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Sample records for central control system

  1. Nova control system - goals, architecture, and central system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control and data acquisition functions for the Nova Laser and Target Irradiation facility are performed by a distributed, hierarchically organized, network of computers and devices interconnected through high speed fiber optic communication links. The architecture established for this control system provides the flexibility within each of its fundamental subsystems (power Conditioning, Alignment, Laser Diagnostics and Target Diagnostics) to optimize internal design and organization according to their specific criteria. Control system integration, support of common functions, and centralization of operation are achieved using a fifth unifying subsystem called Central Controls

  2. Conceptual design of centralized control system for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A centralized control system for a fusion experimental machine is discussed. A configuration whereby a number of complete and uniform local systems are controlled by a central computer, a timer and an interlock system is appropriate for the control system of the Large Helical Device (LHD). A connection among local systems can be made by Ethernet, because a faster transmission of control data is processed by a specific system. (author)

  3. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  4. Improvement of central control and instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the No.2 plant in Fukushima No.2 Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., as to the plant monitoring and handling, the monitoring function was strengthened mainly by the expansion of computer function. As the hardware of measurement and control system, load distribution type multi-computer system was adopted, the feed-recirculation controller as an analog single system was made more reliable, and the reliability was heightened by the application of digital technology. Moreover, in the aspect of software of control function, the new control system aiming at the further improvement of the transient stability of reactor water level was adopted. By the trial operation, the improvement of monitoring capability was confirmed, and the effectiveness of the control system was confirmed by the start-up test. In this report, these measures for reliability heightening and the results of effectiveness confirmation are described. (J.P.N.)

  5. Centralization and decentralization in the TRIUMF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased demands of an expanding accelerator laboratory have made it timely to consider strategies for expansion of the TRIUMF Control System. These requirements have led to reflections on one of the major themes of this conference - centralized vs. distributed digital control systems for accelerators. This paper discusses the way in which the TRIUMF system successfully combines elements of both approaches

  6. Centralized Stochastic Optimal Control of Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV operation as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  7. Space Station Freedom central thermal control system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom central thermal control system (CTCS) evolution are presented. Topics covered include: (1) growth requirements and basic features of research and development and transportation nodes; (2) identifying the principal CTCS hooks and scars at assembly complete to accommodate growth; and (3) describing the general provisions for growth and identifying pertinent design issues.

  8. X window terminals in TRIUMF's central control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIUMF's Central Control System is being upgraded. In this process, an environment that suits the needs of cyclotron operational use and the Controls Group's development and maintenance duties has been sought. Over the years since TRIUMF's inception, workstations and a variety of dedicated input/output devices have been introduced into the main console of the Control Room and into the offices of the Controls Group personnel. A number of factors including the overhead of system management, price/performance, time to obsolescence, flexibility, and reliability have affected the suitability of workstations and the other I/O devices. In the new configuration, a generic display device plays a very important role in the Central Control System. X terminals have proven to be superior to workstations and other display devices and are now the display medium of choice in TRIUMF's Controls Group. This paper reviews the TRIUMF Controls Group's experiences with X terminals. A number of aspects of X terminal use in a particle accelerator environment are discussed. Topics include functionality, hardware configuration, software management, relative cost, performance, reliability, boot mechanisms, application suitability, and operator acceptance. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  9. Model adaptation in a central controller for a sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla; Mol, Bart

    2013-04-01

    For small sewer systems that combine foul water and storm water sewer functions in flat terrain, central control of the sewer system may have problems during dry weather. These systems are a combination of local gravity flow networks connected by pumps. Under those conditions the level in the wet well (local storage at the pumping station) should be kept below the entrance pipe but above the top of the intake of the pump. The pumps are dimensioned to cope with the combined flow of foul water and precipitation run off so their capacity is relatively large when compared wityh the volume available in the wet well. Under local control this is not a major problem because the effective controller time step is very short. For central control the control time step can become a problem. Especially when there is uncertainty about the relation between level and volume in the wet well. In this paper we describe a way to dynamically adapt the level to volume relation based on dry weather behaviour. This is important because a better estimate of this volume will reduce the number of on/off cycles for the pumps. It will also allow detection and correction for changes in pump performance due to aging.

  10. Central neural control of the cardiovascular system: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, Roger A L

    2016-09-01

    This brief review, which is based on a lecture presented at the American Physiological Society Teaching Refresher Course on the Brain and Systems Control as part of the Experimental Biology meeting in 2015, aims to summarize current concepts of the principal mechanisms in the brain that regulate the autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Such cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms do not operate in isolation but are closely coordinated with respiratory and other regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. The brain regulates the cardiovascular system by two general means: 1) feedforward regulation, often referred to as "central command," and 2) feedback or reflex regulation. In most situations (e.g., during exercise, defensive behavior, sleep, etc.), both of these general mechanisms contribute to overall cardiovascular homeostasis. The review first describes the mechanisms and central circuitry subserving the baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, and other reflexes that work together to regulate an appropriate level of blood pressure and blood oxygenation and then considers the brain mechanisms that defend the body against more complex environmental challenges, using dehydration and cold and heat stress as examples. The last section of the review considers the central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function associated with different behaviors, with a specific focus on defensive behavior and exercise. PMID:27445275

