the young age at which they occur and their chronic course.Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess how general practitioners (GPs in the area of Camerino-Matelica, Marche (Central Italy manage their patients with IBD.Materials and methods: Before providing an educational course about IBD to GPs, we administered a simple questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions, allowing for only one possible answer, to GPs in the target area. After the educational course we administered a satisfaction questionnaire and evaluated the hospitalization rates for IBD in the catchment area in the year following the course.Results: In our GP sample, 71.8% indicated that they needed better instruction regarding IBD to enable them to diagnose the conditions given the difficulties posed by nonspecific symptoms and the need to use invasive diagnostic methods such as colonoscopy. Early results after the educational course for GPs indicate a reduced rate of hospitalization for IBD but these data must be confirmed by future research.Conclusions: If specialists and GPs managed IBD patients more carefully, their patients would probably suffer from fewer relapses and would have a better quality of life, which would be likely to mean considerable cost savings for the public health care system and society in general.Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease

  11. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries.

  12. Profile of central and effector memory T cells in the progression of chronic human chagas disease.

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    Jacqueline Araújo Fiuza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas disease presents several different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe cardiac and/or digestive clinical forms. Several studies have demonstrated that immunoregulatory mechanisms are important processes for the control of the intense immune activity observed in the chronic phase. T cells play a critical role in parasite specific and non-specific immune response elicited by the host against Trypanosoma cruzi. Specifically, memory T cells, which are basically classified as central and effector memory cells, might have a distinct migratory activity, role and function during the human Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the hypothesis that the disease severity in humans is correlated to the quality of immune responses against T. cruzi, we evaluated the memory profile of peripheral CD4(+ and CD8(+ T lymphocytes as well as its cytokine secretion before and after in vitro antigenic stimulation. We evaluated cellular response from non-infected individuals (NI, patients with indeterminate (IND or cardiac (CARD clinical forms of Chagas disease. The expression of CD45RA, CD45RO and CCR7 surface molecules was determined on CD4(+ and CD8(+ T lymphocytes; the pattern of intracellular cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-10 synthesized by naive and memory cells was determined by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that IND and CARD patients have relatively lower percentages of naive (CD45RA(high CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. However, statistical analysis of ex-vivo profiles of CD4(+ T cells showed that IND have lower percentage of CD45RA(high in relation to non-infected individuals, but not in relation to CARD. Elevated percentages of memory (CD45RO(high CD4(+ T cells were also demonstrated in infected individuals, although statistically significant differences were only observed between IND and NI groups. Furthermore, when we analyzed the profile of secreted cytokines, we observed that CARD patients

  13. THE POLYPEPTIDE STIMULATOR APPLICATION IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF COGNITIVE DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Nemkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the review of studies on the polypeptide nootropic neurometabolic stimulator in a complex correction of cognitive impairment in children with diseases of the central nervous system are given in the article. It is shown that cognitive-modulating effect is the leading feature of the drug, and in a combination with nootropic, neurotrophic, neuroprotective, reparative and anticonvulsive effects, as well as antioxidant, anti-stress and metabolic actions, which determines its high therapeutic efficacy in a complex correction of cognitive impairment in various central nervous system diseases in children.

  14. Connective tissue disease related interstitial lung diseases and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: provisional core sets of domains and instruments for use in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Mittoo, Shikha; Huscher, Dörte; Khanna, Dinesh; Dellaripa, Paul F; Distler, Oliver; Flaherty, Kevin R; Frankel, Sid; Oddis, Chester V; Denton, Christopher P; Fischer, Aryeh; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia M; LeSage, Daphne; Merkel, Peter A; Phillips, Kristine; Pittrow, David; Swigris, Jeffrey; Antoniou, Katerina; Baughman, Robert P; Castelino, Flavia V; Christmann, Romy B; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent; Danoff, Sonye; Highland, Kristin B; Hummers, Laura; Shah, Ami A; Kim, Dong Soon; Lynch, David A; Miller, Frederick W; Proudman, Susanna M; Richeldi, Luca; Ryu, Jay H; Sandorfi, Nora; Sarver, Catherine; Wells, Athol U; Strand, Vibeke; Matteson, Eric L; Brown, Kevin K; Seibold, James R

    2014-05-01

    Clinical trial design in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) has been hampered by lack of consensus on appropriate outcome measures for reliably assessing treatment response. In the setting of connective tissue diseases (CTDs), some measures of ILD disease activity and severity may be confounded by non-pulmonary comorbidities. The Connective Tissue Disease associated Interstitial Lung Disease (CTD-ILD) working group of Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-a non-profit international organisation dedicated to consensus methodology in identification of outcome measures-conducted a series of investigations which included a Delphi process including >248 ILD medical experts as well as patient focus groups culminating in a nominal group panel of ILD experts and patients. The goal was to define and develop a consensus on the status of outcome measure candidates for use in randomised controlled trials in CTD-ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A core set comprising specific measures in the domains of lung physiology, lung imaging, survival, dyspnoea, cough and health-related quality of life is proposed as appropriate for consideration for use in a hypothetical 1-year multicentre clinical trial for either CTD-ILD or IPF. As many widely used instruments were found to lack full validation, an agenda for future research is proposed. Identification of consensus preliminary domains and instruments to measure them was attained and is a major advance anticipated to facilitate multicentre RCTs in the field.

  15. MSeqDR: A Centralized Knowledge Repository and Bioinformatics Web Resource to Facilitate Genomic Investigations in Mitochondrial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Diroma, Maria Angela; Gonzalez, Michael; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lott, Marie T; van Oven, Mannis; Wallace, Douglas C; Muraresku, Colleen Clarke; Zolkipli-Cunningham, Zarazuela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Attimonelli, Marcella; Zuchner, Stephan; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2016-06-01

    MSeqDR is the Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource, a centralized and comprehensive genome and phenome bioinformatics resource built by the mitochondrial disease community to facilitate clinical diagnosis and research investigations of individual patient phenotypes, genomes, genes, and variants. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) integrates community knowledge from expert-curated databases with genomic and phenotype data shared by clinicians and researchers. MSeqDR also functions as a centralized application server for Web-based tools to analyze data across both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, including investigator-driven whole exome or genome dataset analyses through MSeqDR-Genesis. MSeqDR-GBrowse genome browser supports interactive genomic data exploration and visualization with custom tracks relevant to mtDNA variation and mitochondrial disease. MSeqDR-LSDB is a locus-specific database that currently manages 178 mitochondrial diseases, 1,363 genes associated with mitochondrial biology or disease, and 3,711 pathogenic variants in those genes. MSeqDR Disease Portal allows hierarchical tree-style disease exploration to evaluate their unique descriptions, phenotypes, and causative variants. Automated genomic data submission tools are provided that capture ClinVar compliant variant annotations. PhenoTips will be used for phenotypic data submission on deidentified patients using human phenotype ontology terminology. The development of a dynamic informed patient consent process to guide data access is underway to realize the full potential of these resources.

  16. Dysregulation of the HPA axis as a core pathophysiology mediating co-morbid depression in neurodegenerative diseases

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    Xin eDu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of prodromal manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. These affective symptoms may be observed many years before the core diagnostic symptoms of the neurological condition. It is becoming more apparent that depression is a significant modifying factor of the trajectory of disease progression, and even treatment outcomes. It is therefore crucial that we understand the potential pathophysiologies related to the primary condition, which could contribute to the development of depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a key neuroendocrine signaling system involved in physiological homeostasis and stress response. Disturbances of this system lead to severe hormonal imbalances, and the majority of such patients also present with behavioural deficits and/or mood disorders. Dysregulation of the HPA axis is also strongly implicated in the pathology of major depressive disorder. Consistent with this, anti-depressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have been shown to alter HPA axis activity. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding HPA axis pathology in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, differentiating between prodromal and later stages of disease progression where possible. Both clinical and preclinical evidence will be examined, but we highlight animal model studies as being particularly useful for uncovering novel mechanisms of pathology related to co-morbid mood disorders. Finally, we purpose utilizing the pre-clinical evidence to better inform prospective, intervention studies.

  17. Retinal oximetry measures systemic hypoxia in central nervous system vessels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasdottir, Thorunn Scheving; Bragason, David; Hardarson, Sveinn Hakon; Vacchiano, Charles; Gislason, Thorarinn; Kristjansdottir, Jona Valgerdur; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Stefánsson, Einar

    2017-01-01

    Determination of the blood oxyhemoglobin saturation in the retinal vessels of the eye can be achieved through spectrophotometric retinal oximetry which provides access to the state of oxyhemoglobin saturation in the central nervous system circulation. The purpose of this study was to test the capability of the Oxymap T1 oximeter to detect systemic hypoxemia and the effect of supplemental oxygen on retinal vessel oxyhemoglobin saturation. Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in retinal arterioles and venules was measured in 11 subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long term oxygen therapy. Measurements were made with and without their daily supplemental oxygen. Eleven healthy age and gender matched subjects were measured during ambient air breathing for comparison of oxyhemoglobin saturation in retinal arterioles and venules. Retinal arteriolar oxyhemoglobin saturation in COPD subjects inspiring ambient air was compared with finger pulse oximetry and blood samples from radial artery. COPD subjects had significantly lower oxyhemoglobin saturation during ambient air breathing than healthy controls in both retinal arterioles (87.2%±4.9% vs. 93.4%±4.3%, p = 0.02; n = 11) and venules (45.0%±10.3% vs. 55.2%±5.5%, p = 0.01). Administration of their prescribed supplemental oxygen increased oxyhemoglobin saturation in retinal arterioles (87.2%±4.9% to 89.5%±6.0%, p = 0.02) but not in venules (45.0%±10.3% to 46.7%±12.8%, p = 0.3). Retinal oximetry values were slightly lower than radial artery blood values (mean percentage points difference = -5.0±5.4, 95% CI: -15.68 to 5.67) and finger pulse oximetry values (-3.1±5.5, 95% CI: -14.05 to 7.84). The noninvasive Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry detects hypoxemia in central nervous system vessels in patients with severe COPD compared with healthy controls. The instrument is sensitive to changes in oxygen breathing but displays slightly lower measures than finger pulse oximetry or radial artery

  18. El Empresario Descubridor de Oportunidades de Mercado: Puntos Centrales de la Teoría de Kirzner (The opportunity seeker entrepreneur: Kirzner's theory core points

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    Pilar Valencia de Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dado que Israel Kirzner es quizás desconocido por muchos expertos en administración y que es un autor esencial para entender la relación entre la economía y la creación de empresas, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los puntos centrales de la teoría del empresario de Kirzner. El análisis contempla la concepción que Kirzner tiene respecto al descubrimiento realizado por los agentes decisores del mercado, la incertidumbre del entorno y el conocimiento generado a través del intercambio ocurrido en el propio mercado. Finalmente, se recogen las principales conclusiones del trabajo y se reseñan algunas de las críticas más relevantes realizadas a esta teoría.   ABSTRACT As the name Israel Kirzner is unknown to many management experts and he is an essential author to learn about the economy and enterprise creation relationship, this study focuses in analyzing the core points of Kirzner´s entrepreneurial theory. The analysis is oriented toward Kirzner´s idea about the market´s decision making parties; the environment ´s uncertainty, and knowledge generated by the exchange happening in the market itself. Finally, conclusions and some the more relevant criticisms about this theory are presented.

  19. Laparoscopic and Percutaneous Core Needle Biopsy Plays a Central Role for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Pancreatitis in a Single-Center Study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Kjærulf Pless, Torsten;

    2015-01-01

    organ involvement was observed in 40% of type 1 and 13% of type 2, but inflammatory bowel disease only in type 2 (P = 0.001). One patient had IgG4-related chronic perisplenitis as a hitherto undescribed manifestation of IgG4-related disease. Nineteen (91%) of 21 biopsied patients had diagnostic CNB...... Hospital from 2007 to 2013 were included (n = 30; mean follow-up, 26.2 months). Data from laparoscopic or percutaneous ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB), resection specimens, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), EUS-guided CNB, computed tomography, serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), and pancreatography were...... retrospectively analyzed according to ICDC. RESULTS: Twenty patients were diagnosed with type 1, 8 with type 2, and 2 with not otherwise specified AIP. Twenty-eight patients (93%) could correctly be classified when ICDC were retrospectively applied. Serum IgG4 was elevated in 44% of type 1 and 0% of type 2. Other...

  20. Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia

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    Abolfotouh MA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ≤ 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The

  1. Societal and individual burden of illness among fibromyalgia patients in France: Association between disease severity and OMERACT core domains

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    Perrot Serge

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with fibromyalgia (FM report widespread pain, fatigue, and other functional limitations. This study aimed to provide an assessment of the burden of illness associated with FM in France and its association with disease severity and core domains as defined by Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT for FM. Methods This cross-sectional, observational study recruited patients with a prior diagnosis of FM from 18 community-based physician offices in France. Patients completed questions about FM impact (Fibromyalgia-Impact Questionnaire [FIQ], core symptoms (defined by OMERACT, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D, current overall health status (rated on a scale from 0 to 100, productivity, treatment satisfaction, and out-of-pocket expenses related to FM. Site staff recorded patients' treatment and health resource use based on medical record review. Costs were extrapolated from 4-week patient-reported data and 3-month clinical case report form data and calculated in 2008 Euros using a societal perspective. Tests of significance used the Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher's Exact test where P Results Eighty-eight patients (mean 55.2 y; female:male 74:14 were recruited. The majority of patients (84.1% were prescribed medications for FM. Patients mainly described medications as a little/not at all effective (40.0% or somewhat effective (52.9%. Current Overall Health rating was 52.9 (± 17.8 and FIQ total score was 54.8 (± 17.3. FIQ total score was used to define FM severity, and 17 patients scored 0- Conclusions In a sample of 88 patients with FM from France, we found that FM poses a substantial economic and human burden on patients and society. FM severity level was significantly associated with patients' health status and core symptom domains.

  2. Assessment of brain core temperature using MR DWI-thermometry in Alzheimer disease patients compared to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacia, Gianvincenzo; Sakai, Koji; Yamada, Kei; Giordano, Giovanna; Coppola, Rosalia; Midiri, Massimo; Grimaldi, Luigi Maria

    2017-04-01

    To assess the brain core temperature of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients in comparison with healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted thermometry. Fourteen AD patients (3 men, 11 women; age range 60-81 years, mean age 73.8 ± 6.1 years) and 14 healthy volunteers, age and sex-matched (mean age 70.1 ± 6.9 years; range 62-84 years; 5 men, 9 women) underwent MR examination between February 2014 and March 2016. MR imaging studies were performed with a 1.5-T MR scanner. Brain core temperature (T: °C) was calculated using the following equation from the diffusion coefficient (D) in the lateral ventricular (LV) cerebrospinal fluid: T = 2256.74/ln (4.39221/D) - 273.15 using a standard DWI single-shot echo-planar pulse sequence (b value 1000 s/mm(2)). Statistical analysis was performed using a nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare the patient and control groups regarding LV temperatures. There was no significant difference (P = 0.1937) in LV temperature between patients (mean 37.9 ± 1.1 °C, range 35.8-39.2 °C) and control group (38.7 ± 1.4 °C, range 36.9-42.7 °C). Brain core temperature in AD patients showed no significant alterations compared to healthy volunteers.

  3. Developing a Core Set of Outcome Measures for Behçet Disease: Report from OMERACT 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Gulen; Meara, Alexa; Ozguler, Yesim; Direskeneli, Haner; Mahr, Alfred; Easley, Ebony; Gurcan, Mert; Davis, Trocon; Gul, Ahmet; Yazici, Yusuf; Zottenberg, Katelyn; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Erer, Burak; Kamali, Sevil; Yazici, Hasan; Cronholm, Peter F; Merkel, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group has been working toward developing a data-driven core set of outcome measures for use in clinical trials of Behçet's syndrome [Behçet disease (BD)]. This paper summarizes the group's work through OMERACT 2016, discussions during the meeting, and the future research agenda. Qualitative patient interviews were conducted among 20 patients with BD who have different types of organ involvement. A 3-round Delphi among BD experts and patients was initiated to identify domains, subdomains, and outcomes to be assessed in clinical trials of BD. The results of these studies were discussed during OMERACT 2016 and next steps were planned. Patients' perspectives and priorities were identified through qualitative interviews that identified candidate domains and subdomains for inclusion in the Delphi and characterized some shortcomings of the currently used patient-reported outcomes in BD. The first round of the Delphi was completed and several domains or subdomains were endorsed by the experts and/or the patients. Because many more items were endorsed than would be feasible to assess during a clinical trial, rating and ranking of items by physicians and patients was planned as a next critical step. The challenges of assessing specific organ system involvement was also discussed. The OMERACT Behçet Syndrome Working Group research program will identify core domains for assessment in BD with the goal of developing a core set of outcome measures for use in all trials of BD with the option to incorporate additional outcomes for specific organ involvement.

  4. Core biological marker candidates of Alzheimer's disease - perspectives for diagnosis, prediction of outcome and reflection of biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, H; Mitchell, A; Blennow, K; Frank, R A; Brettschneider, S; Weller, L; Möller, H-J

    2004-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative dementing illness. Over the past few years, however, remarkable advances have taken place in understanding both the genetic and molecular biology with the intracellular processing of amyloid and tau and the changes leading to the pathologic formation of extracellular amyloid plaques and the intraneuronal aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau into neurofibrillary tangles. This progress in our understanding of the molecular pathology has set the stage for clinically meaningful advances in the development of biomarkers. Emerging diagnostic methods that are based on biochemical and imaging biomarkers of disease specific pathology hold the potential to provide effective measures of natural history (marker of disease that is predictive of outcome), biological activity (such as magnitude and frequency of response correlating with drug potency) and markers of surrogate endpoints (single or composite marker that accounts for clinical benefit of the therapy). Markers of biological activity should be also evaluated regarding their value to reflect disease progression, heterogeneity of the clinical population, for early decision making and characterization of new treatments. We focussed on the current status of core analytes which provide reasonable evidence for association with key mechanisms of pathogenesis or neurodegeneration in AD. In addition, feasibility was important, such as availability of a validated assay for the biological measure in question, with properties that included high precision and reliability of measurement, reagents and standards well described. On this basis we reviewed the body of literature that has examined CSF total tau (t-tau) and beta-amyloid 1-42 (Abeta(1-42)), phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and beta-amyloid-antibodies as diagnostic tests for AD versus clinically representative comparison groups. Measurement of t-tau and Abeta(1-42) in the CSF seems useful to discriminate early and incipient

  5. Repetitive pertussis toxin promotes development of regulatory T cells and prevents central nervous system autoimmune disease.

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    Martin S Weber

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections have long been implicated in pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Incidence and severity of its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE can be enhanced by concomitant administration of pertussis toxin (PTx, the major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis. Its adjuvant effect at the time of immunization with myelin antigen is attributed to an unspecific activation and facilitated migration of immune cells across the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system (CNS. In order to evaluate whether recurring exposure to bacterial antigen may have a differential effect on development of CNS autoimmunity, we repetitively administered PTx prior to immunization. Mice weekly injected with PTx were largely protected from subsequent EAE induction which was reflected by a decreased proliferation and pro-inflammatory differentiation of myelin-reactive T cells. Splenocytes isolated from EAE-resistant mice predominantly produced IL-10 upon re-stimulation with PTx, while non-specific immune responses were unchanged. Longitudinal analyses revealed that repetitive exposure of mice to PTx gradually elevated serum levels for TGF-β and IL-10 which was associated with an expansion of peripheral CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg. Increased frequency of Treg persisted upon immunization and thereafter. Collectively, these data suggest a scenario in which repetitive PTx treatment protects mice from development of CNS autoimmune disease through upregulation of regulatory cytokines and expansion of CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ Treg. Besides its therapeutic implication, this finding suggests that encounter of the immune system with microbial products may not only be part of CNS autoimmune disease pathogenesis but also of its regulation.

  6. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

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    Monique E Maubert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS. Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  7. Respiratory virus infection and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in central Ontario, Canada.

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    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In temperate climates, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD incidence tends to coincide with or closely follow peak incidence of influenza virus infection; at a seasonal level, increased influenza activity frequently correlates with increased seasonal risk of IMD. METHODS: We evaluated 240 cases of IMD reported in central Ontario, Canada, from 2000 to 2006. Associations between environmental and virological (influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV exposures and IMD incidence were evaluated using negative binomial regression models controlling for seasonal oscillation. Acute effects of weekly respiratory virus activity on IMD risk were evaluated using a matched-period case-crossover design with random directionality of control selection. Effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Multivariable negative binomial regression identified elevated IMD risk with increasing influenza A activity (per 100 case increase, incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.06, 1.31. In case-crossover models, increasing weekly influenza A activity was associated with an acute increase in the risk of IMD (per 100 case increase, odds ratio (OR  = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.28 to 3.23. Increasing weekly RSV activity was associated with increased risk of IMD after adjusting for RSV activity in the previous 3 weeks (per 100 case increase, OR = 4.31, 95% CI: 1.14, 16.32. No change in disease risk was seen with increasing influenza B activity. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified an acute effect of influenza A and RSV activity on IMD risk. If confirmed, these finding suggest that influenza vaccination may have the indirect benefit of reducing IMD risk.

