WorldWideScience

Sample records for central control system

  1. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  2. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  3. Centralized Stochastic Optimal Control of Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV operation as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  4. Model adaptation in a central controller for a sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla; Mol, Bart

    2013-04-01

    For small sewer systems that combine foul water and storm water sewer functions in flat terrain, central control of the sewer system may have problems during dry weather. These systems are a combination of local gravity flow networks connected by pumps. Under those conditions the level in the wet well (local storage at the pumping station) should be kept below the entrance pipe but above the top of the intake of the pump. The pumps are dimensioned to cope with the combined flow of foul water and precipitation run off so their capacity is relatively large when compared wityh the volume available in the wet well. Under local control this is not a major problem because the effective controller time step is very short. For central control the control time step can become a problem. Especially when there is uncertainty about the relation between level and volume in the wet well. In this paper we describe a way to dynamically adapt the level to volume relation based on dry weather behaviour. This is important because a better estimate of this volume will reduce the number of on/off cycles for the pumps. It will also allow detection and correction for changes in pump performance due to aging.

  5. Dynamics and control of multibody systems in central gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Amit K.

    This dissertation studies the dynamics and control of multibody systems, and their numerical simulation, in a central gravitational field. Initially, the dynamics of multibody systems moving in a plane in a central gravity is studied. There is a cyclic orbital coordinate, and the corresponding conjugate momentum is conserved. The dynamics is reduced to eliminate this cyclic variable. A general development for analyzing stability of relative equilibria of the full dynamics, corresponding to equilibria of the reduced dynamics, is obtained. This is applied to some examples of multibody spacecraft in planar motion. A control scheme, based on averaging theory, is developed for orbit transfer from one relative equilibrium to another. This scheme is applied to a planar dumbbell-shaped rigid body in central gravity. The dynamics of such systems in three-dimensional motion also has a cyclic coordinate, and the associated conjugate momentum is conserved. The dynamics is reduced to eliminate this degree of freedom. Stability analysis of the relative equilibria of a rigid dumbbell-shaped body is carried out. Potential shaping with attitude feedback is used to stabilize the unstable relative equilibria of the dumbbell body. For numerical simulations of the dynamics of free and controlled multibody systems in central gravity, numerical integration algorithms obtained from discrete variational mechanics are used. These algorithms exactly preserve the symplectic form and conserved momenta of such systems. They also nearly preserve the total energy of conservative systems over long simulation times. These properties are usually not present in other numerical integration algorithms. Variational integration algorithms for the full and reduced dynamics of multibody systems in a potential field are obtained, and applied to the specific examples treated in this dissertation. Comparison with a standard Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator, for an example problem, shows the better

  6. High level extensions to the TRIUMF central control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, D.A.; Mouat, M.M.

    1986-10-01

    The TRIUMF central control system ''CCS'' consists of a system of 16-bit minicomputers connected to cyclotron equipment by means of a multi-branch parallel highway CAMAC system. Because these computer ''sources'' are programmed primarily in assembler language, there are difficulties in carrying out complex or precise numerical algorithms. Recently, a limit to the maximum number of sources with access to the CAMAC hardware has been removed and several VAX computers have been added. The configuration has very conveniently allowed independent development of data acquisition and analysis software, and has permitted the implementation of mature accelerator physics software developed elsewhere. The new VAX sources incorporate the use of sophisticated system software, multiple high-level languages, graphics, networking and an independent CAMAC highway. A separate serial CAMAC highway supports cyclotron development without compromising the on-line duties of the existing central control system. This paper describes the new configuration and the implementation of the data acquisition and analysis software.

  7. Central neural control of the cardiovascular system: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, Roger A L

    2016-09-01

    This brief review, which is based on a lecture presented at the American Physiological Society Teaching Refresher Course on the Brain and Systems Control as part of the Experimental Biology meeting in 2015, aims to summarize current concepts of the principal mechanisms in the brain that regulate the autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Such cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms do not operate in isolation but are closely coordinated with respiratory and other regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. The brain regulates the cardiovascular system by two general means: 1) feedforward regulation, often referred to as "central command," and 2) feedback or reflex regulation. In most situations (e.g., during exercise, defensive behavior, sleep, etc.), both of these general mechanisms contribute to overall cardiovascular homeostasis. The review first describes the mechanisms and central circuitry subserving the baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, and other reflexes that work together to regulate an appropriate level of blood pressure and blood oxygenation and then considers the brain mechanisms that defend the body against more complex environmental challenges, using dehydration and cold and heat stress as examples. The last section of the review considers the central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function associated with different behaviors, with a specific focus on defensive behavior and exercise. PMID:27445275

  8. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, William; McAllen, Robin; McKinley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery. Inputs for cognitive-emotional control from the exteroceptive sense organs (touch, vision, sound, smell, etc.) are integrated in forebrain centers including the amygdala. Psychoactive drugs have major effects on the acral cutaneous circulation. Interoceptors, chemoreceptors more than baroreceptors, also influence cutaneous sympathetic outflow. A major advance has been the discovery of a lower brainstem control center in the rostral medullary raphé, regulating outflow to both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to the acral cutaneous beds. Neurons in the medullary raphé, via their descending axonal projections, increase the discharge of spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons controlling the cutaneous vasculature, utilizing glutamate, and serotonin as neurotransmitters. Present evidence suggests that both thermoregulatory and cognitive-emotional control of the cutaneous beds from preoptic, hypothalamic, and forebrain centers is channeled via the medullary raphé. Future studies will no doubt further unravel the details of neurotransmitter pathways connecting these rostral control centers with the medullary raphé, and those operative within the raphé itself. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1161-1197, 2016. PMID:27347889

  9. The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the existence of a frontoparietal control system consisting of ‘flexible hubs’ that regulate distributed systems (e.g., visual, limbic, motor) according to current task goals. A growing number of studies are reporting alterations of this control system across a striking range of mental diseases. We suggest this may reflect a critical role for the control system in promoting and maintaining mental health. Specifically, we propose that this system implements feedback control to regulate symptoms as they arise (e.g., excessive anxiety reduced via regulation of amygdala), such that an intact control system is protective against a variety of mental illnesses. Consistent with this possibility, recent results indicate that several major mental illnesses involve altered brain-wide connectivity of the control system, likely altering its ability to regulate symptoms. These results suggest that this ‘immune system of the mind’ may be an especially important target for future basic and clinical research. PMID:24622818

  10. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  11. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  12. Design and realization of central control system for J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To keep the J-TEXT tokamak running in order, it needs a central control system to coordinate the operations of all the sub-systems. The J-TEXT tokamak central control system adopts industrial PC with some PCI control cards based on Windows and QNX operation systems. This control system has been finished the test and put into use in the first-round experiment of the J-TEXT tokamak successfully. The testing and operation show that this system is stable and reliable. (authors)

  13. Dynamic disturbance rejection controllers for neutral time delay systems with application to a central heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUMBOULIS Fotis N.; KOUVAKAS Nikolaos D.; PARASKEVOPOULOS Paraskevas N.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the problem of disturbance rejection of single input-single output neutral time delay systems with multiple measurable disturbances is solved via dynamic controllers. In particular, the general form of the controller matrices is presented, while the necessary and sufficient conditions for the controller to be realizable are offered. The proposed technique is applied to a test case neutral time delay central heating system. In particular, the nonlinear model of the plant and its linearized approximation are presented. Based on the linearized model, a two-stage controller is designed in order to regulate the room temperature and the boiler effluent temperature. The performance of the closed loop system is investigated through computational experiments.

  14. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  15. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: focus on the central melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K.; Fukuda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intak...

  16. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: Focus on the central melanocortin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiologi...

  17. Graph theoretical stable allocation as a tool for central control of sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla

    2016-04-01

    Dutch sewer networks consist of multiple sub-networks that serve both to collect waste water and as a link in the transport chain of waste water to the Waste Water Treatment Plant. Within sub-networks transport is by gravity driven flow. The sub-networks are linked by pumping stations. If the network of pipes also serves to collect precipitation then the system is called a combined system. For some of these networks it may be beneficial to implement central control. We study whether the graph theoretical concept of stable allocations can be used as a basis for the algorithm underlying such a central conrol system.

  18. Elimination of Oscillations in a Central Heating System using Pump Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2000-01-01

    In central heating systems with thermostatic valve temperature control it is a well known fact that room temperature oscillations may occur when the heat demand becomes low due to the non-linear behavior of the control loop. This is not only discomforting but it also increases the energy cost...... of heating the room. Using the pump speed as an active part in control is it shown that the room temperature may be stabilized in a wider interval of heat demand. The idea is to control the pump speed in a way that keeps the thermostatic valve within a suitable operating area using an estimate of the valve...... position. The position is estimated from the pump terminals, using the pump flow and the pump differential pressure. The concept is tested on a small central heating test bench. The results show that it is possible to stabilize the room temperature even at part load conditions...

  19. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  20. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  1. Design of Central Management & Control Unit for Onboard High-Speed Data Handling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-qin; JIN Sheng-zhen; NING Shu-nian

    2007-01-01

    The Main Optical Telescope (MOT) is an important payload of the Space Solar Telescope (SST) with various instruments and observation modes. Its real-time data handling and management and control tasks are arduous. Based on the advanced techniques of foreign countries, an improved structure of onboard data handling systems feasible for SST, is proposed. This article concentrated on the development of a Central Management & Control Unit (MCU) based on FPGA and DSP. Through reconfigurating the FPGA and DSP programs, the prototype could perform different tasks.Thus the inheritability of the whole system is improved. The completed dual-channel prototype proves that the system meets all requirements of the MOT. Its high reliability and safety features also meet the requirements under harsh conditions such as mine detection.

  2. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  3. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; WANG Jian; YU Xiaoqi; YANG Dong

    2008-01-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  4. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Jian; Yu, Xiaoqi; Yang, Dong

    2008-02-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  5. Demand management through centralized control system using power line communication for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A pilot system was developed for demand management of equipment in buildings. • The networking was based on LonWorks platform and power line communication. • Demand strategies led to load reductions up to 74% and energy savings up to 25%. • The peak load reduction is expected to reach 3.44 GW by the year 2030. - Abstract: Managing peak demand efficiently is vital for maintaining uninterrupted supply of electrical power by utility providers. In this work, a pilot system was developed for managing and controlling the demand of major power consuming equipment in buildings from a central server, while relying mostly on existing infrastructure and maintaining consumer comfort. The system was successfully demonstrated on a selected group of buildings using the LonWorks networking platform. At the building level, the system utilized power line and twisted pair communication to control the thermostats of air-conditioning (A/C) units. The higher level communication was executed through extensible markup language (XML) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The system provided control capabilities based on A/C unit priority, thermostat temperature, building type and geographic location. The development and execution of demand management strategies for selected buildings led to peak load reductions up to 74%, in addition to energy savings up to 25%. Implementing such a system at a national level in Kuwait is estimated to reduce peak demand by 3.44 GW, amounting to capital savings of $4.13 billion. The use of existing infrastructure reduced the cost and installation time of the system. Based on the successful testing of this pilot system, a larger-scale system is being developed

  6. Time-Varying Scheme for Non-Centralized Model Predictive Control of Large-scale Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez Vicencio, A.A.; Ocampo-Martinez, C.; Maestre, J.M.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Non-Centralized Model Predictive Control (NC-MPC) framework refers in this paper to any distributed, hierarchical, or decentralized model predictive controller (or a combination of them) the structure of which can change over time and the control actions of which are not obtained based on a cent

  7. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  8. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  9. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the KAON factory central control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inwood, C. (Inwood Real-Time Systems Associates, Kinburn, ON (Canada)); Ludgate, G.A.; Dohan, D.A.; Osberg, E.A.; Koscielniak, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility)

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements. (orig.).

  10. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System architecture - Centralized versus distributed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.; Behrend, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Both Centralized and Distributed approaches are being evaluated for the installation of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) equipment in the Space Station. In the Centralized facility concept, integrated processing equipment is located in two modules with plumbing used to circulate ECLS services throughout the Station. The Distributed approach locates the ECLS subsystems in every module of the Space Station with each subsystem designed to meet its own module needs. This paper defines the two approaches and how the advantages and disadvantages of each are tied to the choice of Space Station architecture. Other considerations and evaluations include: crew movement, Station evolution and the ducting impact needed to circulate ECLS services from centrally located processing equipment.

  11. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  12. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  13. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  14. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  15. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  16. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  17. Centralized surveillance and control of satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, S. E.; McBeath, J. W.; Brostrup-Jensen, P.

    Satellite based services and networks are increasing in number. This paper describes how such networks can be operated efficiently using software based systems to do satellite transmission surveillance and remote earth station status, alarm and control monitoring at a centralized operations control center. Arrangements are available to accomplish real time, customer controlled configuration of space segments and earth station equipment. Application of the system elements satellite transmission surveillance, alarm and control central, earth station remote, and customer control terminals - to a number of typical networks is described.

  18. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  19. Responses to increasing exercise upon reaching the anaerobic threshold, and their control by the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Jesús J; Calderón, Francisco J; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) has been one of the most studied of all physiological variables. Many authors have proposed the use of several markers to determine the moment at with the AT is reached. The present work discusses the physiological responses made to exercise - the measurement of which indicates the point at which the AT is reached - and how these responses might be controlled by the central nervous system. The detection of the AT having been reached is a sign for the central nervous system (CNS) to respond via an increase in efferent activity via the peripheral nervous system (PNS). An increase in CNS and PNS activities are related to changes in ventilation, cardiovascular function, and gland and muscle function. The directing action of the central command (CC) allows for the coordination of the autonomous and motor systems, suggesting that the AT can be identified in the many ways: changes in lactate, ventilation, plasma catecholamines, heart rate (HR), salivary amylase and muscular electrical activity. This change in response could be indicative that the organism would face failure if the exercise load continued to increase. To avoid this, the CC manages the efferent signals that show the organism that it is running out of homeostatic potential. PMID:24818009

  20. Challenges to Providing a Successful Central Configuration Service to Support CERN’s New Controls Diagnostics and Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Makonnen, Z; Zaharieva, Z

    2014-01-01

    The Controls Diagnostic and Monitoring service (DIAMON) provides monitoring and diagnostics tools to the operators in the CERN Control Centre. A recent reengineering presented the opportunity to restructure its data management and to integrate it with the central Controls Configuration Service (CCS). The CCS provides the Configuration Management for the Controls System for all accelerators at CERN. The new facility had to cater for the configuration management of all agents monitored by DIAMON, (>3000 computers of different types), provide deployment information, relations between metrics, and historical information. In addition, it had to be integrated into the operational CCS, while ensuring stability and data coherency. An important design decision was to largely reuse the existing infrastructure in the CCS and adapt the DIAMON data management to it e.g. by using the device/property model through a Virtual Devices framework to model the DIAMON agents. This article will show how these challenging requiremen...

  1. Presenilin controls CBP levels in the adult Drosophila central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy S Boyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dominant mutations in both human Presenilin (Psn genes have been correlated with the formation of amyloid plaques and development of familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, a definitive mechanism whereby plaque formation causes the pathology of familial and sporadic forms of AD has remained elusive. Recent discoveries of several substrates for Psn protease activity have sparked alternative hypotheses for the pathophysiology underlying AD. CBP (CREB-binding protein is a haplo-insufficient transcriptional co-activator with histone acetly-transferase (HAT activity that has been proposed to be a downstream target of Psn signaling. Individuals with altered CBP have cognitive deficits that have been linked to several neurological disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a transgenic RNA-interference strategy to selectively silence CBP, Psn, and Notch in adult Drosophila, we provide evidence for the first time that Psn is required for normal CBP levels and for maintaining specific global acetylations at lysine 8 of histone 4 (H4K8ac in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition, flies conditionally compromised for the adult-expression of CBP display an altered geotaxis behavior that may reflect a neurological defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data support a model in which Psn regulates CBP levels in the adult fly brain in a manner that is independent of Notch signaling. Although we do not understand the molecular mechanism underlying the association between Psn and CBP, our results underscore the need to learn more about the basic relationship between Psn-regulated substrates and essential functions of the nervous system.

  2. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  3. Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bevacizumab Therapy for Radiation Necrosis of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct a controlled trial of bevacizumab for the treatment of symptomatic radiation necrosis of the brain. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients were entered into a placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study of bevacizumab for the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis. All patients were required to have radiographic or biopsy proof of central nervous system radiation necrosis and progressive neurologic symptoms or signs. Eligible patients had undergone irradiation for head-and-neck carcinoma, meningioma, or low- to mid-grade glioma. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous saline or bevacizumab at 3-week intervals. The magnetic resonance imaging findings 3 weeks after the second treatment and clinical signs and symptoms defined the response or progression. Results: The volumes of necrosis estimated on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that although no patient receiving placebo responded (0 of 7), all bevacizumab-treated patients did so (5 of 5 randomized and 7 of 7 crossover) with decreases in T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced volumes and a decrease in endothelial transfer constant. All bevacizumab-treated patients-and none of the placebo-treated patients-showed improvement in neurologic symptoms or signs. At a median of 10 months after the last dose of bevacizumab in patients receiving all four study doses, only 2 patients had experienced a recurrence of magnetic resonance imaging changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis; one patient received a single additional dose of bevacizumab and the other patient received two doses. Conclusion: The Class I evidence of bevacizumab efficacy from the present study in the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis justifies consideration of this treatment option for people with radiation necrosis secondary to

  4. Automation system at Kitami centralized control station of Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Ltd.; Hokkaido denryoku (kabu) Kitami shuchu seigyosho jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruma, T.; Tatekoji, T.; Dobashi, K. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Manabe, Y. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-16

    This paper introduces the summary of the automation system at Kitami Centralized Control Station of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Ltd. The system has been discussed to apply a more excellent function-dispersed system that can amalgamate the latest opening techniques, and comply with the trend of up-scaling and more complication of the power systems. The system is a large-scale power automating system that integrates the power supply operations throughout the district in addition to the centralized monitoring and control of about 50 power plants and substations in the district. Further, the features of the function dispersed system are exhibited at a possible maximum extent, an operation system using automatic information service functions and graphical user interface was adopted, and the facilitation of operations was further improved. The system is a function-dispersed system that adopts the token ring LAN having excellent real-time performance in the process system, uses the Ethernet in the man-machine system, and couples the processors divided into function units organically with each other. The main devices are duplicated to execute the system operation factor and the data continuity at the maximum level. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  6. Management Control Systems in Subsidiaries of Multinationals in the Emerging Market of Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Using transaction cost theory and the theory of multinational enterprise, this study examines the extent of the degree to which management of multinational companies can control over its subsidiaries' configuration and coordination abilities. Empirical results showed that the subsidiaries enjoyed a

  7. Control and Modulation Techniques for a Centralized PV Generation System Grid Connected via an Interleaved Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brando

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of grid connected photovoitaic (PV generation systems, there are two paramount aspects regarding the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT of the photovoltaic units and the continuity of the service. The most diffused MPPT algorithms are based on either perturb and observe, or on an incremental conductance approach and need both PV current and voltage measurements. Several topology reconfigurable converters are also associated with the PV plants, guaranteeing fault-tolerant features. The generation continuity can also be assured by interleaved inverters, which keep the system operating at reduced maximum power in case of failure. In this paper, an evolution of a hysteresis based MPPT algorithm is presented, based on the measurement of only one voltage, together with a novel space vector modulation suitable for a two-channel three-phase grid connected interleaved inverter. The proposed MMPT algorithm and modulation technique are tested by means of several numerical analyses on a PV generation system of about 200 kW maximum power. The results testify the validity of the proposed strategies, showing good performance, even during a fault occurrence and in the presence of deep shading conditions.

  8. The central nervous system environment controls effector CD4+ T cell cytokine profile in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M L; Owens, T

    1997-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), CD4+ T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS). We derived CD4+ T cell lines from SJL/J mice that were specific for encephalitogenic myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides and produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. These lines transferred EAE...

  9. A remote controlled system for centralized online monitoring of radon in uranium mine and operating mine ventilation system on demand basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its decay products contribute a major fraction (∼50%) of the effective radiation dose to workers in uranium mines, the remaining part being mainly due to external gamma ray exposure. However, the dose due to radon and its decay products can be controlled by providing proper ventilation in workplaces. Hence, regular monitoring and control of radon form an essential component of the radiation protection programme in uranium mining and milling facilities. The current technique used for radon measurement in uranium mines is based on manual sampling using scintillation cells followed by alpha counting in the laboratory. In some cases, time integrated measurements using SSNTD based cup dosimeter system are also carried out. These practices have been serving the purpose of radiation dosimetry in uranium mines. However, there have been recent developments in radon monitoring instrumentation by RP and AD, BARC which can make important value addition to radiation dosimetry in these facilities. The present paper describes the development of a system for real time monitoring and control of radon and noxious gases in workplaces of uranium mining and milling facilities. Presently, this system has been installed at underground uranium mine, Turamdih, Jharkhand to study its performance for continuous operation in the mine environment. The system not only monitors and controls all the gaseous products within their permissible levels but also effectively utilizes the manpower in regulating their work location based on online data available at central console. Besides this, the system minimizes the routine practice such as sample collection, counting and data recording as a part of radiation monitoring protocol. Once the real time data is linked to the control system, it automates the switching of ventilation fan in the mine as per demand. This process not only helps cutting down the unnecessary wastage of electrical energy but also maintains a healthy working environment

  10. Discussion on the Development of the Central Control System in the Audiovisual Industry%论中控系统在影音行业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兵

    2012-01-01

    本文主要论述了智能集成中央控制系统的组成、演变史及其重要作用。%This paper mainly discusses the composition, the evolution of history and the important role of the integrated intelligent central control system.

  11. SIMULATION OF FUZZY CONTROL OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM BASED ON TRNSYS%基于Trnsys的中央空调系统模糊控制仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玮; 陈立定; 陈奉刚

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a central air conditioning system of a building in Guangzhou is taken for an example to establish the simulation models of one of the building's layers and its central air conditioning systems, then build dieir control system in Trnsys and MATLAB, analyze the energy consumption in and out of control of the system. This model is mainly used to study some properties of the central air conditioning systems and has great significance to energy-saving optimal control of central air conditioning.%以广州某大厦中央空调系统为例,建立了大厦某层的多区域建筑及其中央空调系统仿真模型,并采用模糊控制策略,联合Trnsys及MATLAB对中央空调系统进行节能控制,进而分析对比控制前后中央空调系统各部件的能耗.系统模型主要用于研究中央空调运行的一些性质,对中央空调的节能优化控制具有重要的意义.

  12. 全自动刨煤机组集中控制系统的设计%Design of Central Control System of Full Automatic Plough Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永刚; 刘召安; 姚立权

    2012-01-01

    为实现刨煤机组全自动集中控制,系统采用光缆技术、现场总线技术、集中控制技术,不仅可实现井下视频控制和地面控制,并可实现泵站设备、转载机、破碎机、刮板输送机、带式输送机等刨煤机组所有设备的联机控制和保护。重点描述了刨煤机组集中控制系统的设计原理。%In order to realize automatic and centralized control of plough unit, cable technology, field bus technology and centralized control technology are all used in the system. The system can realize underground video control, ground control and the online control. All plough unit equipment, such as pumping station, reversed loader, crusher, scraper conveyor and belt conveyor can be controlled and protected. It focused on the design principle of centralized control system of plough unit.

  13. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type; Sistema simplificado para el control de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J. [FI-UNAM, DEPFI Campus Morelos, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  14. Central Verification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CVS is a system managed by OPM that is designed to be the primary tool for verifying whether or not there is an existing investigation on a person seeking security...