  11. MINED GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEM (MGDS) MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS CENTRALIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to identify and document Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) requirements for centralized command and control. Additionally, to further develop the MGDS monitoring and control functions. This monitoring and control report provides the following information: (1) Determines the applicable requirements for a monitoring and control system for repository operations and construction (excluding Performance Confirmation). (2) Makes a determination as to whether or not centralized command and control is required

  12. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, William; McAllen, Robin; McKinley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery. Inputs for cognitive-emotional control from the exteroceptive sense organs (touch, vision, sound, smell, etc.) are integrated in forebrain centers including the amygdala. Psychoactive drugs have major effects on the acral cutaneous circulation. Interoceptors, chemoreceptors more than baroreceptors, also influence cutaneous sympathetic outflow. A major advance has been the discovery of a lower brainstem control center in the rostral medullary raphé, regulating outflow to both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to the acral cutaneous beds. Neurons in the medullary raphé, via their descending axonal projections, increase the discharge of spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons controlling the cutaneous vasculature, utilizing glutamate, and serotonin as neurotransmitters. Present evidence suggests that both thermoregulatory and cognitive-emotional control of the cutaneous beds from preoptic, hypothalamic, and forebrain centers is channeled via the medullary raphé. Future studies will no doubt further unravel the details of neurotransmitter pathways connecting these rostral control centers with the medullary raphé, and those operative within the raphé itself. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1161-1197, 2016. PMID:27347889

  13. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  14. Evaluation of the Internal Control System at Central Budgetary Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán István Dormán; Gábor Görgényi; Margit Horváth

    2013-01-01

    During the audit on the final accounts for 2011, the State Audit Office of Hungary (SAO) reported on the operation of internal controls in a separate report, the background and results of which are presented in the present paper. The assessment of the operation of the internal control system was conducted using a 400-question questionnaire, which in turn was evaluated by a proprietary algorithm, generating the qualification of the components and the whole of the internal control system. Based...

  15. Concept design for the central control system of HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design principle and basic structure of the central control system for HL-2A Tokamak are introduced. Having been limited by manpower and money, the central control system should not be too expensive and too advanced. On the other hand, because of the complexity of the machine and the difficulty the author will encounter when operating the machine, the central control system should be advanced enough. If use the same technology for HL-1M to control HL-2A, the author would fail to fulfill authors' experiment goal. The central control system consists of software and hardware. The software mainly includes: (a) system monitor and control software; (b) discharge monitor and control software; (c) network and communication software. Hardware includes: (a) PLC for machine control, personnel protection and machine protection; and (b) VME computer, for the feedback control of the discharge

  16. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  17. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  18. Design and realization of central control system for J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To keep the J-TEXT tokamak running in order, it needs a central control system to coordinate the operations of all the sub-systems. The J-TEXT tokamak central control system adopts industrial PC with some PCI control cards based on Windows and QNX operation systems. This control system has been finished the test and put into use in the first-round experiment of the J-TEXT tokamak successfully. The testing and operation show that this system is stable and reliable. (authors)

  19. Dynamic disturbance rejection controllers for neutral time delay systems with application to a central heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUMBOULIS Fotis N.; KOUVAKAS Nikolaos D.; PARASKEVOPOULOS Paraskevas N.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the problem of disturbance rejection of single input-single output neutral time delay systems with multiple measurable disturbances is solved via dynamic controllers. In particular, the general form of the controller matrices is presented, while the necessary and sufficient conditions for the controller to be realizable are offered. The proposed technique is applied to a test case neutral time delay central heating system. In particular, the nonlinear model of the plant and its linearized approximation are presented. Based on the linearized model, a two-stage controller is designed in order to regulate the room temperature and the boiler effluent temperature. The performance of the closed loop system is investigated through computational experiments.

  20. Design of a centralized control system for a plasma machine with superconducting helical magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A centralized control system necessary for experimental fusion machines is discussed. A two-layered configuration where a number of complete local systems are controlled by a central computer, is appropriate as control system for the Large Helical Device. All the local systems can be uniformly operated with global cooperation by a few operators through general-purpose consoles as the central computer. Fast control, which cannot be supported by the uniform control, is aided by a precise but pre-programmable timing generator and an interlock for emergency response. Special safety requirements during a coil quench are studied under the condition that the enormous stored energy must be released in a short time after the quench. (orig.)

  1. Centralized multiprocessor control system for the frascati storage rings DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the status of the DANTE (DAΦne New Tools Environment) control system for the new DAΦNE Φ-factory under construction at the Frascati National Laboratories. The system is based on a centralized communication architecture for simplicity and reliability. A central processor unit coordinates all communications between the consoles and the lower level distributed processing power, and continuously updates a central memory that contains the whole machine status. We have developed a system of VME Fiber Optic interfaces allowing very fast point to point communication between distant processors. Macintosh II personal computers are used as consoles. The lower levels are all built using the VME standard. (author)

  2. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  3. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: focus on the central melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K.; Fukuda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intak...