  8. Is Dysregulation of the HPA-Axis a Core Pathophysiology Mediating Co-Morbid Depression in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Pang, Terence Y.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of prodromal manifestation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). These affective symptoms may be observed many years before the core diagnostic symptoms of the neurological condition. It is becoming more apparent that depression is a significant modifying factor of the trajectory of disease progression and even treatment outcomes. It is therefore crucial that we understand the potential pathophysiologies related to the primary condition, which could contribute to the development of depression. The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis is a key neuroendocrine signaling system involved in physiological homeostasis and stress response. Disturbances of this system lead to severe hormonal imbalances, and the majority of such patients also present with behavioral deficits and/or mood disorders. Dysregulation of the HPA-axis is also strongly implicated in the pathology of major depressive disorder. Consistent with this, antidepressant drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to alter HPA-axis activity. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding HPA-axis pathology in Alzheimer’s, PD and HD, differentiating between prodromal and later stages of disease progression when evidence is available. Both clinical and preclinical evidence will be examined, but we highlight animal model studies as being particularly useful for uncovering novel mechanisms of pathology related to co-morbid mood disorders. Finally, we purpose utilizing the preclinical evidence to better inform prospective, intervention studies. PMID:25806005

  9. Economic evaluation of a diabetes disease management programme with a central role for the diabetes nurse specialist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Bruijsten, M.W.A.M.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the region of Maastricht, The Netherlands, a disease management programme (DMP) for patients with diabetes mellitus was implemented. The programme aims to improve quality of care within existing budgets. To achieve this, diabetes nurse specialists (DNSs) were given a central role

  10. Patient with Macular Disease, Good Visual Acuity, and Central Visual Field Disruption and Significant Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Donald C.; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Walker, Joseph P.; Raskauskas, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally appreciated that patients with macular disease frequently experience reduced visual acuity. It is not as widely appreciated that they often have significant central visual field disruption, which, by itself, can cause significant problems with activities of daily living, such as reading and driving, even when they maintain good…

  11. Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosing chronic Q fever in patients with central vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, J. C J P; Wever, P. C.; Vlake, A. W.; Renders, N. H M; van Petersen, A. S.; Hilbink, M.; De Jager-Leclercq, M. G L; Moll, F. L.; Koning, O. H J; Hoekstra, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to describe the value of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in diagnosing chronic Q fever in patients with central vascular disease and the added value of18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnostic combination s

  12. Patient with Macular Disease, Good Visual Acuity, and Central Visual Field Disruption and Significant Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Donald C.; Schuchard, Ronald A.; Walker, Joseph P.; Raskauskas, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally appreciated that patients with macular disease frequently experience reduced visual acuity. It is not as widely appreciated that they often have significant central visual field disruption, which, by itself, can cause significant problems with activities of daily living, such as reading and driving, even when they maintain good…

  13. Cannabinoid Receptors in the Central Nervous System: Their Signaling and Roles in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Debra A.; Yudowski, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    The identification and cloning of the two major cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors together with the discovery of their endogenous ligands in the late 80s and early 90s, resulted in a major effort aimed at understanding the mechanisms and physiological roles of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Due to its expression and localization in the central nervous system (CNS), the CB1 receptor together with its endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids (eCB)) and the enzymes involved in their synthesis and degradation, has been implicated in multiple pathophysiological events ranging from memory deficits to neurodegenerative disorders among others. In this review, we will provide a general overview of the ECS with emphasis on the CB1 receptor in health and disease. We will describe our current understanding of the complex aspects of receptor signaling and trafficking, including the non-canonical signaling pathways such as those mediated by β-arrestins within the context of functional selectivity and ligand bias. Finally, we will highlight some of the disorders in which CB1 receptors have been implicated. Significant knowledge has been achieved over the last 30 years. However, much more research is still needed to fully understand the complex roles of the ECS, particularly in vivo and to unlock its true potential as a source of therapeutic targets. PMID:28101004

  14. Embolic Foreign Material in the Central Nervous System of Pediatric Autopsy Patients With Instrumented Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Matthew; Lechpammer, Mirna; Paulson, Vera; Prabhu, Sanjay; Marshall, Audrey C; Juraszek, Amy L; Padera, Robert F; Bundock, Elizabeth A; Vargas, Sara O; Folkerth, Rebecca D

    2017-07-01

    Upon detection of foreign-body embolization to the central nervous system (CNS) following a specific invasive cardiovascular procedure in 1 autopsied child, we undertook a quality assurance analysis to determine whether other patients had had similar events. Autopsies of all infants and children with history of cardiac catheterization, heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass, and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation over a 5-year period at a single tertiary care institution were reviewed for light-microscopic evidence of foreign material. Of the 24 patients meeting clinical criteria (13 females, 11 males; ages 6 days to 20 years, median age 7.5 months), 8 (33%) had foreign embolic material to the CNS. The material was associated with a cellular inflammatory reaction in all cases, with a subset associated with infarcts. No embolic foreign material was detected in 14 age-matched patients without history of cardiovascular procedures. Particles acquired from ex vivo manipulation of a catheter type utilized in at least 1 of the affected patients demonstrated similar histologic characteristics. We conclude that, in addition to recognized risks of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in congenital cardiopulmonary disease, potential brain insult exists in the form of instrumentation-related foreign emboli to the cerebral vasculature. Cardiac catheters are a potential source of foreign embolic material. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Similar deficits of central histaminergic system in patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C; Risser, D; Kirchner, L; Kitzmüller, E; Cairns, N; Prast, H; Singewald, N; Lubec, G

    1997-02-01

    In order to study whether Alzheimer-like neuropathological changes involve the central histaminergic system we measured the concentration of histamine, its precursor histidine as well as the activity of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine-N-methyl-transferase (HMT) in frontal cortex of aging Down syndrome (DS) patients, Alzheimer patients and control individuals. The study populations were also investigated for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, since reduced ChAT activity is an established biochemical hallmark in DS and Alzheimer disease (AD). HDC and ChAT activity were reduced in brains of both DS and Alzheimer patients versus control patients. Additionally, we observed a significant decrease of histamine levels in the DS group. Histamine levels in AD brains tended to be decreased. Histidine concentrations and HMT activities were comparable between the three groups. Thus, our results for the first time show histaminergic deficits in brains of patients with DS resembling the neurochemical pattern in AD. Neuropathological changes may be responsible for similar neurochemical alterations of the histaminergic system in both dementing disorders.

  16. Central nervous system events in children with sickle cell disease presenting acutely with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Patrick C; McKnight, Therese P; Seto, Wendy; Kwiatkowski, Janet L

    2011-09-01

    To determine the frequency of acute care visits and risk factors for central nervous system (CNS) events in children with homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD-SS) with an acute headache. This is a retrospective cohort study of acute care visits for headache in children with SCD-SS. The prevalence of headache visits, neuroimaging evaluation, and acute CNS events were calculated and clinical and laboratory variables assessed. Headache was the chief complaint in 102 of 2685 acute care visits (3.8%) by children with SCD-SS. Acute CNS events were detected in 6.9% of these visits. Neuroimaging was performed in 42.2% of visits, and acute CNS events were identified in 16.3% of studies. Factors associated with acute CNS events included older age, history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, or seizure, neurologic symptoms, focal neurologic exam findings, and elevated platelets. Acute headache is common in pediatric SCD-SS and more frequently associated with acute CNS events than in the general pediatric population. A history of stroke, transient ischemic attack, seizures, neurologic symptoms, focal neurologic exam, or elevated platelet counts at presentation warrant confirmatory imaging studies. Whether a more limited workup is adequate for other children should be confirmed in a larger, prospective study. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles.

  18. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-04-28

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles.

  19. [Infant and child morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal disease in central Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuzeta, J J; Merlin, M; Josse, R; Mouanda, V; Kouka Bemba, D

    1988-06-01

    Diarrheal diseases in Central African countries have often been identified as the 2nd leading cause of death after measles and the 2nd leading cause of morbidity after malaria. These diseases are responsible for death rates in children under 5 that range from 58/1000 in urban centers to 150 in rural areas, and they impose heavy costs on the health services for both pediatric beds and intravenous rehydration. Diarrhea contributes to malnutrition and to high fertility rates among parents who believe they must have many children to insure survival of a few. To study patterns of diarrheal disease in the region, 10 sites with different characteristics were selected for survey. 9 surveys of locations with widely varying climatic, ecologic, demographic, and socioeconomic conditions have been completed, 3 in Cameroon, 1 in the Central African Republic, 2 in Congo, 1 in Gabon, and 2 in Chad. All but 1 of the surveys were conducted between October 1983 and March 1985. The methodology was based on the cluster sampling recommended by the World Health Organization, which has the advantages of relative speed, moderate cost, and low personnel requirements. The clusters were either a village in rural areas or a section of an urban area. Interviewers obtained information about the number of children under 5 in the household, the number who had diarrhea in the previous 15 days and the treatment given, the number dying in the 12 months preceding the survey and the cause of death, whether diarrhea was a factor, and the age of the child at the time of death. A total of 63,107 children under 5 belonging to 33,051 households were surveyed. 12,732 episodes of diarrhea in the preceding 15 days were reported. It was estimated that each child in the region had an average of 4.8 episodes of diarrhea per year. The rate of diarrheal morbidity varied significantly by climatic zone. A follow-up survey of diarrheal morbidity figures from sentinel health centers is underway to determine the

  20. Density-dependent regulation of brook trout population dynamics along a core-periphery distribution gradient in a central Appalachian watershed.

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    Brock M Huntsman

    Full Text Available Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3-60 km(2 and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335-0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to

  1. Variability in the precore and core promoter regions of HBV strains in Morocco: characterization and impact on liver disease progression.

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    Bouchra Kitab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD, including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The persistence of active HBV replication and liver damage after the loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg has been frequently associated with mutations in the pre-core (pre-C and core promoter (CP regions of HBV genome that abolish or reduce HBeAg expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pre-C and CP mutations and their impact on the subsequent course of liver disease in Morocco. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 186 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection was studied (81 inactive carriers, 69 with active chronic hepatitis, 36 with AdLD. Pre-C and CP mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. The pre-C stop codon G1896A mutation was the most frequent (83.9% and was associated with a lower risk of AdLD development (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.15-1.04; p = 0.04. HBV-DNA levels in patients with G1896A were not significantly different from the other patients carrying wild-type strains (p = 0.84. CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were associated with higher HBV-DNA level and increased liver disease severity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (≥ 40 years, male sex, high viral load (>4.3 log(10 IU/mL and CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were independent risk factors for AdLD development. Combination of these mutations was significantly associated with AdLD (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.8-8; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time the association of HBV viral load and CP mutations with the severity of liver disease in Moroccan HBV chronic carriers. The examination of CP mutations alone or in combination could be helpful for prediction of the clinical outcome.

  2. Variability in the Precore and Core Promoter Regions of HBV Strains in Morocco: Characterization and Impact on Liver Disease Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitab, Bouchra; Essaid El Feydi, Abdellah; Afifi, Rajaa; Trepo, Christian; Benazzouz, Mustapha; Essamri, Wafaa; Zoulim, Fabien; Chemin, Isabelle; Alj, Hanane Salih; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD), including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The persistence of active HBV replication and liver damage after the loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) has been frequently associated with mutations in the pre-core (pre-C) and core promoter (CP) regions of HBV genome that abolish or reduce HBeAg expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pre-C and CP mutations and their impact on the subsequent course of liver disease in Morocco. Methods/Principal Findings A cohort of 186 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection was studied (81 inactive carriers, 69 with active chronic hepatitis, 36 with AdLD). Pre-C and CP mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. The pre-C stop codon G1896A mutation was the most frequent (83.9%) and was associated with a lower risk of AdLD development (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.15–1.04; p = 0.04). HBV-DNA levels in patients with G1896A were not significantly different from the other patients carrying wild-type strains (p = 0.84). CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were associated with higher HBV-DNA level and increased liver disease severity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (≥40 years), male sex, high viral load (>4.3 log10 IU/mL) and CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were independent risk factors for AdLD development. Combination of these mutations was significantly associated with AdLD (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.8–8; pviral load and CP mutations with the severity of liver disease in Moroccan HBV chronic carriers. The examination of CP mutations alone or in combination could be helpful for prediction of the clinical outcome. PMID:22905181

  3. Neuropsychological profile of parkin mutation carriers with and without Parkinson disease: the CORE-PD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccappolo, Elise; Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming-X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A.; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Mickel, Susan F.; Andrews, Howard F.; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien J.; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H.; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Brad; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Ross, Barbara M.; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine N.; Marder, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. Methods EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N=43) and without (N=52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. Results No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and non-carrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD non-carriers and carrier subgroups (i.e. heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Conclusions Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to non-carriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. PMID:21092386

  4. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Elly M; Pekny, Milos

    2015-02-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the hallmark intermediate filament (IF; also known as nanofilament) protein in astrocytes, a main type of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have a range of control and homeostatic functions in health and disease. Astrocytes assume a reactive phenotype in acute CNS trauma, ischemia, and in neurodegenerative diseases. This coincides with an upregulation and rearrangement of the IFs, which form a highly complex system composed of GFAP (10 isoforms), vimentin, synemin, and nestin. We begin to unravel the function of the IF system of astrocytes and in this review we discuss its role as an important crisis-command center coordinating cell responses in situations connected to cellular stress, which is a central component of many neurological diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system presenting with subacute and fatal course of disease: a case report

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    Börnke Christian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is an idiopathic disorder characterized by vasculitis within the dural confines. The clinical presentation shows a wide variation and the course and the duration of disease are heterogeneous. This rare but treatable disease provides a diagnostic challenge owing to the lack of pathognomonic tests and the necessity of a histological confirmation. Case presentation A 28-year-old patient presenting with headache and fluctuating signs of encephalopathy was treated on the assumption of viral meningoencephalitis. The course of the disease led to his death 10 days after hospital admission. Postmortem examination revealed primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Conclusion Primary angiitis of the central nervous system should always be taken into consideration when suspected infectious inflammation of the central nervous system does not respond to treatment adequately. In order to confirm the diagnosis with the consequence of a modified therapy angiography and combined leptomeningeal and brain biopsy should be considered immediately.

  6. Stem cell therapy in animal models of central nervous system (CNS diseases: therapeutic role, challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan Kumar Maiti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many human diseases relating to central nervous system (CNS are mimicked in animal models to evaluate the efficacy of stem cell therapy. The therapeutic role of stem cells in animal models of CNS diseases include replacement of diseased or degenerated neuron, oligodendrocytes or astrocytes with healthy ones, secretion of neurotrophic factors and delivery of therapeutics/genes. Scaffolds can be utilized for delivering stem cells in brain. Sustained delivery of stem cells, lineage specific differentiation, and enhanced neuronal network integration are the hallmarks of scaffold mediated stem cell delivery in CNS diseases. This review discusses the therapeutic role, challenges and future perspectives of stem cell therapy in animal models of CNS diseases.

  7. Vaccines and the risk of multiple sclerosis and other central nervous system demyelinating diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Gould, Annette; Qian, Lei; Tartof, Sara Y; Brara, Sonu M; Jacobsen, Steve J; Beaber, Brandon E; Sy, Lina S; Chao, Chun; Hechter, Rulin; Tseng, Hung Fu

    2014-12-01

    Because vaccinations are common, even a small increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) or other acquired central nervous system demyelinating syndromes (CNS ADS) could have a significant effect on public health. To determine whether vaccines, particularly those for hepatitis B (HepB) and human papillomavirus (HPV), increase the risk of MS or other CNS ADS. A nested case-control study was conducted using data obtained from the complete electronic health records of Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) members. Cases were identified through the KPSC CNS ADS cohort between 2008 and 2011, which included extensive review of medical records by an MS specialist. Five controls per case were matched on age, sex, and zip code. Vaccination of any type (particularly HepB and HPV) identified through the electronic vaccination records system. All forms of CNS ADS were analyzed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for race/ethnicity, health care utilization, comorbid diseases, and infectious illnesses before symptom onset. We identified 780 incident cases of CNS ADS and 3885 controls; 92 cases and 459 controls were females aged 9 to 26 years, which is the indicated age range for HPV vaccination. There were no associations between HepB vaccination (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% CI, 0.72-1.73), HPV vaccination (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.62-1.78), or any vaccination (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86-1.22) and the risk of CNS ADS up to 3 years later. Vaccination of any type was associated with an increased risk of CNS ADS onset within the first 30 days after vaccination only in younger (vaccines with MS or any other CNS ADS, which argues against a causal association. The short-term increase in risk suggests that vaccines may accelerate the transition from subclinical to overt autoimmunity in patients with existing disease. Our findings support clinical anecdotes of CNS ADS symptom onset shortly after vaccination but do not suggest a need for a change in vaccine policy.

  8. The Isotropic Fractionator as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ivan E; Monti, Riccardo; Tropiano, Marta; Tomasi, Simone; Arbini, Alessia; Andrade-Moraes, Carlos-Humberto; Lent, Roberto; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    One major aim in quantitative and translational neuroscience is to achieve a precise and fast neuronal counting method to work on high throughput scale to obtain reliable results. Here, we tested the isotropic fractionator (IF) method for evaluating neuronal and non-neuronal cell loss in different models of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent: (i) ischemic brain damage; (ii) intraperitoneal injection with kainic acid (KA) to induce epileptic seizures; and (iii) monolateral striatal injection with quinolinic acid (QA) mimicking human Huntington's disease. All specimens were processed for IF method and cell loss assessed. Hippocampus from KA-treated rats and striatum from QA-treated rats were carefully dissected using a dissection microscope and a rat brain matrix. Ischemic rat brains slices were first processed for TTC staining and then for IF. In the ischemic group the cell loss corresponded to the neuronal loss suggesting that hypoxia primarily affects neurons. Combining IF with TTC staining we could correlate the volume of lesion to the neuronal loss; by IF, we could assess that neuronal loss also occurs contralaterally to the ischemic side. In the epileptic group we observed a reduction of neuronal cells in treated rats, but also evaluated the changes in the number of non-neuronal cells in response to the hippocampal damage. In the QA model, there was a robust reduction of neuronal cells on ipsilateral striatum. This neuronal cell loss was not related to a drastic change in the total number of cells, being overcome by the increase in non-neuronal cells, thus suggesting that excitotoxic damage in the striatum strongly activates inflammation and glial proliferation. We concluded that the IF method could represent a simple and reliable quantitative technique to evaluate the effects of experimental lesions mimicking human diseases, and to consider the neuroprotective/anti-inflammatory effects of different treatments in the whole

  9. Pulmonary diseases in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in Zimbabwe, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, D T; Neill, P; Robertson, V J; Latif, A S; Emmanuel, J C; Els, J E; Gwanzura, L K; Trijssenaar, F E; Nziramasanga, P; Jongeling, G R

    1989-01-01

    During the 11 month period up to 30 September 1987, 37 patients (26 male, 11 female, mean age 27 years) with respiratory symptoms who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, were studied prospectively on 40 occasions to determine the cause of any pulmonary complications. HIV was heterosexually transmitted. Predominant symptoms were cough (89%), fever (89%), weight loss (83%), and dyspnoea (60%). Transnasal fibre-optic bronchoscopy (with bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushings and transbronchial lung biopsies) was performed on 35 patients, twice on 3 patients. 'Tru-cut' lung biopsies were obtained from 2 patients who died before bronchoscopy. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the commonest disease, being found in one-third of the patients (12 of 37). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from 4; the remainder of the plates were contaminated. Pneumocystis carinii was present in 8 patients: as the sole pathogen in 3, with Streptococcus pneumoniae in 4, Staphylococcus aureus in 2, and one also had tuberculous lymphadenitis. Endobronchial Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 6 of 7 patients with skin nodules. Bacterial pathogens isolated included Staph. aureus (5), S. pneumoniae (5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2), Haemophilus influenzae (2), H. parainfluenzae (1) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Invading Aspergillus fumigatus was diagnosed by lung biopsy in one. No diagnosis was reached for 8 patients. It is concluded that in Central Africa pulmonary complications in AIDS patients are similar to those in Europe and North America but the incidence of different pathogens depends on the prevalence of pathogens in the community. M. tuberculosis is probably the commonest pathogen. This study has confirmed that P. carinii pneumonia does occur, but occurs less frequently.

  10. The epidemiological aspects of congenital heart disease in central and southern district of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Amel-Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is a major health problem and its prevalence is different around the world. The aim of study was determination of the epidemiological aspects of CHD in central and southern district of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 3714 medical records were evaluated from March 21, 2001 to December 18, 2011. Medical records of inpatients from angiography and outpatients in the Heart Clinic of Afshar hospital (a referral hospital in center and south of Iran were the source of information. Types of CHD and demographic data including age, sex and residential location are collected. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17 software. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to compare variables between groups. Results: At the study, the mean age of the patients at diagnosis time was 8.8 ± 11.6 year (at the range of one day to 76 years with median of 4 years. The percentage of females and males was 54.2 (n: 2014 and 43.8 (n: 1627, respectively. The chi-square test showed that there was significant difference in frequency of CHDs between females and males (P value < 0.0001. Ventricular septal defect (VSD was found to be the most frequent of CHDs (27%. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (16.8%, atrial septal defect (ASD (15.8%, pulmonary stenosis (PS (11% and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF (8.9% were more prevalent in CHDs after VSD. Conclusions: The frequency of CHDs in female was more than male and VSD, PDA, ASD, PS, and TOF were most common in CHDs, respectively.

  11. Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Abraham, Thomas; Sarkar, Satyajit; Wysocki, Piotr; Cecconi, Sabrina; Apfel, Franklin; Nurm, Ülla-Karin

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication has been identified as a core competence for guiding public health responses to infectious disease threats. The International Health Regulations (2005) call for all countries to build capacity and a comprehensive understanding of health risks before a public health emergency to allow systematic and coherent communication, response and management. Research studies indicate that while outbreak and crisis communication concepts and tools have long been on the agenda of public health officials, there is still a need to clarify and integrate risk communication concepts into more standardised practices and improve risk communication and health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. To address these challenges, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) convened a group of risk communication experts to review and integrate existing approaches and emerging concepts in the development of a training curriculum. This curriculum articulates a new approach in risk communication moving beyond information conveyance to knowledge- and relationship-building. In a pilot training this approach was reflected both in the topics addressed and in the methods applied. This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation.

  12. Usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index in Daily Clinical Practice for Assessing Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lozano-Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outcome evaluation is an important aspect of the treatment of patients with degenerative lumbar disease. We evaluated the usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI in assessing people affected by degenerative lumbar disease in daily clinical practice. Methods. We evaluated 221 patients who had completed preoperatively and 2 years after surgery VAS pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and COMI. We calculated the change of scores and its sensitivity to change. The internal consistency of the COMI items and the correlation between the COMI scores and the scores of the other measurements were assessed. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean scores of the preoperative and 2 years questionnaires for nearly all measurements. COMI showed a good internal consistency, except for the preoperative pain subscale. The sensitivity to change was high for the total COMI and its pain and well-being subscales and moderate for the rest. The COMI demonstrated strong correlation with the other measurements. Conclusions. The COMI is a useful tool for assessing the patient-based outcome in the studied population. Given its simplicity, good correlation with the SF-36 and ODI and its good sensitivity to change, it could replace more cumbersome instruments in daily clinical practice.

  13. Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, M; Bonino, F; Crivelli, O; Canese, M G; Verme, G

    1976-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1001973

  14. [Recent progress of potential effects and mechanisms of chlorogenic acid and its intestinal metabolites on central nervous system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-na; Zhou, Ming-mei; Li, Yun; Shi, Xiao-wen; Jia, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid displays several important roles in the therapeutic properties of many herbs, such as antioxidant activity, antibacterial, antiviral, scavenging free radicals and exciting central nervous system. Only about one-third of chlorogenic acid was absorbed in its prototype, therefore, its gut metabolites play a more important role in the therapeutic properties of chlorogenic acid. It is necessary to consider not only the bioactivities of chlorogenic acid but also its gut metabolites. This review focuses on the potential activities and mechanisms of chlorogenic acid and its gut metabolites on central nervous system diseases.

  15. Role of FNA and Core Biopsy of Primary and Metastatic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. McGahan

    2013-01-01

    liver and to define methods for improvement of diagnosis of primary liver tumors. Methods. This include retrospective study of 189 biopsies of 185 liver masses for cytological or histological analysis. Patients were subdivided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 124 suspected metastasis. Group 2 consisted of 61 suspected primary neoplasms. Biopsies were considered positive or equivocal. In equivocal cases, special stains were performed. In Group 2, cases were classified by contrast CT or MRI as to (I classic HCC, (II infiltrated HCC, or (Ill equivocal. Results. Definitive diagnosis was obtained in 117/124 masses (94% in Group 1, 48/61 masses (79% in Group 2, and (Ill equivocal 13 cases in Group II. In two equivocal cases in which special stains were performed, they were reclassified as HCC. In 8/13 cases, CT findings were consistent with HCC. Conclusion. Liver biopsies are useful in obtaining a definitive diagnosis of suspected metastatic liver disease. Biopsy results are less reliable in patients with suspected primary liver tumors. In these situations, strategies can include basing treatment on imaging criteria or use of newer special pathological stains. Advances in Knowledge. Use of newer special immunological stains improves accuracy in definitive diagnosis of primary liver tumors.