  15. 中央企业战略管控体系构建研究%Research on Building Strategic Management and Control System for Central Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:战略管控体系建设是央企的当务之急,深受中央企业重视.本文根据中央企业的特点,从战略管控的本质、内涵和特点人手,分析了中央企业战略管控中存在的问题,提出了构建战略管控体系的原则和构建内容,建立了一套中央企业战略管控体系,为中央企业战略管控体系建设提供了理论依据和重要参考.研究结论:建立中央企业战略管控体系对提高战略管控能力、降低企业风险具有重要意义.中央企业应把握科学规律,根据企业集团战略管控特点,遵循系统论设计原理,综合考虑各要素、各层级和各主体之间的关系,构建一套适合企业发展的战略管控体系.中央企业应按照PDCA循环执行,通过实施反馈和效果评价,持续改进,不断完善,提高管控体系的适应性.%Research purposes: Building the strategic management and control system is an urgent work for the central enterprise and more attention is paid by the central enterprises. According to the characteristics of the central enterprises, and starting with the nature, the intension and features of the strategic management and control, this paper analyses the problems in the strategic management and control of the central enterprise and points out the principles and contents of building strategic management and control system to set up a set of strategic management and control system for central enterprises for providing the theoretic basis and important reference to building strategic management and control system for central enterprise.Research conclusions; To build the strategic management and control system for central enterprise is crucial to improving the enterprise ability in the strategic management and control and reducing the enterprise risk. According to the strategic management and control characteristics of the enterprise, the central enterprises should master the scientific rules, follow the systemic design

  16. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  17. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  18. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  19. Automatic system of tests for control equipment in combined cycle power stations; Sistema automatico de pruebas para equipos de control en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Flores L, Zenon; Delgadillo V, Miguel A; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This article deals on the Automatic System of Tests, denominated PROBADOR, used by the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentation (GCI) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)for the accomplishment of dynamic tests in laboratory, to the systems of acquisition and control developed with the electronic line SAC-IIE that are installed in the Thermoelectric Power station of Combined Cycle (CTCC) of Dos Bocas, Veracruz and Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Also the architecture, the functions that are carried out in the equipment of the System of Acquisition and control (SAC) and in the personal computer (PC) that conforms it are described, as well as the methodology used for the development of the tests. The PC constitutes Interface Man-Machine (IMM) and in the SAC equipment the simulation of the processes is made (by means of the execution of algebraic-differential equations) in the compressor, combustion chamber, gas turbine, heat recuperators, steam turbines and condenser equipment that integrate a CTCC. The equations that are used are based in the thermodynamics, flow dynamics and heat transfer; they become attached to the real process with a margin of error that is estimated in 10%. Finally, the tendencies of the PROBADOR and the technical and economic advantages are described that it has provided for the improvement in the performance of the control systems, before different situations, with no need to have the real process. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre el Sistema Automatico de Pruebas, denominado PROBADOR, utilizado por la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas para la realizacion de pruebas dinamicas en laboratorio, a los sistemas de adquisicion y control desarrollado con la linea electronica SAC-IIE que estan instalados en las Centrales Termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado (CTCC) de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Tambien se describen la arquitectura, las funciones que se llevan

  20. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  1. Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina

    2014-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent.

  2. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sybil Derrible

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the e...

  3. Spatial variability of multi-controlled aeolian supersurfaces in central-erg and marine-erg-margin systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-López, J.P.; Meléndez, N.; de Boer, P.L.; Soria, A.R.; Liesa, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    During the Albian Iberia was under the influence of the Northern-Hemisphere Hot Arid Belt favouring the development of an extensive sandy desert system with a marine-erg margin where prograding aeolian dunes interacted with Tethyan waters. The interplay of different controls, such as synsedimentary

  4. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  5. An artificial vision-based control system for automatic heliostat positioning offset correction in a central receiver solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, La Canada Almeria (Spain); Rubio, F.R.; Lara, P.J.; Arahal, M.R.; Camacho, E.F.; Lopez, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA-CIEMAT), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated with the coolant flow (in this case air mass flow) through the receiver, usually in an open loop control configuration. There exist error sources that increase the complexity of the control system, some of which are systematic ones, mainly due to tolerances, wrong mirror facets alignment (optical errors), errors due to the approximations made when calculating the solar position, etc., that produce errors (offsets) in the heliostat orientation (aiming point). The approximation adopted in this paper is based on the use of a B/W CCD camera to correct these deviations in an automatic way imitating the same procedure followed by the operators. The obtained images are used to estimate the distance between the sunbeam centroid projected by the heliostats and a target placed on the tower, this distance thus is used for low accuracy offset correction purposes. Basic threshold-based image processing techniques are used for automatic correction. (Author)

  6. Central functions of the orexinergic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yang Zhang; Lei Yu; Qian-Xing Zhuang; Jing-Ning Zhu; Jian-Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide orexin is synthesized by neurons exclusively located in the hypothalamus.However,these neurons send axons over virtually the entire brain and spinal cord and therefore constitute a unique central orexinergic system.It is well known that central orexin plays a crucial role in the regulation of various basic non-somatic and somatic physiological functions,including feeding,energy homeostasis,the sleep/wake cycle,reward,addiction,and neuroendocrine,as well as motor control.Moreover,the absence of orexin results in narcolepsy-cataplexy,a simultaneous somatic and non-somatic dysfunction.In this review,we summarize these central functions of the orexinergic system and associated diseases,and suggest that this system may hold a key position in somatic-non-somatic integration.

  7. Quality assurance in central nuclear power plant control systems. (Status report containing proposed enhancements for KTA rules)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All enterprises investigated observe the requirements laid down in KTA 1401. In most cases, the quality assurance systems and measures applied even go beyond the requirements of KTA 1401, especially in those enterprises working primarily for export and having to meet foreign quality assurance standards. Quality assurance measures in these enterprises are based primarily on 10 CFR 50, App.B and related rules and standards (e.g. ANSI N 54.2; NUREG 75/087). Internal quality assurance in these enterprises is organized on the basis of graphic flow diagrams which are even presented in the quality assurance manuals. These flow diagrams, in contrast to the German KTA rules, meet the international standards for quality assurance. KTA 1401 requirements not sufficiently met are, e.g. the operator audits with plant producers and unit and equipment producer audits with component producers. The report presents hints for improvements of the quality assurance concept in control systems engineering. (orig./HP)

  8. The carbon storage regulator (Csr) system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelles, Olga; Millard, Pierre; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Oswald, Eric; Létisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr) system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations) showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the csrA51 mutant affects the growth efficiency on a broad range of physiologically relevant carbon sources, including compounds utilized by the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. Detailed investigations of the metabolomes and fluxomes of mutants and wild-type cells grown on carbon sources representative of glycolysis and of the ED pathway (glucose and gluconate, respectively), revealed significant re-adjusting of central carbon metabolism for both compounds in the csrA51 mutant. However, the metabolic re-adjusting observed on gluconate was strikingly different from that observed on glucose, indicating a nutrient-specific control of metabolism by the Csr system. PMID:23840455

  9. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  10. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  11. Generalized conventional and intelligent supervisory control system for combined cycle generation power plants; Sistema de control supervisorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-15

    (conventional or intelligent) is possible to get more power generation than if we use the automatic methods based on feedback MW control. Consequently, the financial benefit due to the MW generated along a period of 2 months, is equivalent to return the investment required if the CCPP would had been repowered. Test also showed that with the fuzzy based SGC is possible to get a 'little more' power generation than if we use the PID based SGC. The development and implementation of the SGC was made in three phases: First Phase: Upgrading of the simulation dynamic mathematical model and implementation in a new software platform based on LabWindows/CVI. Second Phase: Design, implementation and testing of the PID based SGC. Third Phase: Design and implementation and testing of the Intelligent SGC, based in fuzzy logic. [Spanish] El programa de obras de generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) del ano 2004 al ano 2008 esta caracterizado por el dominio del proceso de ciclo combinado para la expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico [CFE, 2000]. De acuerdo con los datos presentados por esta fuente, el incremento estimado en la capacidad de generacion de potencia electrica es de 12876 MW, de los cuales las centrales de ciclo combinado aportaran 10655 MW, lo que representa el 82.75%. Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, en este trabajo de tesis se desarrollo un sistema de control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) convencional (PID) e inteligente (logica difusa) para una central de generacion de ciclo combinado, el cual permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas (TG) y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV). El diseno de estos sistemas

  12. Time presses for the installation of a central controller [in the energy supply industry]. Strategic re-orientation of the present system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of a so-called central controller for the electric power industry has a number of advantages for stakeholders in the energy market: improving the exchange of information between energy utilities, save costs by setting up central registers for connections, meters, measured data and central processes for e.g. reconciliation and management of measured data (in particular with regard to smart metering). As an example attention is paid to the NEMMCO-case (National Electricity Code Administrator) in Australia

  13. Design of Air Conditioner Central Control System Based on ARM-Linux-Qt%基于ARM-Linux-Qt的空调集中控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨都; 赖东锋; 肖焕明; 叶铁英

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a central control system based on embedded technology, communication technology and HMI (Human and Machine Interactive) technology designed is introduced. The system selects TI AM335x hardware plat-form which based on ARM Cortex A8 processor, and Linux operation system as the software platform. The HMI in-terface is designed using Qt technology, and the communication is designed using CAN bus technology. The functions of the system include Multi-VRF centralized control, real time inspect, and schedule management. In addition, a high definition LCD and capacitive touch screen is provided to make system interactive conveniently and efficiently.%基于嵌入式技术、通信技术和人机交互技术设计了空调集中控制系统。该系统基于ARM Cortex A8的高速处理器TI AM335X硬件平台,采用嵌入式Linux操作系统,利用Qt设计了人机交互界面,通过CAN总线通讯技术,实现了多联机空调集中控制、实时监控、日程管理等功能。该系统采用7寸高分辨率彩色液晶屏和电容式触摸,较好的解决了以往空调集中控制器人机交互便捷性差、效率低下的问题。

  14. 中央空调管道清洗机器人控制系统设计%Design of central air conditioning duct cleaning robot control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琴

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of central air conditioning duct diameter non-standard and the difficulty of the duct cleaning,the automatic centering technology was investigated. After analysing the central air conditioning duct cleaning robot control system,adopting a modular design thought, taking ATmega64 microcontroller as the control core,the relations between modules were established. A method was presented to the central air conditioning duct cleaning robot control system design. The cleaning technology was evaluated based on the existing cleaning technology. The results show that the cleaning robot can achieve automatic centering to adapt different pipe diameters to finish cleaning tasks, provide a broad application prospects for central air conditioning duct cleaning technology.%为解决中央空调管道清洗难及管径不规范等问题,将自动定心技术应用到管道清洗机器人中,开展了中央空调管道清洗机器人控制系统方案分析与设计.采用模块化的设计思想,以ATmega64单片机为控制核心,建立了各个功能模块之间的关系,实现了中央空调管道清洗机器人整个控制系统的方案设计.在现有的中央空调管道清洗技术基础上,对相关研究成果进行了对比分析及评价.研究结果表明,所设计的清洗机器人能够实现自动定心以适应不同的空调管径,完成清洗作业,为中央空调管道清洗技术提供了广阔的应用前景.

  15. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  16. The field evaluation of a push-pull system to control malaria vectors in Northern Belize, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M Wagman; Grieco, John P; Bautista, Kim; polanco, jorge; Briceño, Ireneo; King, Russell; Nicole L Achee

    2015-01-01

    Background Campaigns for the continued reduction and eventual elimination of malaria may benefit from new and innovative vector control tools. One novel approach being considered uses a push-pull strategy, whereby spatial repellents are used in combination with outdoor baited traps. The desired effect is the behavioural manipulation of mosquito populations to elicit movement of vectors away from people and into traps. Methods Here, a prototype push-pull intervention was evaluated using an exp...

  17. Structural controllability and controlling centrality of temporal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yujian; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Temporal networks are such networks where nodes and interactions may appear and disappear at various time scales. With the evidence of ubiquity of temporal networks in our economy, nature and society, it's urgent and significant to focus on its structural controllability as well as the corresponding characteristics, which nowadays is still an untouched topic. We develop graphic tools to study the structural controllability as well as its characteristics, identifying the intrinsic mechanism of the ability of individuals in controlling a dynamic and large-scale temporal network. Classifying temporal trees of a temporal network into different types, we give (both upper and lower) analytical bounds of the controlling centrality, which are verified by numerical simulations of both artificial and empirical temporal networks. We find that the positive relationship between aggregated degree and controlling centrality as well as the scale-free distribution of node's controlling centrality are virtually independent of the time scale and types of datasets, meaning the inherent robustness and heterogeneity of the controlling centrality of nodes within temporal networks. PMID:24747676

  18. The Run Control System and the Central Hint and Information Processor of the Data Acquisition System of the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, G; Magnoni, L

    2014-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS detector is composed of a large number of distributed hardware and software components (about 3000 machines and more than 15000 concurrent processes at the end of LHC’s Run I) which in a coordinated manner provide the data-taking functionality of the overall system. The Run Control (RC) system steers the data acquisition by starting and stopping processes and by carrying all data-taking elements through well-defined states in a coherent way (finite state machine pattern). The RC is organized as a hierarchical tree (run control tree) of run controllers following the functional de-composition into systems and sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) the RC has been completely re-designed and re-implemented in order to better fulfill the new requirements which emerged during the LHC Run 1 and were not foreseen during the initial design phase, and in order to improve the error management and recovery mechanisms. Indeed gi...

  19. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  20. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively minimize development of alluvial bankfull indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that mixed alluvial–bedrock channels exhibit first-order lithologic controls (lithologic resistance and valley confinement) of channel geometry, second

  1. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  2. The impulse influence function for de-centralized control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wanxie

    2004-01-01

    Impulse influence matrix function is introduced based on that the de-centralized control analysis is analogous to the sub-structural analysis in structural mechanics. The static sub-structural analysis is analogous to the usual de-centralized control, whereas the dynamic sub-structural analysis corresponds to the de-centralized control theory. The reciprocal symmetry for the impulse influence matrix function is proved, and is solved by the precise integration method for time invariant system, giving the results up to computer precision. Based on the impulse influence functions of subsystems, the combination of subsystems can lead to a set of integral equations and be solved numerically. Numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  3. Coordinated control of a combined cycle thermoelectric central; Control coordinado de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Parra, Marino; Castelo Cuevas, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the coordinated control (CC) of the Distributed Control System (Sistema de Control Distribuido) (SICODI) of the Combined Cycle Central of Gomez Palacio, Durango, is presented. The description of the control scheme and its realization in software is made. From the scheme the operation strategies and automation, supervision and control are described in detail. The software components of the programming are described, the program structure and control data and its implementation in working stations VAX 3100 under the operating system VMS (Virtual Memory System), are described. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el control coordinado (CC) del Sistema de Control Distribuido (Sicodi) de la central de ciclo combinado Gomez Palacio, Durango. Se describe el esquema de control y su realizacion en software. Del esquema se detallan las estrategias de operacion y automatizacion, supervision y control. Del software se describen los componentes de la programacion, la estructura de programas y datos del control y su implementacion en estaciones de trabajo VAX 3100 bajo el sistema operativo VMS (Virtual Memory System).

  4. FMIT facility control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, under construction at Richland, Washington, uses current techniques in distributed processing to achieve responsiveness, maintainability and reliability. Developmental experience with the system on the FMIT Prototype Accelerator (FPA) being designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described as a function of the system's design goals and details. The functional requirements of the FMIT control system dictated the use of a highly operator-responsive, display-oriented structure, using state-of-the-art console devices for man-machine communications. Further, current technology has allowed the movement of device-dependent tasks into the area traditionally occupied by remote input-output equipment; the system's dual central process computers communicate with remote communications nodes containing microcomputers that are architecturally similar to the top-level machines. The system has been designed to take advantage of commercially available hardware and software

  5. Discussion on control technology of mine surface production centralized system Liang Wenlin%基于煤矿地面生产系统集中控制技术的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文林

    2014-01-01

    为了保证煤矿地面生产系统的安全性和可靠性,煤矿企业开始对煤矿地面生产系统进行改造,以实现地面生产系统的集中控制和保护。在改造的过程中,通过可编程控制器对煤矿地面生产系统集中控制技术系统进行监控和远方集中控制。该文介绍了煤矿地面生产系统集中控制技术的组成、改造方案、功能、保护装置等。%In order to ensure the safety and reliability of coal mine surface production system, enterprises begin to carry on the reformation of mine surface production system, to achieve the centralized control and protection of surface production system. In the process of transformation, through the programmable controller for the centralized control system of coal mine surface production system technology to monitor and remote centralized control. This paper introduces the mine surface production system of centralized control technology reformation scheme, composition, function, protection device.

  6. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival

  7. Automatic control system of evaporative cooling semi-centralized air conditioning system%蒸发冷却半集中式空调系统的控制方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔; 卢永梅; 强天伟

    2012-01-01

    Presents the flow process of evaporative cooling semi-centralized air conditioning system. Based on operation modes of different seasons, designs the automatic scheme to guarantee the system's safety and energy efficiency. Presents the control content and hardware configuration in detail. Achieves the communication between the personal computer and the programmable logic controller by configuration software, realizing the functions of centralized control, data logging and printing, so as to provide detailed data for on-site equipment maintenance worker and to simplify operation and maintenance. The project application, shows that the control system wofks steadily and achieves a desired effect.%介绍了蒸发冷却半集中式空调系统的流程.基于该系统不同季节的运行模式,设计了自控方案,以保证该空调系统的安全性和节能性.详细介绍了控制内容和硬件配置.利用组态软件完成PC机与PLC之间的通讯,实现了系统集中控制、数据记录和打印等功能,能为现场设备维护人员提供详细的资料,简化操作、维护工作.工程应用实践表明,该自控系统运行稳定,能达到预期效果.

  8. Critical controlling of PRED system of oasis ecology in the arid region of central Asia: a case study of Keriya River Valley oases, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Jiaqi; Niu, Wenyuan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Mu, Guijin; Wagner, Mayke; Geldmacher, Karl

    2003-07-01

    Oases is a special ecosystem formed in arid climate and hungriness environment, in which resident, water and soil are the principal factor and exchanges of materials, energy and information are the main functional characteristics. The oases regions in central Asia are not only the basilic cradle of civilization of human beings, but also the important strategic places in world growing awareness of the potential benefits. We choose Keriya River Basin oases in south of Xinjiang as a case to study critical controlling of Oases Evolution, Based on the theories and methods used for environmental geology, physical geography, land resource research, and oases ecology. This study try to indicate the essential factors driving the oases ecosystem and the interactional dynamic mechanism in different scales and levels, confirm the optimal equilibrium aggregate of harmonious development between Population, Resources, Environment and Development, and establish the critical controlling pattern of sustainable development. We advance the indicator system to research the evolution of the PRED System of oases in Keriya River valley oases, in basis of the information derived from the field investigation and local materials. According to inquisitional result based on technical support of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sense (RS), the comparisons and analyses are carried out in land use at the upper reaches, vegetation change in the middle reaches, and desertification at the lower reaches, which narrates the regulations of Keriya River Valley oases land cover dynamic change. The main land cover types represent distinct characteristics of the local place. On the basis of field survey and statistical data, we use ARCINFO software to preprocess these data and the 2 TM satellite images. Through analyzing these images resulting from post-classification compare, we sums up the concrete quantificational dynamic distributed data of 13 land types covering a span of 15 years and

  9. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  10. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  11. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  12. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  13. NCPC Central Files Information System (CFIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...

  14. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  15. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  16. Control rod drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns an electromotive driving-type control rod driving system of a BWR type reactor, for which sliding resistance (friction) test can be performed of a movable portion of the control rod driving mechanisms. Namely, a hydraulic pressure control unit has following constitutions in addition to a conventional constitution as a sliding resistance test performing function. (1) A restricting valve is disposed downstream of the scram valve of scram pipelines to control flow rate and pressure of pressurized water flown in the pipelines. (2) A pressure gauge detects a pressure between the scram valve and the restricting valve. (3) A flow meter detects the flow rate of pipelines controlled by the restricting valve. (4) A recording pressure detector detects the pressure at the downstream of the restricting valve. (5) The recording device is attached when the sliding resistant test is performed for tracing the pressure measured by the pressure detection device. Further, the scram valve sends electric signals to a central operation chamber when it is fully closed. The central operation chamber has a function of fully opening the restricting valve by way of the electric signals. (I.S.)

  17. Central control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described.

  18. Computerized Systems: Centralized or Decentralized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Linda Ludington

    1985-01-01

    Computerized management information systems have long been used in business, and data integration and sophisticated programing now enable many businesses to decentralize their information operations. This approach has advantages and disadvantages that colleges and universities must weigh and plan for carefully. (MSE)

  19. Centralized and decentralized network control structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hock, G.; Motl, G.

    1983-03-01

    Network control systems are aids for network operation resulting from take-over, transport and distribution of the electric power generated in power plants. In order to achieve this, the energy used by the consumers must be generated and supplied at the very moment of demand. From this objective the network structure in the Federal Republic of Germany, which in principle is also valid for other contries comparable in infrastructure, has developed.

  20. Intelligent control system for the temperature regulation in a gas turbine of a combined cycle fossil fuel power plant; Sistema de control inteligente para regular la temperatura en la turbina de gas de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espindola Vasquez, Agustin

    2004-11-15

    logic theory and its performance was evaluated using a non- linear mathematical model that emulates the CTCC behavior. The fuzzy supervision system is integrated by three main modules: Supervision of blades temperature during the starting stage of the UTG; Supervision of blades temperature runback during the power generation stage of the UTG, and Control by Temperature during power generation stage of the UTG. The temperature fuzzy supervisor is implemented in a nonlinear mathematical model that simulates a CTCC. The obtained and analyzed results in the different sceneries of the simulation tests show that the temperature fuzzy supervision system displays a better performance than the obtained with the scheme of conventional supervision. [Spanish] En las Unidades Turbogas (UTG) de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (CTCC), una de las variables criticas tanto desde el punto de vista operativo como desde el punto de vista de seguridad, es la temperatura de los alabes de la turbina. El mejor desempeno de la unidad turbogas desde el punto de vista de generacion electrica se obtiene cuando es posible lograr la mayor eficiencia termica. Desde el punto de vista de seguridad se busca mantener la temperatura de los alabes en el limite impuesto por el fabricante, garantizando con esto la integridad de las partes internas de la UTG al evitar que esfuerzos termicos considerables decrementen su vida util. Para mantener la temperatura de alabes dentro del limite establecido, el sistema de control de la UTG cuenta con un sistema de supervision de temperatura de alabes, que modifica la referencia de los controladores PI de velocidad o de potencia generada, mismos que regulan la valvula de flujo de combustible a la camara de combustion de la UTG. Este sistema de supervision esta basado en condiciones logicas para generar su salida. En las plantas de proceso cuya operacion es compleja y su comportamiento dinamico es no lineal, las estrategias de control de lazo simple no

  1. Central histaminergic system and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passani, M B; Bacciottini, L; Mannaioni, P F; Blandina, P

    2000-01-01

    The neurotransmitter histamine is contained within neurons clustered in the tuberomammillary nuclei of the hypothalamus. These cells give rise to widespread projections extending through the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex, as well as to the thalamus and pontomesencephalic tegmentum. These morphological features suggest that the histaminergic system acts as a regulatory center for whole-brain activity. Indeed, this amine is involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions and behaviors, including learning and memory, as indicated by extensive research reviewed in this paper. Histamine effects on cognition might be explained by the modulation of the cholinergic system. However, interactions of histamine with any transmitter system, and/or a putative intrinsic procognitive role cannot be excluded. Furthermore, although experimental evidence indicates that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms arise from impaired dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission, recent research suggests that histamine is also involved. The possible relevance of histamine in disorders such as age-related memory deficits, Alzheimer's disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is worth of consideration, and awaits validation with clinical trials that will prove the beneficial effects of histaminergic drugs in the treatment of these diseases.

  2. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in th

  3. Application of PLC Centralized Control System of Coal Mine Belt Conveyor%PLC集中控制系统在煤矿胶带输送机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永康; 黄和平

    2011-01-01

    针对某矿胶带运输系统线路长、岗位多、联络环节多的特点,提出了一种采用PLC集中控制系统控制煤矿胶带输送机的方案,介绍了PLC集中控制系统的构成、工作原理和系统功能.该系统通过集中控制和工业电视相结合,对井下主煤流强力胶带输送机和振动给煤机及煤仓煤位计等相关设施进行监测,实现了主煤流系统的集中控制.实际应用表明,该系统运行良好,实现了胶带输送机的安全高效运行.%In view of characteristics of long lines, multi posts and multi links of transport system of belt converyor of a mine, the paper proposed a scheme which adopts PLC centralized control system to control coal mine belt conveyor.It introduced composition, working principle and functions of PLC centralized control system.The system combines industrial television with centralized control to monitor related devices such as underground powerful belt conveyor, vibration coal feeder and coal level sensor of coal bunker, which realizes centralized control of main coal flow system.The practical application showed that the system runs well, and achieves safe and efficient running of conveyor belt.

  4. Huaneng Lancang River in Yunnan centralized control center monitoring system transformation%华能云南澜沧江集控中心监控改造方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温柳; 周颖; 师碧; 杨忠

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了云南澜沧江集控中心建设的现状,针对存在的后续接入巨型电站可靠接入,现有的双网络、集中式数据库无法满足日益扩大的集控规模需求,而且对安全运维带来较高的风险,提出了对整个系统按模块化、结构化设计、具有良好开放性和可移植性的分布式集控系统重新改造的设计思路,引领了新型的巨型水电站集控中心的发展方向。%This article describes the Lancang River in Yunnan centralized control center construction status,follow-up access for the existing power plants and reliable access to the giant,the existing dual network,centralized database can not meet the growing demand for centralized control of scale,but also to bring safe operation and maintenance higher risk presented by the entire system modular,structural design, with good openness and portability of distributed control system set to reinvent design ideas.Leading the new giant hydropower station centralized control center development.

  5. Central Circadian Control of Female Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke H Miller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, it has become clear just how much of our physiology is under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and the cell-intrinsic molecular clock that ticks with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours. The SCN prepares our digestive system for meals, our adrenal axis for the stress of waking up in the morning, and the genes expressed in our muscles when we prepare to exercise, Long before molecular studies of genes such as Clock, Bmal1, and the Per homologs were possible, it was obvious that female reproductive function was under strict circadian control at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, and in the establishment and successful maintenance of pregnancy. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that the SCN plays in regulating female reproductive physiology, with a special emphasis on the advances made possible through the use of circadian mutant mice.