  16. Occupational therapy for patients with chronic diseases: CVA, rheumatoid arthritis and progressive diseases of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the patients treated by occupational therapists have a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to describe the outlines of occupational therapy treatment for three specific groups of chronic diseases: progressive neurological diseases, cerebrovascular accident and rh

  17. Occupational therapy for patients with chronic diseases: CVA, rheumatoid arthritis and progressive diseases of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the patients treated by occupational therapists have a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to describe the outlines of occupational therapy treatment for three specific groups of chronic diseases: progressive neurological diseases, cerebrovascular accident and

  18. Could sensory mechanisms be a core factor that underlies freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Almeida, Quincy J

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how manipulating the amount of sensory information available about the body and surrounding environment influenced freezing of gait (FOG), while walking through a doorway. It was hypothesized that the more limited the sensory information, the greater the occurrence of freezing of gait. Nineteen patients with Parkinsoǹs disease who experience freezing of gait (PD-FOG) walked through a doorway or into open space in complete darkness. The three doorway conditions included: (i) FRAME (DARK)--walking through the remembered door frame; (ii) FRAME--walking through the door with the door frame illuminated; (iii) FRAME+BODY--walking through the door (both the door and the limbs illuminated). Additionally, two conditions of walking away from the doorway included: (iv) NO FRAME (DARK)--walking into open space; (v) NO FRAME+BODY--walking into open space with the limbs illuminated, to evaluate whether perception (or fear) of the doorway might account for FOG behaviour. Key outcome measures included: the number of freezing of gait episodes recorded, total duration of freezing of gait, and the percentage of time spent frozen. Significantly more freezing of gait episodes occurred when participants walked toward the doorway in complete darkness compared to walking into open space (pdarkness, compared to all other conditions. Significant increases in step width variability were also identified but only when walking into open space (p<0.005). These results support the notion that sensory deficits may have a profound impact on freezing of gait that need to be carefully considered.

  19. Could sensory mechanisms be a core factor that underlies freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine how manipulating the amount of sensory information available about the body and surrounding environment influenced freezing of gait (FOG, while walking through a doorway. It was hypothesized that the more limited the sensory information, the greater the occurrence of freezing of gait. Nineteen patients with Parkinsoǹs disease who experience freezing of gait (PD-FOG walked through a doorway or into open space in complete darkness. The three doorway conditions included: (i FRAME (DARK--walking through the remembered door frame; (ii FRAME--walking through the door with the door frame illuminated; (iii FRAME+BODY--walking through the door (both the door and the limbs illuminated. Additionally, two conditions of walking away from the doorway included: (iv NO FRAME (DARK--walking into open space; (v NO FRAME+BODY--walking into open space with the limbs illuminated, to evaluate whether perception (or fear of the doorway might account for FOG behaviour. Key outcome measures included: the number of freezing of gait episodes recorded, total duration of freezing of gait, and the percentage of time spent frozen. Significantly more freezing of gait episodes occurred when participants walked toward the doorway in complete darkness compared to walking into open space (p<0.05. Similar to previous studies, velocity (p<0.001 and step length (p<0.0001 significantly decreased when walking through the door in complete darkness, compared to all other conditions. Significant increases in step width variability were also identified but only when walking into open space (p<0.005. These results support the notion that sensory deficits may have a profound impact on freezing of gait that need to be carefully considered.

  20. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Stable, Comparative Analyses of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Human Disease Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James E.; Jolley, Keith A.; McCarthy, Noel D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, remains a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries, but the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis outbreaks remains poorly defined, largely due to limitations in the resolution and comparability of isolate characterization methods. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data enable the improvement of sequence-based typing approaches, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), by substantially increasing the number of loci examined. A core genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme defines a comprehensive set of those loci present in most members of a bacterial group, balancing very high resolution with comparability across the diversity of the group. Here we propose a set of 1,343 loci as a human campylobacteriosis cgMLST scheme (v1.0), the allelic profiles of which can be assigned to core genome sequence types. The 1,343 loci chosen were a subset of the 1,643 loci identified in the reannotation of the genome sequence of C. jejuni isolate NCTC 11168, chosen as being present in >95% of draft genomes of 2,472 representative United Kingdom campylobacteriosis isolates, comprising 2,207 (89.3%) C. jejuni isolates and 265 (10.7%) C. coli isolates. Validation of the cgMLST scheme was undertaken with 1,478 further high-quality draft genomes, containing 150 or fewer contiguous sequences, from disease isolate collections: 99.5% of these isolates contained ≥95% of the 1,343 cgMLST loci. In addition to the rapid and effective high-resolution analysis of large numbers of diverse isolates, the cgMLST scheme enabled the efficient identification of very closely related isolates from a well-defined single-source campylobacteriosis outbreak. PMID:28446571

  1. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  2. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  3. The central molecular clock is robust in the face of behavioural arrhythmia in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Fan; Possidente, Bernard; Lomas, David A; Crowther, Damian C

    2014-04-01

    Circadian behavioural deficits, including sleep irregularity and restlessness in the evening, are a distressing early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have investigated these phenomena by studying the circadian behaviour of transgenic Drosophila expressing the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). We find that Aβ expression results in an age-related loss of circadian behavioural rhythms despite ongoing normal molecular oscillations in the central clock neurons. Even in the absence of any behavioural correlate, the synchronised activity of the central clock remains protective, prolonging lifespan, in Aβ flies just as it does in control flies. Confocal microscopy and bioluminescence measurements point to processes downstream of the molecular clock as the main site of Aβ toxicity. In addition, there seems to be significant non-cell-autonomous Aβ toxicity resulting in morphological and probably functional signalling deficits in central clock neurons.

  4. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  5. Prognostic Importance of Gleason 7 Disease Among Patients Treated With External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Detailed Biopsy Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Zumsteg, Zach; Ghadjar, Pirus; Pangasa, Misha; Pei, Xin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Fine, Samson W. [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of primary Gleason (pG) grade among a large cohort of Gleason 7 prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: From May 1989 to January 2011, 1190 Gleason 7 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with EBRT at a single institution. Of these patients, 613 had a Gleason 7 with a minimum of a sextant biopsy with nonfragmented cores and full biopsy core details available, including number of cores of cancer involved, percentage individual core involvement, location of disease, bilaterality, and presence of perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1-16 years). The prognostic implication for the following outcomes was analyzed: biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: The 8-year bRFS rate for pG3 versus pG4 was 77.6% versus 61.3% (P<.0001), DMFS was 96.8% versus 84.3% (P<.0001), and PCSM was 3.7% versus 8.1% (P=.002). On multivariate analysis, pG4 predicted for significantly worse outcome in all parameters. Location of disease (apex, base, mid-gland), perineural involvement, maximum individual core involvement, and the number of Gleason 3+3, 3+4, or 4+3 cores did not predict for distant metastases. Conclusions: Primary Gleason grade 4 independently predicts for worse bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM among Gleason 7 patients. Using complete core information can allow clinicians to utilize pG grade as a prognostic factor, despite not having the full pathologic details from a prostatectomy specimen. Future staging and risk grouping should investigate the incorporation of primary Gleason grade when complete biopsy core information is used.

  6. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Signals of the change in monsoonal precipitation at around 2,000 years BP in a sediment core off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    A 4.80 m long shallow water sediment core, collected from the inner shelf (at 22 m water depth) off Karwar near Kali River mouth is studied for foraminiferal tracers of palaeomonsoons. The climatic history of this core which represents the last 4...

  8. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review we describe in detail the successes, challenges and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  9. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  10. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  11. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: Curriculum content assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Elizabeth; Moffat, Marilyn; Skinner, Margot; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele; Myezwa, Hellen; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between wh...

  12. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: Evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.M. van den Berg (Linda); M.M. Favejee (Marein); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Methods: Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability

  13. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: Evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.M. van den Berg (Linda); M.M. Favejee (Marein); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Methods: Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability

  14. A rare case of mixed connective tissue disease presenting with central nervous system glioma, vasculitis and polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushabh Parikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD was first recognized by Sharp and Colleagues in 1972 among a group of patients with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE, scleroderma and myositis, with the presence of distinctive antibodies against, what now is known to be U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP. We report an unusual case of a 23-year old female with MCTD characterized by the coexistence of signs, symptoms and immunological features of 3 defined autoimmune diseases SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, polymyositis (PM and an unusual presence of central nervous system (CNS Glioma. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3917-3920

  15. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    John eHay; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Debanjana eDasgupta; Zhanna eShapiyeva; Pavel eDeryabin; Christina eFarris; Roger eHewson; Allen eRichards; Gulnara eOmasheva; Talgat eNurmakhanov; Timur eAyazbayev; Asankadyr eZhunushov; Alexei eAndryushchenko

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and ...

  16. Clinical features of patients bearing central nervous system hemangioblastoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hiroshi; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Ryo; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Natsume, Atushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Shuin, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastoma (HB) is one of the most common manifestations in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), but large-scale studies on clinical features of CNS HB in VHL are scarce. On the basis of the results of a questionnaire, we collected data of VHL patients with CNS HB. The total number of CNS HBs in 111 VHL patients (male 59, female 52) was 264 with the following distributions: cerebellar, 65.4 %; brainstem, 9.9 %; spinal cord, 23.9 %; and pituitary, 1. 1 %. The follow-up period was 0.6 to 39.2 years, with the mean 12.5 years. Patients bearing brainstem or spinal cord HB also had another HB significantly more frequently than those bearing cerebellar HBs (P < 0.05). The mean onset age of CNS HB was 29.1 years, and that of patients bearing a single HB (mean 34.4 years) was significantly greater than that of multiple HBs (mean 25.7 years). Patients with multiple HBs under 40 years are more dominant than those with a single HB. The distribution rate of brainstem HB is significantly smaller in patients below 30 years than patients above 29 years. Although ECOG PS score increased along with number of operations, the onset age decreased with increasing number of operations. The mean ECOG PS score of patients below 20 years is significantly smaller than patients above 19 years. When the onset age of CNS HB is under 40 years, and CNS HB is located at the brainstem or spinal cord HB, the probability of multiple occurrence can be predicted. Since patients with an onset age under 20 years old preserve a high performance status, early detection of CNS HB would be important. In addition, since a multiple operations aggravate performance status, number of operations should be reduced.

  17. Iowa Core Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    One central component of a great school system is a clear set of expectations, or standards, that educators help all students reach. In Iowa, that effort is known as the Iowa Core. The Iowa Core represents the statewide academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do in math, science, English language arts, and…

  18. Prospective evaluation of gene mutations and minimal residual disease in patients with core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Eric; Boissel, Nicolas; Chevret, Sylvie; Delabesse, Eric; Renneville, Aline; Cornillet, Pascale; Blanchet, Odile; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Recher, Christian; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Delaunay, Jacques; Pigneux, Arnaud; Bulabois, Claude-Eric; Berthon, Céline; Pautas, Cécile; Vey, Norbert; Lioure, Bruno; Thomas, Xavier; Luquet, Isabelle; Terré, Christine; Guardiola, Philippe; Béné, Marie C; Preudhomme, Claude; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2013-03-21

    Not all patients with core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) display a good outcome. Modern risk factors include KIT and/or FLT3 gene mutations and minimal residual disease (MRD) levels, but their respective values have never been prospectively assessed. A total of 198 CBF-AML patients were randomized between a reinforced and a standard induction course, followed by 3 high-dose cytarabine consolidation courses. MRD levels were monitored prospectively. Gene mutations were screened at diagnosis. Despite a more rapid MRD decrease after reinforced induction, induction arm did not influence relapse-free survival (RFS) (64% in both arms; P = .91). Higher WBC, KIT, and/or FLT3-ITD/TKD gene mutations, and a less than 3-log MRD reduction after first consolidation, were associated with a higher specific hazard of relapse, but MRD remained the sole prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. At 36 months, cumulative incidence of relapse and RFS were 22% vs 54% (P gene mutations, should be used for future treatment stratifications in CBF-AML patients. This trial was registered at EudraCT as #2006-005163-26 and at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT 00428558.

  19. Endovascular management of central thoracic veno-occlusive diseases in hemodialysis patients: a single institutional experience in 69 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nael, Kambiz; Kee, Stephen T; Solomon, Houman; Katz, Steven G

    2009-01-01

    To assess the functional status and long-term outcomes of endovascular management for the treatment of central veno-occlusive disease in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Retrospective chart evaluation of 600 patients with threatened upper extremity dialysis access showed central veno-occlusive disease in 69 patients (11%; 30 women and 39 men; mean age, 63.9 years; age range, 26-92 years). A total of 92 venous segments were involved with disease. Initial endovascular procedures consisted of transvenous angioplasty (n = 88) and stent placement (n = 6); there were 134 repeat interventions (14 stents). The mean follow-up was 14.5 months (range, 1-44 months). Angiographic data were reviewed prospectively by two independent observers for the extent of veno-occlusive disease. Technical failures were defined as residual stenosis of at least 30% or lesions that were unable to be dilated or crossed. Statistical analysis, including interobserver agreement and Kaplan-Meier analysis, was performed. Technical success rates for initial and follow-up interventional procedures were 90% (81 of 92 segments) and 96% (129 of 134 interventions), respectively. Two complications required treatment with interventional procedures. There was excellent interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.93) for grading the degree of venous stenoses. Primary patency rates of hemodialysis access at 1, 6, and 12 months were 81%, 46%, and 22%, respectively, which significantly (P = .001) improved to assisted patency rates of 91%, 77%, and 63% at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Endovascular management including a combination of angioplasty and selective stent placement can be effectively used to treat central veno-occlusive disease and preserve functional access in patients with threatened upper extremity dialysis access.

  20. Central nervous system disease and genital disease in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are associated with different herpesviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van Elk; M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); De Jong, A. (Anton); S. Getu (Sarah); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHerpesvirus infection causes disease of variable severity in many species, including cetaceans. However, little is known about herpesvirus infection in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), despite being widespread in temperate coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, we

  1. Central nervous system disease and genital disease in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are associated with different herpesviruses

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractHerpesvirus infection causes disease of variable severity in many species, including cetaceans. However, little is known about herpesvirus infection in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), despite being widespread in temperate coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, we examined harbor porpoises that stranded alive in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany between 2000 and 2014 for herpesvirus infection and associated disease. Porpoises that died o...

  2. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported health-related quality of life is increasingly used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and as a performance measure to evaluate quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Danish HeartQoL questionnaire, a core heart...... psychometric attributes of validity and reliability in this implantable cardioverter defibrillator population. This study adds support for the HeartQoL as a core heart-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire in a broad group of patients with heart disease including implantable cardioverter...

  3. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-05-30

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  4. Atypical presentation of CLIPPERS syndrome: a new entity in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system rheumatologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Maryam; Chaudhry, Ammar A; Chaudhry, Abbas A; Sheikh, Mubashir A; Carsons, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Numerous autoimmune diseases can affect the central nervous system (CNS), and variable clinical presentations confound the differential diagnosis. The challenging task of properly characterizing various CNS autoimmune diseases enables patients to be rapidly triaged and appropriately treated. In this review article, we aim to explore different CNS manifestations of rheumatologic diseases with emphasis on the utility of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid findings. We review the classic physical examination findings, characteristic imaging features, cerebrospinal fluid results, and serum biomarkers. In addition, we also present a unique case of newly described autoimmune entity CLIPPERS syndrome. Our case is unique in that this is the first case which demonstrates involvement of the supratentorial perivascular spaces in addition to the classic infratentorial involvement as initially described by Pittock et al (Brain. 2010;133:2626-2634).

  5. THE SPECTRUM OF INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Krishna; Naveen; Vengamma; Mohan; Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) are rare neurological diseases. Their features differ from region to region. We characterize features of these diseases in Chittor. METHODS We describe 100 patients of IDD from Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupathi from May 2012 – December 2013. RESULTS 10 patients with multiple sclerosis, 14 with ADEM, 6 NMO, 9 with ATM and 9 ON presented with the mean of 32 years wit...

  6. NASH and atherosclerosis are two aspects of a shared disease : Central role for macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieghs, Veerle; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Hofker, Marten H.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into the atherosclerotic lesion is known to play a central role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. In contrast, the role of macrophages during the etiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been considered to be merely a late consequence of steatosis. However, re

  7. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn′s disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn′s disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS, was used to register Crohn′s disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients′ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn′s disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn′s disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  8. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijs, B.L.; Teunissen, C.E.; Goncharenko, N.; Betsou, F.; Blennow, K.; Baldeiras, I.; Brosseron, F.; Cavedo, E.; Fladby, T.; Froelich, L.; Gabryelewicz, T.; Gurvit, H.; Kapaki, E.; Koson, P.; Kulic, L.; Lehmann, S.; Lewczuk, P.; Lleo, A.; Maetzler, W.; Mendonca, A. de; Miller, A.M.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Mollenhauer, B.; Parnetti, L.; Rot, U.; Schneider, A.; Simonsen, A.H.; Tagliavini, F.; Tsolaki, M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Zboch, M.; Winblad, B.; Scheltens, P.; Zetterberg, H.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid m

  9. A central role for TOR signalling in a yeast model for juvenile CLN3 disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Bond

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts provide an excellent genetically tractable eukaryotic system for investigating the function of genes in their biological context, and are especially relevant for those conserved genes that cause disease. We study the role of btn1, the orthologue of a human gene that underlies an early onset neurodegenerative disease (juvenile CLN3 disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCLs or Batten disease in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A global screen for genetic interactions with btn1 highlighted a conserved key signalling hub in which multiple components functionally relate to this conserved disease gene. This signalling hub includes two major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades, and centers on the Tor kinase complexes TORC1 and TORC2. We confirmed that yeast cells modelling CLN3 disease exhibit features consistent with dysfunction in the TORC pathways, and showed that modulating TORC function leads to a comprehensive rescue of defects in this yeast disease model. The same pathways may be novel targets in the development of therapies for the NCLs and related diseases.

  10. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS and the dissemination in time (DIT in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diagnosis list, including diseases with exacerbation, remitting periods and numerous treatable infectious diseases, which can mimic the MRI features of MS. We discuss the most relevant imaging features in several infectious diseases that resemble MS and examine the primary spatial distributions of lesions and the gadolinium enhancement patterns related to MS. Recognizing imaging "red flags" can be useful for the proper diagnostic evaluation of suspected cases of MS, facilitating the correct differential diagnosis by assessing the combined clinical, laboratory and MR imaging information.

  11. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Central Cavity Free-Field Environment with the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-FF-CC-32-cl).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Richard Manuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naranjo, Gerald E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lippert, Lance L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vehar, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, Patrick J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document presents the facilit y - recommended characteri zation o f the neutron, prompt gamma - ray, and delayed gamma - ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor ( ACRR ) for the cen tral cavity free - field environment with the 32 - inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environmen t is ACRR - FF - CC - 32 - cl. The neutron, prompt gamma - ray , and delayed gamma - ray energy spectra , uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma - ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the cavity . Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples . Acknowledgements The authors wish to th ank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work . Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  12. The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases.

  13. Gaucher disease in children: radiology of non-central nervous system manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K. E-mail: kmchugh@gosh.nhs.uk; Olsen, Oe.E.; Vellodi, A

    2004-02-01

    The radiological findings in paediatric Gaucher disease (GD) are reviewed and future challenges for radiology are discussed. This overview is based on a literature review and our experience of children with GD in one of two national institutions for paediatric GD in the UK. GD is known to progress more rapidly in childhood. Current imaging is mainly suitable for ascertaining the complications of GD. The UK recommendations for routine radiological surveillance are discussed. With enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which dramatically modifies the course of the disorder, the challenge for radiology in the future is likely to be assessing treatment efficacy rather than the detection of disease complications. Disease manifestations are likely to change in those on ERT and the most notable recent alteration in the disease profile in childhood is the virtual disappearance of the acute bone crisis in this population.

  14. Survival after surgery or therapeutic catheterisation for congenital heart disease in children in the United Kingdom: analysis of the central cardiac audit database for 2000-1

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, John L; Monro, James L.; Cunningham, David; Rickards, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To analyse simple national statistics and survival data collected in the central cardiac audit database after treatment for congenital heart disease and to provide long term comparative statistics for each contributing centre.

  15. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  16. Balamuthia mandrillaris infection of the skin and central nervous system: an emerging disease of concern to many specialties in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Francisco G; Alvarez, Patricia J; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-04-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris infection of the skin and central nervous system has been increasingly reported in the last decade, making this entity a genuine emerging disease. The ability of the clinician in recognizing the skin lesion early in the course of the disease may lead to a successful therapeutic intervention in an otherwise fatal disease. In the past years, advances have been made regarding knowledge about the ubiquity of the ameba in the environment, its worldwide distribution (with higher prevalence in South America), the patients at risk (particularly those of Hispanic origin), the diagnostic methods (including those based on molecular biology) and the different therapeutic strategies that have resulted in survival of patients. A recent report dealing with organ transplant transmission of this infection has made it a subject of interest in transplant medicine. The present review will allow readers from different fields (clinician, dermatologist, neurologist, infectious disease and transplant specialist) to become familiar with the clinical aspect of the disease, including diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Diffuse-Type Caroli Disease with Characteristic Central Dot Sign Complicated by Multiple Intrahepatic and Common Bile Duct Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Moon Joo; Kim, Tae Nyeun

    2017-07-01

    Caroli disease (CD) is a rare congenital malformation of the liver characterized by non-obstructive, segmental, cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (IHDs). The clinical course is usually asymptomatic for the first 5-20 years, and symptoms may seldom occur throughout the patient's life. Bile stagnation leads to recurrent episodes of cholangitis, stone formation, or liver abscesses, and biliary cirrhosis usually occurs years later. Here we report on a 42-year-old man diagnosed with diffuse-type CD with a characteristic central dot sign, who had multiple intrahepatic and common bile duct (CBD) stones. CBD stones were treated successfully with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

  18. [Alpha lipoic acid and its antioxidant against cancer and diseases of central sensitization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marisa; Mach, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El ácido alfa lipoico (ALA) puede controlar y limitar la cantidad de radicales libres, influyendo el desarrollo de patologías como el cáncer o las enfermedades de sensibilización central, aunque los mecanismos moleculares implicados en este proceso aún están dilucidándose. Objetivo: Reunir y contrastar información sobre las propiedades antioxidantes del ALA en la prevención y desarrollo de las patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Material y métodos: En este trabajo, se analizan más de 100 artículos publicados en los últimos 20 años que relacionan el consumo de ALA y la prevalencia y desarrollo de patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Los artículos han sido obtenidos en diferentes bases de datos (PubMed central, Web of Science, Elsevier Journal, Science Direct), e incluyen experimentos en células, animales y humanos. Las palabras clave utilizadas fueron: cáncer, enfermedades de sensibilización central, radicales libres, y ALA. Resultados y discusión: Se han reunido resultados de trabajos realizados in vitro y en animales de laboratorio en los que se pone de manifiesto el efecto del ALA en el control de la apoptosis celular de diferentes tipos de cánceres mediante un aumento de las especies reactivas de oxígeno, así como también el retardo en el crecimiento de las mismas. Aparte, se ha demostrado que la capacidad antioxidante del ALA y su potencial para regenerar otros antioxidantes es de gran importancia para tratar las patologías de sensibilización central. Conclusiones: El ALA ha demostrado un papel significativo como antioxidante y prooxidante en el cáncer y las patologías de sensibilización central, aunque son necesarias más investigaciones en humanos.