  6. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  7. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions. (author)

  8. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  9. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  10. Stochastic modelling of central heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    and the degree Erhvervsforsker (a special Danish degree, equivalent to ``Industrial Ph.D.''). The thesis is mainly concerned with experimental design and system identification for individual components in water based central heating systems. The main contribution to this field is on the nonlinear dynamic...

  11. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  12. Case-control study of paternal occupation and social class with risk of childhood central nervous system tumours in Great Britain, 1962–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, T J; Bunch, K J; Vincent, T J; King, J C; O'Neill, K A; Kendall, G M; MacCarthy, A; Fear, N T; Murphy, M F G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Paternal occupational exposures have been proposed as a risk factor for childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumours. This study investigates possible associations between paternal occupational exposure and childhood CNS tumours in Great Britain. Methods: The National Registry of Childhood Tumours provided all cases of childhood CNS tumours born and diagnosed in Great Britain from 1962 to 2006. Controls without cancer were matched on sex, period of birth and birth registration sub-district. Fathers' occupations were assigned to one or more of 33 exposure groups. A measure of social class was also derived from father's occupation at the time of the child's birth. Results: Of 11 119 cases of CNS tumours, 5 722 (51%) were astrocytomas or other gliomas, 2 286 (21%) were embryonal and 985 (9%) were ependymomas. There was an increased risk for CNS tumours overall with exposure to animals, odds ratio (OR) 1.40 (95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.01, 1.94) and, after adjustment for occupational social class (OSC), with exposure to lead, OR 1.18 (1.01, 1.39). Exposure to metal-working oil mists was associated with reduced risk of CNS tumours, both before and after adjustment for OSC, OR 0.87 (0.75, 0.99). Risk of ependymomas was raised for exposure to solvents, OR 1.73 (1.02,2.92). For astrocytomas and other gliomas, risk was raised with high social contact, although this was only statistically significant before adjustment for OSC, OR 1.15 (1.01,1.31). Exposure to paints and metals appeared to reduce the risk of astrocytomas and embryonal tumours, respectively. However, as these results were the result of a number of statistical tests, it is possible they were generated by chance. Higher social class was a risk factor for all CNS tumours, OR 0.97 (0.95, 0.99). This was driven by increased risk for higher social classes within the major subtype astrocytoma, OR 0.95 (0.91, 0.98). Conclusion: Our results provide little evidence that paternal occupation is a

  13. Decentralized Markets versus Central Control: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Akkermans, H; 10.1613/jair.627

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) promise to offer solutions to problems where established, older paradigms fall short. In order to validate such claims that are repeatedly made in software agent publications, empirical in-depth studies of advantages and weaknesses of multi-agent solutions versus conventional ones in practical applications are needed. Climate control in large buildings is one application area where multi-agent systems, and market-oriented programming in particular, have been reported to be very successful, although central control solutions are still the standard practice. We have therefore constructed and implemented a variety of market designs for this problem, as well as different standard control engineering solutions. This article gives a detailed analysis and comparison, so as to learn about differences between standard versus agent approaches, and yielding new insights about benefits and limitations of computational markets. An important outcome is that "local information plus market communica...

  14. Means and methods used to check radiation detection, signalling and alarm devices in the centralized environment control systems of the INB of CEN-Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having reviewed the prescribed technical measures concerning 'systematic environment controls' in INB (Installations nucleaires de base - basic nuclear facilities) and published in the J.O. (French Official Journal) the authors briefly describe the main radiation detection, signalling and alarm systems at present installed in INB of CEN-Saclay and weigh up the extent to which their characteristics comply with the statutory texts. They then develop the means and methods set up to check on the good working order of these devices which are integrated in centralised one-piece modular analogue or informatics type control systems possible functioning anomalies being classed in two categories: logic type anomalies corresonding to a straightforward breakdown where detection is permanent; developing anomalies corresponding to poor functioning where detection requires a more critical and periodic control. The authors demonstrate the advantages offered by centralised computer type control systems

  15. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  16. Treatment of Parkinson's disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy López

    2010-12-01

    -induced rotation behavior in hemiparkisonian rats.Results: The in vitro dopamine delivery profiles indicate two regimes of release, a fast and sustained dopamine delivery was observed up to 24 hours, and after this time the rate of delivery became constant. Histologic analysis of formalin-fixed brains performed 24–32 weeks after reservoir implantation revealed that silica–dopamine implants had a reddish-brown color, suggesting the presence of oxidized dopamine, likely caused by the fixation procedure, while implants without dopamine were always translucent.Conclusion: The major finding of the study was that intrastriatal silica–dopamine implants reversed the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, in hemiparkinsonian rats. No dyskinesias or other motor abnormalities were observed in animals implanted with silica or silica–dopamine.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, silica–dopamine, controlled drug release, central nervous system, reservoirs

  17. A 200kW central receiver CPV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasich, John, E-mail: jbl@raygen.com; Thomas, Ian, E-mail: ithomas@raygen.com; Hertaeg, Wolfgang; Shirley, David; Faragher, Neil; Erenstrom, Neil; Carter, Sam; Cox, Brian; Zuo, Xinyi [Raygen Resources Pty. Ltd., 15 King Street, Blackburn, Victoria, 3130 (Australia)

    2015-09-28

    Raygen Resources has recently completed a Central Receiver CPV (CSPV) pilot plant in Central Victoria, Australia. The system is under final commissioning and initial operation is expected in late April 2015. The pilot demonstrates a full scale CSPV repeatable unit in a form that is representative of a commercial product and provides a test bed to prove out performance and reliability of the CSPV technology. Extensive testing of the system key components: dense array module, wireless solar powered heliostat and control system has been performed in the laboratory and on sun. Results from this key component testing are presented herein.

  18. A 200kW central receiver CPV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasich, John; Thomas, Ian; Hertaeg, Wolfgang; Shirley, David; Faragher, Neil; Erenstrom, Neil; Carter, Sam; Cox, Brian; Zuo, Xinyi

    2015-09-01

    Raygen Resources has recently completed a Central Receiver CPV (CSPV) pilot plant in Central Victoria, Australia. The system is under final commissioning and initial operation is expected in late April 2015. The pilot demonstrates a full scale CSPV repeatable unit in a form that is representative of a commercial product and provides a test bed to prove out performance and reliability of the CSPV technology. Extensive testing of the system key components: dense array module, wireless solar powered heliostat and control system has been performed in the laboratory and on sun. Results from this key component testing are presented herein.

  19. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases. PMID:26574895

  20. Role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in vasopressin secretion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Michele; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Fiore, Giorgio; Licchelli, Brunella; Iovino, Emanuela; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we analyzed the role played by central and peripheral chemoreceptors (CHRs) in vasopressin (AVP) secretion control. Central neural pathways subserving osmotic and non-osmotic control of AVP secretion are strictly correlated to brain areas participating in chemoreception mechanisms. Among the different brain areas involved in central chemoreception, the most important site has been localized in the retrotrapezoid nucleus of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. These central CHRs are able to detect very small pH/CO2 fluctuations, participating in brain blood flow regulation, acid-base balance and blood pressure control. Decreases in arterial pH and increases in arterial pCO2 stimulate AVP release by the Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. Carotid CHRs transduce low arterial O2 tension into increased action potential activity, leading to bradycardia and coronary vasodilatation via vagal stimulation, and systemic vasoconstriction via catecholaminergic stimulation. Stimulation of carotid CHRs by hypoxia increases neurohypophyseal blood flow and AVP release, an effect inhibited by CHRs denervation. Two renal CHRs have been identified: Type R1 CHRs do not have a resting discharge but are activated by renal ischemia and hypotension; Type R2 CHRs have a resting discharge and respond to backflow of urine into the renal pelvis. Signals arising from renal CHRs modulate the activity of hypothalamic AVPergic neurons: activation of R1 and R2 CHRs, following increased intrapelvic pressure with solutions of mannitol, NaCl and KCl, produces a significant increase of AVP secretion and the same effect has been obtained by the intrarenal infusion of bradykinin, which excites afferent renal nerves, as well as by the electrical stimulation of these nerves.

  1. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  2. Exercise, Stress Resistance, and Central Serotonergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure.

  3. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  4. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. van der Linden; R.R. Jansen; D. Bresters; C.E. Visser; S.E. Geerlings; E.J. Kuijper; W.J.G. Melchers; P.E. Verweij

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  5. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  6. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemoki

  7. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  8. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  9. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  10. Simulation and study of centralized power train speed control system%动力集中型列车调速系统仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路小娟; 杨涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces method of DC speed adjustment using current and speed double 1oop, and describes the construct and mathematic model of the system. The article uses SIMULINK tools of MATLAB to build centralized power SS9 mathematics model, and analyzes the simulation results. The simulation analysis is agreeable to the actual data.%介绍了采用电流、转速双闭环进行直流调速的方法,分别对电流和速度调节器进行了设计,描述了系统的组成及其数学模型.采用MATLAB中SIMULINK仿真软件,对动力集中型SS9(韶山9电力机车)直流调速系统进行建模仿真,仿真结果与实际数据相吻合.

  11. FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CENTRAL BANK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  12. Financial Crisis and the Central Bank System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPISIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  13. Advanced control system for temperature control in the pressurized fluid bed of Escatron Thermal Plant Power; Sistema de Control Avanzado para Control de la Temperatura del Lecho Fluido a Presion de la Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the P. F-B. C a small problem appears, particularly in Escatron the bed temperature gradient is very high. Such gradient very occasionally reaches 50 degree centigree in a same plane. With the reduction of bed difference of temperature, the average bed temperature could be increased with the result steam cycle benefit, at the same time combustion gases would go at a higher temperature to the gas turbine, increasing therefore its performance. The SCAP system will allow to face the resolution of the injection of combustible problem and in this manner achieve the homogenization of bed temperature in Escatron PFBC Thermal Power Station. (Author)

  14. On Constructing Basic Framework of the University Internal Control under the Conditions of Centralized Treasury Payment System%国库集中支付条件下高校内部控制基本框架构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司金山

    2012-01-01

    高校作为中央或地方财政预算单位,现已全面实行国库集中支付制度,高校的财务管理也发生了重大变化。国库集中支付制度实行的好坏,很大程度上取决于国库集中支付制度内部控制的好坏。分析了国库制度实行后高校内部控制方面出现的问题,并结合实际情况综合运用COSO框架来构建国库集中支付条件下地方高校内部控制的基本框架,希望以此来完善高校内部控制体系,保障国库集中支付制度在高校有良好实施效果。%Universities as central or local budget unit is now filly implement centralized treasury payment system, bringing about significant changes in the financial management of universities. Whether the result is good or bad depends largely on its internal control. This paper analyzes the university internal control problems in the implementation of the treasury system, using the COSO framework and combining with the actual situation to build the basic framework of the university internal control under the conditions of eentralized treasury payment system in order to improve the college internal control system and to safeguard the implementation of centralized payment system in the universities.

  15. Gait Rehabilitation Device in Central Nervous System Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system diseases cause the gait disorder. Early rehabilitation of a patient with central nervous system disease is shown to be benefit. However, early gait training is difficult because of muscular weakness and those elderly patients who lose of leg muscular power. In the patient's walking training, therapists assist the movement of patient's lower limbs and control the movement of patient's lower limbs. However the assistance for the movement of the lower limbs is a serious hard labor for therapists. Therefore, research into and development of various gait rehabilitation devices is currently underway to identify methods to alleviate the physical burden on therapists. In this paper, we introduced the about gait rehabilitation devices in central nervous system disease.

  16. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  17. [Central nervous system tumors in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podciechowski, Lech; Nowakowska, Dorota; Bielak, Adam; Nowosławska, Emilia; Szymański, Wojciech; Polis, Lech; Krasomski, Grzechorz; Fiks, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jan

    2003-12-01

    Central nervous system tumour in pregnancy constitutes a serious complication. Considering frequent difficulties in diagnostics and therapy, the aim of the study was to present our experience in management with pregnant women with brain and spinal cord tumours. Between 1988-2000, in The Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Lodzi, 4 pregnant women had been diagnosed with brain and spinal cord tumours. The incidence of tumours complicating pregnancy was 1/11460. Two patients diagnosed at 29 weeks' gestation, underwent craniotomy and tumour resection during pregnancy. Two other women with central nervous system tumours diagnosed at 39 weeks' gestation, were operated in the postpartum period. The analysis of the postoperative period, gestation and/or postpartum period in all women and well-being of their new-borns confirm undertaken medical decisions. PMID:15029742

  18. [Central nervous system malformations: neurosurgery correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-León, Juan C; Betancourt-Fursow, Yaline M; Jiménez-Betancourt, Cristina S

    2013-09-01

    Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them.

  19. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Rhailana Fontes; Jéssica Ribeiro; Gupta, Daya S.; Dionis Machado; Fernando Lopes-Júnior; Francisco Magalhães; Victor Hugo Bastos; Kaline Rocha; Victor Marinho; Gildário Lima; Bruna Velasques; Pedro Ribeiro; Marco Orsini; Bruno Pessoa; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms...

  20. GCFR plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range

  1. Tuberculoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLance, Arthur R; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Clark, Aaron J; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sun, Matthew Z; Bollen, Andrew W; Phillips, Joanna J; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with the majority of cases occurring in children and immunocompromised patients. Despite advancements in imaging and laboratory diagnostics, tuberculomas of the central nervous system remain a diagnostic challenge due to their insidious nature and nonspecific findings. On imaging studies tuberculous meningitis is characterized by diffuse basal enhancement, but tuberculomas may be indistinguishable from neoplasms. Early diagnosis is imperative, since clinical outcomes are largely dependent on timely treatment. Stereotactic biopsy with histopathological analysis can provide a definitive diagnosis, but is only recommended when non-invasive methods are inconclusive. Standard medical treatment includes rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. In cases of drug resistance, revision of the treatment regimen with second-line agents is recommended over the addition of a single drug to the first-line regimen. Advances in genomics have identified virulent strains of tuberculosis and are improving our understanding of host susceptibility. Neurosurgical referral is advised for patients with elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, or brain or spinal cord compression. This review synthesizes pertinent findings in the literature surrounding central nervous system tuberculoma in an effort to highlight recent advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  2. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  3. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  4. Central chemoreceptors and neural mechanisms of cardiorespiratory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Moreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The arterial partial pressure (P CO2 of carbon dioxide is virtually constant because of the close match between the metabolic production of this gas and its excretion via breathing. Blood gas homeostasis does not rely solely on changes in lung ventilation, but also to a considerable extent on circulatory adjustments that regulate the transport of CO2 from its sites of production to the lungs. The neural mechanisms that coordinate circulatory and ventilatory changes to achieve blood gas homeostasis are the subject of this review. Emphasis will be placed on the control of sympathetic outflow by central chemoreceptors. High levels of CO2 exert an excitatory effect on sympathetic outflow that is mediated by specialized chemoreceptors such as the neurons located in the retrotrapezoid region. In addition, high CO2 causes an aversive awareness in conscious animals, activating wake-promoting pathways such as the noradrenergic neurons. These neuronal groups, which may also be directly activated by brain acidification, have projections that contribute to the CO2-induced rise in breathing and sympathetic outflow. However, since the level of activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus is regulated by converging inputs from wake-promoting systems, behavior-specific inputs from higher centers and by chemical drive, the main focus of the present manuscript is to review the contribution of central chemoreceptors to the control of autonomic and respiratory mechanisms.

  5. Central Control of Heat Pump for Smart Grid Purposes Tested on Single Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work a central control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The central...

  6. Plants and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  7. Water System Operator Training for the Central Arizona Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlin, Brian; Clemmens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.85 billion cubic meters (1.5 million acre-feet) of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. The CAP canal system is a 540-km (336-mile) long system of conveyance aqueducts, tunnels, pumping plants, and pipelines that is monitored and remotely controlled using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software from CAP headquarters in Phoenix, AZ. Because the CAP is crucial to the renew...

  8. On Controlled P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krithivasan, Kamala; Paun, Gheorghe; Ramanujan, Ajeesh; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and brie y investigate P systems with controlled computations. First, P systems with label restricted transitions are considered (in each step, all rules used have either the same label, or, possibly, the empty label, ), then P systems with the computations controlled by languages (as in context-free controlled grammars). The relationships between the families of sets of numbers computed by the various classes of controlled P systems are investigated, also comp...

  9. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  10. Central configurations, periodic orbits, and Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Llibre, Jaume; Simó, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The notes of this book originate from three series of lectures given at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. The first one is dedicated to the study of periodic solutions of autonomous differential systems in Rn via the Averaging Theory and was delivered by Jaume Llibre. The second one, given by Richard Moeckel, focusses on methods for studying Central Configurations. The last one, by Carles Simó, describes the main mechanisms leading to a fairly global description of the dynamics in conservative systems. The book is directed towards graduate students and researchers interested in dynamical systems, in particular in the conservative case, and aims at facilitating the understanding of dynamics of specific models. The results presented and the tools introduced in this book include a large range of applications.

  11. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  12. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Central Nervous System Complications of Oncologic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Ellen G

    2016-08-01

    Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed. PMID:27444003

  14. Lyapunov-Based Control Scheme for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Central Inverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meza, C.; Biel, D.; Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    A Lyapunov-based control scheme for single-phase single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic central inverters is presented. Besides rendering the closed-loop system globally stable, the designed controller is able to deal with the system uncertainty that depends on the solar irradiance. A laboratory p

  15. Design of centralized controlling system for multimedia classroom based on ARM and GPRS%基于ARM及GPRS的多媒体教室中控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓明; 王惠芳; 张新岭; 任丽静; 崔京华

    2012-01-01

    Because separately control of the multimedia classroom is not easy, a centralized controlling system is constituted on the basis of existing multimedia equipment by adding ARM-based controller and GPRS modules. It realized real-time monitoring of multimedia devices, centralized control, and effective management. The lifetime of multimedia classroom and multimedia e-quipment service is improved, and information storage, info-seeking and management are more convenient.%针对目前对媒体教室单独控制不易管理的情况,在现有多媒体设备的基础上,增加基于ARM的主控器以及GPRS模块,构成了中控系统,实现了对多媒体设备的实时监测、集中控制以及日常维护信息的有效管理,提高了多媒体教室的利用率以及多媒体设备的使用寿命,方便了信息的储存、查找与管理.

  16. Neuronal Chemokines: Versatile Messengers In Central Nervous System Cell Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; Jong, E.K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemokines are generally found under both physiological and pathological conditions. Whereas many reports describe chemokine expression in astrocytes and microglia and their role in the migration of leuko...

  17. A centralized dose calculation system for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Galvin, J

    2000-05-01

    Centralization of treatment planning in a radiation therapy department is a realistic strategy to achieve an integrated and quality-controlled planning system, especially for institutions with numerous affiliations. The rapid evolution of computer hardware and software technology makes this a distinct possibility. However, the procedure of three-dimensional treatment planning involves a number of steps, such as: (1) input of patient computed tomography (CT) images and contour information; (2) interactions with local devices such as a film digitizer; and (3) output of beam information to be integrated with the record and verify the system. A full-fledged realization of the web-based centralized three-dimensional treatment planning system will require an extensive commercial development effort. We have developed and incorporated a web-based Timer/Monitor Unit (MU) program as a first step towards the full implementation of a centralized treatment planning system. The software application was developed in JAVA language. It uses the internet server and client technology. With one server that can handle multiple threads, it is a simple process to access the application anywhere on the network with an internet browser. Both the essential data needed for the calculation and the results are stored on the server, which centralizes the maintenance of the software and the storage of patient information.

  18. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  19. Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NINDS Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... 496-5717 "Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet", NINDS, Publication date July 2011. NIH ...

  20. Resources Centralization System for Grid Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa F. Muhsem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing expansion of communications that is characterized by quality and availability led to interest on grid computing paradigm. The grid computing solves large-scale scientific problems, by providing the feature of sharing and selecting of various resources accessibility and utility. These resources solve intensive problems by increasing the computation and storage power. This study focuses on system with centralized resources for managing the grid resources. The proposed idea will create a resource list, which includes the resource history that will help the user to search for resources. The proposal resources list system will improve the resource serving by showing the most resources used and will save the time search time for the job request, by these points we will improve the quality of the user jobs execution and the quality type of the used resources.

  1. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  2. A dynamical systems view of network centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter; Higham, Desmond J

    2014-05-01

    To gain insights about dynamic networks, the dominant paradigm is to study discrete snapshots, or timeslices, as the interactions evolve. Here, we develop and test a new mathematical framework where network evolution is handled over continuous time, giving an elegant dynamical systems representation for the important concept of node centrality. The resulting system allows us to track the relative influence of each individual. This new setting is natural in many digital applications, offering both conceptual and computational advantages. The novel differential equations approach is convenient for modelling and analysis of network evolution and gives rise to an interesting application of the matrix logarithm function. From a computational perspective, it avoids the awkward up-front compromises between accuracy, efficiency and redundancy required in the prevalent discrete-time setting. Instead, we can rely on state-of-the-art ODE software, where discretization takes place adaptively in response to the prevailing system dynamics. The new centrality system generalizes the widely used Katz measure, and allows us to identify and track, at any resolution, the most influential nodes in terms of broadcasting and receiving information through time-dependent links. In addition to the classical static network notion of attenuation across edges, the new ODE also allows for attenuation over time, as information becomes stale. This allows 'running measures' to be computed, so that networks can be monitored in real time over arbitrarily long intervals. With regard to computational efficiency, we explain why it is cheaper to track good receivers of information than good broadcasters. An important consequence is that the overall broadcast activity in the network can also be monitored efficiently. We use two synthetic examples to validate the relevance of the new measures. We then illustrate the ideas on a large-scale voice call network, where key features are discovered that are not

  3. ACTH and. cap alpha. -melanotropin in central temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, J.M.; Glyn, J.R.; Zimmer, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and ..cap alpha..-melanotropin (..cap alpha..-MSH) occur in brain tissue known to be important to temperature control. These peptides cause hypothermia if they are injected centrally in sufficient doses, but they do not act on the central set point of temperature control. Instead they appear to inhibit central pathways for heat conservation and production. In addition to their hypothermic capability, these peptides are antipyretic when given centrally in doses that have no effect on normal body temperature. ACTH has previously been associated with fever reduction in both clinical and experimental studies, and it may be that endogenous central ACTH is important for limitation of maximal fever. The hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH do not depend on stimulation of the adrenal cortex because they are also observed in adrenalectomized rabbits. Nor is the antipyretic effect limited to the rabbit inasmuch as a comparable effect has been demonstrated in the squirrel monkey. The two peptides may be involved in central mediation of normal thermoregulation and fever, perhaps limiting the febrile response and other rises in body temperature by acting as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in central thermoregulatory pathways.

  4. Discrete Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Taeyoung; McClamroch, N Harris

    2007-01-01

    Discrete control systems, as considered here, refer to the control theory of discrete-time Lagrangian or Hamiltonian systems. These discrete-time models are based on a discrete variational principle, and are part of the broader field of geometric integration. Geometric integrators are numerical integration methods that preserve geometric properties of continuous systems, such as conservation of the symplectic form, momentum, and energy. They also guarantee that the discrete flow remains on the manifold on which the continuous system evolves, an important property in the case of rigid-body dynamics. In nonlinear control, one typically relies on differential geometric and dynamical systems techniques to prove properties such as stability, controllability, and optimality. More generally, the geometric structure of such systems plays a critical role in the nonlinear analysis of the corresponding control problems. Despite the critical role of geometry and mechanics in the analysis of nonlinear control systems, non...

  5. Assessing the impact of large-scale dewatering on fault-controlled aquifer systems: a case study in the Acque Albule basin (Tivoli, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Elio; Jones, Jon P.; Petitta, Marco; Rudolph, David L.

    2013-03-01

    The development of large-scale bedrock quarry operations often requires high-volume and long-term groundwater extraction to maintain a sustainable working environment. These dewatering activities often influence groundwater levels and flow patterns regionally. In the present study, the influence of the dewatering of the travertine quarry operations near the city of Tivoli, Italy, are quantitatively investigated through an integrated analysis of field data and numerical modeling. Lowering of regional groundwater levels in the vicinity of the quarry has led to destructive land subsidence and alterations to the flow system sustaining a hot-spring area. The study employs a finite element numerical model (FEFLOW) to evaluate and quantify the impact of the extensive dewatering on fault-controlled regional groundwater flow in the Acque Albule basin. By incorporating the physical field data and historical hydrologic information, the numerical model was calibrated against three groundwater scenarios, reproducing the effects of different exploitation activities, coupled with natural changes over the course of the quarry operation. The results indicate that groundwater withdrawals by the mining industry and by "Terme di Roma" spa resulted in the cessation of flow from the primary thermal spring and a drop in the phreatic level in the area consequently affected by land subsidence.