  19. AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Central Neuropathic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Loeser, John D.; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2017-01-01

    framework can be extended to central pain due to other causes such as traumatic brain injury. The classification of central neuropathic pain is organized according to the AAPT multidimensional framework, specifically (1) core diagnostic criteria; (2) common features; (3) common medical and psychiatric......Central neuropathic pain, which is pain caused by a lesion or disease of the central somatosensory nervous system, is a serious consequence of spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis and other conditions affecting the central nervous system. A collaborative effort between the Analgesic......, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership and the American Pain Society (APS), the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) initiative, invited a working group to develop diagnostic criteria for central neuropathic pain...

  20. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  1. Association of angiitis of central nervous system, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and Alzheimer’s disease: Report of an autopsy case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Annweiler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cédric Annweiler1, Marc Paccalin2, Gilles Berrut3, Caroline Hommet4, Christian Lavigne1, Jean-Paul Saint-André5, Olivier Beauchet11Department of Geriatrics and Internal Medicine, Angers University Hospital, France; 2Department of Geriatrics, Poitiers University Hospital, France; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nantes University Hospital, France; 4Department of Geriatrics, Tours University Hospital, France; 5Department of Anatomopatholgy, Angers University Hospital, FranceAbstract: The association of angiitis of central nervous system (ACNS with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA suggests a physiopathological relationship between these two affections. Few cases are reported in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We describe here a clinicopathological case associating ACNS, CAA, and AD. We discuss the aetiology of ACNS and its relationship with cerebral deposition of beta A4 amyloid protein (βA4.Keywords: cerebral angiopathy, Alzheimer’s disease

  2. Hereditary retinal eye diseases in childhood and youth affecting the central retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Nentwich

    2013-01-01

    Classic examinations for patients suffering from hereditary retinal dystrophies of the central retina are funduscopy - also using red-free light - visual-field tests, electrophysiologic tests as electro-retinogram [ERG] and multifocal ERG and tests evaluating color vision. Recently, new imaging modalities have been introduced into the clinical practice. The significance of these new methods such as high-resolution spectral-domain optic coherence tomography [SD-OCT] and fundus autofluorescence will be discussed as well as "next generation sequencing" as a new method for the analysis of genetic mutations in a larger number of patients.

  3. Neoplastic leptomeningeal disease masquerading as central serous retinopathy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaraoud, Ibrahim; Suleman, Hanif J; Cikatricis, Peter; Palmer, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man became aware of people's speech being out of synch with their lip movements alongside persistent headaches, both of which progressively worsened. A few weeks later, he developed progressive and painless visual loss in one eye. Initial neurological evaluation, inflammatory markers and head computed tomography scan were normal. Ophthalmological examination and OCT scan revealed right macular subretinal fluid with choroidal indentation, which prompted urgent further investigations including head MRI revealing extensive leptomeningeal disease. The patient continued to deteriorate and deceased shortly afterwards. This is the first reported case of neoplastic leptomeningeal disease presenting with loss of vision due to choroidal metastasis with localised exudative retinal detachment. Diagnosing neoplastic leptomeningeal disease requires a high index of suspicion from the treating physician. Symptoms may be nonspecific and/or subtle. Combining cerebrospinal fluid cytology from lumbar puncture with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is considered the optimal diagnostic approach.

  4. Survey of root rot diseases of sugar bett in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive survey was conducted during the summer and autumn of 2004 in sugar beet fields in the area of Larissa, Thessaly region, with plants showing symptoms of root rot diseases. The aim of the monitoring was to identify the causal agents of root rot diseases. In total, 76 sugar beet fields were surveyed and 5-10 diseased roots were examined from each field. Isolations, carried out on PDA, showed that two main fungal pathogens causing root rot were Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cryptogea. The former was isolated in 46% of the fields and the latter in 38% of the fields. In addition, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp., Scerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia violacea were isolated in 14%, 7%, 4% and 1% of the fields respectively. In most of the surveyed fields only one pathogen species was isolated and only in a few of them more than one fungal species was identified.

  5. Aplicación del formato Dublin Core para la descripción de los recursos en la biblioteca virtual del CDICT- Universidad Central de Las Villas (Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Ramón A. Manso Rodríguez; Lic. Marilyn Lorenzo Rodríguez; Tec. María C. Vázquez

    2002-01-01

    Tomando en consideración el aumento de literatura en soporte electrónico y como parte del desarrollo de sus sistemas automatizados de gestión bibliotecaria, el Centro de Documentación e Información Científico – Técnica de la Universidad Central de Las Villas, Santa Clara, Cuba, construyó su biblioteca virtual utilizando los campos especificados en el formato Dublin Core, para la descripción de los recursos que se le incorporarían al sistema. En este trabajo damos una breve panorámica de la ut...

  6. Análisis de los efectos de 12 semanas de entrenamiento en la zona Central Core, en jugadoras de voleibol gimnastas de rítmica y su influencia en el dolor de espalda lumbar

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban García, Paula

    2016-01-01

    El dolor de espalda lumbar afecta entorno el 85-90% de la población, pudiendo también encontrarse como patología, en la población deportista. Se ha determinado, que deportes como la gimnasia rítmica y el voleibol, tienen como una de las lesiones con mayor incidencia, el dolor de espalda lumbar. Existe una gran tendencia en los últimos años, en la aplicación de programas de entrenamiento sobre la zona central CORE, en población con dolor crónico lumbar, encontrando reducciones en la intensidad...

  7. Three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR venography to evaluate central venous steno-occlusive disease in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, K.; Jiang, H.; Zhai, R.Y.; Wang, J.F.; Wei, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Huang, Q., E-mail: hq0713@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (3D-Gd-MRV) in central venous steno-occlusive disease (CVSD) in haemodialysis patients. Materials and methods: Fourteen consecutive haemodialysis patients underwent interventional procedures to evaluate or treat CVSD. 3D-Gd-MRV was performed before the procedures and the results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Results: DSA showed >50% stenosis in all 14 patients, 13 of whom were diagnosed correctly using 3D-Gd-MRV. Moderate stenosis was missed at 3D-Gd-MRV in one case whereby the indwelling dialysis central venous catheter may have caused an artefact on the images and hindered the accuracy of the result. The sensitivity of 3D-Gd-MRV in revealing stenosis was 93% (13/14). No complications caused by contrast agent toxicity occurred in any patient. Conclusion: 3D-Gd-MRV employing a non-breath-hold technique is highly sensitive in the diagnosis of CVSD and may be an alternative technique to DSA for the visualization of central veins.

  8. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production.

  9. [Isradipine-SRO: antihypertensive efficacy, central and peripheral hemodynamic effects in patients with hypertensive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzolkov, V I; Bartieva, D M; Makolkin, V I

    2003-01-01

    To assess antihypertensive efficacy of isradipine, to study its effects on central and peripheral hemodynamics, and to investigate relationships between state of microcirculation and response to treatment. Isradipine was given for 12 weeks to 30 patients (16 men, 14 women, mean age 50.2+/-9.8 years) with I-II stage mild and moderate hypertension. Twenty four hour blood pressure monitoring, assessment of parameters of central hemodynamics and state of microcirculation were carried out before and after 12 weeks of isradipine administration. Administration of isradipine was associated with improved sense of well-being and significant lowering of 24-hour, diurnal and nocturnal systolic/diastolic blood pressure (by 6.4/12.7, 7.6/9.4, 10.5/13.4%, respectively). Average 24-hour heart rate increased mainly during daytime (by 10.6%). Mean hemodynamic blood pressure was lowered by 16.3% due to reduction of total peripheral vascular resistance. There occurred redistribution of types of microcirculation with increase of proportion of normocirculatory and decrease - of spastic types. Changes of parameters of microcirculation at rest and during functional tests evidenced for resolution of baseline arteriolar spasm, stasis and venous congestion in microcirculatory vascular bed. Patients who responded to isradipine more often had spastic (50%) and congestive (35%) types of microcirculation. Patients with hyperemic type did not respond to isradipine. Most frequent side effect was flushing (23.3%) because of which 2 patients stopped taking the drug.

  10. White-tailed deer harvest from the chronic wasting disease eradication zone in south-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Joly, D.O.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Rolley, R.E.; Sausen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope=0.003, 95% CI=0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope=0.071, 95% CI=0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD infection (slope=-0.041, 95% CI=-0.056- -0.027). Concomitantly, harvest was not impacted in areas where landowners signed a petition protesting intensive deer reduction (slope=-0.00006, 95% CI=-0.0005-0.0003). Our results suggest that the success of programs designed to reduce deer populations for disease control or to reduce overabundance in Wisconsin are dependent on landowner and hunter participation. We recommend that programs or actions implemented to eradicate or mitigate the spread of CWD should monitor and assess deer population reduction and evaluate factors affecting program success to improve methods to meet management goals.

  11. Molecular characterization of genotype XIIIb Newcastle disease virus from central India during 2006-2012: Evidence of its panzootic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morla, Sudhir; Shah, Manisha; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-10-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) in many avian species. ND is a serious problem in developing countries, causing huge loss in the poultry industry. Although there are reports of continuous outbreaks of ND leading to serious losses to the poultry farming, very less is known about the genetic characteristics of its strains circulating in different parts of India. In the present study, we have five isolates of NDV reported from different outbreaks in Central India between the years 2006-2012. Deduced amino acid sequence of the F protein cleavage site and phylogenetic analysis of all the five isolates showed circulation of NDV genotype XIIIb. All the isolates showed a unique virulent cleavage site (112)RRQKR↓F(117). The close genetic similarity of all the isolates suggested circulation of the virulent NDV strains of the same ancestor in and around central India. Continuous isolation of genotype XIIIb NDV strains within the country suggests its panzootic potential. The study will be useful to understand the circulating strains of NDV and plan a vaccination strategy for poultry in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydatid disease of the central nervous system: a review of literature with an emphasis on Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Ali; Vannemreddy, Prasad; Minagar, Alireza; Toledo, Eduardo González; Palacios, Enrique; Nanda, Anil

    2010-04-01

    To provide an up to date review of the epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prevention of hydatid cyst of the central nervous system, with an emphasis in South American countries. We searched the PubMed databases for articles containing the terms 'hydatid cyst' and 'nervous system'. We found and reviewed 303 articles and their related references. We provide the available information on the pathology, life cycle and diagnostic modalities (laboratory tests and imaging) along with possible complications of the disease. Current treatment methods of hydatid cyst in the brain and spine are also being discussed. Echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease, endemic in some parts of South America. The epidemiology of echinococcosis is influenced by agricultural, educational, economic, medical and cultural factors. Human infestation occurs through the fecal-oral route. Infection of the central nervous system is rare, and the mainstay of treatment is surgical excision of the intracranial or spinal cyst, when present. Preventive programs should break the parasite life cycle and also educate the farmers in endemic areas.

  13. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Linda E M; Favejee, Marein M; Wens, Stephan C A; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Praet, Stephan F E; Reuser, Arnold J J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2015-07-19

    Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary outcome measures core stability, muscle function and body composition, were evaluated. Of 25 patients enrolled, 23 successfully completed the training. Improvements in endurance were shown by increases in maximum workload capacity (110 W before to 122 W after training, [95 % CI of the difference 6 · 0 to 19 · 7]), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (69 · 4 % and 75 · 9 % of normal, [2 · 5 to 10 · 4]), and maximum walking distance (6 min walk test: 492 meters and 508, [-4 · 4 to 27 · 7] ). There were increases in muscle strength of the hip flexors (156 · 4 N to 180 · 7 N [1 · 6 to 13 · 6) and shoulder abductors (143 · 1 N to 150 · 7 N [13 · 2 to 35 · 2]). As an important finding in secondary outcome measures the number of patients who were able to perform the core stability exercises rose, as did the core stability balancing time (p core stability exercises is feasible, safe and beneficial to adults with Pompe disease.

  14. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens.

  15. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip (UBC)

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

  17. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  18. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56% patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44% were female. Twenty-three (56% patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  19. Lack of differential pattern in central adiposity and metabolic syndrome in Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, L A

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the mechanism is unclear. A pathway from reflux to inflammation through metaplasia is the dominant hypothesis, and an added role relating to visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome has been mooted in Barrett\\'s esophagus (BE) patients. Whether BE differs from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obesity and metabolic syndrome profiles is unclear, and this was the focus of this study. Patients with proven BE or GERD were randomly selected from the unit data registry and invited to attend for metabolic syndrome screening, anthropometry studies including segmental body composition analysis, and laboratory tests including fasting lipids, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. One hundred and eighteen BE patients and 113 age- and sex-matched GERD controls were studied. The incidence of obesity (body mass index >30 kg\\/m(2)) was 36% and 38%, respectively, with the pattern of fat deposition predominantly central and an estimated trunk fat mass of 13 and 14 kg, respectively. Using the NCEP criteria, metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in the BE cohort (30% vs 20%, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference using IDF criteria (42% vs 37%, P= 0.340). Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome are common in both Barrett\\'s and GERD cohorts, but not significantly different, suggesting that central obesity and the metabolic syndrome does not per se impact on the development of BE in a reflux population. In BE, the importance of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in disease progression merits further study.

  20. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  1. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of disease in the central nervous system in employees at Danish electric companies; Udsaettelse for elektromagnetiske felter og risiko for sygdomme i det centrale nervesystem blandt ansatte ved danske elselskaber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2002-07-01

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields has been associated with neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Material and method: I studied the incidence of disease in the central nervous system in 30,631 persons employed at Danish electric companies between 1900 and 1993. I linked the cohort to the nationwide, population-based Danish National Register of Patients and compared the number of cases of these diseases found between 1978 and 1993 with the corresponding rates in the general population. In addition, I fit the data on utility workers to a multiplicative Poisson regression model in relation to estimated levels of exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Results: Overall, there was an increase in the risk of senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effects; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. Discussion: The increased risk of senile dementia and motor-neuron diseases may be associated with above average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields. (au)

  2. Distal tephra record for the last ca 105,000 years from core PRAD 1-2 in the central Adriatic Sea: implications for marine tephrostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, A. J.; Lowe, J. J.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Wulf, S.; Matthews, I. P.; Piva, A.; Vigliotti, L.

    2010-11-01

    Core PRAD 1-2, located on the western flank of the Mid-Adriatic Deep, contains a continuous sediment record extending back to upper MIS-11. The upper part of the record which spans the mid Holocene to MIS 5-4 (the last ca 105,000 years) has been investigated for tephra content. A total of 25 discrete tephra layers were discovered, only one of which was visible in the core sequence. The other 24 are not visible to the naked eye, nor were the majority detected by routine down-core scanning methods. A total of 625 geochemical measurements obtained from individual glass shards using WDS-EPMA enabled 21 of the 25 tephras to be assigned to known volcanic events emanating from the Campanian Province (Campi Flegrei, Somma-Vesuvius and Ischia Island). The results provide an independent basis for establishing an age-depth profile for the upper part of the PRAD 1-2 record. This study demonstrates that the number of non-visible tephra layers can significantly exceed the number of visible layers in some deep marine sequences. Routine testing for the presence of non-visible tephra layers can therefore prove rewarding, leading to the detection of additional isochrons for dating and correlating marine sequences, and for their synchronisation with terrestrial records.

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of Tactical Importance to U.S. Central Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    sides of the nose; rarely also the midchest, midback and pubic areas. Commonly confused with lupus erythematosus and rosacea (if on face), and...hepatitis E, up to 5% in normal hosts, greater in pregnancy ). Chronic disease: see complications above. 1 HEPATITIS 35 Prevention and Public Health...250-500 mg PO BID (photosensitiv- ity; not in kids or in pregnancy ). • Doxycycline 100 mg PO QD (photosensitivity; nausea; take with food

  4. A High Explanatory Power Model of Foot and Mouth Disease Spread in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    four days prior to the onset of clinical signs. Vesicle rupture is the most infectious route of virus transmission. FMDV transmissions occur due to...direct or indirect contact with infected animals and contaminated fomites. The common routes of contracting the disease include inhalation of the...humans is mild and transient. In humans, FMDV may be carried in the nasal passages for about 24 hours allowing people who have been in close contact

  5. Central syntropic effects elicited by trigeminal proprioceptive equilibrium in Alzheimer’s disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cicco Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presented patient, affected by Alzheimer’s disease, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation under occlusal proprioceptive un-balance and re-balance conditions. Saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic examinations were performed in order to detect connected trigeminal proprioceptive motor patterns able to interfere with reticular formation cerebellum functions linked to visual and procedural processes prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man, affected by Alzheimer’s disease and with a neuropsychological evaluation issued by the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit, underwent an electromyographic investigation of the masseter muscles in order to assess their functional balance. The patient showed a bilateral lack of all inferior molars. The extreme myoelectric asymmetry in dental occlusion suggested the rebalancing of masseter muscular functions through concurrent transcutaneous stimulation of the trigeminal nerve supramandibular and submandibular motor branches. The above-mentioned method allows detection of symmetric craniomandibular muscular relation that can be kept constant through the use of a cusp bite modeled on the inferior dental arch, called orthotic-syntropic bite. A few days later, the patient underwent a new neuropsychological investigation, together with a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, and saccadic, pupillometric video-oculographic examinations in occlusal un-balance and re-balance conditions. Conclusions Comparative data analysis has shown that a re-balanced occlusal condition can improve a patient’s cognitive-attentive functions. Moreover, the saccadic and pupillometric video-oculographic investigations have proven useful both in analyzing reticulo-cerebellar subcortical systems, prematurely altered in Alzheimer’s disease, and in implementing neurological evaluations.

  6. The Role of the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems in Rotator Cuff Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachasson, Damien; Singh, Anshuman; Shah, Sameer; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) disease is an extremely common condition associated with shoulder pain, reduced functional capacities and impaired quality of life. It primarily involves alterations in tendon health and mechanical properties that can ultimately lead to tendon failure. RC tendon tears induce progressive muscular changes that negatively impact surgical reparability of the RC tendons and clinical outcomes. At the same time, a significant base of clinical data suggests a relatively weak relationship between RC integrity and clinical presentation, emphasizing the multifactorial aspects of RC disease. This review aims to summarize the potential contribution of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal neural factors that may: (i) exacerbate structural and functional muscle changes induced by tendon tear, (ii) compromise the reversal of these changes during surgery and rehabilitation, (iii) contribute to pain generation and persistence of pain, iv) impair shoulder function through reduced proprioception, kinematics and muscle recruitment, and iv) help to explain interindividual differences and response to treatment. Given the current clinical and scientific interest in peripheral nerve injury in the context of RC disease and surgery, we carefully reviewed this body of literature with a particular emphasis for suprascapular neuropathy that has generated a large number of studies in the past decade. Within this process, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and suggest research avenues for scientists and clinicians. PMID:26189809

  7. Economic losses due to important diseases of bovines in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the factors associated with morbidity and mortality rates as well as to evaluate economic losses due to important diseases of bovines, viz. mastitis, HS and surra in Purvanchal Region of Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A sample of 300 livestock owners were selected from each of five divisions of Purvanchal region of the state of Uttar Pradesh using multistage stratified sampling with simple random sampling without replacement at village level. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates due to different diseases were determined using standard statistical indices. Association between cattle morbidity and mortality rates and different factors was calculated by χ2 Test. The total economic loss due to diseases in bovines was worked out as sum of mortality loss, loss in milk yield and cost of treatment of affected animals. Results: The overall morbidity rates of mastitis, HS and surra in cattle and buffaloes were 15.5%, 7.1% and 5.3%, respectively. The mortality and case fatality due to HS was found higher in the young calves as compared to the adults in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Mortality and case fatality due to surra was greater in the adult animals as compared to the younger ones in case of both buffaloes and cattle. Total losses due to mastitis per lactation in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 868.34, INR 1, 314.10 and INR 1, 272.36, respectively. Total losses due to HS per animal in ND cows, CB cows and buffaloes were INR 2, 355.78, INR 3, 228.52 and INR 4, 262.57, respectively. Total losses due to surra per animal in ND cow, CB cow and buffalo were INR 3, 328.18, INR 6, 193 and INR 9, 872.33, respectively. Conclusion: The study thus revealed significant losses due to diseases in large ruminants on. There is thus ample scope for preventive measures to control the disease bovines.

  8. Comparative Study of Metadata Elements Used in the Website of Central Library of Universities Subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology with the Dublin Core Metadata Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Babaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been carried out with the aim of studying the web sites of central libraries of universities subordinate to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology usage of metadata elements and its comparison with Dublin Core standard elements. This study was a comparative survey, in which 40 websites of academic library by using Internet Explorer browser. Then the HTML pages of these websites were seen through the Source of View menu, and metadata elements of each websites were extracted and entered in the checklist. Then, with using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage and mean analysis of data was discussed. Research findings showed that the reviewed websites did not use any Dublin Core metadata elements, general metadata Markup language used in design of all websites, the amount of metadata elements used in website, Central Library of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Iran Science and Industries with 57% in first ranked and Shahid Beheshti University with 49% in second ranked and the International University of Imam Khomeini with 40% was in third ranked. The approach to web designers was determined too that as follows: the content of source in first ranked and attention to physical appearance source in second ranked and also ownership of source in third position.

  9. NICHD Zebrafish Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The core[HTML_REMOVED]s goal is to help researchers of any expertise perform zebrafish experiments aimed at illuminating basic biology and human disease mechanisms,...