  6. Depositional architecture of a mixed travertine-terrigenous system in a fault-controlled continental extensional basin (Messinian, Southern Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Andrea; Della Porta, Giovanna; Capezzuoli, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The extensional Neogene Albegna Basin (Southern Tuscany, Italy) includes several thermogene travertine units dating from the Miocene to Holocene time. During the late Miocene (Messinian), a continental fault-controlled basin (of nearly 500-km2 width) was filled by precipitated travertine and detrital terrigenous strata, characterized by a wedge-shaped geometry that thinned northward, with a maximum thickness of nearly 70 m. This mixed travertine-terrigenous succession was investigated in terms of lithofacies types, depositional environment and architecture and the variety of precipitated travertine fabrics. Deposited as beds with thickness ranging from centimetres to a few decimetres, carbonates include nine travertine facies types: F1) clotted peloidal micrite and microsparite boundstone, F2) raft rudstone/floatstone, F3) sub-rounded radial coated grain grainstone, F4) coated gas bubble boundstone, F5) crystalline dendrite cementstone, F6) laminated boundstone, F7) coated reed boundstone and rudstone, F8) peloidal skeletal grainstone and F9) calci-mudstone and microsparstone. Beds of terrigenous deposits with thickness varying from a decimetre to > 10 m include five lithofacies: F10) breccia, F11) conglomerate, F12) massive sandstone, F13) laminated sandstone and F14) claystone. The succession recorded the following three phases of evolution of the depositional setting: 1) At the base, a northward-thinning thermogene travertine terraced slope (Phase I, travertine slope lithofacies association, F1-F6) developed close to the extensional fault system, placed southward with respect to the travertine deposition. 2) In Phase II, the accumulation of travertines was interrupted by the deposition of colluvial fan deposits with a thickness of several metres (colluvial fan lithofacies association, F10 and F12), which consisted of massive breccias, adjacent to the alluvial plain lithofacies association (F11-F14) including massive claystone and sandstone and channelized

  7. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  8. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  9. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author)

  10. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  11. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  12. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  13. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  14. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  15. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  16. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  17. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  18. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  19. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F ≅100 and F ≅ 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an improvement of more than one order of magnitude was

  20. Microgrid Central Controller Development and Hierarchical Control Implementation in the Intelligent MicroGrid Lab of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Andrade, Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a microgrid central controller in an inverter-based intelligent microgrid (iMG) lab in Aalborg University, Denmark. The iMG lab aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The complete control system applied in t...

  1. Step Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShuochengt; WangDan; QiaoWeimin; JingLan

    2003-01-01

    All kinds of step motors and servomotors are widely used in CSR control system, such as many vacuum valves control that set on the HIRFL-CSR; all kinds of electric switches and knobs of ECR Ion Source; equipment of CSR Beam Diagnostics and a lot of large equipment like Inside Gun Toroid and Collector Toroid of HIRFL. A typical control system include up to 32 16-I/O Control boards, and each 16-I/O Control board can control 4 motors at the same time (including 8 Limit Switches).

  2. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  3. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  4. Central neural control of thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-04-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. Via the lateral parabrachial nucleus, skin thermal afferent input reaches the hypothalamic preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control heat production by inhibiting thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to thermogenesis-controlling premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation of spinal circuits necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation and elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation. PMID:26924538

  5. CFO finance network centrality, errors and internal control material weaknessess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schabus

    2015-01-01

    CFOs finance networks matter in determining certain accounting and reporting outcomes. Drawing on social network theory, this study shows that CFO centrality in a network of financial experts is inversely related to the occurrence of restatements due to errors and disclosure of internal control mate

  6. Centralized and decentralized control of structural vibration and sound radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.P.; Baumann, O.N.; Elliott, S.J.; Fraanje, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of centralized and decentralized feedback controllers on a plate with multiple colocated velocity sensors and force actuators. The performance is measured by the reduction in either kinetic energy or sound radiation, when the plate is excited with a randomly distr

  7. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  8. Centralized Goal Formation and Systemic Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Strike

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks whether there are reasonable concerns about liberty raised by standards driven systemic reform. Part I explores three kinds of concerns, students' interests in autonomy and authenticity, academic freedom, and pluralism. Part II explores two ways of conceptualizing the balance between liberty and various public interests, neo-classical economics and contemporary conservative thought. The paper draws two major conclusions about standards driven systemic reform: (1 This picture of reform raises serious questions about liberty. It may be inconsistent with some liberty interests of students. It is likely to pose serious questions about academic freedom and about pluralism. These concerns should make us cautious about systemic reform and should motivate us to a broader discussion of its assumptions and consequences. (2 The best defense of public sector reform efforts against their market oriented competition is one that emphasizes the importance of political goods such as citizenship. However, standards driven reform needs to avoid linkage with any nationalistic form of communitarianism. In order to do this it needs to seek ways to balance the demands for centralized goals and an educational system with an equal concern for local democracy, pluralism and community. A view of standards and accountability that is narrowly focused on clear public interests is crucial. The paper concludes with an argument that we need to focus attention on the question of what makes for good educational communities, a discussion that is not abetted by debating issues of reform in a framework that poses choices between public sector and market approaches.

  9. The COMPASS control and engineering monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high degree of flexibility of the COMPASS experiment demands a control system readily adaptable to the various modes and operating conditions of the machine. The COMPASS Machine Control System therefore relies on programmable devices with the bulk of the control sequencing resident in the system software. The central control facility provides the main operator interface to the system using touch-sensitive colour monitors to set up the configuration and shot data base. A central computer transmits the processed information to five subsystem control points each of which uses a Programmable Controller to communicate with central control and enable local subsystem operation using a local control panel. Separate from the MCS, though interacting with it, are dedicated systems for fact sequence timing, personnel safety and fast engineering data monitoring. The latter system will collect and process transient signals too fast for the MCS to handle. The data will be archived along with the engineering set-up parameters and physics data and will be available for review at the central control desk

  10. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  11. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzer, Julian

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of two with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the factor of two increase in the number of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to three different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis on the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition system. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow for efficient display of the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. The design of the framework aims at reliability, flexibility, and robustness of the system and takes into account the operational experience gained during Run 1. The Level-1 Central Trigger was successfully operated with high efficiency during the cosmic-ray, beam-splash and first Run 2 data taking with the full ATLAS detector.

  12. Mead photovoltaic system controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millner, A.R.

    1979-01-31

    A system controller has been designed, built, tested, and in operation for one year at MIT/Lincoln Laboratory's 25-kW-peak Solar Photovoltaic Power System located at Mead, Nebraska. The controller allows the site to operate without human intervention, and has brought to light some of the problems of charge-control algorithms in a deep-discharge environment.

  13. 国库集中支付制度对高校内部控制的影响%Influence of the Centralized Treasury Payment System on University Internal Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏晓林; 安雪梅

    2014-01-01

    随着国库集中支付制度在高校的全面实施,对高校内部控制也提出了新的挑战,要求内部控制水平更高。结合国库集中支付对高校财务工作的影响,分析高校内部控制存在的问题,有针对性地提出加强国库集中支付制度下高等学校内部控制的建议和措施。%A new challenge on universtity internal control is presented because of the full implementation of the cen -tralized treasury payment system ,which needs higher level of internal controling .In this paper ,the problems existing in universtity internal control are analyzed combining the influence of the centralized treasury payment system on u -niversity financial work ,some suggestions and methords are put forward pointing at all these problems .

  14. Studying the central control of food intake and obesity in rats Estudando em ratos o controle central da ingestão alimentar e a obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system regulates energy intake and expenditure through a complex network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. It is of great interest to understand the relevance of these systems to the physiological control of energy balance and to the disturbances of obesity. The present paper discusses some of the methods to address this field used at the laboratory of Endocrine Physiology of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Initially, different experimental models of rat obesity...

  15. La estimulación eléctrica del sistema nervioso central con finalidad analgésica The electrical stimulation of the central nervous system for pain control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. López-López

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende orientar al lector sobre los procedimientos empleados para el control del dolor crónico, preferentemente neuropático, por medio de la electricidad. Historia de la utilización de la electricidad con finalidad analgésica, con descripción de los usos primitivos en el siglo XVIII y su evolución. Estimulación eléctrica medular: Se describen los mecanismos de acción, la selección de los pacientes, las técnicas de implante, la forma de realización de los diferentes procedimientos y sus complicaciones y el manejo de las mismas. Estimulación cerebral: Se sigue el mismo esquema que en el apartado anterior, diferenciándose en dos apartados: la estimulación cerebral profunda y la estimulación de la corteza prefrontal.Different procedures using electricity for pain control (mainly neuropathic are described in this review. History of the so-called utility of electricity for pain control, describing the early attempts at the XVIII century and their evolution. Spinal cord stimulation: How does it works, patient’s selection, implant techniques, how to do the different procedures and complications and their management are described. Brain stimulation: The same scheme as above, concerning both Deep Brain Stimulation and Motor Cortex Stimulation.

  16. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  17. The CERN SPS Control System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films

    2012-01-01

    Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. Names, facts and credits added on the 1975 version by Bengt Sagnell, Meyrin, Oct 2012. The project leader for the SPS accelerator (with 400 staff) was John Adams - later Sir John. The group responsible for the design and installation of the control system was led by Michael Crowley-Milling. 00:02:14 Bernard Sutton00:02:48 Michael Crowley-Milling, Head of the Controls Group00:03:01 Designed in the Controls Group, this was probably the first use of touch screens in an industrial control system00:04:37 Louis Burnod, Section leader, Beam Instrumentation00:05:36 Claes Frisk, Computer technician 00:06:03 The system contained 24 Norsk Data NORD-10 16-bit mini computers with 16-64 kB of magnetic core memory and external hard disks of from 5MB to 256 MB in size00:06:23 Frank Beck, Section leader, Central Controls00:06:26 Véronique Frammery, Programmer 00:06:31 Hans-Karl Kuhn, Power Supply Controls00:07:55 Raymond Rausch, Control electronics00:10:23 Paul Acti...

  18. Drone Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  19. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  20. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with multiple central nervous system lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meshkini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG is an uncommon histiocytic disorder that is usually benign and limited to the skin. The systemic form of JXG is rare and may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality especially in central nervous system (CNS involvement. Here, we describe a six-year-old boy with disseminated skin lesions and neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnostic work up revealed multiple brain lesions. A skin biopsy and a stereotactic brain biopsy considered suggestive of systemic JXG. Treatment with prednisolone, vinblastine and methotrexate was successful with regression of skin and CNS lesions. The patient has been in remission for almost three years.

  1. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System 012

    CERN Document Server

    Borrego-Amaral, P; Farthouat, Philippe; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; De Seixas, J M

    2004-01-01

    The central part of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system consists of the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the Local Trigger Processors (LTPs), the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) system, and the Read-out Driver Busy (ROD_BUSY) modules. The CTP combines information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources and makes the final Level-1 Accept decision (L1A) on the basis of lists of selection criteria, implemented as a trigger menu. Timing and trigger signals are fanned out to about 40 LTPs which inject them into the sub-detector TTC partitions. The LTPs also support stand-alone running and can generate all necessary signals from memory. The TTC partitions fan out the timing and trigger signals to the sub-detector front-end electronics. The ROD_BUSY modules receive busy signals from the front-end electronics and send them to the CTP (via an LTP) to throttle the generation of L1As. An overview of the ATLAS Level-1 Central trigger system will be presented, with emphasis on the design...

  2. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  3. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Krause

    Full Text Available We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  4. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  5. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  6. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  7. Centrality in the Global Network of Corporate Control

    CERN Document Server

    Takes, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Corporations across the world are highly interconnected in a large global network of corporate control. This paper investigates the global board interlock network, covering 400,000 firms linked through 1,700,000 edges representing shared directors between these firms. The main focus is on the concept of centrality, which is used to investigate the embeddedness of firms from a particular country within the global network. The study results in three contributions. First, to the best of our knowledge for the first time we can investigate the topology as well as the concept of centrality in corporate networks at a global scale, allowing for the largest cross-country comparison ever done in interlocking directorates literature. We demonstrate, amongst other things, extremely similar network topologies, yet large differences between countries when it comes to the relation between economic prominence indicators and firm centrality. Second, we introduce two new metrics that are specifically suitable for comparing the...

  8. ROV Motion Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dukan, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about automatic motion control systems for remotely operated vehicles (ROV). The work has focused on topics within guidance and navigation. In addition, a motion control system has been developed, implemented, tested and used on two ROVs in sea trials.The main motivation for the work has been the need to automate ROV tasks in order to make the ROV a more efficient tool for exploring the ocean space. Many parts of a motion control system for a ROV is similar to that of surface v...

  9. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  10. Antenna surface contour control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Elvin L.; Miller, James B.

    1989-03-01

    The invention is a system for automatically controlling the surface contour of a deployable and restowable antenna having a mesh reflector surface supported by a circular, folding hoop affixed to a central, telescoping column. The antenna, when deployed, forms a quad-aperture reflector with each quadrant of the mesh surface shaped to provide an offset parabolic radio frequency (RF) reflector. The hoop is supported and positioned by quartz support cords attached to the top of a column and by lower graphite hoop control cords that extend between the hoop and base of the column. The antenna, an RF reflective surface, is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure that includes the hoop control cords and a plurality of surface control cords attached at selected points on the surface and to the base of the column. The contour of the three-dimensional surface of the antenna is controlled by selectively adjusting the lengths of the surface control cords and the graphite hoop control cords by means of novel actuator assemblies that automatically sense and change the lengths of the lower hoop control cords and surface control cords.

  11. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  12. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  13. Identification and thermal control on fungi from the filter of central air conditioning system%中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌鉴定及温热控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付柏淋; 吕阳

    2014-01-01

    为研究中央空调系统真菌繁殖扩散机理及控制空气微生物污染问题,通过温热控制手段,探究不同温热环境下真菌菌落、菌丝生长繁殖规律.以某体育馆中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌为研究对象,通过分离、生理生化实验和分子生物学鉴定确认空调系统过滤器表面的优势菌属种类及数量.对分离鉴定的优势菌属做温热控制实验,分别在25℃恒温及22℃~28℃变温条件下观察菌落和菌丝的生长规律.结果显示,该空调系统过滤器表面真菌优势菌属为青霉属(Penicillium spp.)和枝孢属(Cladosporium spp.),菌落形成单位分别为600,140cfu/cm2.温热控制研究表明,无论25℃恒温或22~28℃变温条件,青霉属生长速度都要快于枝孢菌,且菌落直径变化和时间成线性关系;温热控制对青霉属和枝孢菌的生长繁殖具有明显的抑制作用,温热控制技术在抑制空调系统真菌生长上可行.%To explore the propagative and diffused mechanism of fungi in central air conditioning system and control air microorganism contamination problem, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were researched in different thermal environments by thermal control. Fungi separated from the filter surface of the central air conditioning system in a gym were chosen as the research objects. By isolation, physiology and biochemistry experiments, and molecular biological identification, dominant fungi on the filter of central air conditioning system were confirmed. In order to conduct thermal control experiment of separated dominant fungi, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were observed at temperature of 25℃ and 22~28℃, respectively. As a result, it was shown that the dominant fungi were Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., colonies were 600 and 140 cfu/cm2 respectively. It was indicated that regardless of constant or variable temperature conditions, the reproduction rate of Penicillium spp. was faster

  14. 中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌鉴定及温热控制%Identification and thermal control on fungi from the filter of central air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付柏淋; 吕阳

    2014-01-01

    To explore the propagative and diffused mechanism of fungi in central air conditioning system and control air microorganism contamination problem, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were researched in different thermal environments by thermal control. Fungi separated from the filter surface of the central air conditioning system in a gym were chosen as the research objects. By isolation, physiology and biochemistry experiments, and molecular biological identification, dominant fungi on the filter of central air conditioning system were confirmed. In order to conduct thermal control experiment of separated dominant fungi, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were observed at temperature of 25℃ and 22~28℃, respectively. As a result, it was shown that the dominant fungi were Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., colonies were 600 and 140 cfu/cm2 respectively. It was indicated that regardless of constant or variable temperature conditions, the reproduction rate of Penicillium spp. was faster than Cladosporium spp., with a liner correlation between colony diameter and time. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp were obviously restrained by temperature change control. Thermal control was feasible for restraining fungal growth in air conditioning system.%为研究中央空调系统真菌繁殖扩散机理及控制空气微生物污染问题,通过温热控制手段,探究不同温热环境下真菌菌落、菌丝生长繁殖规律.以某体育馆中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌为研究对象,通过分离、生理生化实验和分子生物学鉴定确认空调系统过滤器表面的优势菌属种类及数量.对分离鉴定的优势菌属做温热控制实验,分别在25℃恒温及22℃~28℃变温条件下观察菌落和菌丝的生长规律.结果显示,该空调系统过滤器表面真菌优势菌属为青霉属(Penicillium spp.)和枝孢属(Cladosporium spp.),菌落形成单位分别为600,140cfu/cm2.温热控制研究表明,无论25

  15. Control and Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zahradnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with main tends of scientific research activities of Department of Control and Information Systems at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of University of Zilina and its perspectives in this area.

  16. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    requirements for a dedicated software environment for fault tolerant control systems design. The second detailed study addressed the detection of a fault event and determination of the failed component. A variety of algorithms were compared, based on two fault scenarios in the speed governor actuator setup......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...

  17. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  18. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  19. Central nervous system manifestations of neonatal lupus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Lin, K-L; Chen, C-L; Wong, A May-Kuen; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal lupus is a rare and acquired autoimmune disease. Central nervous system abnormalities are potential manifestations in neonatal lupus. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed the clinical features of previously reported neonatal lupus cases where central nervous system abnormalities had been identified. Most reported neonatal lupus patients with central nervous system involvement were neuroimaging-determined and asymptomatic. Only seven neonatal lupus cases were identified as having a symptomatic central nervous system abnormality which caused physical disability or required neurosurgery. A high percentage of these neurosymptomatic neonatal lupus patients had experienced a transient cutaneous skin rash and had no maternal history of autoimmune disease before pregnancy.

  20. An LQ-solution to a control problem associated with a solar thermal central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, D. D.; Rogers, R. O.

    1983-10-01

    The linearized process dynamics of the steam boiler in a solar-powered central receiver change abruptly when clouds interfere with the sun's rays. The steam temperature regulator used to maintain proper exit steam conditions must control a system with variable structure and discontinuous state trajectories. This paper investigates the quadratic-optimal control of such a system, and gives the design equations for the optimal regulator.

  1. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  2. Adaptive Inflow Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, Vasily Y; Zhuravlev, Oleg N; Nukhaev, Marat T; Shchelushkin, Roman V

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the idea and realization for the unique Adaptive Inflow Control System being a part of well completion, able to adjust to the changing in time production conditions. This system allows to limit the flow rate from each interval at a certain level, which solves the problem of water and gas breakthroughs. We present the results of laboratory tests and numerical calculations obtaining the characteristics of the experimental setup with dual-in-position valves as parts of adaptive inflow control system, depending on the operating conditions. The flow distribution in the system was also studied with the help of three-dimensional computer model. The control ranges dependences are determined, an influence of the individual elements on the entire system is revealed.

  3. Tectonic Control of Piercement Structures in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Hadi, S.; Etiope, G.; Inguaggiato, S.

    2014-12-01

    A recent field expedition in Central Java targeted the mapping and sampling of several piercements structures in central Java (Indonesia), most of which have never been documented before. Here, at least seven structures erupting mud water and gas are distributed along a NE-SW alignment that extends for about 10 kilometers. Some of the mapped structures (Bledug Kuwu, Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, Mendikil, Banjarsari, Krewek) have been named after the neighboring local village. None of these have obvious elevation despite the vigorous emission of gas and mud, suggesting that significant caldera collapse is ongoing. Among the most relevant: Bledug Kuwu is certainly the most impressive structure with three main eruption sites in the crater area bursting more than 5 m large hot mud bubbles. Similar characteristics are present at the smaller (200 m in diameter) Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, that is also surrounded by numerous pools and gryphons seeping around the main crater. The smaller sized Mendikil is the only visited structure that, at the moment of the sampling, did not show seepage of hot fluids. Banjarsari and Krewek (up to 200 m wide) are characterized by scattered hot water-dominated pools where gas is vented vigorously. In particular the hot pools are systematically covered by travertine concretions. Water and gas geochemisty confirms the seepage of CO2 dominated gas and water with hydrothermal signature. The investigated structures appear to follow an obvious NE-SW oriented lineament that most likely coincides with a tectonic structure (fault?) that controls their location. Indeed the field observations and the analyses suggest that likely scenario is that this fault (?) acts as a preferential pathway for the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids to the surface. Very little is known about this region, neither is known why several of these structures erupt hot mud despite their significant distance from the two closest volcanic structures (i.e. Mt. Muria 60 km to the NW

  4. The ISOLDE control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  5. Research on Compiling Methods of Train Working Diagram Based on Centralized Traffic Control (“CTC”) System%基于 CTC调度集中系统列车运行图编制方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈农华

    2014-01-01

    研究编制我院CTC调度集中系统的列车运行图,既可以填补综合实训系统的一项空白,使系统的整体功能得到提升,为教学提供更多的实训内容,又可以为新校区的实训基地沙盘的再建设积累经验,有着重要的现实意义。%the research and compilation of the train working diagram based on the centralized traf-fic control system (“CTC”) may fill up the vacancy in the comprehensive training system to upgrade the overall function of the system and to provide more training information to the teaching work and may accumulate experiences to the reconstruction of the sand board of the training base in the campus .It is of important significance to the practice .

  6. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer; Etude du controle global de l'Interferometre Central de VIRGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Luca [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)

    1999-10-29

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F {approx_equal}100 and F {approx_equal} 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an

  7. CNEOST Control Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-bin; Xia, Yan; Lu, Hao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the messaging mechanism based on the WebSocket protocol, and possesses good flexibility and expansibility. The user interface based on the responsive web design has realized the remote observations under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operation of the software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  8. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  9. Accelerator system for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator system for Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility that consists of 50MeV electron S-band linac, 1.2GeV full energy booster synchrotron and 1.2GeV storage ring, has been constructed. Eight 1.4T bending magnets and four 5T superconducting magnet with compact refrigerator system provide beam lines. For top-up operation, the 1ns single bunch electron beam from 50MeV injector linac is injected by on-axis injection scheme and accelerated up to 1.2GeV at booster synchrotron. The timing system is designed for injection from booster ring is possible for any bunch position of storage ring. To improve efficiency of booster injection, the electron gun trigger and RF frequency of 2856MHz is synchronized with storage ring frequency of 499.654MHz. The EPICS control system is used with timing control system for linac, pulse magnet and also for booster pattern memory system. The beam commissioning for 1.2GeV storage ring has been progressing. (author)

  10. The CMS central hadron calorimeter DAQ system upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, A.; Hirschauer, J.

    2015-05-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeters will undergo a complete replacement of their data acquisition system electronics. The replacement is phased, with portions of the replacement starting in 2014 and continuing through LHC Long Shutdown 2 in 2018. The existing VME electronics will be replaced with a μTCA-based system. New on-detector QIE electronics cards will transmit data at 4.8 GHz to the new μHTR cards residing in μTCA crates in the CMS electronics cavern. The μTCA crates are controlled by the AMC13, which accepts system clock and trigger throttling control from the CMS global DAQ system. The AMC13 distributes the clock to the μHTR and reads out data buffers from the μHTR into the CMS data acquisition system. The AMC 13 also provides the clock for in-crate GLIBs which in turn distribute the clock to the on-detector front end electronics. We report on the design, development status, and schedule of the DAQ system upgrades.

  11. Control system for garbage disposition. Gomi shori seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S.; Kaneko, H. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-10

    This paper introduces the latest incinerator instrument control system (IICS), and pneumatic refuse transportation and optimal operation systems for incineration plants. Garbage disposition facilities have introduced discrete control systems and a centralized control system using computers, and structured an overall incineration plant control system containing incineration facilities, electric power generation facilities, and other facilities. The IICS comprises softwares packaging control functions required particularly for garbage disposition and a control system mounting the softwares. The optimal incineration plant operation system governs control data in each plant to execute efficient drives and operations mutually in various plants, and reflects the data to plant operation programs. The pneumatic refuse transportation system has large-diameter pipelines laid in a limited area to collect refuses pneumatically through refuse chutes installed in the area to transport them to a refuse collection center. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Neural Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  13. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  14. Central nervous system control of ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the regions in the spinal cord that are active during ejaculation. Motoneurons involved are the preganglionic sympathetic motoneurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord and the motoneurons in the nucleus of Onuf, located in the upper sacral cord. The first group is involved in t

  15. Central nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, Johanna Janetta (Janine)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the role of the brain in the regulation of peripheral triglyceride metabolism, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Based on various pharmacological studies we described the role of two hormones, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, in the production and clearance of trigl

  16. Control Systems with Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Friction-related problems are frequently encountered in control systems. This thesis treats three aspects of such problems: modeling, analysis, and friction compensation. A new dynamic friction model is presented and investigated. The model is described by a first order nonlinear differential equation with a reasonable number of parameters, yet it captures most of the experimentally observed friction phenomena. The model is suitable both for simulation purposes and control design. Analysis of...

  17. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at...

  18. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different sub-detector combinations. In this contribution, we give an overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are m...

  19. neural control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic power stabilization control is the desired objective for any reactor operation , especially, nuclear power plants. A major problem in this area is inevitable gap between a real plant ant the theory of conventional analysis and the synthesis of linear time invariant systems. in particular, the trajectory tracking control of a nonlinear plant is a class of problems in which the classical linear transfer function methods break down because no transfer function can represent the system over the entire operating region . there is a considerable amount of research on the model-inverse approach using feedback linearization technique. however, this method requires a prices plant model to implement the exact linearizing feedback, for nuclear reactor systems, this approach is not an easy task because of the uncertainty in the plant parameters and un-measurable state variables . therefore, artificial neural network (ANN) is used either in self-tuning control or in improving the conventional rule-based exper system.the main objective of this thesis is to suggest an ANN, based self-learning controller structure . this method is capable of on-line reinforcement learning and control for a nuclear reactor with a totally unknown dynamics model. previously, researches are based on back- propagation algorithm . back -propagation (BP), fast back -propagation (FBP), and levenberg-marquardt (LM), algorithms are discussed and compared for reinforcement learning. it is found that, LM algorithm is quite superior

  20. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  1. Optimal Control Strategy on the Centralized Control Type Emergency Evacuation System of Super High-rise Building%超高层建筑集中控制型应急疏散系统最优控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全蜀

    2013-01-01

    本文以目前我国在建结构第一高楼天津高银117大厦所采用的集中控制型应急疏散系统为对象,研究建筑中应急疏散系统的最优控制策略。该系统利用最优控制理论中的自适应蚁群算法,将公共区域疏散指示标志灯进行通讯整合,实现集中控制。%This paper takes the centralized control type emer-gency evacuation system of Tianjin high silver 117 building, China’s first high-rise structure currently in construction, as o-bject, researches the optimal control strategy of building eme-rgency evacuation system. The system uses adaptive optimal c-ontrol theory of ant colony algorithm, integrates the communi-cation of evacuation indicator lights in public area, to realize the centralized control.

  2. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  3. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  4. Calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bingwei; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Youfu

    2012-11-01

    A central catadioptric-perspective camera system is widely used nowadays. A critical problem is that current calibration methods cannot determine the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and a perspective camera effectively. We present a novel calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system, in which the central catadioptric camera has a hyperbolic mirror. Two cameras are used to capture images of one calibration pattern at different spatial positions. A virtual camera is constructed at the origin of the central catadioptric camera and faced toward the calibration pattern. The transformation between the virtual camera and the calibration pattern could be computed first and the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and the calibration pattern could be obtained. Three-dimensional reconstruction results of the calibration pattern show a high accuracy and validate the feasibility of our method.

  5. Electric turbocompound control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algrain, Marcelo C. (Dunlap, IL)

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  6. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  7. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  8. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  9. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  10. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate CERN equipment services or contractors. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity covers the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, and buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaur...

  11. CERN's Technical Control Room (TCR) A Central Service for Everyone

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  12. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  13. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  14. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  15. Peripheral and central control of swallowing initiation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Seiya; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Magara, Jin; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ito, Kayoko; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-11-01

    We investigated (1) how peripheral inputs might assist central inputs in the control of voluntary evoked swallowing, (2) inter-individual variation in involuntary and voluntary swallowing initiation, and (3) whether natural chewing behavior affects the initiation of involuntary swallowing in healthy humans. Eleven participants completed a repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), chewing test (CHEW), and rest period (REST). In RSST, participants repetitively swallowed as quickly as possible. In CHEW, subjects chewed gum freely. We delivered pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PEStim) to the laryngopharynx and compared the number of swallows that occurred with and without PEStim. PEStim significantly increased the number of voluntary evoked swallows in RSST, as well as the number of swallows in CHEW and REST trials, although this facilitatory effect was larger in REST trials. We found a positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST without PEStim and that at REST with PEStim within individuals. Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST with PEStim and the sum of that at RSST without PEStim and at REST with PES. Based on the current results, we suggest that (1) peripheral inputs within a certain range appear to facilitate the central inputs that control voluntary swallowing, (2) inter-individual variations in swallowing initiation may arise from differences in the excitability of the common neural network in the lower brainstem, and (3) during chewing, food reduction in the oral cavity is prioritized, such that the neural network associated with chewing may regulate swallowing initiation.

  16. 医用气体中心供应系统及应急安全质量控制%Medical gas central supply system and safety quality control in emergency response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔吉平; 赵玛丽; 种银保; 刘九零; 曹登秀; 罗鑫

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the components and operation process of the medical gas central supply system of the modern hospital based on the safe operation of the system. Methods: and combine this unit depot center expansion design and application, it was recommended that the expaned medical gas central supply system should be connected with the original system according to the expansion design and application of the system. Results: Both the systems played an important role in emergency response, which complied with the national requirements for emergency response of medical gas and guarantee the safe use of oxygen in emergency situations. Meanwhile, quality and safety control of emergency response should be emphasized in the processes of design, materials, installation as well as the daily inspection and maintenance; systematic training for technical personnel should be strengthened; safety records should be well managed, and emergency measures should be implemented step by step the responsibility to the people. Conclusion: The medical gas system engineering is cheap, safe, and reliable, and the system has achieved the purpose of safety use in emergency response.%目的:针对医院医用气体中心供应系统安全运行实际情况,介绍现代医院医用气体中心供应系统构成和运行流程。方法:结合本单位医用气体中心供应站的扩建设计及运用,推荐扩建系统设计与原中心供气系统链接。结果:两系统互为应急作用,既符合国家对医用气体一用一备一应急标准要求,又有效保证了突发事件出现时医院的安全用氧。同时在应急安全质量控制上从设计、材质、安装以及在日常检查和维护中强化过程质量安全管理;加强工程技术人员的系统培训;做好安全档案管理,逐级落实应急措施,责任到人。结论:提出本单位所运用的设计不但工程量不大,经费不高,且安全可靠,在全院医用气体系统工程的应

  17. The renin-angiotensin system and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1977-04-01

    One of several factors affecting the secretion of renin by the kidneys is the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic input is excitatory and is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the membranes of the juxtaglomerular cells. Stimulation of sympathetic areas in the medulla, midbrain and hypothalamus raises blood pressure and increases renin secretion, whereas stimulation of other parts of the hypothalamus decreases blood pressure and renin output. The centrally active alpha-adrenergic agonist clonidine decreases renin secretion, lowers blood pressure, inhibits ACTH and vasopressin secretion, and increases growth hormone secretion in dogs. The effects on ACTH and growth hormone are abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine into the third ventricle, whereas the effect on blood pressure is abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine in the fourth ventricle without any effect on the ACTH and growth hormone responses. Fourth ventricular phenoxybenzamine decreases but does not abolish the inhibitory effect of clonidine on renin secretion. Circulating angiotensin II acts on the brain via the area postrema to raise blood pressure and via the subfornical organ to increase water intake. Its effect on vasopressin secretion is debated. The brain contains a renin-like enzyme, converting enzyme, renin substrate, and angiotensin. There is debate about the nature and physiological significance of the angiotensin II-generating enzyme in the brain, and about the nature of the angiotensin I and angiotensin II that have been reported to be present in the central nervous system. However, injection of angiotensin II into the cerebral ventricles produces drinking, increased secretion of vasopressin and ACTH, and increased blood pressure. The same responses are produced by intraventricular renin. Angiotensin II also facilitates sympathetic discharge in the periphery, and the possibility that it exerts a similar action on the adrenergic neurons

  18. Centralized computer-based controls of the Nova Laser Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces the overall architecture of the computer-based Nova Laser Control System and describes its basic components. Use of standard hardware and software components ensures that the system, while specialized and distributed throughout the facility, is adaptable. 9 references, 6 figures

  19. Design and Simulation of a Decentralized Railway Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of railway transportation, various methods have been developed for the control and management of train traffic. Train traffic control systems that are currently in use are overwhelmingly centralized systems. In this study, the development of the general structure of railway traffic control techniques is examined, centralized and decentralized control systems are investigated, and an alternative train traffic control system, the Decentralized Train Traffic Management System (DTMS, is suggested. Simulation results on the possible application of the proposed method to a railway line in South-East Turkey are employed to evaluate the performance of the developed system.

  20. Theory of cellwise optimization for solar central receiver system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, F. W.

    1985-05-01

    Cost effective optimization of the solar central receiver system is primarily concerned with the distribution of heliostats in the collector field, including the boundaries of the field. The cellwise optimization procedure determines the optimum cell usage and heliostat spacing parameters for each cell in the collector field. Spacing parameters determine the heliostat density and neighborhood structure uniformly in each cell. Consequently, the cellwise approach ignores heliostat mismatch at cell boundaries. Ignoring the cell boundary problem permits an easy solution for the optimum in terms of appropriately defined annual average data. Insolation, receiver interception, shading and blocking, cosine effects, and the cost parameters combine to control the optimum. Many trade offs are represented. Outputs include the receiver flux density distribution for design time, coefficients for an actual layout, the optimum boundary and various performance and cost estimates for the optimum field. It is also possible to optimize receiver size and tower height by a repeated application of the field optimization procedure.

  1. Dependable control systems with Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled dependable control system (DepCS) for continuous processes. In a DepCS, an actuator and a transmitter form a regulatory control loop. Each processor inside such actuator and transmitter is designed as a computational platform implementing the feedback control algorithm. The connections between actuators and transmitters via IoT create a reliable backbone for a DepCS. The centralized input-output marshaling system is not required in DepCSs. A state feedback control synthesis method for DepCS applying the self-recovery constraint is presented in the second part of the paper. PMID:26329254

  2. Dependable control systems with Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled dependable control system (DepCS) for continuous processes. In a DepCS, an actuator and a transmitter form a regulatory control loop. Each processor inside such actuator and transmitter is designed as a computational platform implementing the feedback control algorithm. The connections between actuators and transmitters via IoT create a reliable backbone for a DepCS. The centralized input-output marshaling system is not required in DepCSs. A state feedback control synthesis method for DepCS applying the self-recovery constraint is presented in the second part of the paper.

  3. Nova control system: goals, architecture, and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the Nova laser must operate reliably in a harsh pulse power environment and satisfy requirements of technical functionality, flexibility, maintainability and operability. It is composed of four fundamental subsystems: Power Conditioning, Alignment, Laser Diagnostics, and Target Diagnostics, together with a fifth, unifying subsystem called Central Controls. The system architecture utilizes a collection of distributed microcomputers, minicomputers, and components interconnected through high speed fiber optic communications systems. The design objectives, development strategy and architecture of the overall control system and each of its four fundamental subsystems are discussed. Specific hardware and software developments in several areas are also covered

  4. Nova control system: goals, architecture, and system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suski, G.J.; Duffy, J.M.; Gritton, D.G.; Holloway, F.W.; Krammen, J.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Severyn, J.R.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

    1982-05-19

    The control system for the Nova laser must operate reliably in a harsh pulse power environment and satisfy requirements of technical functionality, flexibility, maintainability and operability. It is composed of four fundamental subsystems: Power Conditioning, Alignment, Laser Diagnostics, and Target Diagnostics, together with a fifth, unifying subsystem called Central Controls. The system architecture utilizes a collection of distributed microcomputers, minicomputers, and components interconnected through high speed fiber optic communications systems. The design objectives, development strategy and architecture of the overall control system and each of its four fundamental subsystems are discussed. Specific hardware and software developments in several areas are also covered.

  5. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  6. Modular thyristor controlled series capacitor control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, K.; Larsen, E.V.; Wegner, C.A.; Piwko, R.J.

    1995-06-13

    A modular thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) system, including a method and apparatus, uses phase controlled firing based on monitored capacitor voltage and line current. For vernier operation, the TCSC system predicts an upcoming firing angle for switching a thyristor controlled commutating circuit to bypass line current around a series capacitor. Each bypass current pulse changes the capacitor voltage proportionally to the integrated value of the current pulse. The TCSC system promptly responds to an offset command from a higher-level controller to control bypass thyristor duty to minimize thyristor damage, and to prevent capacitor voltage drift during line current disturbances. In a multi-module TCSC system, the higher level controller accommodates competing objectives of various system demands, including minimizing losses in scheduling control, stabilizing transients, damping subsynchronous resonance (SSR) oscillations, damping direct current (DC) offset, and damping power-swings. 67 figs.

  7. Telerobotic virtual control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shumin; Milgram, Paul

    1992-03-01

    A project to develop a telerobotic `virtual control' capability, currently underway at the University of Toronto, is described. The project centers on a new mode of interactive telerobotic control based on the technology of combining computer generated stereographic images with remotely transmitted stereoscopic video images. A virtual measurement technique, in conjunction with a basic level of digital image processing, comprising zooming, parallax adjustment, edge enhancement, and edge detection has been developed to assist the human operator in visualization of the remote environment and in spatial reasoning. The aim is to maintain target recognition, tactical planning, and high-level control functions in the hands of the human operator with the computer performing low-level computation and control. Control commands initiated by the operator are implemented through manipulation of a virtual image of the robot system, merged with a live video image of the remote scene. This paper discusses the philosophy and objectives of the project, with emphasis on the underlying human factor considerations in the design, and reports the progress made to date in this effort.

  8. Agile Design of Sewer System Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nooijen, R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.; Van Leeuwen, P.E.R.M.; Van Velzen, E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first part of an attempt to include stakeholder participation in the design of a central automatic controller for a sewer system in a small pilot project (five subcatchments) and present lessons learned so far. The pilot is part of a project aimed at the improvement of water quality

  9. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  10. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  11. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor responds to treatment. Newly Diagnosed CNS Teratomas Treatment of newly diagnosed mature and immature central nervous system (CNS) teratomas may include the following: Surgery to remove as ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  13. General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  14. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  15. A modular rf control system at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enegren, T.; Burge, R.; Dohan, D.A.

    1987-03-01

    New rf systems planned for installation at TRIUMF in the near future include a third harmonic flat-topping system, a fourth harmonic booster cavity and an rf extraction deflector operating at the 11.5 MHz subharmonic of the main frequency. A new modular rf control concept is being adopted to develop the basic building blocks for each of the required rf control systems. One of the main design considerations is that all parameters are to be accessible and controllable by an external central computer. This will permit the computer to utilize expert systems and adaptive control techniques for remote debugging and loop parameter optimization. In order to carry out diagnostics on individual rf systems it is necessary that the control system be totally operational in a local manual mode, independent of the central computer with smooth transitions between computer and local control. This paper discusses the design of the new control system and its application to a full power flat-topping rf model cavity.

  16. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravish Parekh; Alexis Haftka; Ashleigh Porter

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as we...

  17. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  19. Controlled Quantum Open Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Alicki, R

    2003-01-01

    The theory of controlled quantum open systems describes quantum systems interacting with quantum environments and influenced by external forces varying according to given algorithms. It is aimed, for instance, to model quantum devices which can find applications in the future technology based on quantum information processing. One of the main problems making difficult the practical implementations of quantum information theory is the fragility of quantum states under external perturbations. The aim of this note is to present the relevant results concerning ergodic properties of open quantum systems which are useful for the optimization of quantum devices and noise (errors) reduction. In particular we present mathematical characterization of the so-called "decoherence-free subspaces" for discrete and continuous-time quantum dynamical semigroups in terms of $C^*$-algebras and group representations. We analyze the non-Markovian models also, presenting the formulas for errors in the Born approximation. The obtain...

  20. The Ganil computer control system renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982 the GANIL heavy ion accelerator has been under the control of 16-bit minicomputers MITRA, programmable logic controllers and microprocessorized Camac controllers, structured into a partially centralized system. This control system has to be renewed to meet the increasing demands of the accelerator operation which aims to provide higher quality ion beams under more reliable conditions. This paper gives a brief description of the existing control system and then discusses the main issues of the design and the implementation of the future control system: distributed powerful processors federated through Ethernet and flexible network-wide database access, VME standard and front-end microprocessors, enhanced color graphic tools and workstation based operator interface

  1. Centralized Goal Formation and Systemic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth A. Strike

    1997-01-01

    This paper asks whether there are reasonable concerns about liberty raised by standards driven systemic reform. Part I explores three kinds of concerns, students' interests in autonomy and authenticity, academic freedom, and pluralism. Part II explores two ways of conceptualizing the balance between liberty and various public interests, neo-classical economics and contemporary conservative thought. The paper draws two major conclusions about standards driven systemic reform: (1) This picture ...

  2. Crawling the Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore Larrieu

    2009-10-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google "mini" search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  3. MIRADAS control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón Lopez, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This paper shows an overview of the MIRADAS control software, which follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GTC Control System (GCS). The MIRADAS Control System is based on a distributed architecture according to a component model where every subsystem is selfcontained. The GCS is a distributed environment written in object oriented C++, which runs components in different computers, using CORBA middleware for communications. Each MIRADAS observing mode, including engineering, monitoring and calibration modes, will have its own predefined sequence, which are executed in the GCS Sequencer. These sequences will have the ability of communicating with other telescope subsystems.

  4. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Toosizadeh

    Full Text Available Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing. DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2 and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2 with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01, which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02, which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05 and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05. Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation

  5. Low-profile heliostat design for solar central receiver systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourakis, E.; Severson, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Heliostat designs intended to reduce costs and the effect of adverse wind loads on the devices were developed. Included was the low-profile heliostat consisting of a stiff frame with sectional focusing reflectors coupled together to turn as a unit. The entire frame is arranged to turn angularly about a center point. The ability of the heliostat to rotate about both the vertical and horizontal axes permits a central computer control system to continuously aim the sun's reflection onto a selected target. An engineering model of the basic device was built and is being tested. Control and mirror parameters, such as roughness and need for fine aiming, are being studied. The fabrication of these prototypes is in process. The model was also designed to test mirror focusing techniques, heliostat geometry, mechanical functioning, and tracking control. The model can be easily relocated to test mirror imaging on a tower from various directions. In addition to steering and aiming studies, the tests include the effects of temperature changes, wind gusting and weathering. The results of economic studies on this heliostat are also presented.

  6. Robust H∞ control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Weiguo; Shao Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The robust H∞ control for networked control systems with both stochastic network-induced delay and data packet dropout is studied.When data are transmitted over network,the stochastic data packet dropout process can be described by a two-state Markov chain.The networked control systems with stochastic network-induced delay and data packet dropout are modeled as a discrete time Markov jump linear system with two operation modes.The sufficient condition of robust H∞ control for networked control systems stabilized by state feedback controller is presented in terms of linear matrix inequality.The state feedback controller can be constructed via the solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities.An example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  7. Central Energy System Modernization at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; Dirks, James A.

    2006-11-29

    An evaluation of technology options was conducted for the central energy systems at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. There were two objectives in conducting this study. From a broader viewpoint, the Army would like to develop a systematic approach to management of its central energy systems and selected Fort Jackson for this ''pilot'' study for a prospective Central Energy System Modernization Program. From a site-specific perspective, the objective was to identify the lowest life-cycle cost energy supply option(s) at Fort Jackson for buildings currently served by central boilers and chillers. This study was co-funded by the Army's Southeast Region and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program.

  8. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than ten degrees, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masse...

  9. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buskila Dan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Methods Eight female patients aged 55.6 ± 13.6 years (FM group and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 ± 9.3 years (MCG were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs, motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean ± SD and skewness, and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. Results The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 ± 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 ± 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 ± 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 ± 0.34%/s in MCG. Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p Conclusion The apparent paradox of fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure than muscle membrane alterations, which suggests pathological muscle fibre remodelling related to altered

  10. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  11. BLTC control system software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  12. Matlab control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Control Systems Engineering introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an in

  13. Construction and Application of Centralized Control Performance Management System in Thermal Power Plant%火电厂集控绩效管理体系建设与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟守臣

    2015-01-01

    In order to accelerate the revolution of energy production and consumption, further improve the efficient and cleaning development level of coal-fired electricity, and carry out more strict environmental standards, thermal power enterprises should start from the management and reconstruction of equipment, and achieve further efficiencies in terms of optimizing operation adjustment. And its means is to strengthen the management and seek effectiveness from management, set up the performance management system to realize internal potential of centralized control operation personnel, enhance the sense of responsibility, standardize the operators' behaviors, and improve operation skill levels by motivating employees to achieve the goal of reducing cost and increasing efficiency based on the optimization and adjustment.%为加快推动能源生产和消费革命,进一步提升煤电高效清洁发展水平,推行更严格能效环保标准,火电企业不仅要从设备治理和改造入手,还要在优化运行调整方面实现进一步挖潜增效,其手段就是强化管理,向管理要效益。建立运行人员绩效管理体系,实现对集控运行人员规范化、标准化、数据化综合评价的管理模式,激发集控运行人员的内在潜能,提高责任心和责任意识,规范员工的作业行为,通过激励员工努力提升运行操作技能水平,在优化调整上达到降本增效的根本目的。

  14. Validating a centralized approach to primary frequency control with series-produced electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Martinenas, Sergejus; Knezovic, Katarina;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is twofold: on one hand it proposes a centralized approach to primary frequency control by using electric vehicles as controllable units; on the other hand, it experimentally validates whether series-produced EVs, adhering to contemporary standards, can be an effective resource...... for providing primary frequency control. The validation process is realized in an islanded system with renewable sources and it relies on verifying that the frequency values are within the desired limits following severe load steps or wind power fluctuations. In order to reflect today’s situation, the used EVs......, three Nissan Leaf, are not taking advantage of any V2G capability, but rely solely on the possibility of limiting the charge between 6 A and 16 A. The centralized approach implies that the frequency is not measured locally as it is a common practice today, but is routed via the Internet in order...

  15. Distributed control of PV strings with module integrated converters in presence of a central MPPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    in that the MIC should ensure the string voltage stability and MPP operation in presence of other MICs and ‘plain’ panels. It must also be transparent to the main inverters' MPPT, so that it can track during normal operation. In this paper, a system layout with local MPPT without voltage control is proposed......, which is able to ensure string voltage stability and MPP tracking in presence of a central MPPT....

  16. Guaranteed cost control for networked control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo XIE; Huajing FANG; Ying ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    The guaranteed cost control problem for networked control systems (NCSs) is addressed under communication constraints and varying sampling rate. First of all, a simple information-scheduling scheme is presented to describe the scheduling approach of system signals in NCSs. Then, based on such a scheme and given sampling method, the design procedure in dynamic output feedback manner is also derived which renders the closed loop system to be asymptotically stable and guarantees an upper bound of the LQ performance cost function.

  17. Modelling profitable and sustainable farming systems in Central Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Chudleigh, Fred; Cox, Howard W.; Chapman, Veronica J.

    2002-01-01

    Central Queensland’s dryland farming systems are subject to high levels of climatic variability, are seen as being relatively risky and also suffering falling profitability due (in part) to the rapid decline of nutrient content and physical structure of soils. This suggests that many farming practices in Central Queensland are not sustainable. A multi agency project that uses participatory on-farm research and development processes has been addressing the core issues that contribute to more s...

  18. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  19. RAMI analysis of the ITER Central Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We performed the functional analysis of the ITER CSS. • We performed a failure mode analysis of the ITER CSS. • We estimated the reliability and availability of the ITER CSS. • The ITER RAMI approach was applied to the ITER CSS for technical risk control in the design phase. - Abstract: ITER is the first worldwide international project aiming to design a facility to produce nuclear fusion energy. The technical requirements of its plant systems have been established in the ITER Project Baseline. In the project, the Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) approach has been adopted for technical risk control to help aid the design of the components in preparation for operation and maintenance. A RAMI analysis was performed on the conceptual design of the ITER Central Safety System (CSS). A functional breakdown was prepared in a bottom-up approach, resulting in the system being divided into 2 main functions and 20 sub-functions. These functions were described using the IDEF0 method. Reliability block diagrams were prepared to estimate the reliability and availability of each function under the stipulated operating conditions. Initial and expected scenarios were analyzed to define risk-mitigation actions. The inherent availability of the ITER CSS expected after implementation of mitigation actions was calculated to be 99.80% over 2 years, which is the typical interval of the scheduled maintenance cycles. This is consistent with the project required value of 99.9 ± 0.1%. A Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis was performed with criticality charts highlighting the risk level of the different failure modes with regard to their probability of occurrence and their effects on the availability of the plasma operation. This analysis defined when risk mitigation actions were required in terms of design, testing, operation procedures and/or maintenance to reduce the risk levels and increase the availability of the

  20. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  1. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  2. Optically controlled welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  3. Central Command Architecture for High Order Autonomous Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Chad Michael

    This dissertation describes a High-Order Central Command (HOCC) architecture and presents a flight demonstration where a single user coordinates 4 unmanned fixed-wing aircraft. HOCC decouples the user from control of individual vehicles, eliminating human limits on the size of the system, and uses a non-iterative sequence of algorithms that permit easy estimation of how computational complexity scales. The Hungarian algorithm used to solve a min-sum assignment with a one-task planning horizon becomes the limiting complexity, scaling at O(x3) where x is the larger number of vehicles or tasks in the assignment. This method is shown to have a unique property of creating non-intersecting routes which is used to drastically reduce the computational cost of deconflicting planned routes. Results from several demonstration flights are presented where a single user commands a system of 4 fixed-wing aircraft. The results confirm that autonomous flight of a large number of UAVs is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who will find its utility in the aviation industry and in other emerging markets.