  10. Defining the Core Citrus Leaf- and Root-Associated Microbiota: Factors Associated with Community Structure and Implications for Managing Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Lorca, Graciela L; Meyer, Julie L; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Teplitski, Max

    2017-06-01

    Stable associations between plants and microbes are critical to promoting host health and productivity. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that restructuring of the core microbiota may be associated with the progression of huanglongbing (HLB), the devastating citrus disease caused by Liberibacter asiaticus, Liberibacter americanus, and Liberibacter africanus The microbial communities of leaves (n = 94) and roots (n = 79) from citrus trees that varied by HLB symptom severity, cultivar, location, and season/time were characterized with Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The taxonomically rich communities contained abundant core members (i.e., detected in at least 95% of the respective leaf or root samples), some overrepresented site-specific members, and a diverse community of low-abundance variable taxa. The composition and diversity of the leaf and root microbiota were strongly associated with HLB symptom severity and location; there was also an association with host cultivar. The relative abundance of Liberibacter spp. among leaf microbiota positively correlated with HLB symptom severity and negatively correlated with alpha diversity, suggesting that community diversity decreases as symptoms progress. Network analysis of the microbial community time series identified a mutually exclusive relationship between Liberibacter spp. and members of the Burkholderiaceae, Micromonosporaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae This work confirmed several previously described plant disease-associated bacteria, as well as identified new potential implications for biological control. Our findings advance the understanding of (i) plant microbiota selection across multiple variables and (ii) changes in (core) community structure that may be a precondition to disease establishment and/or may be associated with symptom progression.IMPORTANCE This study provides a comprehensive overview of the core microbial community within the microbiomes of plant hosts that vary in

  11. Radiation Characterization Summary: ACRR Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) Bucket Located in the Central Cavity on the 32-Inch Pedestal at the Core Centerline (ACRR-PLG-CC-32-cl).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parma, Edward J.,; Vehar, David W.; Lippert, Lance L.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2015-06-01

    This document presents the facility-recommended characterization of the neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray radiation fields in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) for the polyethylene-lead-graphite (PLG) bucket in the central cavity on the 32-inch pedestal at the core centerline. The designation for this environment is ACRR-PLG-CC-32-cl. The neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray energy spectra, uncertainties, and covariance matrices are presented as well as radial and axial neutron and gamma-ray fluence profiles within the experiment area of the bucket. Recommended constants are given to facilitate the conversion of various dosimetry readings into radiation metrics desired by experimenters. Representative pulse operations are presented with conversion examples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank the Annular Core Research Reactor staff and the Radiation Metrology Laboratory staff for their support of this work. Also thanks to David Ames for his assistance in running MCNP on the Sandia parallel machines.

  12. NEUROCOGNITIVE AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL AND STUDY OF PATIENTS OF PARKINSONISM & PARKINSON’S DISEASE IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the patients of Parkinson’s disease in the Indian tertiary setup it was necessary to weigh the multivaried presentation of PD for the motor disorders as well as neurocognitive and various grades of psychophysiological inadequacies with emphasis on cognitive deficits. Two groups of patients consisting of 41 subjects in each of case and control group were analyzed for the psycho - neurophysiological functions using AIIMS battery (in Hindi and MMSE scoring system. The case and controls had appreciab le difference in MMSE scoring with almost 2.5% of patients having very low score (<10 compared to none in control scoring less than 10. 80% of cases presented with disease in upper or lower limbs. Disability scoring on Hoehn & Yahr scoring was stage 2(34% or stage 3(27% for most of the patients in the study. 85.4% patients presented with tremors, 13% patients had history of early falls and 63% patients had urinary bladder involvement at the time of presentation. 20% (6/35 of the cases categorized as Idi opathic Parkinson’s disease presented with conspicuous gaze abnormality. The different lobes were evaluated categorically for dysfunction in both the hemispheres and an estimate of dysfunction distribution was obtained. Right frontal lobe had the highest p sychocognitive score while the right parietoccipital had the least score of all the lobar regions evaluated on AIIMS neuropsychiatric battery scoring. The score differences of cases with controls the RSM - right sensorimotor and LT - left temporal were the maximum. In overall hemispherical comparison, right lobe scored 335.50 as compared to 315.90 of left lobe. All four subdomains of MMSE were subnormal in cases as compared to controls with remarkable impairment of execution functions and memory. The AIIMS t est battery was more sensitive for cognitive evaluation in this study with 70% cases of impaired patient had scored normal on MMSE scoring system.

  13. Antibody response against gastrointestinal antigens in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banati, M; Csecsei, P; Koszegi, E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies against gastrointestinal antigens may indicate altered microbiota and immune responses in the gut. Recent experimental data suggest a connection between gastrointestinal immune responses and CNS autoimmunity. METHODS: Antibodies against gliadin, tissue transglutaminase (t......TG), intrinsic factor (IF), parietal cells (PC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) were screened in the sera of 45 patients with AQP4-seropositive neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum diseases (NMO/NMO-SD), 17 patients with AQP4-seronegative NMO, 85 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis...

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF GBM HEPARAN-SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN CORE PROTEIN AND SIDE-CHAINS IN HUMAN GLOMERULAR-DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBORN, J; VANDENHEUVEL, LPWJ; BAKKER, MAH; VEERKAMP, JH; ASSMANN, KJM; WEENING, JJ; BERDEN, JHM

    1993-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing either the core protein or the heparan sulfate (HS) side chain of human GBM heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), we investigated their glomerular distribution on cryostat sections of human kidney tissues. The study involved 95 biopsies comprising twelve

  15. In vivo imaging in autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    Intravital imaging is becoming more popular and is being used to visualize cellular motility and functions. In contrast to in vitro analysis, which resembles in vivo analysis, intravital imaging can be used to observe and analyze cells directly in vivo. In this review, I will summarize recent imaging studies of autoreactive T cell infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) and provide technical background. During their in vivo journey, autoreactive T cells interact with many different cells. At first, autoreactive T cells interact with endothelial cells in the airways of the lung or with splenocytes, where they acquire a migratory phenotype to infiltrate into the CNS. After arriving at the CNS, they interact with endothelial cells of the leptomeningeal vessels or the choroid plexus before passing through the blood-brain barrier. CNS-infiltrating T cells become activated by recognizing endogenous autoantigens presented by local antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This activation was visualized in vivo by using protein-based sensors. One such sensor detects changes in intracellular calcium concentration as an early marker of T cell activation. Another sensor detects translocation of Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) from cytosol to nucleus as a definitive sign of T cell activation. Importantly, intravital imaging is not just used to visualize cellular behavior. Together with precise analysis, intravital imaging deepens our knowledge of cellular functions in living organs and also provides a platform for developing therapeutic treatments.

  16. Morphological Spectrum of Orbitoocular Diseases in a Tertiary Health Centre in Keffi, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeyinwa Mary Onwubuya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective clinicopathological analysis of the ocular lesions requiring biopsy seen in the Department of Histopathology, Federal Medical Centre (FMC, Keffi, in North Central Nigeria. Materials and Method. A retrospective review of the clinicopathologic profile of orbitoocular lesions diagnosed at the FMC, Keffi, was done. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients’ clinical records and original biopsy reports, respectively. Results. Sixty-six cases of orbitoocular lesions were reviewed for this study. Of the 54 cases investigated, 28 were HIV negative while 26 were HIV positive (37.1% of all cases. There were 30 cases of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN with a male-to-female ratio of 0.9 : 1. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC was the most frequent OSSN with 17 cases. The mean age of cases of SCC is 37.1 ± 7.6 SD (years. The mean age of carcinoma in situ is 35.8 ± 11.4 years. Conclusion. There was no significant difference in the sex distribution of patients with OSSN. It is probable that a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma may be encountered in about a year after diagnosis of a carcinoma in situ especially if the in situ carcinoma is left untreated or improperly treated.

  17. [Central nervous system in IgG4-related disease: case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas-Garcia, A L; Calle-Lopez, Y; Zapata, C H; Alvarez-Espinal, D M; Saavedra-Gonzalez, Y A; Arango-Viana, J C

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 es una entidad clinica multisistemica recientemente descrita y que se presenta con diferentes manifestaciones clinicas. Los organos que estan afectados con mayor frecuencia son el pancreas, la via biliar y las glandulas salivales, y es menos frecuente la afeccion del sistema nervioso central. Caso clinico. Mujer de 33 años con alteraciones cognitivas, alucinaciones, cefalea, sindrome convulsivo, sinusitis maxilar con afeccion osea y evidencia de paquimeningitis y panhipopituitarismo, con biopsia meningea que confirmo una enfermedad relacionada con IgG4, tras haberse descartado causas secundarias. Se inicio tratamiento con glucocorticoides y azatioprina, sin recaidas despues de 12 meses de seguimiento. Conclusiones. Se debe considerar el diagnostico de enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 en casos de paquimeningitis hipertrofica e hipofisitis, incluso sin que se acompañen de otras manifestaciones sistemicas, siempre que se hayan descartado otras causas mas frecuentes. El tratamiento de eleccion son los glucocorticoides, y puede ser necesario añadir otro inmunosupresor como ahorrador de esteroides y para evitar las recaidas. Se necesitan estudios prospectivos para evaluar las diferentes manifestaciones clinicas y paraclinicas y establecer los resultados del tratamiento a largo plazo.

  18. Chemokines Referee Inflammation within the Central Nervous System during Infection and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Douglas M; Williams, Jessica L; Daniels, Brian P; Klein, Robyn S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that chemokines and their receptors are expressed by a variety of cell types within the normal adult central nervous system (CNS) has led to an expansion of their repertoire as molecular interfaces between the immune and nervous systems. Thus, CNS chemokines are now divided into those molecules that regulate inflammatory cell migration into the CNS and those that initiate CNS repair from inflammation-mediated tissue damage. Work in our laboratory throughout the past decade has sought to elucidate how chemokines coordinate leukocyte entry and interactions at CNS endothelial barriers, under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, and how they promote repair within the CNS parenchyma. These studies have identified several chemokines, including CXCL12 and CXCL10, as critical regulators of leukocyte migration from perivascular locations. CXCL12 additionally plays an essential role in promoting remyelination of injured white matter. In both scenarios we have shown that chemokines serve as molecular links between inflammatory mediators and other effector molecules involved in neuroprotective processes.

  19. Chemokines Referee Inflammation within the Central Nervous System during Infection and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Durrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that chemokines and their receptors are expressed by a variety of cell types within the normal adult central nervous system (CNS has led to an expansion of their repertoire as molecular interfaces between the immune and nervous systems. Thus, CNS chemokines are now divided into those molecules that regulate inflammatory cell migration into the CNS and those that initiate CNS repair from inflammation-mediated tissue damage. Work in our laboratory throughout the past decade has sought to elucidate how chemokines coordinate leukocyte entry and interactions at CNS endothelial barriers, under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, and how they promote repair within the CNS parenchyma. These studies have identified several chemokines, including CXCL12 and CXCL10, as critical regulators of leukocyte migration from perivascular locations. CXCL12 additionally plays an essential role in promoting remyelination of injured white matter. In both scenarios we have shown that chemokines serve as molecular links between inflammatory mediators and other effector molecules involved in neuroprotective processes.

  20. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  1. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  2. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  3. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240} PU core : a cylindrical assemby with mixed (PU, U)-oxide fuel and a central high {sup 240} PU zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; Schaefer, R. W.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2007-10-01

    Over a period of 30 years more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. The term 'benchmark' in a ZPR program connotes a particularly simple loading aimed at gaining basic reactor physics insight, as opposed to studying a reactor design. In fact, the ZPR-6/7 Benchmark Assembly (Reference 1) had a very simple core unit cell assembled from plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U3O8, and plutonium. The ZPR-6/7 core cell-average composition is typical of the interior region of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) of the era. It was one part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program,a which provided integral experiments characterizing the important features of

  4. Radioactivity Distribution In Surface And Core Sediment Of The Central Part Of The Algerian Coast: An Estimation Of The Recent Sedimentation Rate

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Sediment core samples and marine surface sediments of identical composition, mostly muddy, were collected using a Van Veen type grab and a box corer on board the M.S. Benyahia research vessel (ISMAL), along the Algerian littoral, between Algiers (36Ζ49.9 N/ 03Ζ 02.3 E) and Cherchell (36Ζ 39.4 N/ 02Ζ 12.4 E), during a sampling cruise in September 1997. The samples were analysed to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides (uranium and thorium series and 40 K as well) and ar...

  5. Palaeo-earthquake events during the late Early Palaeozoic in the central Tarim Basin (NW China: evidence from deep drilling cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bizhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Various millimetre-, centimetre- and metre-scale soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS have been identified in the Upper Ordovician and Lower-Middle Silurian from deep drilling cores in the Tarim Basin (NW China. These structures include liquefied-sand veins, liquefaction-induced breccias, boudinage-like structures, load and diapir- or flame-like structures, dish and mixed-layer structures, hydroplastic convolutions and seismic unconformities. The deformed layers are intercalated by undeformed layers of varying thicknesses that are petrologically and sedimentologically similar to the deformed layers.

  6. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity.

  7. New insights into the pathology of Parkinson's disease: does the peripheral autonomic system become central?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, A; Bloch, A; Tolnay, M

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies in aged, neurologically unimpaired subjects have pointed to a specific induction site of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the region of the dorsal glossopharyngeus-vagus complex as well as in the anterior olfactory nucleus. From the lower brainstem, the disease process would then pursue an ascending course and involve more rostral brainstem areas, limbic structures, and eventually the cerebral cortex. One barrier to the acceptance of the caudal medullary structures as the induction site of PD pathology is that not all parts of the nervous system have been investigated for the presence of PD-associated lesions in cases of early asymptomatic PD. Using alpha-synuclein immunostaining, we investigated the brain, the sacral, and thoracic autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord as well as several components of the peripheral autonomic nervous system in a autopsy cohort of 98 neurologically unimpaired subjects aged 64 or more. Our data indicate that the autonomic nuclei of the spinal cord and the peripheral autonomic nervous system belong to the most constantly and earliest affected regions next to medullary structures and the olfactory nerves in neurologically unimpaired older individuals, thus providing a pathological basis for early premotor autonomic dysfunctions at a prodromal stage of PD.

  8. The central nervous system phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a transient disorder of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mateen, Majeed; Craig, Alexa Kanwit; Chance, Phillip F

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 (CMTX1) disease and central nervous system manifestations and review 19 cases from the literature. Our first case had not been previously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the second case, although known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, was suspected of having CMTX1 after presentation with central nervous system manifestations. The most common central nervous system manifestations were transient and included dysarthria, ataxia, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis resembling periodic paralysis. Of the 21 patients, 19 presented at 21 years of age or younger, implicating CMTX1 with transient central nervous system manifestations as a disorder that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CMTX1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with transient central nervous system phenomena, including stroke-like episodes, tetraparesis suggestive of periodic paralysis, dysarthria, ataxia, or combinations of these deficits. Reversible, bilateral, nonenhancing white matter lesions and restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging are characteristic features of the central nervous system phenotype of CMTX1.

  9. Meta-Review of CSF core biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease: the state-of-the-art after the new revised diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eFerreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current research criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD include Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF biomarkers into the diagnostic algorithm. However, spreading their use to the clinical routine is still questionable. Objective: To provide an updated, systematic and critical review on the diagnostic utility of the CSF core biomarkers for AD. Data sources: MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and CRD.Eligibility criteria: 1a Systematic reviews with meta-analysis; 1b Primary studies published after the new revised diagnostic criteria; 2 Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of at least one CSF core biomarker.Results: The diagnostic performance of CSF biomarkers is generally satisfactory. They are optimal for discriminating AD patients from healthy controls. Their combination may also be suitable for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI prognosis. However, CSF biomarkers fail to distinguish AD from other forms of dementia. Limitations: 1 use of clinical diagnosis as standard instead of pathological postmortem confirmation; 2 variability of methodological aspects; 3 insufficiently long follow-up periods in MCI studies; and 4 lower diagnostic accuracy in primary care compared with memory clinics. Conclusions: Additional work needs to be done to validate the application of CSF core biomarkers as they are proposed in the new revised diagnostic criteria. The use of CSF core biomarkers in clinical routine is more likely if these limitations are overcome. Early diagnosis is going to be of utmost importance when effective pharmacological treatment will be available and the CSF core biomarkers can also be implemented in clinical trials for drug development.

  10. Meta-Review of CSF Core Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease: The State-of-the-Art after the New Revised Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniel; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Sarría, Antonio; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Current research criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers into the diagnostic algorithm. However, spreading their use to the clinical routine is still questionable. Objective: To provide an updated, systematic and critical review on the diagnostic utility of the CSF core biomarkers for AD. Data sources: MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and CRD. Eligibility criteria: (1a) Systematic reviews with meta-analysis; (1b) Primary studies published after the new revised diagnostic criteria; (2) Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of at least one CSF core biomarker. Results: The diagnostic performance of CSF biomarkers is generally satisfactory. They are optimal for discriminating AD patients from healthy controls. Their combination may also be suitable for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prognosis. However, CSF biomarkers fail to distinguish AD from other forms of dementia. Limitations: (1) Use of clinical diagnosis as standard instead of pathological postmortem confirmation; (2) variability of methodological aspects; (3) insufficiently long follow-up periods in MCI studies; and (4) lower diagnostic accuracy in primary care compared with memory clinics. Conclusion: Additional work needs to be done to validate the application of CSF core biomarkers as they are proposed in the new revised diagnostic criteria. The use of CSF core biomarkers in clinical routine is more likely if these limitations are overcome. Early diagnosis is going to be of utmost importance when effective pharmacological treatment will be available and the CSF core biomarkers can also be implemented in clinical trials for drug development. PMID:24715863

  11. Central Nervous System Disease in Hematological Malignancies: Historical Perspective and Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Thiel, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 5-year survival rates are approaching 90% in children and 50% in adults who are receiving contemporary risk-directed treatment protocols. Current efforts focus not only on further improving cure rate but also on patient quality of life. Hence, all protocols decrease or limit the use of cranial irradiation as central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, even in patients with high-risk presenting features, such as the presence of leukemia cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (even resulting from traumatic lumbar puncture), adverse genetic features, T-cell immunophenotype, and a large leukemia-cell burden. Current strategies for CNS-directed therapy involve effective systemic chemotherapy (eg, dexamethasone, high-dose methotrexate, intensive asparaginase, ifosfamide) and early intensification and optimization of intrathecal therapy. Options under investigation for the treatment of relapsed or refractory CNS leukemia in ALL patients include thiotepa and intrathecal liposomal cytarabine. CNS involvement in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is associated with young age, advanced stage, number of extranodal sites, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and International Prognostic Index score. Refractory CNS lymphoma in patients with NHL carries a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 2 to 6 months; the most promising treatment, autologous stem cell transplant, can extend median survival from 10 to 26 months. CNS prophylaxis is required during the initial treatment of NHL subtypes that carry a high risk of CNS relapse, such as B-cell ALL, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and lymphoblastic lymphoma. The use of CNS prophylaxis in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is controversial because of the low risk of CNS relapse (~5%) in this population. In this article, we review current and past practice of intrathecal therapy in ALL and NHL and the risk-models that aim to identify predictors of CNS relapse in NHL. PMID:19660680

  12. Physical-Property Measurements on Core samples from Drill-Holes DB-1 and DB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect, North-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, David A.; Watt, Janet T.; Casteel, John; Logsdon, Grant

    2009-01-01

    From May to June 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and measured physical properties on 36 core samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 1 (DB-1) and 46 samples from drill-hole Deep Blue No. 2 (DB-2) along the west side of Blue Mountain about 40 km west of Winnemucca, Nev. These data were collected as part of an effort to determine the geophysical setting of the Blue Mountain geothermal prospect as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of geothermal systems throughout the Great Basin. The physical properties of these rocks and other rock types in the area create a distinguishable pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies that can be used to infer their subsurface geologic structure. Drill-holes DB-1 and DB-2 were spudded in alluvium on the western flank of Blue Mountain in 2002 and 2004, respectively, and are about 1 km apart. Drill-hole DB-1 is at a ground elevation of 1,325 m and was drilled to a depth of 672 m and drill-hole DB-2 is at a ground elevation of 1,392 m and was drilled to a depth of 1522 m. Diameter of the core samples is 6.4 cm. These drill holes penetrate Jurassic and Triassic metasedimentary rocks predominantly consisting of argillite, mudstone, and sandstone; Tertiary diorite and gabbro; and younger Tertiary felsic dikes.

  13. Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) during the past century

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V N Nijampurkar; D K Rao; H B Clausen; M K Kaul; A Chaturvedi

    2002-03-01

    The depth profiles of electrical conductance, 18O, 210Pb and cosmogenic radio isotopes 10Be and 36Cl have been measured in a 30 m ice core from east Antarctica near the Indian station, Dakshin Gangotri. Using 210Pb and 18O, the mean annual accumulation rates have been calculated to be 20 and 21 cm of ice equivalent per year during the past ∼150 years. Using these acumulation rates, the volcanic event that occurred in 1815 AD, has been identified based on electrical conductance measurements. Based on 18O measurements, the mean annual surface air temperatures (MASAT) data observed during the last 150 years indicates that the beginning of the 19th century was cooler by about 2°C than the recent past and the middle of 18th century. The fallout of cosmogenic radio isotope 10Be compares reasonably well with those obtained on other stations (73° S to 90°S) from Antarctica and higher latitudes beyond 77°N. The fallout of 36Cl calculated based on the present work agrees well with the mean global production rate estimated earlier by Lal and Peters (1967) The bomb pulse of 36Cl observed in Greenland is not observed in the present studies a result which is puzzling and needs to be studied on neighbouring ice cores from the same region.

  14. Radioactivity Distribution In Surface And Core Sediment Of The Central Part Of The Algerian Coast: An Estimation Of The Recent Sedimentation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NOUREDDINE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediment core samples and marine surface sediments of identical composition, mostly muddy, were collected using a Van Veen type grab and a box corer on board the M.S. Benyahia research vessel (ISMAL, along the Algerian littoral, between Algiers (36Ζ49.9 N/ 03Ζ 02.3 E and Cherchell (36Ζ 39.4 N/ 02Ζ 12.4 E, during a sampling cruise in September 1997. The samples were analysed to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides (uranium and thorium series and 40 K as well and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and Pu isotopes, using a direct gamma spectrometry for gamma emitters and radiochemical separations and alpha spectrometry for alpha emitters. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the examined radionuclides were studied in the surface and core samples and an effort to estimate the sedimentation rate was attempted.The measured values range was: 17 - 26 Bq/Kg dry for uranium series radioisotopes, 18 – 32 Bq/Kg dry for thorium series radioisotopes, 311 - 690 Bq/Kg dry for 40 K, 0.4 - 11 Bq/Kg dry, for 137 Cs and 0.4 – 1.0 Bq/Kg dry for 239 + 240 Pu.

  15. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutsis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX, carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars. Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis.

  16. Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Regulates Purinergic Transmission in the Central Nervous System During Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP is one of the four isozymes in humans and mice that have the capacity to hydrolyze phosphate groups from a wide spectrum of physiological substrates. Among these, TNAP degrades substrates implicated in neurotransmission. Transgenic mice lacking TNAP activity display the characteristic skeletal and dental phenotype of infantile hypophosphatasia, as well as spontaneous epileptic seizures and die around 10 days after birth. This physiopathology, linked to the expression pattern of TNAP in the central nervous system (CNS during embryonic stages, suggests an important role for TNAP in neuronal development and synaptic function, situating it as a good target to be explored for the treatment of neurological diseases. In this review, we will focus mainly on the role that TNAP plays as an ectonucleotidase in CNS regulating the levels of extracellular ATP and consequently purinergic signaling.