  4. Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids – A Networked Control Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    not relies on a central control, so that the failure of a single unit will not produce the fail down of the whole system. Experimental results are presented to show the feasibility of the distributed control. The time latency limits of the communication systems are studied as well....... control system is used in order to implement a distributed secondary control thus avoiding the use of a MicroGrid Central Control. The proposed approach is not only able to restore frequency and voltage of the MicroGrid but also ensures reactive power sharing. The distributed secondary control do...

  5. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized controlcontrol with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  6. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  7. A centralized control architecture for harmonic voltage suppression in islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a centralized control architecture for harmonic voltage suppression in islanded microgrids. The centralized selective harmonic compensator is developed in addition to the autonomous nonlinear load sharing loop in local controllers of inverter-interfaced Distributed Energy...... transformation aided signal modulation method is integrated to the centralized control architecture. The operation principle and case studies based on computer simulations are presented in this paper and validate the proposed control architecture....

  8. Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Schmeink, C

    2009-03-01

    The study examined the influence of different types of enhanced system support on user performance during the management of a central heating system. A computer-based simulation of a central heating system, called CHESS V2.0, was used to model different interface options, providing different support facilities to the user (e.g., historical, predictive, and instructional displays). Seventy-five participants took part in the study and completed a series of operational scenarios under different support conditions. The simulation environment allowed the collection of performance measures (e.g., energy consumption), information sampling, and system control behaviour. Subjective user evaluations of various aspects of the system were also measured. The results showed performance gains for predictive displays whereas no such benefits were observed for the other display types. The data also revealed that status and predictive displays were valued most highly by users. The implications of the findings for designers of central heating systems are discussed.

  9. Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Schmeink, C

    2009-03-01

    The study examined the influence of different types of enhanced system support on user performance during the management of a central heating system. A computer-based simulation of a central heating system, called CHESS V2.0, was used to model different interface options, providing different support facilities to the user (e.g., historical, predictive, and instructional displays). Seventy-five participants took part in the study and completed a series of operational scenarios under different support conditions. The simulation environment allowed the collection of performance measures (e.g., energy consumption), information sampling, and system control behaviour. Subjective user evaluations of various aspects of the system were also measured. The results showed performance gains for predictive displays whereas no such benefits were observed for the other display types. The data also revealed that status and predictive displays were valued most highly by users. The implications of the findings for designers of central heating systems are discussed. PMID:18433730

  10. Thermal control system technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wilbert E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on thermal control systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: heat rejection; heat acquisition and transport; monitoring and control; passive thermal control; and analysis and test verification.

  11. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  12. Recent advances in central cardiovascular control: sex, ROS, gas and inflammation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS in concert with the heart and vasculature is essential to maintaining cardiovascular (CV homeostasis. In recent years, our understanding of CNS control of blood pressure regulation (and dysregulation leading to hypertension has evolved substantially to include (i the actions of signaling molecules that are not classically viewed as CV signaling molecules, some of which exert effects at CNS targets in a non-traditional manner, and (ii CNS locations not traditionally viewed as central autonomic cardiovascular centers. This review summarizes recent work implicating immune signals and reproductive hormones, as well as gasotransmitters and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension at traditional CV control centers. Additionally, recent work implicating non-conventional CNS structures in CV regulation is discussed.

  13. Recent advances in central cardiovascular control: sex, ROS, gas and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) in concert with the heart and vasculature is essential to maintaining cardiovascular (CV) homeostasis. In recent years, our understanding of CNS control of blood pressure regulation (and dysregulation leading to hypertension) has evolved substantially to include (i) the actions of signaling molecules that are not classically viewed as CV signaling molecules, some of which exert effects at CNS targets in a non-traditional manner, and (ii) CNS locations not traditionally viewed as central autonomic cardiovascular centers. This review summarizes recent work implicating immune signals and reproductive hormones, as well as gasotransmitters and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension at traditional CV control centers. Additionally, recent work implicating non-conventional CNS structures in CV regulation is discussed. PMID:27092251

  14. Speed Synchronization of web winding System with Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachemi Glaoui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. A speed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed control strategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designed controller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstanding Central Nervous System anomalies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 77-89

  16. Control system for HIMAC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system for HIMAC injector has been designed. The system consists of three mini-computers and many intelligent device controllers. The device controller is a single-board computer with a real time monitor and is installed in each device. Almost man-machine interactions for an operation of the injector system are performed by touch panels and rotary encoders. (author)

  17. SUPERSYMMETRIC INVARIANCE AND UNIVERSAL CENTRAL EXTENSIONS OF LIE SUPERTRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆成; 魏竹; 禇颖娜; 张永平

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss some properties of a supersymmetric invariant bilinear form on Lie supertriple systems. In particular, a supersymmetric invariant bilinear form on Lie supertriple systems can be extended to its standard imbedding Lie superalgebras. Furthermore, we generalize Garland’s theory of universal central extensions for Lie supertriple systems following the classical one for Lie superalgebras. We solve the problems of lifting automorphisms and lifting derivations.

  18. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the National Synchrotron Light Source is implemented using dual central computers and many remote microprocessors. This paper describes developments in four areas: (1) system organization; (2) hardware status, particularly control desk and operator support facilities; (3) central computer software system organization to support data base structures and access, and communication between application programs and hardware; and (4) high level control programs which allow the operator to examine and control the transport lines and rings in terms of beam and machine parameters using mathematical models of the system. The output of these programs can be viewed on a color graphical display

  19. Central retinal vein occlusion: A patient with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis is a severe chronic connective tissue disease, which results in involvement of numerous internal organs. Changes in the eye are the consequences of organ-specific manifestations of scleroderma or adverse effects of immunosuppressive treatment applied. Case report. We reported a 42-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis and acute deterioration of vision in the left eye, with visual acuity 0.9. After thorough clinical examination, including fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, the diagnosis of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion was made. Further biochemical, rheumatological and immunological investigation, apart from inactive systemic sclerosis, showed normal findings. Therefore, the cause of central retinal vein occlusion could only be attributed to the microvascular changes in systemic sclerosis. After three months, visual acuity deteriorated to 0.6 due to the development of cystoid macular edema. The patient received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and after a single dose visual acuity improved to 0.9. After a 6- month follow-up, macular edema resolved and visual acuity stabilized. Conclusion. According to our knowledge and current data from the literature, central retinal vein occlusion is a rare vision threatening manifestation of scleroderma. There are only few published case reports on central vein occlusion in scleroderma patients. Examination of the ocular fundus is recommended for evaluation of vascular disease in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  20. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  1. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  2. Reconciling Himalayan midcrustal discontinuities: The Main Central thrust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kyle P.; Ambrose, Tyler K.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Cottle, John M.; Shrestha, Sudip

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of thrust-sense tectonometamorphic discontinuities within the exhumed Himalayan metamorphic core can be explained as part of the Main Central thrust system. This imbricate thrust structure, which significantly thickened the orogenic midcrustal core, comprises a series of thrust-sense faults that all merge into a single detachment. The existence of these various structures, and their potential for complex overprinting along the main detachment, may help explain the contention surrounding the definition, mapping, and interpretation of the Main Central thrust. The unique evolution of specific segments of the Main Central thrust system along the orogen is interpreted to be a reflection of the inherent basement structure and ramp position, and structural level of exposure of the mid-crust. This helps explain the variation in the timing and structural position of tectonometamorphic discontinuities along the length of the mountain belt.

  3. Aren't technological choices central to designing health systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that delivery of technology-based preventive, promotive and curative care is one of the central tasks of any health-care system and therefore it forms one of the central pivots for rational structuring/re-structuring of a health-care system. The development of our public health system has, historically, adopted health technologies (HT) uncritically and thereby not explicitly developed institutional mechanisms to assess them for rational choice. Determinants of HT policy choices and structuring of a service delivery system based on that are discussed with examples of modern low cost HT, technologies of codified health knowledge systems other than the modern and local health traditions. Various forms of institutional structures for HT assessment and R and D using a comprehensive primary health-care approach are suggested. PMID:24351381

  4. Aren′t technological choices central to designing health systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that delivery of technology-based preventive, promotive and curative care is one of the central tasks of any health-care system and therefore it forms one of the central pivots for rational structuring/re-structuring of a health-care system. The development of our public health system has, historically, adopted health technologies (HT uncritically and thereby not explicitly developed institutional mechanisms to assess them for rational choice. Determinants of HT policy choices and structuring of a service delivery system based on that are discussed with examples of modern low cost HT, technologies of codified health knowledge systems other than the modern and local health traditions. Various forms of institutional structures for HT assessment and R and D using a comprehensive primary health-care approach are suggested.

  5. SPS : the control system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films

    1975-01-01

    English version. Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. "More than 10.000 things to control, 7,00 things to measure and 30,000 ? to survey, distributed over more than 10 square km. That was the problem which faced the controls group." Comments: images of control room, computer screens, and computer centre rather dark

  6. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiretrovirals in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Andrea; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    HIV-positive patients may be effectively treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and such a strategy is associated with striking immune recovery and viral load reduction to very low levels. Despite undeniable results, the central nervous system (CNS) is commonly affected during the course of HIV infection, with neurocognitive disorders being as prevalent as 20-50 % of treated subjects. This review discusses the pathophysiology of CNS infection by HIV and the barriers to efficacious control of such a mechanism, including the available data on compartmental drug penetration and on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. In the reviewed articles, a high variability in drug transfer to the CNS is highlighted with several mechanisms as well as methodological issues potentially influencing the observed results. Nevirapine and zidovudine showed the highest cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to plasma ratios, although target concentrations are currently unknown for the CNS. The use of the composite CSF concentration effectiveness score has been associated with better virological outcomes (lower HIV RNA) but has been inconsistently associated with neurocognitive outcomes. These findings support the CNS effectiveness of commonly used highly antiretroviral therapies. The use of antiretroviral drugs with increased CSF penetration and/or effectiveness in treating or preventing neurocognitive disorders however needs to be assessed in well-designed prospective studies.

  8. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  9. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  10. Comparative Performance Assessment For Central Receiver CPV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasich, John B.; Thomas, Ian; Verlinden, Pierre J.; Lewandowski, Allan; Heartag, Wolfgang; Wright, Mark

    2011-12-01

    A Central receiver Concentrating PV (C2PV) system has the potential to be the optimum solar energy generation system for utility scale because it combines the high efficiency of CPV with the low cost of a heliostat collector. Due to the off axis nature of a heliostat central receiver concentrator a cosine efficiency loss is incurred and, unlike `normal' tracking CPV lens and dish systems, the optical performance varies with time and site latitude. To investigate the optical performance of a C2PV system a ray trace model has been developed and the performance of a representative C2PV system is modelled throughout the year and at different site latitudes. The cosine loss and latitude dependence are put into perspective by calculating the annual average optical efficiency and testing its sensitivity to variations in site latitude. These values are then used to estimate a system performance by applying efficiencies for solar cell, balance of system and operational factors. This system efficiency is finally compared to published data for `normal' tracking CPV dish and lens systems. Modelled annual average AC system efficiency for the C2PV system was calculated to be 21% at 40° latitude and 19% at 15° latitude. These annual average AC system efficiencies are shown to be similar to those reported for typical dish and lens CPV systems when they are adjusted to use a total collector area baseline.

  11. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Ulrich [Alencon LLC; Fishman, Oleg [Alencon LLC

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  12. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined

  13. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  14. 77 FR 33215 - Changes to the Central Data Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... announces EPA's plans to take advantage of opportunities offered by evolving technologies to improve CDX...: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR), this notice announces EPA's plan to change its Central Data Exchange (CDX) system, as described in this...

  15. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  16. The Role of Central Nervous System Plasticity in Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is a vexing disorder of hearing characterized by sound sensations originating in the head without any external stimulation. The specific etiology of these sensations is uncertain but frequently associated with hearing loss. The "neurophysiogical" model of tinnitus has enhanced appreciation of central nervous system (CNS) contributions.…

  17. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Stankiewicz; Dino Bindi; Adrien Oth; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW) systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds) warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for C...

  18. Control of gaseous emissions in central Costanera S.A. of Argentina; Control de emisiones gaseosas en central Costanera S. A. de Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabenec, Edgardo [Unidad de Negocios Central Costanera, S. A., (Argentina)

    1996-12-31

    A description is presented of the equipment utilized at the Central Costanera, S.A. of Argentina, the requirements and the Environmental Management established for this Power Station, and the Standards and the resolutions and law instruments on Environmental issues. Also it is presented the Environmental Management plan of the Ente Nacional Regulador de Electricidad of Argentina as well as the controls and environmental corrective actions implemented at the Central Costanera, S.A. [Espanol] Se presenta una descripcion del equipo utilizado en la Central Costanera S.A. de Argentina, los requerimientos de gestion ambiental establecidos para esta central y las normas, resoluciones e instrumentos juridicos en materia ambiental. Se presenta ademas el plan de gestion ambiental del Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad de Argentina asi como los controles y acciones correctivas ambientales implantadas en la Central Costanera S. A.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Sadananda

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch was studied using enzyme histochemistry. AChE fibres and cells are intensely labelled in the forebrain nucleus area X, strongly labelled in high vocal centre (HVC) perikarya, and moderately to lightly labelled in the somata and neuropil of vocal control nuclei robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), medial magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (MMAN) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). The identified sites of cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons are similar to the cholinergic presence in vocal control regions of other songbirds such as the song sparrow, starling and another genus of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), and to a certain extent in parallel vocal control regions in vocalizing birds such as the budgerigar. AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this circuitry’s involvement in sensory processing and motor control of song.

  20. Optimal Power Consumption in a Central Heating System with Geothermal Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Driving a ground source heat pump in a central heating system with the minimum power consumption is studied. The idea of control is based on the fact that, in a heat pump, the temperature of the forward water has a strong positive correlation with the consumed electric power by the compressor. Th...

  1. Dysfunctional astrocytes as key players in the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, Jacques; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.

    2008-01-01

    Once considered little more than the glue that holds neurons in place, astrocytes are now becoming appreciated for the key roles they play in central nervous system functions. They supply neurons and oligodendrocytes with substrates for energy metabolism, control extracellular water and electrolyte

  2. [Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinah, A

    1975-12-01

    A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

  3. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joao E.; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the ...

  4. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280

  5. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso; Ana Claudia Lyon; Stanley de Almeida Araújo; Juliana Márcia Ribeiro Veloso; Enio Roberto Pietra Pedroso; Antônio Lucio Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC) and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseas...

  6. Axon Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Eric A.; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is extremely limited after injury. Consequently, functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and related conditions that involve axonal disconnection. This situation differs from that in the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS), where long- distance axon regeneration and substantial functional recovery can occur in the adult. Both extracellular molecules and the intrinsi...

  7. The Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Marmiroli, PL; Cavaletti, GA

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is one of the major neurotrasmitters in mammalian brain and changes in its concentration have been associated with a number of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular diseases and epilepsy. Moreover, recently a possible role for glutamatergic system dysfunction has been suggested also in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter will revise the current knowledge in the distribution of glutamate and of its receptors and transporters in the central nervo...

  8. Geologic characterization of Cuvette Centrale petroleum systems Congo-DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro; Rezende, Nelio G.A.M. [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Cuvette Centrale is an almost unexplored basin, which contains some petroleum system elements that indicate the presence of hydrocarbons. In this sense; this paper presents an exploratory alternative for this intracratonic basin. The interpretation of the limited gravimetric, magnetometric, geochemical and seismic available data allowed the identification of many huge structural features and also some areas with hydrocarbon potential for stratigraphic traps. The presence of several oil and gas seeps widespread around the Busira and Lokoro sub-basins indicate that at least one active petroleum system exist in the basin. Despite only four wells have been drilled in the basin, one of them presented oil shows during drilling. Geological correlations between Brazilian Paleozoic basins and Cuvette Centrale sedimentary sequences permitted to conclude that Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian source rocks must be present and active in the Cuvette Centrale basin. The tectono-stratigraphic evolution history of the Cuvette Centrale from Neo proterozoic to Recent times shows extensional and compressional/transpressional alternating phases along the geological time. The most confident petroleum system expected in the Cuvette Centrale is characterized by the Cambrian Mamungi shale - source rock - and the Cambro-Ordovician. Upper Arenaceous Sequence - reservoirs, as observed in the MBandaka and Gilson wells and confirmed by surface geology in outcrops. Besides, other potential petroleum systems are expected to occur in the basin. One is characterized by the Neo proterozoic Itury Group source rock and reservoirs in the mature/over mature stage, the others are the Siluro-Devonian and Cretaceous source rocks and reservoirs, expected to occur with better maturity conditions only in the deeper parts of the basin. (author)

  9. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  10. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of......

  11. Imaging the central serotonergic system in neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central serotonergic system has an important impact on numerous functions of the central nervous system. Alterations of brain serotonergic activity have been suggested as pathophysiologically and pathogenetically relevant, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore serotonergic imaging might be of particular scientific (and clinical) interest. Reliable PET- or SPECT imaging of serotonergic structures (receptors, transporters) is so far impaired by the complex neuroanatomical situation and several methodological limitations. Selected clinical PET- and SPECT-studies with 5HT1A/2A-receptor and serotonintransporter ligands in neuropsychiatric patients will be presented and critically discussed. To date the clinical relevance of these techniques remains to be established, however, imaging of the serotonergic system might contribute to our further knowledge of brain pathophysiology. (orig.)

  12. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-06-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  13. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  14. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  15. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  16. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  17. Water-Source Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System Characteristic for Central Control Room in a Fossil Fuel Power Plants%火力发电厂集中控制室水源热泵空调系统设计特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明国; 卢柏春

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the water source heat pump air-conditioning system for central control room and electronic equipment room in Puqi Phase II Power Plant project and analyzes the design characteristic of the system. The Water source heat pump air-conditioning system has a broad application value.%介绍了蒲圻电厂二期工程的集控室及电子设备间的水源热泵空调系统,分析了该系统的设计特点,具有推广应用的价值。

  18. ON COMPLEX DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Daizhan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents some recent works on the control of dynamic systems, which have certain complex properties caused by singularity of the nonlinear structures, structure-varyings, or evolution process etc. First, we consider the structure singularity of nonlinear control systems. It was revealed that the focus of researches on nonlinear control theory is shifting from regular systems to singular systems. The singularity of nonlinear systems causes certain complexity. Secondly, the switched systems are considered. For such systems the complexity is caused by the structure varying. We show that the switched systems have significant characteristics of complex systems. Finally, we investigate the evolution systems. The evolution structure makes complexity, and itself is a proper model for complex systems.

  19. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized-distribu......The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized...... the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented...

  20. Information management system breadboard data acquisition and control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallary, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a breadboard configuration of an advanced information management system based on requirements for high data rates and local and centralized computation for subsystems and experiments to be housed on a space station. The system is to contain a 10-megabit-per-second digital data bus, remote terminals with preprocessor capabilities, and a central multiprocessor. A concept definition is presented for the data acquisition and control system breadboard, and a detailed account is given of the operation of the bus control unit, the bus itself, and the remote acquisition and control unit. The data bus control unit is capable of operating under control of both its own test panel and the test processor. In either mode it is capable of both single- and multiple-message operation in that it can accept a block of data requests or update commands for transmission to the remote acquisition and control unit, which in turn is capable of three levels of data-handling complexity.

  1. Classifications of central solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J. Y.; Hao, B.; Peng, C.; Wang, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there are many means by which to classify solar domestic hot water systems, which are often categorized according to their scope of supply, solar collector positions, and type of heat storage tank. However, the lack of systematic and scientific classification as well as the general disregard of the thermal performance of the auxiliary heat source is important to DHW systems. Thus, the primary focus of this paper is to determine a classification system for solar domestic hot water systems based on the positions of the solar collector and auxiliary heating device, both respectively and in combination. Field-testing data regarding many central solar DHW systems demonstrates that the position of the auxiliary heat source clearly reflects the operational energy consumption. The consumption of collective auxiliary heating hot water system is much higher than individual auxiliary heating hot water system. In addition, costs are significantly reduced by the separation of the heat storage tank and the auxiliary heating device.

  2. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  3. The central nervous system sites mediating the orexigenic actions of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B L; Wang, Q; Zigman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  4. Precision Segmented Reflector figure control system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-01-01

    A control system architecture for an actively controlled segmented reflector is described along with a design realization for achieving precision alignment of reflector panels. Performance requirements are derived in part from the Large Deployable Reflector, which is a representative mission, and error allocations are made which consider mirror panel surface errors, position measurement and figure estimation, and position control of both quasi-static and dynamic disturbances. The design uses multiple wavelength interferometric edge sensors and voice coil actuators in conjunction with a hybrid control strategy to correct panel position errors. A unit cell shown to be central to the concept is analyzed. The cell integrates the sensing, actuation, and mechanical functions of a control module together with a reflector panel to form a unitized assembly.

  5. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  6. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  7. The CARMA Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, C.; Beard, A. D.; Daniel, P.; Hobbs, R.; Scott, S. L.; Kraybill, J. C.; Leitch, E.; Mehringer, D. M.; Plante, R.; Amarnath, N. S.; Pound, M. W.; Rauch, K. P.; Teuben, P. J.

    2004-07-01

    The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) will be the combination of the BIMA, OVRO, and SZA millimeter arrays. With first light scheduled for 2005, CARMA will be the first heterogeneous millimeter array, combining antennas varying from 3.5 m to 10.4 m in diameter. The controls for CARMA involve creating a uniform interface for all antennas. The antennas are grouped into five independently-controlled sub-arrays, which will be used for scientific observations, engineering, or maintenance. The sub-arrays are controlled by two components: the Sub-array Command Processor (SCP) and the Sub-array Tracker (SAT). While each sub-array has a dedicated SCP for handling command processing, a single SAT computes and distributes slowly varying parameters to the necessary sub-arrays. The sub-array interface uses CORBA distributed objects to physically separate the user interface from the array. This allows for stability in the core engine controlling the array while enabling flexibility in the user interface implementation.

  8. Electrochemically controlled supramolecular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Large and complex molecular structures can be assembled by supramolecular chemistry and self-organization. For practical purposes it is required that the assembly and disassembly of supramolecular complexes and materials can be directed and controlled by external stimuli in order to build, for insta

  9. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States. PMID:11856998

  10. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  11. CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  12. The APS control system network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  13. Studying the central control of food intake and obesity in rats Estudando em ratos o controle central da ingestão alimentar e a obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system regulates energy intake and expenditure through a complex network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. It is of great interest to understand the relevance of these systems to the physiological control of energy balance and to the disturbances of obesity. The present paper discusses some of the methods to address this field used at the laboratory of Endocrine Physiology of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Initially, different experimental models of rat obesity are presented, namely the hypothalamic induced monosodium glutamate model, the Zucker genetic model, and the dietary model. The principles of brain microdialysis are also presented, the technique applied to obtain representative samples of the extracellular fluid of brain sites involved in feeding control. The microdialysate levels of serotonin, an important anorexigenic neurotransmitter, are determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The immunoblot technique (Western blot is used to determine hypothalamic levels of proteins relevant to the anorexigenic effect of serotonin and to analyze the acute activation of the insulin signaling cascade in the hypothalamus. The final section addresses the potential applications of proteomics in the study of the central control of feeding.O sistema nervoso central controla a ingestão e o gasto de energia por meio de um complexo circuito de neurotransmissores e neuromoduladores. É de grande interesse entender a relevância fisiológica destes sistemas e o papel que desempenham nos distúrbios da obesidade. No presente artigo, discutem-se alguns dos métodos que têm sido utilizados no laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, em estudos neste campo. Inicialmente, são apresentados alguns modelos de obesidade experimental em ratos, como a obesidade hipotalâmica induzida por glutamato monossódico, o modelo genético Zucker e também obesidades induzidas por dieta. Comenta

  14. Intelligent house control system

    OpenAIRE

    Stražišar, Rok

    2008-01-01

    The thesis describes a smart house and the system that empowers it with intelligence. The goal of the thesis is to present the hardware and software involved and debate about the usability, pros and cons of such a system. The work addresses the smart house from several viewpoints: safety, comfort, economy, accessibility for people with special needs and affordability. Using smart house makes every day´s life more secure and comfortable, while it also enables independency to the people with sp...

  15. Hyperbaric Pressure Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Brian; Skjørten, Anders; Nicolaysen, Jonas; Skarseth, Thor Ove; Carlstedt, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The requirement specification for the project where changed from delivery of a fully working product to contain only the design of this system due to long lead times on some of the high-pressure hydraulic parts. Three of the students where already working for FMC before project start, where two of them had experience with hydraulic Subsea Systems. Our project model where changed during the project. We started out with a Waterfall model and ended up with an Evolutionary model

  16. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8).