  17. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment, general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Izadi; Arman Ishaqi; Mohammad Ali Ishaqi; Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari; Fatemeh Rahamaty; Abdolali Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  18. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment,general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza; Izadi; Annan; Is’haqi; Mohammad; Ali; Is’haqi; Nematollah; Jonaidi; Jafari; Fatemeh; Rahamaty; Abdolali; Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers.Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system,which may require in-patient care.Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis.An overview of the available evidence in the field is.therefore,Urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research.In November 2013,data were collected from PubMed,Scopus,and Web of knowledge(1980 to2013) including books,reviews,and peer-reviewed literature,Works pertained to pre-travel care,interventions,vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved.Here we provide information on pre-travel care,vaccination,chronic nervous system disorders,and post-travel complications.Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps,and state-of-the-art research are made.Given an increasing number of international travellers,novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections.Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications,detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness.Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine,further research is required for vaccine development,state-of-the-art laboratory tests,and genetic engineering of vectors.

  19. Outdoor near-roadway, community and residential pollen, carbon dioxide and particulate matter measurements in the urban core of an agricultural region in central CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Meng, Qingyu; Kelly, Sarah W.; Foster, Christine A.

    2012-04-01

    We can control asthma through proper clinical and environmental management and education. The U.S. population is growing, urbanizing and aging; seniors of low-to-middle income families are working and living longer. We conducted community-based participatory research in Visalia, Tulare County, California with a prospective, cross-sectional repeated measures design and quantitative and qualitative process; home environment and health-related outcomes data were collected. In this paper, we presented results of the air quality sampling-pollen, carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM) outdoors away from most major sources (agricultural fields, large pollinating trees, etc)-at a community central site close to a mobile line source and participant homes in the cooling season, July, 2009. Weather was hot and dry with light winds; diurnal variation ranged between 65-107 °F (18-42 °C) and 12-76% relative humidity at the study's central site. Co-located active (reference) and passive (PAAS) samplers were used for pollen; passive monitoring for CO2 (Telaire 7001) and active sampling for PM were conducted. Overall, we observed spatial variability in CO2, fine PM (PM2.5), and pollen counts. Weekday and study week average CO2 and PM2.5 concentrations were higher near study homes compared to central site sampling points, but peak measures and overnight/pre-dawn time period averages were elevated at the central site. Pollen counts were typically lower at homes-even if grass, trees, flowers or potted plants were present-compared to the central site closer to and generally downwind from commercial agricultural tree production. Data are new; the nine-county San Joaquin Valley has one pollen count station in the national network, and two of four government outdoor air monitoring stations in the county are in national parks. We suggest-given poor air quality in large part due to PM-adding routine pollen counts to regional/state agency air monitoring sites and more CO2 and PM

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography according to pre-test probability of coronary artery disease and severity of coronary arterial calcification. The CORE-64 (Coronary Artery Evaluation Using 64-Row Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography) International Multicenter Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Miller, Julie M; Rochitte, Carlos E; Dewey, Marc; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Gottlieb, Ilan; Paul, Narinder; Clouse, Melvin E; Shapiro, Edward P; Hoe, John; Lardo, Albert C; Bush, David E; de Roos, Albert; Cox, Christopher; Brinker, Jeffrey; Lima, Joăo A C

    2012-01-01

    ...) to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). The ability of CTA to exclude obstructive CAD in patients of different pre-test probabilities and in presence of coronary calcification remains uncertain. For the CORE-64...

  1. Prevalence and related risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in Wuhan, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; DU Fan; MAO Hong; WANG Hong-xiang; ZHAO Shi

    2011-01-01

    Bsckground The investigations of prevalence and risk factors of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in type 2 diabetic patients have been carried out in many countries and regions,except for Central China.In this study,we determined the prevalence of PAD in type 2 diabetic patients and the related factors that gave rise to increasing of the risk of PAD development in Wuhan,China.Methods The study enrolled 2010 patients aged 60 years and older who were regularly visiting the Central Hospital of Wuhan that is a public hospital from 2005 to 2010,where all residents of the city were offered the medical services.PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index <0.90 in either leg.To evaluate the role of various risk factors in PAD development,uniformed interviews,clinical examinations and laboratory investigation of all of participants were performed in this study.The correlation between potential risk factors and PAD was analyzed.Results In Wuhan,the prevalence rate of PAD was 24.1% in elderly diabetic patients.Totally,291 patients with PAD had at least one weak but not absent dorsalis pedis pulse in both feet,while 541 patients without PAD showed this way.At least one absent dorsalis pedis pulse was found in 192 patients with PAD as well as 10 patients without PAD.The results of multivariate regression analysis suggested that the age,smoking history,hypertension,diabetic neuropathy and macroangiopathy gave rise to significant increase of PAD development in type 2 diabetic diseases.Conclusions The prevalence of PAD in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in Wuhan was close to the prevalence that was reported in other regions of China and other Asian countries.Control of the related risk factors and early diagnosis of PAD may play a role in PAD prevention and improving prognosis.

  2. Evaluating safety of tunneled small bore central venous catheters in chronic kidney disease population: A quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Gauri; El Ters, Mireille; Kremers, Walter K; Klunder, Joe L; Taler, Sandra J; Williams, Amy W; Stockland, Andrew H; Hogan, Marie C

    2016-09-20

    Introduction Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) may adversely impact future successful arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). As part of a quality improvement project, the performance of tunneled small bore tunneled central venous catheters (TSB-CVCs), as alternatives to PICCs, was evaluated. Methods A retrospective observational study, involving individuals ≥18 years of age who underwent TSB-CVC placement by Interventional Radiology at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 1/1/2010 and 8/30/2013. Findings The study cohort included 92 patients with a median age of 55 (46-67) years, who underwent 108 TSB-CVC placements. Baseline renal disease was present in 71% (77/108). Most TSB-CVCs were placed in hospitalized patients (94%; 102/108); five French in diameter (61%; 66/108) and located in an internal jugular vein (84%; 91/108). Median catheter indwelling time was 20 (11-43) days (n = 84). TSB-CVC-related bloodstream infection, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and superficial venous thrombosis (SpVT) rates per line were 0.009 (1/108), 0.018 (2/108), and 0.009 (1/108), respectively. Venous outcomes in a subgroup of 54 patients, who had documented PICC placements (n = 161) in addition to TSB-CVC (n = 58) were compared. TSB-CVC-DVT rate was lower than the PICC-DVT rate (0.017 [1/58] vs. 0.106 per line [17/161]; P = 0.04). The TSB-CVC-SpVT rate was not different from the PICC-SpVT rate (0 [0/58] vs. 0.037 [6/161] per line; P = 0.14). Discussion TSB-CVCs demonstrated an excellent safety profile in our study. These catheters should be preferentially utilized for arm vein preservation in advanced kidney disease. Their impact on future AVF success needs further evaluation.

  3. Temporal relation of antigenaemia and loss of antibodies to core antigens to development of clinical disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Nielsen, C M; Vestergaard, B F

    1987-01-01

    and 16 months after the estimated time of seroconversion. These results show that the late stages of HIV infection are characterised by increased production of antigen and a decrease in antibodies directed against the core protein. Antigenaemia indicates a poor prognosis; and as the antigen test......A total of 276 sequential serum samples from 34 men with antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) followed up for two to seven years were analysed for HIV antigen and antibodies to the viral core and envelope proteins. Results were correlated with clinical outcome and CD4 T lymphocyte...... with antigenaemia compared with one out of 18 patients without antigenaemia. Low counts of CD4 cells (less than 0.5 X 10(9)/l) were found in 14 of the 16 patients with antigenaemia and five of the 18 without antigenaemia. Nine patients seroconverted to HIV during the study; two of these developed antigenaemia 14...

  4. Temporal relation of antigenaemia and loss of antibodies to core antigens to development of clinical disease in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Nielsen, C M; Vestergaard, B F;

    1987-01-01

    A total of 276 sequential serum samples from 34 men with antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) followed up for two to seven years were analysed for HIV antigen and antibodies to the viral core and envelope proteins. Results were correlated with clinical outcome and CD4 T lymphocyte...... with antigenaemia compared with one out of 18 patients without antigenaemia. Low counts of CD4 cells (less than 0.5 X 10(9)/l) were found in 14 of the 16 patients with antigenaemia and five of the 18 without antigenaemia. Nine patients seroconverted to HIV during the study; two of these developed antigenaemia 14...... and 16 months after the estimated time of seroconversion. These results show that the late stages of HIV infection are characterised by increased production of antigen and a decrease in antibodies directed against the core protein. Antigenaemia indicates a poor prognosis; and as the antigen test...

  5. Passive surveillance of communicable diseases among inmates of Jos central prison, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado-Baba Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Results: Out of 132 inmates that presented themselves for medical treatment at the prison clinic, eighty-nine (67.4% (95% CI=62.4-72.4 were infected with various pathogenic agents, namely Plasmodium parasites (37.1%, intestinal parasites (14.4%, human immunodeficiency virus (11.4% and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (4.5%. The parasites occurred both as mono and mixed-double and triple infections. Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum predominates with 65.3% (32/49 while non-falciparum species had 20.4% due to P. malariae (16.3% and P. vivax (4.1%. Intestinal parasites accounted for 14.4% (95% CI=9.4-19.4 of the infections comprising five species, with Entamoeba hystolytica dorminating (57.9% and Strogyloides stercoralis rare (4.8%. Of the co-infection, the highest combination was Plasmodium + HIV (35.3%. Fifteen inmates had HIV virus (16.5% and 6 (6.6% had Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The age group 1-40 years recorded 93.3% and 100% of the HIV and tuberculosis infections respectively. Eleven deaths were recorded 4 years preceding this survey from various causes including HIV and septicemia. Conclusions: The study concludes that Nigerian prisons pose a serious threat as reservoir of diseases to the nation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1366-1374

  6. Metabolic Profiling of Central Nervous System Disease in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Sabrina D; Alibu, Vincent P; Holmes, Elaine; Sternberg, Jeremy M

    2017-09-12

    The progression of Human African Trypanosomiasis from the early hemolymphatic stage to the late meningoencephalitic stage is of critical diagnostic importance as it determines the choice of potentially toxic drug regimens. Current diagnostic criteria involving analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for parasites and/or pleiocytosis are sensitive, but recent evidence suggests that specificity may be poor. We used an untargeted global metabolic profiling approach for the discovery of novel candidate stage diagnostic markers in CSF from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Metabolic markers did not resolve early and late stage cases but were associated with neuro-inflammatory responses and the presentation of neurological disturbances. In particular increased 3-hydroxybutyrate and alanine and reduced concentrations of mannose and urea were discriminatory for the presentation of daytime somnolence and gait ataxia. CSF metabolite concentrations provide markers for neuroinflammatory responses during CNS invasion by trypanosomes and are associated with the presentation of neurological disturbances independently of disease stage determined by current criteria. This suggests that applying a dichotomous stage diagnosis on the basis of CSF pleiocytosis does not accurately reflect the biological changes occurring as parasites invade the CNS and has implications for biomarker discovery strategies.

  7. AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Central Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström-Noga, Eva; Loeser, John D; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-06-27

    Central neuropathic pain, which is pain caused by a lesion or disease of the central somatosensory nervous system, is a serious consequence of spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions affecting the central nervous system. A collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks public-private partnership and the American Pain Society, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) initiative, invited a working group to develop diagnostic criteria for central neuropathic pain. The criteria for central neuropathic pain that were developed expand upon existing criteria for neuropathic pain and the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision draft criteria to ensure consistency. This article focuses on central neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis, but the AAPT framework can be extended to central pain due to other causes such as traumatic brain injury. The classification of central neuropathic pain is organized according to the AAPT multidimensional framework, specifically: 1) core diagnostic criteria, 2) common features, 3) common medical and psychiatric comorbidities, 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences, and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms, risk factors, and protective factors. The AAPT chronic central neuropathic pain taxonomy provides a classification for central pain associated with spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. The diagnostic criteria are organized according to the AAPT multidimensional framework, specifically: 1) core diagnostic criteria, 2) common features, 3) common medical and psychiatric comorbidities, 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences, and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial

  8. Impaired tilt perception in Parkinson's disease: a central vestibular integration failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    Full Text Available Impaired balance control is a hallmark symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD. Altered sensory-motor integration contributes to the deficiency. We aimed to determine whether impaired vestibular signal processing added to the disorder. We exposed patients (N = 11; 68±6y and age-matched healthy subjects (hS: N = 19; 65±11y on a motion platform in complete darkness to two consecutive forward tilt movements (12 series; N = 24; overall 288 trials and asked them to indicate which tilt was perceived larger. By combing tilt movements with translations we manipulated vestibular sensory input in order to investigate whether putative impairment resulted from a deficiency of the sensory organs (semicircular canals in 'single-SCC-cue-condition', otoliths in 'single-OT-cue-condition' themselves or to a sensory integration failure ('multi-cue-condition'.Tilt discrimination in the multi-cue-condition was inferior in patients compared to hS (p = 0.02. No significant differences between the two groups were found for both single-cue-conditions. Comparison of multi-cue-condition with a prediction resulting from the combination of both single-cue-conditions by optimal observer theory revealed that patients (p = 0.04, in contrast to hS, failed to efficiently combine SCC and OT information to improve tilt perception.We found that PD patients distinguished forward tilts less precise than hS, suggesting impaired vestibular perception. Tilt discrimination in patients, moreover, did not improve as much as in hS in conditions where both SCC and OT information was available compared to conditions where only SCC or OT cues were activated. The latter provides evidence that tilt misperception in PD most likely results from an integration failure of vestibular signals.

  9. AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery in a Feline Model of Sandhoff Disease Corrects Lysosomal Storage in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Rockwell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandhoff disease (SD is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex, resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models. In this study, we treated presymptomatic SD cats with AAVrh8 vectors expressing feline Hex in the thalamus combined with intracerebroventricular (Thal/ICV injections. Treated animals showed clearly improved neurologic function and quality of life, manifested in part by prevention or attenuation of whole-body tremors characteristic of untreated animals. Hex activity was significantly elevated, whereas storage of GM2 and GA2 was significantly decreased in tissue samples taken from the cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, and cervical spinal cord. Treatment also increased levels of myelin-enriched cerebrosides and sulfatides in the cortex and thalamus. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of AAV for feline SD and suggests a similar potential for human SD patients.

  10. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhand, Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore and document the information regarding usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants utilized by rural farmers and traditional herbal healers for livestock healthcare in Tikamgarh District of Bundelkhnad, Central India. Methods: The remote villages of Tikamgarh district were regularly visited from July 2011 to June 2012. Following the methods of Jain and Goel (1995) information regarding the usage of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was collected.Results:various plant parts and their combinations for the treatment of more than 36 diseases in the studied area. Trees (17 species) were found to be the most used Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (6 species) and grasses (3) in descending order. The most common diseases cough, diarrhoea and fever were treated by 04 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species.Conclusions:The present study recommended that the crop and medicinal plant genetic A total of 41 plant species in 39 genera and 25 families were used traditionally with resources cannot be conserved and protected without conserving/managing of the agro-ecosystem or natural habitat of medicinal plants and the socio-cultural organization of the local people. The same may be applied to protect indigenous knowledge, related to the use of medicinal and other wild plants. Introduction of medicinal plants in degraded government and common lands could be another option for promoting the rural economy together with environmental conservation, but has not received attention in the land rehabilitation programs in this region.

  11. [The pineal cyst in children with different central nervous system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Anna; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara; Wesołowska, Ewa; Kaciński, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the group of adult patients being diagnosed from different neurological complaints frequency of pineal cyst occurrence is estimated at 0,1-4,9%. Frequency of its occurrence in pediatric population is unknown, however it is regarded as a common lesion at this age, more frequent in girls and older children. This structural lesion is usually asymptomatic, without sequels and clinical complications. However, neoplastic lesions may also localize in pineal cyst. Characterization of pineal cysts found in children diagnosed from different neurological diseases. 45 children at the age range from 14 months to 17 years were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Neurology Chair of Pediatric and Adolescent Neurology in the years 2006-2010. MR examination with contrast (with the use of Siemens device 1,5 T) revealed lesions in pineal gland defined as pineal cysts. Predominance of girls was observed in the group (33/45). Additionally older children between 10 and 15 years of age were dominating (27/ 45). In 24/45 children serum tumor markers AFP and betaHCG were determined. Examined group of patients with clinical symptoms which indicated necessity of MR examination performance was very heterogenic. The diameter of pineal cyst was between 3-10 mm in 40/45 children, 13 mm in 2 children and 11 mm in 3 children (most often 4-5 mm in 18 children). Usually this lesion accompanied other congenital or acquired CNS disorders. In 1/3 of children included to the study, headaches were cause of brain MR examination. In 15 children brain MR examination was performed due to epileptic paroxysmal events. No positive values of tumor markers were found in any of examined children. 1. Pineal cysts are common structural lesions in children hospitalized from different neurological symptoms. 2. Pineal cysts were usually found in children diagnosed because of headaches and epilepsy, and these were the most often final diagnosis. 3. In the examined group children over the age of 10 years and

  12. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  13. The Neuro-Immune Pathophysiology of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Systemic Immune-Inflammatory and Neuro-Immune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Galecki, Piotr; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many patients with systemic immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, including depression, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's disease, cancer, cardiovascular disorder, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, endure pathological levels of fatigue. The aim of this narrative review is to delineate the wide array of pathways that may underpin the incapacitating fatigue occurring in systemic and neuro-inflammatory disorders. A wide array of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), bioenergetic, and neurophysiological abnormalities are involved in the etiopathology of these disease states and may underpin the incapacitating fatigue that accompanies these disorders. This range of abnormalities comprises: increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interferon (IFN) α; O&NS-induced muscle fatigue; activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Cycle through pathogen-associated (PAMPs) and damage-associated (DAMPs) molecular patterns, including heat shock proteins; altered glutaminergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission; mitochondrial dysfunctions; and O&NS-induced defects in the sodium-potassium pump. Fatigue is also associated with altered activities in specific brain regions and muscle pathology, such as reductions in maximum voluntary muscle force, downregulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis master gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, a shift to glycolysis and buildup of toxic metabolites within myocytes. As such, both mental and physical fatigue, which frequently accompany immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, are the consequence of interactions between multiple systemic and central pathways.

  14. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  15. Ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica, from Greenland, and from a number of smaller glaciers around the world yield a wealth of information on past climates and environments. Ice cores offer unique records on past temperatures, atmospheric composition (including greenhouse gases), volcanism, solar activity......, dustiness, and biomass burning, among others. In Antarctica, ice cores extend back more than 800,000 years before present (Jouzel et al. 2007), whereas. Greenland ice cores cover the last 130,000 years...

  16. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Mortality for Cancer and Chronic Diseases in Central Italy, 1990-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela D'Ippoliti

    Full Text Available In several volcanic areas of Italy, arsenic levels exceed European regulatory limits (10 μg/L in drinking water. There is still uncertainty about health risks from arsenic at low-medium doses (<100 μg/L.A large population-based study using an administrative cohort of residents in the Viterbo province (Central Italy, chronically exposed to low-medium arsenic levels via drinking water, was investigated to evaluate the effects of a lifetime exposure to arsenic on mortality from cancers and chronic diseases.The study population consisted of 165,609 residents of 17 municipalities, followed from 1990 until 2010. Average individual arsenic exposure at the first residence (AsI was estimated through a space-time modeling approach using residential history and arsenic concentrations from water supply. A time-dependent Cumulative Arsenic dose Indicator (CAI was calculated, accounting for daily water intake and exposure duration. Mortality Hazard Ratios (HR were estimated by gender for different diseases using Cox proportional models, adjusting for individual and area-level confounders. A flexible non-parametric approach was used to investigate dose-response relationships.Mean AsI exposure was 19.3 μg/L, and average exposure duration was 39.5 years. Associations of AsI and CAI indicators with several diseases were found, with greatest risks found for lung cancer in both sexes (HR = 2.61 males; HR = 2.09 females, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease and COPD in males (HR = 2.94; HR = 2.44; HR = 2.54 respectively and diabetes in females (HR = 2.56. For lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases dose-response relationship is modelled by piecewise linear functions revealing effects even for doses lower than 10 μg/L, and no threshold dose value was identified as safe for health.Results provide new evidence for risk assessment of low-medium concentrations of arsenic and contribute to the ongoing debate about the threshold-dose of effect, suggesting

  17. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  18. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  19. Timing of Events in the Central Engine and Jets of the Radio Galaxies 3c 111 and 3c 120 (core Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The investigators request continuation of their long-term monitoring of the X-ray flux of the radio galaxies 3C 111 (FR 2) and 3C 120 (FR 1) 2 and 4 times per week, respectively, throughout Cycle 12, as well as a 90 days of daily monitoring of 3C 111. In both objects, dips in X-ray flux precede the appearance of bright superluminal knots in the radio jet. The long-term multiwaveband light curves and sequences of 7 mm VLBA images will record the changing pattern of multiwaveband emission in these two AGN. 3C 111 is a probable EGRET source; if the ID is correct, GLAST will measure its flux daily, allowing relative timing of gamma-ray variations with X-ray and optical events from the central engine plus radio events in the jet.

  20. The luminescence dating chronology of a deep core from Bosten Lake (NW China) in arid central Asia reveals lake evolution over the last 220 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Guoqiang; Duan, Yanwu; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    in the southern Tianshan Mountains in central ACA. A 51.6-m-deep lacustrine succession was retrieved from the lake and 30 samples from the succession were used for luminescence dating to establish a chronology based on multi-grain quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL (pIRIR290) dating. Quartz OSL ages were only....... A stable deep lake occurred at c. 220, 210–180, c. 165, 70–60, 40–30 and 20–5 ka, while shallow levels occurred at c. 215, 180–165, 100–70, 60–40 and 30–20 ka. Bosten Lake levels decreased by at least ~29 m and possibly the lake even dried up between c. 160 and c. 100 ka. We suggest that the water...

  1. Comparison the prevalence of isolated Hepatitis B core antibody among injection drug users with blood donors in central province in IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Soufian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In healthy blood donors, 2%–5% have isolated anti-HBc. Prevalence of hepatitis B, C and co- infection (HBV +HCV among injection drug user is high. Hepatitis C suppress of HB SAg and may be hepatitis B presented only with isolated anti HBC. This study determined of prevalence of isolated anti HBC among injection drug users and compare with blood donors in Arak city. Methods: A total 684 subjects (531voluntary blood donors and 153 injection drug users in Arak, Iran were included in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV were tested in all subjects. Results: A total of 531 voluntary blood donors living in the city of Arak, in the Central Province of Iran, with a mean age of 36 ± 10.18 years (range 16–60 years were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three percent of patients were male and 7% were female. Of the 531 cases, 11 subjects (2.1% had isolated anti-HBc. A total of 153 injection drug users of Arak, in the Central Province of Iran, with a mean age of 30.66 ± 5.92 years (range 20-50 years were enrolled in the study. All of them were male. Of the 153 cases, 12 subjects (7.84% had isolated anti-HBc. All of 12 cases were HCV positive. Conclusion: Prevalence of isolated anti-HBc among injection drug users was 3. 73 fold in comparison with blood donors. For diagnosis of hepatitis B in this group test for anti-HBc will be done. Evaluation of occult hepatitis B in subject with isolated anti-HBc by exact method such as real time PCR is necessary.