  17. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , controlled, and interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8)

  18. Model based control of refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth Larsen, L.F.

    2005-11-15

    with a distributed control structure, the cross-couplings are not naturally incorporated in the design of the controllers. The disturbances caused by the individual subsystems might be insignificant, however if the effect from all of the subsystems is synchronized it might cause a sever deterioration in the system performance. In the part of the thesis covering dynamical optimization, the main emphasis is laid on analyzing the phenomena of synchronization of hysteresis controlled subsystems. The propose method for desynchronization is based on a model predictive control setup. By formulating a cost function that penalizes the effects of synchronization hard, an optimal control sequence for the subsystems can be computed that desynchronizes the operation. A supermarket's refrigeration system consists of a number of refrigerated display cases located in the supermarkets sales area. The display cases are connected to a central refrigeration system, moreover the temperature control in the display cases is carried out by hysteresis controller. Practice however shows that the display cases have a tendency to synchronize the temperature control. This cause periodically high loads on the central refrigeration system and thereby an increased energy consumption and wear. By studying a nonlinear system model it has been analyzed, which parameter that are important for the synchronization. Applying the proposed method on the nonlinear system model has proved that it is capable of desynchronizing the operation of the display cases. (au)

  19. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen;

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focused on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. Ov...... HSV-PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection considering the subtle nature of HME....

  20. The central nervous system in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Duquette, Peter J; Icard, Phil F; Hooper, Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits in pediatric and adult survivors of childhood onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been documented for many years. This paper reviews the available literature on central nervous system involvement incurred in childhood CKD. The studies reviewed include recent work in neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and neuropsychology, along with commentary on school functioning and long-term outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for monitoring the neurodevelopmental status and pursuing appropriate early interventions for children with CKD. PMID:17072652

  1. Central nervous system infection caused by Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Jehad; Saad, Mustafa; Samnani, Imran; Lee, Prescott; Moorman, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Morganella morganii is very rare. We describe a 38-year-old female patient with frontal brain abscess caused by M morganii who was unsuccessfully treated. We also review all reported cases of Morganella CNS infections with an emphasis on treatment modalities and outcomes. Aggressive surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial therapy can lead to cure, but the mortality rate for these infections remains high.

  2. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Arnoud

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is roughly 12 months and only 5 % of the patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis. Fifty % of astrocytomas are ryped as glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant form of glioma. Glioblast...

  3. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  4. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  5. Neurotrophic effects of neudesin in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Ikuo; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Zhao, Ying; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Neudesin (neuron-derived neurotrophic factor; NENF) was identified as a neurotrophic factor that is involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. It is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, and its neurotrophic activity is exerted via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Neudesin is also an anorexigenic factor that suppresses food intake in the hypothalamus. It is a member of the membrane-associated progesterone rece...

  6. Investigation of bubble behaviours in wet central heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shefik Ali; Ge Yunting

    2014-01-01

    A series of experimental measurements has been conducted in order to investigate the bubble behaviours through the horizontal pipe line of the domestic wet central heating systems. Obtained results exposed the effect of 90 degree bend, buoyancy forces on bubbly two phase flow patterns and effect of velocity on void fractions and bubble diameters. Distance chosen for the first sight glass (HSG0) was sufficient enough to note the effect of 90 degree bend on void fraction patterns. Due to the ef...

  7. Simultaneous central nervous system complications of C. neoformans infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Higera Calleja, Jesus; Mitre, Vicente Gijón; Ramos, Guillermo Garcia

    2009-01-01

    The most common neurological manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection is meningitis. Other less common manifestations include parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) granulomatous disease, hydrocephalus and stroke. C. neoformans is often suspected in immunodepressed patients, but it can be easily overlooked in otherwise healthy patients. This paper provides a detailed clinical description of a patient without immunosupression who developed multiple simultaneous neurological manifestations after the infection with C. neoformans. PMID:21577360

  8. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  9. Spontaneous electrical activity recorded from the aphid central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dan-Thanh T.; Blacker, Melissa J.; Goodchild, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst many classes of insecticides target the insect central nervous system (CNS), their effects in the CNS of pest aphids have not been demonstrated. In this report, we describe an electrophysiological method for recording spontaneous neuronal activity from the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus). Using extracellular recording electrodes and two analysis methods (threshold and template search), spontaneous spike activity was shown to exhibit sensitivity to the neuroexcitatory insect...

  10. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  11. NSTX-U Control System Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, K.G., E-mail: kerickso@pppl.gov; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Lawson, J.E.; Mozulay, R.; Sichta, P.; Tchilinguirian, G.J.

    2014-06-15

    The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forward port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control.

  12. Controlling systems of cogeneration blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the main parts of cogeneration unit control system are described. Article is aimed on electric power measurement with electricity protection as with temperature system regulation. In conclusion of the article, the control algorithm with perspective of cogeneration solve is indicated. (authors)

  13. Classifications of Linear Controlled Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a study of linear, differential and topological classifications for linear controlled systems governed by ordinary differential equations. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear and topological equivalence are given. It is also shown that the differential equivalence is the same as the linear equivalence for the linear controlled systems.

  14. Control systems on Lie groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  15. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  16. Performance of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data packet dropout is a special kind of time delay problem. In this paper, predictive controllers for networked control systems (NCSs with dual-network are designed by model predictive control method. The contributions are as follows. (1 The predictive control problem of the dual-network is considered. (2 The predictive performance of the dual-network is evaluated. (3 Compared to the popular networked control systems, the optimal controller of the new NCSs with data packets dropout is designed, which can minimize infinite performance index at each sampling time and guarantee the closed-loop system stability. Finally, the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the controllers designed.

  17. Interactive robot control system and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having joints, actuators, and sensors, and a distributed controller. The controller includes command-level controller, embedded joint-level controllers each controlling a respective joint, and a joint coordination-level controller coordinating motion of the joints. A central data library (CDL) centralizes all control and feedback data, and a user interface displays a status of each joint, actuator, and sensor using the CDL. A parameterized action sequence has a hierarchy of linked events, and allows the control data to be modified in real time. A method of controlling the robot includes transmitting control data through the various levels of the controller, routing all control and feedback data to the CDL, and displaying status and operation of the robot using the CDL. The parameterized action sequences are generated for execution by the robot, and a hierarchy of linked events is created within the sequence.

  18. Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.

  19. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the clinical, immunological and pathological data of 5 eases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Each of the five cases has typical SLE damages on the skin and multiple organs. Among

  20. Control principles of complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-07-01

    A reflection of our ultimate understanding of a complex system is our ability to control its behavior. Typically, control has multiple prerequisites: it requires an accurate map of the network that governs the interactions between the system's components, a quantitative description of the dynamical laws that govern the temporal behavior of each component, and an ability to influence the state and temporal behavior of a selected subset of the components. With deep roots in dynamical systems and control theory, notions of control and controllability have taken a new life recently in the study of complex networks, inspiring several fundamental questions: What are the control principles of complex systems? How do networks organize themselves to balance control with functionality? To address these questions here recent advances on the controllability and the control of complex networks are reviewed, exploring the intricate interplay between the network topology and dynamical laws. The pertinent mathematical results are matched with empirical findings and applications. Uncovering the control principles of complex systems can help us explore and ultimately understand the fundamental laws that govern their behavior.

  1. Integrated control system for LEHIPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) is a 20 MeV 30 mA proton accelerator which will be achieved in multiple stages. LEHIPA consists of several sub systems/devices located at different positions of the beam path which includes ION source, RF Power, RF Protection Interlock System, Low Conductivity Water plant, Low Level RF Control Systems, Vacuum System, Beam Diagnostics and Beam Line Devices. All these subsystems have their own local control systems (LCS) which will coordinate the operation of the corresponding subsystem. The control system for LEHIPA is thus being designed as a Distributed Control System with different teams developing each LCS. The control system will assist the operator to achieve a beam of desired characteristics by interacting with various sub systems of the accelerator in a seamless manner, protect the various parts of machine by generating the necessary interlocks, keep track of various parameters monitored periodically by suitably archiving them, alarms annunciation and trouble shoot from the control room. This paper describes approach to system design of ICS. (author)

  2. Mobile robot control system

    OpenAIRE

    Jiruška, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with differential drive wheeled mobile robot which is running under a real-time operating system. Introductory part is focused on theoretical description of robot and its original firmware. Practical part deals with creating software and implementation several methods that allow following the line by robot using reflectance sensor array. Significant part of this thesis is focused on design and implementation of communication protocol, based on IEEE 802.15.4 which provides co...

  3. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  4. Centralized database for interconnection system design. [for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    A database application called DFACS (Database, Forms and Applications for Cabling and Systems) is described. The objective of DFACS is to improve the speed and accuracy of interconnection system information flow during the design and fabrication stages of a project, while simultaneously supporting both the horizontal (end-to-end wiring) and the vertical (wiring by connector) design stratagems used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) project engineering community. The DFACS architecture is centered around a centralized database and program methodology which emulates the manual design process hitherto used at JPL. DFACS has been tested and successfully applied to existing JPL hardware tasks with a resulting reduction in schedule time and costs.

  5. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracey, T. R.

    1978-09-01

    The design of a 300 MWe tower focus power plant which uses molten salt heat transfer fluids and sensible heat storage is described in detail. The system consists of nine heliostat fields with 7711 heliostats in each. Four cavity receivers are located at the top of a 155-meter tower. Tasks include: (1) review and analysis of preliminary specification; (2) parametric analysis; (3) selection of preferred configuration; (4) commercial plant conceptual design; (5) assessment of commercial-sized advanced central power system; (6) development plan; (7) program plan; (8) reports and data; (9) program management; (10) safety analysis; and (11) material study and test program. (WHK)

  6. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  7. Microprocessor control of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present low power CMOS microprocessor controller for photovoltaic power systems possesses three programs, which are respectively intended for (1) conventional battery-charging systems with state-of-charge estimation and sequential shedding of subarrays and loads, (2) maximum power-controlled battery-charging systems, and (3) variable speed dc motor drives. Attention is presently given to the development of this terrestrial equipment for spacecraft use.

  8. Salt movements within the Central European basin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy; Bayer, Ulf; Scheck-Wenderoth [GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Littke, Ralf [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    2010-04-15

    Evolution of salt structures in relation to tectonic events within central part of the Central European Basin System is described by summarizing results which have been obtained and published in frame of the research project DFG-SPP 1135. These results illustrate main phases of salt tectonics within the basin system from the Triassic to present day. During the Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk, extension triggered raft tectonics and salt movements within the Ems Trough, the Glueckstadt and the Horn Grabens. The next phase of salt movements occurred in response to a Middle-Late Keuper regional extensional event which was strongest within the Triassic depocenters of the Central European Basin System, such as the Horn Graben, the Glueckstadt Graben, the Ems and the Rheinsberg Troughs. Regional erosion truncated the study area during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. The magnitude of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous erosion is declining towards southern margin of the basin system where a dextral transtensional regime was established in the Lower Saxony Basin and neighboring areas during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous is characterized by a relative tectonic quiescence without strong salt movements. The Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion provocated renewed salt movements, causing the thick-skinned salt tectonics along the Elbe Fault System and the thin-skinned character of salt movements towards the north from the area of strain localisation. Post-inversion Cenozoic subsidence was accompanied by salt movements, related either to diapiric rise due to regional shortening and/or to local almost E-W directed extension. (orig.)

  9. Design, implementation and evalution of a central unit for controlling climatic conditions in the greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Zarei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse culture, in addition to increasing the quantity and quality of crop production in comparison with traditional methods, the agricultural inputs are saved, too. Recently, using new methods, designs and materials, and higher automation in greenhouses, better management has become possible for enhancing yield and improving the quality of greenhouse crops. The constructed and evaluated central controller unit (CCU is a central controller system and computerized monitoring unit for greenhouse application. Several sensors, one CCU, several operators, and a data-collection and recorder unit were the major components of this system. The operators included heating, cooling, spraying, ventilation and lighting systems, and the sensors are for temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, oxygen and light in inside and outside the greenhouse. Environmental conditions were measured by the accurate sensors and transmitted to the CCU. Based on this information, the CCU changed variables to optimize the greenhouse environmental conditions to predetermined ranges. This system was totally made of local instruments and parts and had the ability to integrate with the needs of the client. The designed and implemented CCU was tested in a greenhouse located in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan Province during summer season of 2011. The CCU was operated successfully for controlling greenhouse temperature in the range of 22-29 ˚C, relative humidity of 35-55%, artificial lighting in the case of receiving radiation of less than 800 Lux and turning on the ventilation units if the concentration of carbon dioxide was more than 800 mg/L.

  10. JT-60 plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JT-60 plasma control can be performed by the supervisory controller, the measurement system and actuators such as the poloidal field coil power supplies, gas injectors, neutral beam injection (NBI) heating system and radio frequency (RF) heating system. One of the most important characteristics of this system is a perfect digital control one composed of mini-computers, fast array processors and CAMAC modules, and it has large flexibility and few troubles to adjust the system. This system started to be operated in April 1985, after the six-year-long design, construction and testing, and have been operated and improved many times for two years. In this paper, the final system specification and its performance are presented aiming at the technological aspect of hardware and software. In addition, and experienced troubles are also presented. (author)

  11. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  12. Cerebellar control of postural scaling and central set in stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, F B; Diener, H C

    1994-08-01

    1. The effects of cerebellar deficits in humans on scaling the magnitude of automatic postural responses based on sensory feedback and on predictive central set was investigated. Electromyographic (EMG) and surface reactive torques were compared in patients with anterior lobe cerebellar disorders and in normal healthy adults exposed to blocks of four velocities and five amplitudes of surface translations during stance. Correlations between the earliest postural responses (integrated EMG and initial rate of change of torque) and translation velocity provided a measure of postural magnitude scaling using sensory information from the current displacement. Correlations of responses with translation amplitude provided a measure of scaling dependent on predictive central set based on sequential experience with previous like displacements because the earliest postural responses occurred before completion of the displacements and because scaling to displacement amplitude disappeared when amplitudes were randomized in normal subjects. 2. Responses of cerebellar patients to forward body sway induced by backward surface displacements were hypermetric, that is, surface-reactive torque responses were two to three times larger than normal with longer muscle bursts resulting in overshooting of initial posture. Despite this postural hypermetria, the absolute and relative latencies of agonist muscle bursts at the ankle, knee, and hip were normal in cerebellar patients. 3. Although they were hypermetric, the earliest postural responses of cerebellar patients were scaled normally to platform displacement velocities using somatosensory feedback. Cerebellar patients, however, were unable to scale initial postural response magnitude to expected displacement amplitudes based on prior experience using central set. Randomization of displacement amplitudes eliminated the set effect of amplitude on initial responses in normal subjects, but responses to randomized and blocked trials were not

  13. PATTERNS OF DELIVERY, FINANCING AND CONTROL FOR HEALTH SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina TOMESCU

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I analyse different types of health systems, in terms of funding, control, supply schemes and level of social redistribution. I show that the state plays a central role in determining the coverage and the nature of benefits, choices of financing the health systemand the structure of servicesin every European health system. Two major types are ideal in terms of funding, supply and control in Europe: Health insurance system (German type) and The National Health System (British ...

  14. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  15. Emission control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  16. A Novel Secondary Control for Microgrid Based on Synergetic Control of Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In power systems, the secondary control is a very useful way to restore the system frequency and voltage to the rated value. This paper tries to propose a secondary frequency and voltage control of islanded microgrids based on the distributed synergetic control of multi-agent systems. In the proposed control, since each distributed generation only requires its own information and that of the neighbors, the secondary control is fully distributed. The system is more reliable because the central controller and complex communication network are reduced in the distributed structure. Based on multi-agent systems, the dynamic model is established, and distributed synergetic control algorithms are given to design the secondary control of the islanded microgrid. Meanwhile, the system has globally asymptotic stability under the proposed control, which is proved by the direct Lyapunov method. Simulation results about a test microgrid are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  17. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinale Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  18. Short-lived isotopes in central chemical control of ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central chemical ventilatory drive is dependent on elecrolyte and acid-base status of brain ECF, as well as the interaction between H+ metabolism and CO2 fixation and metabolism of amino acid neutrotransmitters - GABA and glutamate. In the anesthetized dogs, using the short-lived positron emitting isotope of carbon (11C) either in the form of molecular CO2 or as HCO3- injected intraarterially it was demonstrated that there is first pass uptake of 16% of HCO3- from blood into brain and 86% uptake of molecular CO2, thus indicating that the brain-blood barrier is permeable to HCO3-, but that HCO3- content in the CNS is regulated as a function of dissociation of strong ions such as Cl- and Na+. Relationship between CO2 fixations and brain glutamine was studied with intraarterial injection of 13N-ammonia and its turnover into glutamine when PCO2 was increased. Ammonia turnover into glutamine was increased by a factor of 2 when PaCO2 was increased by 35 torr, and this rise in glutamine was linearly related to the rise in CSF [HCO3-]. Glutamine is then converted into the active neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate. Thus, the short-lived isotopes allow for assessment of the interaction of biochemical events in the CNS in the central respiratory drive. (orig.)

  19. Refining the Ciona intestinalis model of central nervous system regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Dahlberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New, practical models of central nervous system regeneration are required and should provide molecular tools and resources. We focus here on the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, which has the capacity to regenerate nerves and a complete adult central nervous system, a capacity unusual in the chordate phylum. We investigated the timing and sequence of events during nervous system regeneration in this organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed techniques for reproducible ablations and for imaging live cellular events in tissue explants. Based on live observations of more than 100 regenerating animals, we subdivided the regeneration process into four stages. Regeneration was functional, as shown by the sequential recovery of reflexes that established new criteria for defining regeneration rates. We used transgenic animals and labeled nucleotide analogs to describe in detail the early cellular events at the tip of the regenerating nerves and the first appearance of the new adult ganglion anlage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of regeneration was found to be negatively correlated with adult size. New neural structures were derived from the anterior and posterior nerve endings. A blastemal structure was implicated in the formation of new neural cells. This work demonstrates that Ciona intestinalis is as a useful system for studies on regeneration of the brain, brain-associated organs and nerves.

  20. Structural interaction with control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. B.; Zvara, J.

    1971-01-01

    A monograph which assesses the state of the art of space vehicle design and development is presented. The monograph presents criteria and recommended practices for determining the structural data and a mathematical structural model of the vehicle needed for accurate prediction of structure and control-system interaction; for design to minimize undesirable interactions between the structure and the control system; and for determining techniques to achieve the maximum desirable interactions and associated structural design benefits. All space vehicles are treated, including launch vehicles, spacecraft, and entry vehicles. Important structural characteristics which affect the structural model used for structural and control-system interaction analysis are given.

  1. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  2. Linux in Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Riesco, T

    2001-01-01

    Today the Linux operating system has become a real alternative for industrial control systems. Linux supports all layers in control systems starting with Real-Time or embedded systems for data acquisition, following with treatment, storage, communication and data adaptation, and finally, with supervision and user interfaces. In the last years the Linux development has grown being incorporated in several industrial systems demonstrating high performance, availability and stability for complex processes in chemical, automobile or petrol industries. In many of these industries Linux architectures have been tested and validated successfully. The new CERN policy supporting Linux, as well as the emergence of cheap and robust Linux solutions, motivates its implementation in our safety control and supervision systems in the near future.

  3. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27555221

  4. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

  5. Droop-free Team-oriented Control for AC Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasirian, Vahidreza; Shafiee, Qobad; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    Droop control is conventionally used for load sharing in AC distribution systems. Despite decentralized nature of the droop technique, it requires centralized secondary control to provide voltage and frequency regulation across the system. Distributed control, as an alternative to the centralized...

  6. 医院中央空调循环水系统生物膜检测及控制措施%Detection of biofilm and control measures for circulating water system of central air conditioning in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春玲; 顾翔宇; 于志臻; 江海峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of new comprehensive treatment scheme on the treatment of central air-conditioning circulating water,and compared with the original treatment scheme,so as to take more effective measures to prevent and control the source of healthcare-associated infection.Methods After the implementation of two water treatment schemes,biofilm dynamic trend,microorganisms,and corrosion rate were detected by online microbial analyzer and biofilm detection kit.Results After the implementation of original scheme,biofilm trend value of central air-conditioning circulating water was continuously high,maintaining at 200-500;pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa)exis-ted in the circulating cooling water;corrosion testing showed that corrosion coupons were severely corroded.After the im-plementation of new scheme,biofilm trend value declined continuously,and finally stably maintained below 20;pathogens were not detected after 6 days,which was corresponded to biofilm trend value;corrosion coupons were slightly corroded, corrosion rate was<0.075 mm/a.Conclusion New comprehensive treatment scheme is definitely effective for reducing and controlling the growth of pathogens,biofilm and corrosion.%目的:了解新型综合性处理方案对中央空调循环水处理的效果,并与原有的水处理方案进行对比,以便采用更有效的措施从源头预防和控制医院感染的发生。方法采用两种水处理方案后,应用在线微生物分析仪和生物膜测试盒进行生物膜动态趋势检测以及微生物和腐蚀速率的测定。结果经检测,原方案处理后,中央空调循环水中的生物膜趋势值一直比较高,维持在200~250之间;循环冷却水中存在致病菌(铜绿假单胞菌);系统腐蚀检测发现试片严重腐蚀。新方案处理后,中央空调循环水中的生物膜趋势值持续下降并最终稳定在20以下;6 d 后水系统中致病菌消失,与生物膜趋势值相对应

  7. Hybrid systems controller design methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Pluska, Michal; Sinclair, David

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Around ninety percent of vehicle innovations are driven mainly by electronics. The software implementing control algorithms combines the sensor values and calculates some meaningful actuator signals. On the other hand software in the vehicle can be seen as a part of a hybrid system. The hybrid system is a dynamic system that can have both continuous and discrete dynamic behaviour, its mean a system is described by both a differential equation and a difference equation. Moreov...

  8. Dressage, Control, and Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Berente, Nicholas; Yoo, Youngjin

    2010-01-01

    that the ideal of complete enterprise control remains unattainable, as aspects of demonstrative control are inevitably implicated within broader enterprise-wide control systems within contemporary organizations. We conclude with implications for research and practice.......In 2004, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented Full Cost, an activity-based accounting program through an agency-wide enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation. We apply Foucault's notion of 'dressage' to highlight aspects of demonstrative control associated...... with this implementation effort and to outline the different dimensions along which control was distributed. We suggest that some elements of Full Cost and the ERP system were geared toward satisfying disciplinary requirements without necessarily contributing to productive activity. We term these elements dressage-as-control...

  9. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  10. 7 CFR 1755.522 - RUS general specification for digital, stored program controlled central office equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lines can be remotely located from the central office. The remotely situated units are known as “Remote... such that the failure of a call processing unit does not degrade the call processing capabilities of... controlled central office equipment. 1755.522 Section 1755.522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  11. Functional roles of neuropeptides in the insect central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, D. R.

    With the completion of the Drosophila genome sequencing project we can begin to appreciate the extent of the complexity in the components involved in signal transfer and modulation in the nervous system of an animal with reasonably complex behavior. Of all the different classes of signaling substances utilized by the nervous system, the neuropeptides are the most diverse structurally and functionally. Thus peptidergic mechanisms of action in the central nervous system need to be analyzed in the context of the neuronal circuits in which they act and generalized traits cannot be established. By taking advantage of Drosophila molecular genetics and the presence of identifiable neurons, it has been possible to interfere with peptidergic signaling in small populations of central neurons and monitor the consequences on behavior. These studies and experiments on other insects with large identifiable neurons, permitting cellular analysis of signaling mechanisms, have outlined important principles for temporal and spatial action of neuropeptides in outputs of the circadian clock and in orchestrating molting behavior. Considering the large number of neuropeptides available in each insect species and their diverse distribution patterns, it is to be expected that different neuropeptides play roles in most aspects of insect physiology and behavior.

  12. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  13. Multifaceted interactions between adaptive immunity and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-19

    Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. Unanswered questions include those relating to the diversity and specificity of the meningeal T cell repertoire; the routes taken by immune cells that patrol the meninges under healthy conditions and invade the parenchyma during pathology; the opposing effects (beneficial or detrimental) of these cells on CNS function; the role of immune cells after CNS injury; and the evolutionary link between the two systems, resulting in their tight interaction and interdependence. This Review summarizes the current standing of and challenging questions related to interactions between adaptive immunity and the CNS and considers the possible directions in which these aspects of neuroimmunology will be heading over the next decade. PMID:27540163

  14. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ St-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Rooienberg 25, 2750 Duffel (Belgium); Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Altena, R. van [Tuberculosecentrum Beatrixoord, Dilgtweg 5, 9751 ND Haren (Netherlands); Laridon, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Coeman, V. [Department of Radiology, AZ St-Jan, Ruddershove 10, 8000 Brugge (Belgium)

    2003-08-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  15. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  16. Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Carolyn J; Cree, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, the related acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis variants, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and idiopathic transverse myelitis. These syndromes are often managed with similar acute treatments including high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis; however, long-term management varies. Although the prognosis of fulminant demyelinating disease was historically poor, outcomes today may be improved due to earlier diagnosis, rapid implementation of anti-inflammatory therapies such as high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis, and improved supportive care. PMID:26595866

  17. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  18. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  19. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  20. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  1. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  2. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  3. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant. (J.P.N.)