  2. Solution-Processable Small Molecules for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells with Rigidly Fluorinated 2,2'-Bithiophene Central Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Zuojia; Liu, Jiang; Mei, Jun; Li, Kai; Li, Ying; Peng, Qiang

    2016-05-11

    Small molecules containing an oligothiophene backbone are simple but effective donor materials for organic solar cells (OSCs). In this work, we incorporated rigid 2,2'-bithiophene (BT) or fluorinated 2,2'-bithiophene (FBT) as the central unit and synthesized two novel small molecules (TTH-D3TRh and TTF-D3TRh) with an oligothiophene backbone and 3-ethylrhodanine end groups. Both molecules exhibit good thermal stability as well as strong and broad absorption. The fluorination of the BT central unit made TTF-D3TRh possess a relatively lower-lying HOMO energy level, better molecular stacking, and higher mobility in comparison with those of TTH-D3TRh. Conventional OSCs were fabricated to evaluate the photovoltaic property of these two molecules. Without extra post-treatments, the conventional devices based on TTH-D3TRh and TTF-D3TRh showed high PCEs of 5.00 and 5.80%, respectively. The TTF-D3TRh device exhibited a higher performance, which can be attributed to the improved Voc of 0.92 V, Jsc of 10.04 mA cm(-2), and FF of 62.8%. Using an inverted device structure, the OSCs based on TTH-D3TRh and TTF-D3TRh showed largely elevated PCEs of 5.89 and 7.14%, respectively. The results indicated that the structurally simple TTH-D3TRh and TTF-D3TR molecules are potential donor candidates for achieving highly efficient OSCs. The strategy of fluorination and rigidity designation is an effective approach to develop oligothiophene-based small molecular donors for highly efficient solar cell applications.

  3. Aplicación del formato Dublin Core para la descripción de los recursos en la biblioteca virtual del CDICT- Universidad Central de Las Villas (Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ramón A. Manso Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en consideración el aumento de literatura en soporte electrónico y como parte del desarrollo de sus sistemas automatizados de gestión bibliotecaria, el Centro de Documentación e Información Científico – Técnica de la Universidad Central de Las Villas, Santa Clara, Cuba, construyó su biblioteca virtual utilizando los campos especificados en el formato Dublin Core, para la descripción de los recursos que se le incorporarían al sistema. En este trabajo damos una breve panorámica de la utilización del mismo, además de un análisis conceptual sobre el termino biblioteca virtual

  4. Defining the core apoptosis pathway in the mosquito disease vector Aedes aegypti: the roles of iap1, ark, dronc, and effector caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingzhen; Clem, Rollie J

    2011-02-01

    To date, our knowledge of apoptosis regulation in insects comes almost exclusively from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast, despite the identification of numerous genes that are presumed to regulate apoptosis in other insects based on sequence homology, little has been done to examine the molecular pathways that regulate apoptosis in other insects, including medically important disease vectors. In D. melanogaster, the core apoptosis pathway consists of the caspase negative regulator DIAP1, IAP antagonists, the initiator caspase Dronc and its activating protein Ark, and the effector caspase DrICE. Here we have studied the functions of several genes from the mosquito disease vector Aedes aegypti that share homology with the core apoptosis genes in D. melanogaster. Silencing of the iap1 gene in the A. aegypti cell line Aag2 caused spontaneous apoptosis, indicating that IAP1 plays a role in cell survival similar to that of DIAP1. Silencing A. aegypti ark or dronc completely inhibited apoptosis triggered by several different apoptotic stimuli. However, individual silencing of the effector caspases CASPS7 or CASPS8, which are the closest relatives to DrICE, only partially inhibited apoptosis, and silencing both CASPS7 and CASPS8 together did not have a significant additional effect. Our results suggest that the core pathway that regulates apoptosis in A. aegypti is similar to that of D. melanogaster, but that more than one effector caspase is involved in apoptosis in A. aegypti. This is interesting in light of the fact that the caspase family has expanded in mosquitoes compared to D. melanogaster.

  5. [Comparative study of core needle biopsy and fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of neck lymph node diseases with contrast-enhanced ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W Z; Yang, G Y; Xu, J P; Zhang, L; Li, J; Zhao, D

    2016-08-07

    To compare the efficacies of core needle biopsy and fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of neck lymph node diseases with contrast-enhanced ultrasound. A total of 105 patients with enlargement cervical lymph nodes were randomly divided into two groups, 49 in group A and 56 in group B. All patients were firstly examined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound to determine the targeted lymph node and the puncture point. Core needle biopsy was performed in Group A and tissues were fixed by with 10% formaldehyde; Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in Group B and extracts were smeared and fixed with 95% alcohol. The success rates of sampling were 100.0% in group A and 96.4% in group B. The positive rates of pathological examinations were 97.9% in group A; and 82.1% in group B, with a significant difference between two groups (χ(2) = 6.97, Pneedle biopsy is higher than that of fine needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of neck lymph node diseases with contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

  6. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  7. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  8. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis) infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus), over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108 PMID:20799946

  9. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  10. INTEGRAL core programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Schoenfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission is described with emphasis on the INTEGRAL core program. The progress made in the planning activities for the core program is reported on. The INTEGRAL mission has a nominal lifetime of two years with a five year extension option. The observing time will be divided between the core program (between 30 and 35 percent during the first two years) and general observations. The core program consists of three main elements: the deep survey of the Galactic plane in the central radian of the Galaxy; frequent scans of the Galactic plane in the search for transient sources, and pointed observations of several selected sources. The allocation of the observation time is detailed and the sensitivities of the observations are outlined.

  11. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G Walsh; MA Haseeb

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencie...

  12. Seropositivity for Anti-HCV Core Antigen is Independently Associated With Increased All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Liver Disease-Related Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Masaki; Kato, Karen; Tanno, Kozo; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Fujishima, Yosuke; Okayama, Akira; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Kawamura, Kazuko; Akiba, Takashi; Sakata, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Tomoaki

    2011-01-01

    Background It is not known whether chronic or past hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection contributes to the high mortality rate in hemodialysis patients. Methods This prospective study of 1077 adult hemodialysis patients without hepatitis B virus infection used Poisson regression analysis to estimate crude and sex- and age-adjusted rates (per 1000 patient-years) of all-cause, cardiovascular, infectious disease-related and liver disease-related mortality in patients negative for HCV antibody (group A), patients positive for HCV antibody and negative for anti-HCV core antigen (group B), and patients positive for anti-HCV core antigen (group C). The relative risks (RRs) for each cause of death in group B vs group C as compared with those in group A were also estimated by Poisson regression analysis after multivariate adjustment. Results A total of 407 patients died during the 5-year observation period. The sex- and age-adjusted mortality rate was 71.9 in group A, 80.4 in group B, and 156 in group C. The RRs (95% CI) for death in group B vs group C were 1.23 (0.72 to 2.12) vs 1.60 (1.13 to 2.28) for all-cause death, 0.75 (0.28 to 2.02) vs 1.64 (0.98 to 2.73) for cardiovascular death, 1.64 (0.65 to 4.15) vs 1.58 (0.81 to 3.07) for infectious disease-related death, and 15.3 (1.26 to 186) vs 28.8 (3.75 to 221) for liver disease-related death, respectively. Conclusions Anti-HCV core antigen seropositivity independently contributes to elevated risks of all-cause and cause-specific death. Chronic HCV infection, but not past HCV infection, is a risk for death among hemodialysis patients. PMID:22001541

  13. Significance of Size of Persistent/Recurrent Central Nodal Disease on Surgical Morbidity and Response to Therapy in Reoperative Neck Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Shek, Tony W H; Chan, Angel On-Kei; Lo, Chung-Yau; Wan, Koon Yat

    2017-01-01

    To balance the risk of disease progression, morbidity, and efficacy of reoperative central neck dissection (RCND) in papillary thyroid carcinoma, the latest clinical guidelines recommend early surgery over surveillance when the largest diseased node is >8 mm in its smallest dimension. However, the evidence remains scarce. To determine an appropriate size for first-time RCND, the relationship between size of largest diseased central node, morbidity, and response-to-therapy following RCND was examined. A total of 130 patients who underwent RCND following initial surgery for persistent/recurrent nodal disease were reviewed. Patients with largest diseased central node measured preoperatively by ultrasonography were included. Eligible patients were categorized into three groups: largest central node 15 mm (group III). Surgical morbidity and response to therapy at one year after RCND were compared between groups. To evaluate biochemical response, patients with structural incompleteness were excluded. Group III not only had significantly more high-risk tumors (by American Thyroid Association risk stratification) at initial therapy (64.5% vs. 44.4%, respectively; p = 0.038), but this group also a higher risk of extranodal extension (35.5% vs. 16.0%; p = 0.055), recurrent laryngeal nerve involvement (19.4% vs. 0.0%; p 15 mm in the largest disease central node was an independent risk factor for incomplete biochemical response, while nodal size 10-15 mm was not. These findings imply that the recommended threshold of 8 mm might be too stringent and could be raised to 15 mm without increasing the surgical morbidity from RCND.

  14. Masked assessment of MRI findings: is it possible to differentiate neuro-Behcet`s disease from other central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, O.; Bahar, S.; Akman-Demir, G.; Tasci, B.; Serdaroglu, P. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Neurology; Yurdakul, S.; Yazici, H. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1999-04-01

    Two neuroradiologists reviewed MRI studies of 34 patients with neuro-Behcet`s disease (NBD), 22 with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with central nervous system involvement, masked to the clinical diagnosis, age and sex of the patients. Of the patients with NBD 12 were in an acute attack; the others had chronic disease. MRI was assessed using a set of criteria, looking at atrophy, the site of discrete parenchymal lesions, regions of predominant involvement and the extent of the lesion(s). The observers also made a guess at the clinical diagnosis. The brain stem and/or basal ganglia were the most predominantly involved sites in all patients with acute NBD; 75 % of these lesions were large and confluent, mainly extending from the brain stem to the diencephalon and basal ganglia. However, in chronic cases, the predominant involvement was in the brain stem and/or basal ganglia in only 36 %, and in cerebral hemisphere white matter in another 36 %; 27 % of these patients showed no parenchymal lesion. Hemisphere white-matter lesions were equally distributed between periventricular and other areas in NBD, while in MS more were periventricular, and in SLE more were nonperiventricular. Brain-stem atrophy was seen in 21 % of patients with NBD, with a specificity of 96.5 %. In the absence of cortical atrophy, its specificity was 100 %. The attempt at making a radiological diagnosis was successful in all cases of acute NBD and 95.5 % of patients with MS, but in only 40 % of patients with chronic NBD. Most of this latter groups MRI studies were interpreted as MS. An extensive lesion involving the brain stem and basal ganglia seemed to be diagnostic of acute NBD. However, hemisphere white-matter lesions could not be differentiated from those in MS. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 tabs., 18 refs.

  15. Primary central nervous system vasculitis and its mimicking diseases - clinical features, outcome, comorbidities and diagnostic results - A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J; Horn, P A; Keyvani, K; Metz, I; Wegner, C; Brück, W; Heinemann, F M; Schwitalla, J C; Berlit, P; Kraemer, M

    2017-05-01

    To compare clinical features and outcome, imaging characteristics, biopsy results and laboratory findings in a cohort of 69 patients with suspected or diagnosed primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) in adults; to identify risk factors and predictive features for PCNSV. We performed a case-control-study including 69 patients referred with suspected PCNSV from whom 25 were confirmed by predetermined diagnostic criteria based on biopsy (72%) or angiography (28%). Forty-four patients turned out to have 15 distinct other diagnoses. Clinical and diagnostic data were compared between PCNSV and Non-PCNSV cohorts. Clinical presentation was not able to discriminate between PCNSV and its differential diagnoses. However, a worse clinical outcome was associated with PCNSV (p=0.005). Biopsy (p=0.004), contrast enhancement (p=0.000) or tumour-like mass lesion (p=0.008) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intrathecal IgG increase (p=0.020), normal Duplex findings of cerebral arteries (p=0.022) and conventional angiography (p 0.010) were able to distinguish between the two cohorts. In a cohort of 69 patients with suspected PCNSV, a large number (64%) was misdiagnosed and partly received treatment, since mimicking diseases are very difficult to discriminate. Clinical presentation at manifestation does not help to differentiate PCNSV from its mimicking diseases. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are unlikely to be normal in PCNSV, though unspecific if pathological. Cerebral angiography and biopsy must complement other diagnostics when establishing the diagnosis in order to avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment. German clinical trials register: http://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/, Unique identifier: DRKS00005347. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Core stability training combined with alternating electromagnetic field therapy for treatment of central coordination disorder%核心稳定性训练联合交变电磁场治疗中枢性协调障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪菲; 赵晓冬; 徐明; 陈艳红; 季菊花; 张文

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the effect of the core stability training combined with alternating electromagnetic field therapy for treatment of central coordination disorder. Methods:Ninety-five children with central coordination disorder of the spastic type were randomly divided into four groups:traditional group( n=23 cases) ,observation group( n=26 cases) ,training group( n=24 cases) and alternating electromagnetic field ( EMF ) group ( n =22 cases ) . The children in the traditional group were given only the routine rehabilitation training;the observation group received the core stability training combined with alternating electromagnetic field therapy, the training group received the core stability training and the EMF group received the alternating electromagnetic field therapy,all in addition to the routine rehabilitation training. The effect was evaluated by Bayley motor development index( PDI) and motor function. Results:The PDI of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the training group and the EMF group(P<0. 01);the PDI of the training group and the electromagnetic field group was significantly higher than that of the traditional group(P<0. 01). The follow-up results showed that the motor function index of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the traditional group (P<0. 01);The rates of normal head-raising in the training group and normal popliteal angle in the electromagnetic field group were higher than those in the traditional group(P<0. 01). Conclusions:Traditional rehabilitation therapy in combination with core stability training and alternating electromagnetic field therapy is more effective than traditional rehabilitation therapy alone in treatment of central coordination disorder.%目的:探讨核心稳定性训练联合交变电磁场治疗中枢性协调障碍的效果。方法:95例中枢性协调障碍痉挛型患儿随机分为传统组23例、观察组26例、训练组24例和电磁场组22

  17. An Atlas of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of the Central Nervous System. A Cooperative Study of SILAN (Sociedad Iberolatinoamericana de Neurorradiologia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Toledo, E; Santos Andrade, C; Da Costa Leite, C; Del Carpio-O'Donovan, R; Fayed, N; Morales, H; Peterson, R; Palacios, E; Previgliano, C H; Rocha, A J; Romero, J M; Rugilo, C; Staut, C C V; Tamer, I; Tavares Lucato, L; Nader, M

    2010-10-01

    Infectious diseases of the central nervous system vary in frequency in different locations in America and Europe. What is common in Brazil can be a sporadic presentation in Europe. Cooperative work gathering experiences from neuroradiologists working in various places can be achieved and will help to identify uncommon cases that can present in our daily practice.

  18. A longitudinal study of epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in individuals with and without a history of infantile autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. Methods: All participants were screened through...

  19. [To 70th anniversary of the Victory: activities of V.A. Obukh Central Institute for Industrial hygiene and Occupational diseases with USSR Narkomzdrav during Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Prokopenko, L V; Shigan, E E

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on activities of scientists and staffers of VA. Obukh Central Institute for Industrial hygiene and Occupational diseases with USSR Narkomzdrav during Great Patriotic War, on role of occupational therapists and hygienists in solving problems of better medical and sanitary care for workers engaged into defence industry.

  20. Neonicotinoid concentrations in urine from chronic kidney disease patients in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Risako; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Harada, Kouji H; Chandrajith, Rohana; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Abeysekera, Tilak; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used around the world since the 1990s. Reports have been made since the 1990s of rice paddy farmers in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka suffering from chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu). A preliminary evaluation of the exposure of local farmers in the NCR of Sri Lanka to neonicotinoids was performed. We analyzed neonicotinoid and neonicotinoid metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples. We selected 40 samples, 10 from farmers with CKDu and 10 from controls from each of two areas, Medawachchiya and Girandurukotte. Imidacloprid and desmethyl-acetamiprid were found at significantly higher concentrations in the control samples (with medians of 51 ng/l and 340 ng/l, respectively) than in the CKDu samples (medians of 15 ng/l and 150 ng/l, respectively) when the results were not adjusted for the creatinine contents. None of the six compounds that were measured in the urine samples were found at significantly higher concentrations in the CKDu samples than in the control samples. None of the neonicotinoid concentrations in the samples analyzed in this study exceeded the concentrations that have been found in samples from the general population of Japan. Farmers (both with and without CKDu) living in CKDu-endemic areas in the NCR of Sri Lanka are exposed to lower neonicotinoid concentrations than non-occupationally exposed residents of Japan.

  1. Pathological and Clinical Features and Management of Central Nervous System Hemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kanno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS hemangioblastoma is the most common manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. It is found in 70-80% of VHL patients. Hemangioblastoma is a rare form of benign vascular tumor of the CNS, accounting for 2.0% of CNS tumors. It can occur sporadically or as a familial syndrome. CNS hemangioblastomas are typically located in the posterior fossa and the spinal cord. VHL patients usually develop a CNS hemangioblastoma at an early age. Therefore, they require a special routine for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. The surgical management of symptomatic tumors depends on many factors such as symptom, location, multiplicity, and progression of the tumor. The management of asymptomatic tumors in VHL patients is controversial since CNS hemangioblastomas grow with intermittent quiescent and rapid-growth phases. Preoperative embolization of large solid hemangioblastomas prevents perioperative hemorrhage but is not necessary in every case. Radiotherapy should be reserved for inoperable tumors. Because of complexities of VHL, a better understanding of the pathological and clinical features of hemangioblastoma in VHL is essential for its proper management.

  2. Assistive technology in occupational therapy practice with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácia Caroline de Lima Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to report the effects of the interventions, using the resource of assistive technology, carried out with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system at his home. This is a study case, which was conducted in seven meetings, addressing the child and his caregivers during a process of evaluation, preparation of assistive devices, family orientation, and evaluation of the family environment repercussion. The results showed that the child presents significant motor, cognitive, and psychosocial impairments, resulting in difficulties in performing activities of daily living, communication, and play. Adjustments were proposed to facilitate the child’s involvement and alleviate family difficulties on equipment and environments, such as wheelchair, bedroom, bathroom, orthosis, toys and communication. Finally, it was possible to note that the assistive technology resources were used according to the child’s needs and his own reality, and that the domiciliary visits contributed positively to the family’s life because they facilitated the child’s care, despite the limitations faced.

  3. Effect of ivabradine on central aortic blood pressure in patients with stable coronary artery disease: What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, Yuri M; Vitale, Cristiana

    2016-12-01

    Treatment of hypertensive patients with beta-blockers decreases central blood pressure (CBP) less than other antihypertensive drugs, which is believed to account for their lesser cardiovascular protection in this setting. Some authors have suggested that decreasing heart rate (HR) with beta-blockers would increase CBP. In contrast to beta-blockers, the anti-anginal agent ivabradine reduces HR without other hemodynamic effects, and represents an attractive tool for exploring the direct relationship between HR and CBP. Here, we review the available clinical data assessing the effect of selective HR reduction with ivabradine on CBP in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We collected data from five studies which report either increase, decrease, or neutral effects of ivabradine on CBP. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact role of ivabradine on CBP. However, as supported by its pharmacodynamic effect in patients with stable CAD, available evidence to date suggests that ivabradine does not negatively impact CBP when associated with beta-blocker. HR reduction with both beta-blockers and ivabradine remains well-established treatments for the symptomatic treatment of angina patients.

  4. Central hemodynamics and androgen status in men with coronary heart disease, and androgen deficiency in its correction of prolonged administration of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Gaivoronskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to study the dynamic of the central hemodynamic disorders symptoms at men with coronary heart disease, stable angina, obesity and androgen deficiency under replacement short-term therapy by Testosterone undecanoate (TU. The comparative assessment of central hemodynamic indicators and total and sub-scale AMS score at two groups of men who receiving (the main group and not receiving (control group replacement therapy of TU is carried out. Results showed that in the main group, unlike control group the positive tendency in a number of indicators (stroke volume, left ventricular end- diastolic volume, left ventricular end- systolic volume of the central hemodynamic and indicators of the androgenic status is observed. Positive dynamics of some parameters of the central hemodynamic even at short-term replacement therapy of TU indicates the therapeutic potential of testosterone at cardiovascular pathology which full realization may require longer period of testosterone administration.

  5. Toward core inter-professional health promotion competencies to address the non-communicable diseases and their risk factors through knowledge translation: curriculum content assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth; Moffat, Marilyn; Skinner, Margot; Dornelas de Andrade, Armele; Myezwa, Hellen; Söderlund, Anne

    2014-07-14

    To increase the global impact of health promotion related to non-communicable diseases, health professionals need evidence-based core competencies in health assessment and lifestyle behavior change. Assessment of health promotion curricula by health professional programs is a first step. Such program assessment is a means of 1. demonstrating collective commitment across health professionals to prevent non-communicable diseases; 2. addressing the knowledge translation gap between what is known about non-communicable diseases and their risk factors consistent with 'best' practice; and, 3. establishing core health-based competencies in the entry-level curricula of established health professions. Consistent with the World Health Organization's definition of health (i.e., physical, emotional and social wellbeing) and the Ottawa Charter, health promotion competencies are those that support health rather than reduce signs and symptoms primarily. A process algorithm to guide the implementation of health promotion competencies by health professionals is described. The algorithm outlines steps from the initial assessment of a patient's/client's health and the indications for health behavior change, to the determination of whether that health professional assumes primary responsibility for implementing health behavior change interventions or refers the patient/client to others.An evidence-based template for assessment of the health promotion curriculum content of health professional education programs is outlined. It includes clinically-relevant behavior change theory; health assessment/examination tools; and health behavior change strategies/interventions that can be readily integrated into health professionals' practices. Assessment of the curricula in health professional education programs with respect to health promotion competencies is a compelling and potentially cost-effective initial means of preventing and reversing non-communicable diseases. Learning evidence

  6. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burwinkle Tasha M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in biomedical science and technology have resulted in dramatic improvements in the healthcare of pediatric chronic conditions. With enhanced survival, health-related quality of life (HRQOL issues have become more salient. The objectives of this study were to compare generic HRQOL across ten chronic disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities from the perspectives of patients and parents. Comparisons were also benchmarked with healthy children data. Methods The analyses were based on over 2,500 pediatric patients from 10 physician-diagnosed disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities and over 9,500 healthy children utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Patients were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals. Results Pediatric patients with diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, cardiac conditions, asthma, obesity, end stage renal disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, rheumatologic conditions, and cerebral palsy self-reported progressively more impaired overall HRQOL than healthy children, respectively, with medium to large effect sizes. Patients with cerebral palsy self-reported the most impaired HRQOL, while patients with diabetes self-reported the best HRQOL. Parent proxy-reports generally paralleled patient self-report, with several notable differences. Conclusion The results demonstrate differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on patient HRQOL across diseases clusters, categories, and severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. The data contained within this study represents a larger and more diverse population of pediatric patients with chronic conditions than previously reported in the extant literature. The findings contribute important information on the differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on generic HRQOL from the perspectives of children and

  7. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported health-related quality of life is increasingly used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and as a performance measure to evaluate quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Danish HeartQoL questionnaire, a core heart...... disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Design This study involved cross-sectional and test-retest study designs. Method Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients in the cross-sectional study completed the Heart......QoL, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The HeartQoL structure, construct-related validity (convergent and discriminative) and reliability (internal consistency) were assessed. HeartQoL reproducibility (test-retest) was assessed in an independent sample of implantable...

  8. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  9. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  10. Necrotizing Liver Granuloma/Abscess and Constrictive Aspergillosis Pericarditis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Different Remarkable Phenotypes in Different Chronic Granulomatous Disease Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanem Eren Akarcan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a primary immune deficiency causing predisposition to infections with specific microorganisms, Aspergillus species and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common ones. A 16-year-old boy with a mutation in CYBB gene coding gp91phox protein (X-linked disease developed a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to medical therapy, surgical treatment was necessary for the management of the disease. A 30-month-old girl with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CYBA gene mutation affecting p22phox protein had invasive aspergillosis causing pericarditis, pulmonary abscess, and central nervous system involvement. The devastating course of disease regardless of the mutation emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and intervention of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible in children with CGD.

  11. Abnormal degree centrality in Alzheimer's disease patients with depression: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongwei; Liu, Xiaozheng; Hou, Hongtao; Wei, Fuquan; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xingli

    2016-06-15

    Depression is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and occurs in AD patients with a prevalence of up to 40%. It reduces cognitive function and increases the burden on caregivers. Currently, there are very few medications that are useful for treating depression in AD patients. Therefore, understanding the brain abnormalities in AD patients with depression (D-AD) is crucial for developing effective interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at the voxel level in D-AD patients based on degree centrality (DC) as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI). Our study included 32 AD patients. All patients were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and further divided into two groups: 15 D-AD patients and 17 non-depressed AD (nD-AD) patients. R-fMRI datasets were acquired from these D-AD and nD-AD patients. First, we performed a DC analysis to identify voxels that showed altered whole brain functional connectivity (FC) with other voxels. We then further investigated FC using the abnormal DC regions to examine in more detail the connectivity patterns of the identified DC changes. D-AD patients had lower DC values in the right middle frontal, precentral, and postcentral gyrus than nD-AD patients. Seed-based analysis revealed decreased connectivity between the precentral and postcentral gyrus to the supplementary motor area and middle cingulum. FC also decreased in the right middle frontal, precentral, and postcentral gyrus. Thus, AD patients with depression fit a 'network dysfunction model' distinct from major depressive disorder and AD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  13. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  14. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescent Girls from a College in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jenn-Yenn Lu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with important hemodynamic disturbances, little data exists on population-wide cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls in Taiwan. This study measured the prevalence of overweight/obesity and related cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescent females. This was a school-based survey of a representative sample of 291 females aged 15 and 18 years in a public college in Central Taiwan. The main measures were height, body weight, systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, uric acid, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Obese (body mass index [BMI]≥25.3 and overweight (22.7≤BMI≤25.2 individuals were combined and labeled as overweight (BMI ≥22.7 to make communication of results clearer. Data gleaned from freshmen's health examinations were analyzed. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥25.3 was 9.28% and of overweight (BMI≥22.7 was 21.31%. Being overweight was associated with higher SBP, DBP, uric acid and TG, and lower levels of HDL-C, but was not associated with cholesterol. The 15-year-old group showed higher mean levels of uric acid, total cholesterol, TG and HDL-C than the 18-year-old group (p < 0.05. All told, 3.1%, 15.12% and 2.1% of the girls showed abnormally elevated levels of uric acid, cholesterol and TG, respectively. In addition, 5.84% had abnormally lower HDL-C levels, indicating that interventions should focus on reducing obesity and encouraging proper dietary habits and sufficient exercise, especially in subjects with lower HDL-C levels and higher levels of cholesterol, TG and uric acid.

  15. Indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules reduce the damage triggered by Aβ1-42 in Alzheimer’s disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Andressa Bernardi,1,* Rudimar L Frozza,2,* André Meneghetti,2 Juliana B Hoppe,2 Ana Maria O Battastini,2 Adriana R Pohlmann,1,3 Sílvia S Guterres,3 Christianne G Salbego21Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Neuroinflammation, characterized by the accumulation of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes, is believed to modulate the development and/or progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Epidemiological studies suggesting that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk of developing AD have encouraged further studies elucidating the role of inflammation in AD. Nanoparticles have become an important focus of neurotherapeutic research because they are an especially effective form of drug delivery. Here, we investigate the potential protective effect of indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (IndOH-LNCs against cell damage and neuroinflammation induced by amyloid beta (Aβ1-42 in AD models. Our results show that IndOH-LNCs attenuated Aβ-induced cell death and were able to block the neuroinflammation triggered by Aβ1-42 in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Additionally, IndOH-LNC treatment was able to increase interleukin-10 release and decrease glial activation and c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. As a model of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo, animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 (1 nmol/site, and 1 day after Aβ1-42 infusion, they were administered either free IndOH or IndOH-LNCs (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 14 days. Only the treatment with IndOH-LNCs significantly attenuated the impairment of this behavior triggered by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42. Further, treatment with IndOH-LNCs was able to block the decreased synaptophysin levels induced by Aβ1

  16. HIV-Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Patients Admitted at the Douala General Hospital between 2004 and 2009: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Namme Luma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies on HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS diseases in Cameroon are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, identify aetiological factors, and determine predictors of mortality in HIV patients with CNS disease. Methods. From January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009, we did at the Douala General Hospital a clinical case note review of 672 admitted adult (age ≥ 18 years HIV-1 patients, and 44.6% (300/672 of whom were diagnosed and treated for HIV-associated CNS disease. Results. The mean age of the study population was years, and median CD4 count was 49 cells/mm3 (interquartile range (QR: 17–90. The most common clinical presentations were headache (83%, focal signs (40.6%, and fever (37.7%. Toxoplasma encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis were the leading aetiologies of HIV-associated CNS disease in 32.3% and 25% of patients, respectively. Overall mortality was 49%. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL and bacterial meningitis had the highest case fatality rates of 100% followed by tuberculous meningitis (79.8%. Low CD4 count was an independent predictor of fatality (AOR: 3.2, 95%CI: 2.0–5.2. Conclusions. HIV-associated CNS disease is common in Douala. CNS symptoms in HIV patients need urgent investigation because of their association with diseases of high case fatality.

  17. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  18. The central molecular clock is robust in the face of behavioural arrhythmia in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Fan Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Circadian behavioural deficits, including sleep irregularity and restlessness in the evening, are a distressing early feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We have investigated these phenomena by studying the circadian behaviour of transgenic Drosophila expressing the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ. We find that Aβ expression results in an age-related loss of circadian behavioural rhythms despite ongoing normal molecular oscillations in the central clock neurons. Even in the absence of any behavioural correlate, the synchronised activity of the central clock remains protective, prolonging lifespan, in Aβ flies just as it does in control flies. Confocal microscopy and bioluminescence measurements point to processes downstream of the molecular clock as the main site of Aβ toxicity. In addition, there seems to be significant non-cell-autonomous Aβ toxicity resulting in morphological and probably functional signalling deficits in central clock neurons.

  19. [Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suhua; Ye, Hengpeng; Li, Mingjian; Xiong, Peisheng; Du, Dongyun; Wang, Jingwen

    2015-06-01

    To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater, hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region. Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived, in Xiantao and Honghu. Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well. Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water. The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t = 4.645 3, P arsenic concentration and Cl, HCO3(-), Fe, Mn. However, negative correlations were found between As and SO4(2-), NO3(-). The range of arsenic content in the sediment was 1.500 mg/kg to 17.289 mg/kg. The maximum arsenic content existed in the soil layer, while the minimum arsenic content existed in the sand layer. The concentration of arsenic varied widely with time and space at endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain. Characteristics of these water chemicals showed significant differences, when compared to the groundwater from Datong Basin, Shanxi Shanyin and Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, which presented a typical environment with high arsenic contents in the groundwater. The arsenic content in the sediment samples seemed related to the lithologic structure.

  20. Total Hepatitis B Core Antigen Antibody, a Quantitative Non-Invasive Marker of Hepatitis B Virus Induced Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Non invasive immunologic markers of virus-induced liver disease are unmet needs. We tested the clinical significance of quantitative total and IgM-anti-HBc in well characterized chronic-HBsAg-carriers. Sera (212 were obtained from 111 HBsAg-carriers followed-up for 52 months (28-216 during different phases of chronic-HBV-genotype-D-infection: 10 HBeAg-positive, 25 inactive-carriers (HBV-DNA≤2000IU/ml, ALT<30U/L, 66 HBeAg-negative-CHB-patients and 10 with HDV-super-infection. In 35 patients treated with Peg-IFN±nucleos(tide-analogues (NUCs sera were obtained at baseline, end-of-therapy and week-24-off-therapy and in 22 treated with NUCs (for 60 months, 42-134m at baseline and end-of-follow-up. HBsAg and IgM-anti-HBc were measured by Architect-assays (Abbott, USA; total-anti-HBc by double-antigen-sandwich-immune-assay (Wantai, China; HBV-DNA by COBAS-TaqMan (Roche, Germany. Total-anti-HBc were detectable in all sera with lower levels in HBsAg-carriers without CHB (immune-tolerant, inactive and HDV-superinfected, median 3.26, range 2.26-4.49 Log10 IU/ml versus untreated-CHB (median 4.68, range 2.76-5.54 Log10 IU/ml, p<0.0001. IgM-anti-HBc positive using the chronic-hepatitis-cut-off" (0.130-S/CO were positive in 102 of 212 sera (48.1%. Overall total-anti-HBc and IgM-anti-HBc correlated significantly (p<0.001, r=0.417. Total-anti-HBc declined significantly in CHB patients with response to Peg-IFN (p<0.001 and in NUC-treated patients (p<0.001; the lowest levels (median 2.68, range 2.12-3.08 Log10 IU/ml were found in long-term responders who cleared HBsAg subsequently. During spontaneous and therapy-induced fluctuations of CHB (remissions and reactivations total- and IgM-anti-HBc correlated with ALT (p<0.001, r=0.351 and p=0.008, r=0.185 respectively. Total-anti-HBc qualifies as a useful marker of HBV-induced-liver-disease that might help to discriminate major phases of chronic HBV infection and to predict sustained response to antivirals.

  1. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  2. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    extensions. Combined with the fact that the language definition does not provide a formal semantics, it is an arduous task to work formally with the language (e.g. to give an implementation). In this paper we identify a core subset of the language, called Core BPEL, which has fewer and simpler constructs......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...... formally with WS-BPEL, as one, without loss of generality, need only consider the much simpler Core BPEL. This report may also be viewed as an addendum to the WS-BPEL standard specification, which clarifies the WS-BPEL syntax and presents the essential elements of the language in a more concise way...

  3. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    extensions. Combined with the fact that the language definition does not provide a formal semantics, it is an arduous task to work formally with the language (e.g. to give an implementation). In this paper we identify a core subset of the language, called Core BPEL, which has fewer and simpler constructs......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...... formally with WS-BPEL, as one, without loss of generality, need only consider the much simpler Core BPEL. This report may also be viewed as an addendum to the WS-BPEL standard specification, which clarifies the WS-BPEL syntax and presents the essential elements of the language in a more concise way...

  4. Core benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    This SPEC Kit explores the core employment benefits of retirement, and life, health, and other insurance -benefits that are typically decided by the parent institution and often have significant governmental regulation...

  5. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  6. Abnormal distribution of calcium-handling proteins: a novel distinctive marker in core myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herasse, Muriel; Parain, Karine; Marty, Isabelle; Monnier, Nicole; Kaindl, Angela M; Leroy, Jean-Paul; Richard, Pascale; Lunardi, Jöel; Romero, Norma B; Ferreiro, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Central core disease (CCD) and multi-minicore disease (MmD) are muscle disorders characterized by foci of mitochondria depletion and sarcomere disorganization ("cores") in muscle fibers. Although core myopathies are the most frequent congenital myopathies, their pathogenesis remains elusive and specific diagnostic markers are lacking. Core myopathies are mostly caused by mutations in 2 sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins: the massive Ca-release channel RyR1 or the selenoprotein N (SelN) of unknown function. To search for distinctive markers and to obtain further pathophysiological insight, we identified the molecular defects in 12 core myopathy patients and analyzed the immunolocalization of 6 proteins of the Ca-release complex in their muscle biopsies. In 7 cases with RYR1 mutations (6 CCD, one MmD), RyR1 was depleted from the cores; in contrast, the other proteins of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (calsequestrin, SERCA1/2, and triadin) and the T-tubule (dihydropyridine receptor-alpha1subunit) accumulated within or around the lesions, suggesting an original modification of the Ca-release complex protein arrangement. Conversely, all Ca-related proteins were distributed normally in 5 MmD cases with SelN mutations. Our results provide an appropriate tool to orientate the differential and molecular diagnosis of core myopathies and suggest that different pathophysiological mechanisms lead to core formation in SelN- and in RyR1-related core myopathies.

  7. Communication of brain network core connections altered in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia but possibly preserved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Mendez, Mario F.; Bartzokis, George; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion imaging and brain connectivity analyses can assess white matter deterioration in the brain, revealing the underlying patterns of how brain structure declines. Fiber tractography methods can infer neural pathways and connectivity patterns, yielding sensitive mathematical metrics of network integrity. Here, we analyzed 1.5-Tesla wholebrain diffusion-weighted images from 64 participants - 15 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 19 with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), and 30 healthy elderly controls. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We evaluated the brain's networks focusing on the most highly central and connected regions, also known as hubs, in each diagnostic group - specifically the "high-cost" structural backbone used in global and regional communication. The high-cost backbone of the brain, predicted by fiber density and minimally short pathways between brain regions, accounted for 81-92% of the overall brain communication metric in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found that the set of pathways interconnecting high-cost and high-capacity regions of the brain's communication network are globally and regionally altered in bvFTD, compared to healthy participants; however, the overall organization of the high-cost and high-capacity networks were relatively preserved in EOAD participants, relative to controls. Disruption of the major central hubs that transfer information between brain regions may impair neural communication and functional integrity in characteristic ways typical of each subtype of dementia.

  8. Characterization and temporal development of cores in a mouse model of malignant hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease are related skeletal muscle diseases often linked to mutations in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene, encoding for the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In humans, the Y522S RYR1 mutation is associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) and the presence in skeletal muscle fibers of core regions that lack mitochondria. In heterozygous Y522S knock-in mice (RYR1Y522S/WT), the mutation causes SR Ca2+ ...

  9. Arterial aging and arterial disease : interplay between central hemodynamics, cardiac work, and organ flow-implications for CKD and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Gerard; Covic, Adrian; Goldsmith, David; Wiecek, Andrzej; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ortiz, Alberto; Massy, Ziad; Lindholm, Bengt; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Fliser, Danilo; Agarwal, Rajiv; Jager, Kitty J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All epidemiological studies have clearly shown that accelerated arterial and cardiac aging is characteristic of these populations. Arterial premat

  10. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, M.; Sakuma, H.; Takeda, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Mie Univ. School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Yagishita, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Fukui (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. Careful attention to the SAS can provide additional useful information that may not be available with conventional MR sequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about CNS diseases and FLAIR images with abnormal hyperintensity within the SAS. We present several CNS diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, leptomeningeal metastases, acute infarction, and severe arterial occlusive diseases such as moya-moya disease. We also review miscellaneous diseases or normal conditions that may exhibit cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity on FLAIR images. Although the detection of abnormal hyperintensity suggests the underlying CNS diseases and narrows differential diagnoses, FLAIR imaging sometimes presents artifactual hyperintensity within the SAS that can cause the misinterpretation of normal SAS as pathologic conditions; therefore, radiologists should be familiar with such artifactual conditions as well as pathologic conditions shown as hyperintensity by FLAIR images. This knowledge is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Survival after surgery or therapeutic catheterisation for congenital heart disease in children in the United Kingdom: analysis of the central cardiac audit database for 2000-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John L; Monro, James L; Cunningham, David; Rickards, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To analyse simple national statistics and survival data collected in the central cardiac audit database after treatment for congenital heart disease and to provide long term comparative statistics for each contributing centre. Design Prospective, longitudinal, observational, national cohort survival study. Setting UK central cardiac audit database. Main outcome measures Survival at 30 days and one year after treatment in the year April 2000-March 2001, assessed by using both volunteered life status and independently validated life status through the Office for National Statistics, using the patient's unique NHS number, or the general register offices of Scotland and Northern Ireland. Institutional results following a group of six benchmark operations and three benchmark catheterisation procedures. Results Since April 2000 data have been received from all 13 UK tertiary centres performing cardiac surgery or therapeutic cardiac catheterisation in children with congenital heart disease. Altogether 3666 surgical procedures and 1828 therapeutic catheterisations were performed. Central tracking of mortality identified 469 deaths, 194 occurring within 30 days and 275 later. Forty two of the 194 deaths within 30 days were detected by central tracking but not by volunteered data. For surgery overall, survival at 30 days was 94.9%, falling to 91.2% at one year; this effect was most marked for infants. For therapeutic catheterisation survival at 30 days was 99.1%, falling to 98.1% at one year. Survival of individual centres or individual operators did not differ from the national average after benchmark procedures. Conclusions Independent data validation is essential for accurate survival analysis. One year survival gives a more realistic view of outcome than traditional perioperative mortality. Currently no detectable difference exists in survival between any of the 13 UK tertiary congenital heart disease centres, but confidence intervals for small centres are

  12. High prognostic value of minimal residual disease detected by flow-cytometry-enhanced fluorescence in situ hybridization in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Gao, Lei; Xu, Sheng; Gong, Shenglan; Liu, Min; Qiu, Huiying; Xu, Xiaoqian; Ni, Xiong; Chen, Li; Lu, Shuqing; Chen, Jie; Song, Xianmin; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2014-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is generally regarded as a disorder of stem cells, known as leukemic initiating cells (LICs), which initiate the disease and contribute to relapses. Although the phenotype of these cells remains unclear in most patients, they are enriched within the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. In core-binding factor (CBF) AML, the cytogenetic abnormalities also exist in LIC. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic power of minimal residual disease (MRD) measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells sorted by flow cytometry at different periods during therapy. Thirty-six patients under 65 years of age with de novo CBF-AML treated with intensive chemotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. FISH efficiently identified LICs in the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. The presence of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation was negatively associated with cumulative incidence of relapse (64 vs 18 %, P = .012), which showed prognostic value for RFS (12 vs 68 %, P = .008) and OS (11 vs 75 %, P = .0005), and retained prognostic significance for RFS in multivariate analysis. The detection of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation therapy significantly correlated with long-term survival. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-FISH could be potentially adopted as a MRD monitor approach in clinical practice to identify CBF-AML patients at risk of treatment failure during therapy.

  13. N,N{prime}-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide cross-linking suggests a central core of helices II in oligomers of URF13, the pore-forming T-toxin receptor of cms-T maize mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, D.M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kaspi, C.I.; Siedow, J.N. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Levings, C.S. III [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-08-16

    URF13 is a mitochondrially encoded, integral membrane protein found only in maize carrying the cms-T cytoplasm. URF13 is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility, Texas type, and causes susceptibility to the fungal pathogens Bipolaris maydis race T and Phyllosticta maydis. URF13 is predicted to contain three transmembrane {alpha}-helices and is a receptor for the pathotoxins (T-toxins) produced by B. maydis race T and P. maydis. Binding of T-toxin to URF13 leads to membrane permeability. Cross-linking of URF13 oligomers with N,N{prime}-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) protects Escherichia coli cells expressing URF13 and cms-T mitochondria from the permeability caused by T-toxin or methomyl. Using mutated forms of URF13 expressed in E. coli cells, the authors determined the molecular mechanism of DCCD protection. They separately changed Lys-37 in helix II to isoleucine (K37I-URF13) and Lys-32 in the helix I/helix II loop region to alanine (K32A-URF13). DCCD treatment of K37I-URF13-expressing cells did not protect the cells from permeability caused by T-toxin or methomyl. DCCD cross-linking was greatly reduced in K37I-URF13 and in D39V-URF13-expressing cells, but it was unaffected in K32A-URF13-expressing cells. Binding of methomyl or T-toxin decreases DCCD cross-linking of URF13 oligomers expressed in either E. coli or cms-T mitochondria. They conclude that Asp-39 in helix II is cross-linked by DCCD to Lys-37 in helix II of an adjacent URF13 molecule and that this cross-linking protects against toxin-mediated permeabilization. The results also indicate that helices II form a central core in URF13 oligomers.

  14. 血红素氧合酶-1与中枢神经系统疾病%Heme oxygenase-1 and central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2012-01-01

    血红素氧合酶-1(heme oxygenase-1,HO-1)是血红素降解的起始酶和限速酶,可被氧化应激、化学物质和药物等诱导激活,通过抗氧化、抗炎和抗凋亡机制发挥细胞保护作用.多种中枢神经系统(central nervous system,CNS)疾病均可引起HO-1表达变化,该酶的异常涉及到多种CNS疾病.文中就HO-1的生物学特性和在不同神经系统疾病中的表达、作用作简要综述.%Heme oxygenase-1 ( HO-1 ), as a rate-limiting enzyme of heme, can be activated by oxidative stress, chemical materials and drugs, and protects cells by its anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis roles. Its abnormal expression is always related to many central nervous system diseases. This article summarizes the biological specificities and its expressions and effects in different central nervous system diseases.

  15. Ultrasonic evaluation of central retinal artery hemodynamics in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and the correlation with disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Xia Liu; Jing-Mian Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between central retinal artery hemodynamic characteristics in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and endothelial injury molecules as well as trophoblast cell apoptosis molecules.Methods: 45 healthy pregnant women, 37 patients with gestational hypertension and 24 patients with preeclampsia who gave birth in Obstetrics Department of our hospital between May 2013 and December 2015 were selected and included in the control group, GH group and PE group respectively. Central retinal artery ultrasonography was done to determine peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI), serum was collected to determine interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-24, chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and cartilage glycoprotein 40 (YKL40) content, and placenta tissue was collected to determine Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression.Results: Central retinal artery PSV and EDV as well as XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta of GH group and PE group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05) while central retinal artery RI, serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). Central retinal artery PSV and EDV as well as XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta of PE group were significantly lower than those of GH group (P<0.05) while central retinal artery RI, serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were significantly higher than those of GH group (P<0.05). Serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were negatively correlated with PSV and EDV, and positively correlated with RI; XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta were positively

  16. Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina

    2014-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent.

  17. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  18. The role of zinc in the pathogenesis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Implications of zinc homeostasis for proper CNS function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Małgorzata; Grzywacz, Agata; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Wiliński, Bogdan; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, the essential trace element, is known to play multiple biological functions in human organism. This metal is a component of many structural as well as regulatory and catalytic proteins. The precise regulation of zinc homeostasis is essential for central nervous system and for the whole organism. Zinc plays a significant role in the brain development and in the proper brain function at ever