  4. [Malignant lymphoma in the central nervous system: overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Michito

    2014-08-01

    Malignant lymphoma can affect the central nervous system (CNS) in three different ways: as a consequence (relapse or invasion) of systemic lymphoma, as a primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) without systemic involvement, and through intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL). It is essential to distinguish PCNSL from the others, since the therapeutic strategy for treating this disease differs. FDG-PET/CT fusion imagery is a powerful tool for detecting systemic lesions. If a marked elevation of lactate dehydrogenase and the soluble IL-2 receptor suggests IVL, a random skin biopsy can permit a differential diagnosis. It is not certain why PCNSL occurs solely in the CNS, where there is no lymphatic system. The special environment, so-called "sanctuary site", where is free from attack of the immune system and penetration of chemotherapeutic agents by blood-brain barrier is deeply related to malignant transformation. The prognoses for patients with CNS invasion of systemic lymphoma and those with PCNSL remain bleak in the post-rituximab era. Over half of the patients who received high-dose methotrexate will subsequently relapse. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are earnestly sought. PMID:25082313

  5. Architecture of distributed control system at Hazira (Paper No. 3.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The architecture of control system at Heavy Water Plant, Hazira has a physically centralized and functionally de-centralized configuration. The sub-systems for the functional areas such as automation system (AS), operating and monitoring system (OS) and communication system (CS) are described. (author). 3 figs

  6. Expression of Nogo-A mRNA after injury of the rat central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xigao Guo; Yang Guo; Tao Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nogo protein has been identified as an inhibitor of axonal growth, which was highly expressed in central nervous system; however, there are only a few studies on changes of Nogo-A expression following central nervous system injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamic expression of Nogo-A mRNA after rat central nervous system injury.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.MATERIALS: Thirty-five rats were randomly divided into two groups, normal animal group (n = 5) and model group (n = 30). The model group was then divided into six subgroups at six time points: 12, 24 hours and 3, 9, 15, and 21 days post-injury, with five rats in each subgroup.METHODS: The left parietal lobe of rats was contused by free-fall strike, and total RNA was extracted from the entire brain tissue. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect Nogo-A mRNA expression, and the ratio between expression of the target gene and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase was used to determine the relative expression level.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To determine whether Nogo-A mRNA expression was higher than usual following brain injury.RESULTS: The level of Nogo-A mRNA started to increase 12 hours after injury (P 0.05).CONCLUSION: After injury of the central nervous system, Nogo-A may play a pivotal role in obstructing regeneration of the nerve.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs. Chr

  8. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    of adverse symptoms and building related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow for fully automated IEQ control, such systems should not compromise occupants......Based on a database accumulated from several recent surveys of office buildings located in a temperate climate (Denmark), the effect on occupant perceptions and symptom prevalence was compared in buildings with natural and mechanical ventilation in which earlier studies have shown a discrepancy...... in the degree of perceived control. The database was composed of 1353 responses obtained in 25 buildings of which 15 had mechanical ventilation (997 responses) and 9 had natural ventilation (275 responses). Analysis of occupant responses, after grouping according to categories determined by the degree...

  9. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation - An international primary central nervous system lymphoma study group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); G. Illerhaus (Gerald); K. Jahnke (Kristoph); A. Korfe (Agniezka); L. Fischer (Lutz); K. Fritsch (Kristina); O. Kuittinen (Outi); S. Issa (Samar); C.A.G.M. Montfort (Kees); M.J. van den Bent (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAutologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, the

  10. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T2-weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T1-weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were not as good as T2-weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  11. Prolactin gene expression in primary central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Graziella Alebrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin (PRL is a hormone synthesized in both the pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites. It has been associated with the occurrence of neoplasms and, more recently, with central nervous system (CNS neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate prolactin expression in primary central nervous system tumors through quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IH. Results Patient mean age was 49.1 years (SD 15.43, and females accounted for 70% of the sample. The most frequent subtype of histological tumor was meningioma (61.5%, followed by glioblastoma (22.9%. Twenty cases (28.6% showed prolactin expression by immunohistochemistry, most of them females (18 cases, 90%. Quantitative real-time PCR did not show any prolactin expression. Conclusions Despite the presence of prolactin expression by IH, the lack of its expression by quantitative real-time PCR indicates that its presence in primary tumors in CNS is not a reflex of local production.

  12. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest.

  13. Radiobiology of Radiosurgery for the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santacroce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Leksell radiosurgery is defined as “the delivery of a single, high dose of irradiation to a small and critically located intracranial volume through the intact skull.” Before its birth in the early 60s and its introduction in clinical therapeutic protocols in late the 80s dose application in radiation therapy of the brain for benign and malignant lesions was based on the administration of cumulative dose into a variable number of fractions. The rationale of dose fractionation is to lessen the risk of injury of normal tissue surrounding the target volume. Radiobiological studies of cell culture lines of malignant tumors and clinical experience with patients treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy helped establishing this radiobiological principle. Radiosurgery provides a single high dose of radiation which translates into a specific toxic radiobiological response. Radiobiological investigations to study the effect of high dose focused radiation on the central nervous system began in late the 50s. It is well known currently that radiobiological principles applied for dose fractionation are not reproducible when single high dose of ionizing radiation is delivered. A review of the literature about radiobiology of radiosurgery for the central nervous system is presented.

  14. The computer control system for the CESR B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B factories present unique requirements for controls and instrumentation systems. High reliability is critical to achieving the integrated luminosity goals. The CESR-B upgrade at Cornell University will have a control system based on the architecture of the successful CESR control system, which uses a centralized database/massage routing system in a multiported memory, and VAX stations for all high-level control functions. The implementation of this architecture will address the deficiencies in the current implementation while providing the required performance and reliability. (author)

  15. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    Based on a database accumulated from several recent surveys of office buildings located in a temperate climate (Denmark), the effect on occupant perceptions and symptom prevalence was compared in buildings with natural and with mechanical ventilation in which earlier studies have shown...... a discrepancy in the degree of perceived control. The database was composed of 1272 responses obtained in 24 buildings of which 15 had mechanical ventilation (997 responses) and 9 had natural ventilation (275 responses). The number of occupant-reported control opportunities was higher in buildings with natural...... of control, as perceived by occupants, seemed more important for the prevalence of adverse symptoms and building-related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow...

  16. A centralized information management system for environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, K. [Martin Marietta Technical Services, Inc., Bay City, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    During the past few decades there have been several serious initiatives focusing on the applications of computational technology towards understanding the diverse fields of environmental research such as environmental monitoring, pollution prevention, and hazardous chemical mitigation. Recently, due to the widespread application of high performance computer technology and the renewed interest of the industrial community in environmental protection, we are witnessing an era of environmental information explosion. In light of these large-scale computer-driven developments, the author identifies a highly desirable initiative for this field, which is solely devoted to a centralized environmental database and information management system. This talk will focus on some design aspects of such an information management system.

  17. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  18. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  19. MyOcean Central Information System - Achievements and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Vincent; Loubrieu, Thomas; Jolibois, Tony; de Dianous, Rémi; Blower, Jon; Romero, Laia; Griffiths, Guy

    2013-04-01

    Since 2009, MyOcean (http://www.myocean.eu) is providing an operational service, for forecasts, analysis and expertise on ocean currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, primary ecosystems and ice coverage. The production of observation and forecasting data is done by 42 Production Units (PU). Product download and visualisation are hosted by 25 Dissemination Units (DU). All these products and associated services are gathered in a single catalogue hiding the intricate distributed organization of PUs and DUs. Besides applying INSPIRE directive and OGC recommendations, MyOcean overcomes technical choices and challenges. This presentation focuses on 3 specific issues met by MyOcean and relevant for many Spatial Data Infrastructures: user's transaction accounting, large volume download and stream line the catalogue maintenance. Transaction Accounting: Set up powerful means to get detailed knowledge of system usage in order to subsequently improve the products (ocean observations, analysis and forecast dataset) and services (view, download) offer. This subject drives the following ones: Central authentication management for the distributed web services implementations: add-on to THREDDS Data Server for WMS and NETCDF sub-setting service, specific FTP. Share user management with co-funding projects. In addition to MyOcean, alternate projects also need consolidated information about the use of the cofunded products. Provide a central facility for the user management. This central facility provides users' rights to geographically distributed services and gathers transaction accounting history from these distributed services. Propose a user-friendly web interface to download large volume of data (several GigaBytes) as robust as basic FTP but intuitive and file/directory independent. This should rely on a web service drafting the INSPIRE to-be specification and OGC recommendations for download taking into account that FTP server is not enough friendly (need to know

  20. Design of Car Central Control Door Locks and Security System Based on GSM%基于GSM网络汽车中控门锁与防盗系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永栋; 林宏武

    2015-01-01

    This article was based on GSM, and constructed an interactive platform for communication between owners, automobile Security system and network. The owner can get the vehicle state through the GSM network,and realize remote control of the vehicle door lock by SMS instruction mode.The purpose is to reduce the risk of theft of vehicles.%基于GSM网络,构建了由车主、移动网络、汽车三者组成的交互式系统。车主可通过GSM网络获取车辆状态,并以短信指令的方式实现对车辆门锁的远程控制,以降低车辆被盗风险。

  1. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  2. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  4. Study of the control-equilibrium of control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qiaoge; Fu Mengyin; Sun Changsheng

    2008-01-01

    Not so much had been talked about equilibrium in control area.On the basis of the phenomenon of balance,the concept of control-equilibrium and control-equilibrium of a control system is proposed.According to this theory,a perfect control method should not only guarantee stability of the system,but also ensure the control-equilibrium of the system.To achieve the control-equilibrium,feed-forward control is required.

  5. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-05-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders.

  6. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure.

  7. System identification for multivariable control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzee, G. A.

    1981-05-01

    System identification methods and modern control theory are applied to industrial processes. These processes must often be controlled in order to meet certain requirements with respect to the product quality, safety, energy consumption, and environmental load. Modern control system design methods which take the occurring interaction phenomena and stochastic disturbances into account are used. An accurate dynamic mathematical model of the process, by theoretical modelling and/or by system identification is obtained. The computational aspects of two important types of identifications methods, i.e., stochastic realization and prediction error based parameter estimation are studied. The studied computational aspects are the robustness, the accuracy, and the computational costs of the methods. Theoretical analyses and applications to a multivariable pilot scale process, operating under closed loop conditions are investigated.

  8. Power system dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwatny, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores a consistent modeling and analytic framework that provides the tools for an improved understanding of the behavior and the building of efficient models of power systems. It covers the essential concepts for the study of static and dynamic network stability, reviews the structure and design of basic voltage and load-frequency regulators, and offers an introduction to power system optimal control with reliability constraints. A set of Mathematica tutorial notebooks providing detailed solutions of the examples worked-out in the text, as well as a package that will enable readers to work out their own examples and problems, supplements the text. A key premise of the book is that the design of successful control systems requires a deep understanding of the processes to be controlled; as such, the technical discussion begins with a concise review of the physical foundations of electricity and magnetism. This is followed by an overview of nonlinear circuits that include resistors, inductors, ...

  9. Radiation-hardened control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation-hardened bit-slice control system with associated input/output circuits was developed to prove that programmable circuits could be constructed to successfully implement intelligent functions in a highly radioactive environment. The goal for this effort was to design and test a programmable control system that could withstand a minimum total dose of 107 rads (gamma). The Radiation Hardened Control System (RHCS) was tested in operation at a dose rate that ranged up to 135 krad/h, with an average total dose of 10.75 Mrads. Further testing beyond the required 107 rads was also conducted. RHCS performed properly through the target dose of 107 rads, and sporadic intermittent failures in some programmable logic devices were noted after ∼ 13 Mrads

  10. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  11. Control System of the Bepcii

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, J; Kong, X C; Lei, G; Xu, S F; Le, Q

    2001-01-01

    Recently the Chinese Academy of Sciences has chosen BEPCII as the future development of the BEPC, i.e. upgrade of both the machine and detector. The luminosity of the machine is expected to increase to 1.0x1033cm-2s-1. The project will be started at the beginning of 2002 and finished with in 3-4 years. The BEPC control system was built in 1987 and upgraded in 1994. According to the design of the BEPCII, a double ring schema will be adopted and a number of new devices will be added in the system. The existing control system has to be upgraded. The BEPCII will be distributed architecture and developed by EPICS. We are going to apply the standard hardware interfaces and mature technologies in the system. A number of VME IOCs will be added in the system and the feildbus, PLCs will be used as device control for some kind of equipment. We will keep the existing system in use, such as CAMAC modules and PC front-ends, and merge it into EPICS system. Recently the development of the prototype is in progress. This paper...

  12. IL-21 optimizes T cell and humoral responses in the central nervous system during viral encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Timothy W.; DiSano, Krista D.; Hinton, David R.; Hwang, Mihyun; Zajac, Allan J.; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Bergmann, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Acute coronavirus encephalomyelitis is controlled by T cells while humoral responses suppress virus persistence. This study defines the contribution of interleukin (IL)-21, a regulator of T and B cell function, to central nervous system (CNS) immunity. IL-21 receptor deficiency did not affect peripheral T cell activation or trafficking, but dampened granzyme B, gamma interferon and IL-10 expression by CNS T cells and reduced serum and intrathecal humoral responses. Viral control was already lost prior to humoral CNS responses, but demyelination remained comparable. These data demonstrate a critical role of IL-21 in regulating CNS immunity, sustaining viral persistence and preventing mortality. PMID:23992866

  13. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...

  14. ITER Plasma Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Joseph; ITER PCS Design Team

    2015-11-01

    The development of the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) continues with the preliminary design phase for 1st plasma and early plasma operation in H/He up to Ip = 15 MA in L-mode. The design is being developed through a contract between the ITER Organization and a consortium of plasma control experts from EU and US fusion laboratories, which is expected to be completed in time for a design review at the end of 2016. This design phase concentrates on breakdown including early ECH power and magnetic control of the poloidal field null, plasma current, shape, and position. Basic kinetic control of the heating (ECH, ICH, NBI) and fueling systems is also included. Disruption prediction, mitigation, and maintaining stable operation are also included because of the high magnetic and kinetic stored energy present already for early plasma operation. Support functions for error field topology and equilibrium reconstruction are also required. All of the control functions also must be integrated into an architecture that will be capable of the required complexity of all ITER scenarios. A database is also being developed to collect and manage PCS functional requirements from operational scenarios that were defined in the Conceptual Design with links to proposed event handling strategies and control algorithms for initial basic control functions. A brief status of the PCS development will be presented together with a proposed schedule for design phases up to DT operation.

  15. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  16. Studies on central nervous system serotonin receptors in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A; Goodwin, G M

    1991-01-01

    The evidence from studies of central nervous system serotonin (5-HT) receptors is reviewed and the role of these in the pathogenesis of mood disorders is discussed. Clinical evidence indicates that 5-HT function is abnormal in mood disorders. 5-HT precursors and selective inhibitors of 5-HT uptake are effective antidepressives and inhibition of 5-HT synthesis can block the action of antidepressives. Studies of 5-HT in experimental animals after chronic administration of antidepressive treatments suggest that intact 5-HT neurons are necessary for the action of these treatments. Multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes have recently been identified and the effects of chronic antidepressive treatment on some receptor subtypes function in experimental animals have been established. The increasing availability of powerful new in vivo imaging techniques like single photon emission tomography (SPET), and positron emission tomography (PET) may make possible a more direct examination of 5-HT receptor function in patients suffering from mood disorders. PMID:2029163

  17. Primary central nervous system lymphoma a report of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Lokanath, D; Ramesh, C; Babu, K G; Rao, C R; Swamy, K

    1996-06-01

    Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare neoplasm of B cell origin and constitute less than 1% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Histology is mainly of high grade and intermediate type. Although NHL is known to be highly sensitive to both irradiation and cytotoxic drugs, being a curable malignancy, the therapeutic results remain disappointing. Clinical observations on nine cases of PCNSL seen in one of the major cancer centres in India is presented in this paper. Radiotherapy combined with Chemotherapy although yielded encouraging initial response in these patients, the long term response was unsatisfactory with median survival for these patients being only 19 months. This warrants an alternative therapeutic approach to improve the dismal prognosis of PCNSL. PMID:8979473

  18. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...... rate including the mid-ocean ridges and present-day magma chambers over the Iceland mantle plume. The Austurhorn central volcano likely formed in an off-rift flank zone proximal to the Iceland mantle plume during a major rift relocation....

  19. Neuroinvasion and Inflammation in Viral Central Nervous System Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses can cause devastating central nervous system (CNS) infections, especially in young children and the elderly. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have been described as relevant sites of entry for specific viruses as well as for leukocytes, which are recruited during the proinflammatory response in the course of CNS infection. In this review, we illustrate examples of established brain barrier models, in which the specific reaction patterns of different viral families can be analyzed. Furthermore, we highlight the pathogen specific array of cytokines and chemokines involved in immunological responses in viral CNS infections. We discuss in detail the link between specific cytokines and chemokines and leukocyte migration profiles. The thorough understanding of the complex and interrelated inflammatory mechanisms as well as identifying universal mediators promoting CNS inflammation is essential for the development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:27313404

  20. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Roberto E; Caccuri, Roberto; Quarracino, Cecilia; Capani, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS) by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, Huntington's dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well. PMID:27556379

  1. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This revie......, methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline), drugs that suppress appetite (phentermine, rimonabant, and sibutramine) and drugs used in Alzheimer's disease (donepezil and rivastigmine).......The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This review...... of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  2. Electrical stimuli in the central nervous system microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanna M; Koppes, Abigail N; Hardy, John G; Schmidt, Christine E

    2014-07-11

    Electrical stimulation to manipulate the central nervous system (CNS) has been applied as early as the 1750s to produce visual sensations of light. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, and functional electrical stimulation (FES) are being applied in the clinic to treat a wide array of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries. This review describes the history of electrical stimulation of the CNS microenvironment; recent advances in electrical stimulation of the CNS, including DBS to treat essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and depression; FES for the treatment of spinal cord injuries; and alternative electrical devices to restore vision and hearing via neuroprosthetics (retinal and cochlear implants). It also discusses the role of electrical cues during development and following injury and, importantly, manipulation of these endogenous cues to support regeneration of neural tissue. PMID:25014787

  3. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  4. MRT of the central nervous system; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, M.; Jansen, O. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The book presents the state of the art of MRT imaging of the central nervous system. Detailed information is presented in order to provide sufficient knowledge for the medical diagnostician to discuss any case encountered at eye level with the clinical physician. The book is an indispensable reference manual and a quick orientation already during examination in difficult cases. It contains images made with the most recent technology and with excellent representation of details. Even rare findings are described in detail. The imaging principle is illustrated by more than 1000 pictures and graphical representations as well as more than 100 complementary tables. Findings are classified by regions, i.e. 'brain' and 'spinal cord', including anatomical descriptions. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  6. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; LIU Ai-fen; MA Lin; YAN Chuan-zhu; ZHAO Yu-ying; SHAN Pei-yan

    2011-01-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare and difficult entity.Here we represented the clinical and pathological features of a patient with little response to steroid before definite diagnosis.The 50-year-old male had a fluctuating disease course for more than 3 years.He presented visual disorders,seizure,cognitive impairment,hypersomnia,unsteady gait,dysphasia,dysphagia,and incontinence.Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple,supratentorial and infratentorial abnormal signals,while cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral angiography were normal.Magnetic resonance spectrum showed a decrease of N-acetyl-aspartate.Brain biopsy revealed nongranulomatous lymphatic vasculitis with reactive gliosis,cicatrization,demyelination and focal hemorrhages.

  7. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirawat Srichatrapimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic.

  8. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  9. Central nervous system syndromes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alissa J; Fishman, Jay A

    2014-10-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have a high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) complications, including both focal and diffuse neurologic deficits. In the immunocompromised host, the initial clinical evaluation must focus on both life-threatening CNS infections and vascular or anatomic lesions. The clinical signs and symptoms of CNS processes are modified by the immunosuppression required to prevent graft rejection. In this population, these etiologies often coexist with drug toxicities and metabolic abnormalities that complicate the development of a specific approach to clinical management. This review assesses the multiple risk factors for CNS processes in solid organ transplant recipients and establishes a timeline to assist in the evaluation and management of these complex patients.

  10. Fungal central nervous system infections: prevalence and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, Irene S; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-02-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but they pose a significant challenge. Their prevalence spans a wide array of hosts including immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals, patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those carrying implantable CNS devices. Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. remain the most common pathogens. Magnetic resonance imaging can help localize the lesions, but diagnosis is challenging since invasive procedures may be needed for the retrieval of tissue, especially in cases of fungal abscesses. Antigen and antibody tests are available and approved for use in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR-based techniques are promising but they are not validated for use in the CSF. This review provides an overview on the differential diagnosis of the fungal CNS disease based on the host and the clinical syndrome and suggests the optimal use of diagnostic techniques. It also summarizes the emergence of Cryptococcus gatti and an unanticipated outbreak caused by Exserohilum rostratum.

  11. Therapeutic approaches of magnetic nanoparticles for the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent one of the fastest growing areas of concern requiring urgent medical attention. Treatment of CNS ailments is hindered owing to different physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the accessibility of potential drugs. With the assistance of a nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategy, the problems could be overcome. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven immensely useful as drug carriers for site-specific delivery and as contrast agents owing to their magnetic susceptibility and biocompatibility. By utilizing MNPs, diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases have progressed by overcoming the hurdles of the BBB. In this review, the therapeutic aspect and the future prospects related to the theranostic approach of MNPs are discussed.

  12. Adult neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke K Ma; Michael A Bonaguidi; Guo-li Ming; Hongjun Song

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation by various physiological, pathological and pharmacological stimuli. Multipotent adult NSCs also appear to be intrinsically plastic, amenable to genetic programing during normal differentiation, and to epigenetic reprograming during de-differentiation into pluripotency. Increasing evidence suggests that adult NSCs significantly contribute to specialized neural functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Fully understanding the biology of adult NSCs will provide crucial insights into both the etiology and potential therapeutic interventions of major brain disorders. Here, we review recent progress on adult NSCs of the mammalian central nervous system, in-cluding topics on their identity, niche, function, plasticity, and emerging roles in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  13. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  14. Intelligent Vehicle Electrical Power Supply System with Central Coordinated Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Diange; KONG Weiwei; LI Bing; LIAN Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect;electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle’s battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle’s power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  15. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-07-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  16. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  17. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kang, Ik Won; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Soo; Sim, Bo Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  18. Controlling dynamics in diatomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kumar; Harjinder Singh

    2007-09-01

    Controlling molecular energetics using laser pulses is exemplified for nuclear motion in two different diatomic systems. The problem of finding the optimized field for maximizing a desired quantum dynamical target is formulated using an iterative method. The method is applied for two diatomic systems, HF and OH. The power spectra of the fields and evolution of populations of different vibrational states during transitions are obtained.

  19. Control of Unknown Chaotic Systems Based on Neural Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDong-Mei; WANGZheng-Ou

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the predictive control into the control of chaotic system and propose a neural network control algorithm based on predictive control. The proposed control system stabilizes the chaotic motion in an unknown chaotic system onto the desired target trajectory. The proposed algorithm is simple and its convergence speed is much higher than existing similar algorithms. The control system can control hyperchaos. We analyze the stability of the control system and prove the convergence property of the neural controller. The theoretic derivation and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  20. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation--an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study Group project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Jacoline E; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Illerhaus, Gerald; Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agniezka; Fischer, Lars; Fritsch, Kristina; Kuittinen, Outti; Issa, Samar; van Montfort, Cees; van den Bent, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, therefore, we performed an international multicenter retrospective study of patients with a central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma to assess the outcome of these patients in the era of stem cell transplantation. We collected clinical and treatment data on patients with a first central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma treated between 2000 and 2010 in one of five centers in four countries. Patient- and treatment-related factors were analyzed and compared descriptively. Primary outcome measures were overall survival and percentage of patients transplanted. We identified 92 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/World Health Organization performance status of 2, of whom 76% had diffuse large B-cell histology. The majority (79%) of these patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with or without intravenous rituximab. Twenty-seven patients (29%) were transplanted; age and insufficient response to induction chemotherapy were the main reasons for not being transplanted in the remaining 65 patients. The median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval 2.6-11.4), being 8 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.2) for patients ≤ 65 years old. The 1-year survival rate was 34.8%; of the 27 transplanted patients 62% survived more than 1 year. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Index for primary central nervous system lymphoma was prognostic for both undergoing transplantation and survival. In conclusion, despite the availability of autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with central nervous system progression or relapse of systemic lymphoma, prognosis is still poor. Long-term survival