  4. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: Focus on the central melanocortin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiologi...

  5. The use of a centralized microprocessor-based monitor and control system (Japan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.

    1983-01-01

    In 1978, a multiplexed transmission system was incorporated at the Ikeshima mine. Initially, measurement, monitoring and control were incorporated at 44 stations only, and in 1982 the number of stations was increased to 1000. In recent years, in connection with the rapid development of integrated microprocessor circuitry, the microprocessor has become widely used. The purpose of using the microprocessor in mines is to modernize and improve the mining equipment, the installation of safety equipment and to improve the environment in the mine. For this purpose, a central control and computer panel was installed in the central control cabinet at the surface of the mine. The MUS-10 microprocessor is the primary component in this panel, which is manufactured by Mitsubishi. The central control equipment monitors the methane concentration, the atmospheric temperature, the compressed air pressure, the pressure in the water spraying system, the flow of cooling water, the amount of coal in the bunkers, the analog value of the electrical current and the state of operations and condition of various equipment, as well as the safety equipment in the complexes. This unit also provides remote control. The central control and computer panel consists of an on-line control unit, a memory and a remote control device. The local panels have a blastresistant design.

  6. Graph theoretical stable allocation as a tool for central control of sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla

    2016-04-01

    Dutch sewer networks consist of multiple sub-networks that serve both to collect waste water and as a link in the transport chain of waste water to the Waste Water Treatment Plant. Within sub-networks transport is by gravity driven flow. The sub-networks are linked by pumping stations. If the network of pipes also serves to collect precipitation then the system is called a combined system. For some of these networks it may be beneficial to implement central control. We study whether the graph theoretical concept of stable allocations can be used as a basis for the algorithm underlying such a central conrol system.

  7. Architecture of central control system for the 10 MW ECRH - plant at W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is the main heating method for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X). The mission of W7-X is to demonstrate the inherent steady state capability of stellarators at reactor relevant plasma parameters. A modular 10 MW ECRH plant at 140 GHz with 1 MW CW-capability power for each module is presently under construction at IPP-Greifswald as well as the W7-X, to meet the scientific objectives. The commissioning of the ECRH plant is well under way; three gyrotrons are operational at IPP in Greifswald. The strict modular design allows to operate each gyrotron separately and independent from all others. The ECRH plant consists not only of gyrotrons and high voltage power supplies, but also of many other devices such as superconductive magnets, collector sweep coils, gyrotron cooling systems with many water circuits and last but not least the quasi-optical transmission line for microwaves with remote controlled mirrors and further water cooled circuits. All these devices are essential for long pulse operation. A steady state ECRH has specific requirements on the stellarator machine itself, on the microwave sources, transmission elements and in particular on the central control system. The quasi steady state operation (up to 30 min) asks for real time microwave power adjustment during the different segments of one stellarator long pulse. Therefore the ECRH plant must operate with a maximum reliability and availability. A capable central control system is an important condition to achieve this goal. The central control system for the 10 MW ECRH - plant at W7-X comprises three main parts. In detail these are the voltage and current regulation of each gyrotron, the interlock system to prevent the gyrotrons from damages and the remote control system based on a hierarchy set of PLC's and computers. The architecture of this central control system is presented. (author)

  8. Systemic control of brown fat thermogenesis: integration of peripheral and central signals

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is of great scientific interest as a potential target to treat obesity. The development of novel strategies to quantify brown fat thermogenesis in adult humans now enables minimally invasive assessment of novel pharmacotherapeutics. Input from the central nervous system (CNS) via sympathetic efferents is widely regarded as the key controller of BAT-mediated thermogenesis in response to changes in body temperature or nutrient availability. More recently, however, it ...

  9. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  10. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  11. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  12. Central control of body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  13. Design of Central Management & Control Unit for Onboard High-Speed Data Handling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-qin; JIN Sheng-zhen; NING Shu-nian

    2007-01-01

    The Main Optical Telescope (MOT) is an important payload of the Space Solar Telescope (SST) with various instruments and observation modes. Its real-time data handling and management and control tasks are arduous. Based on the advanced techniques of foreign countries, an improved structure of onboard data handling systems feasible for SST, is proposed. This article concentrated on the development of a Central Management & Control Unit (MCU) based on FPGA and DSP. Through reconfigurating the FPGA and DSP programs, the prototype could perform different tasks.Thus the inheritability of the whole system is improved. The completed dual-channel prototype proves that the system meets all requirements of the MOT. Its high reliability and safety features also meet the requirements under harsh conditions such as mine detection.

  14. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; WANG Jian; YU Xiaoqi; YANG Dong

    2008-01-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  15. Safety critical reactor core central sub-assembly temperature monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes diversified independent hard wired temperature monitoring and control system for 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR). The detection of integrity of the subassembly plays a major role, because of high power density and compact core structure of PFBR fuel. To achieve this, a central sub-assembly temperature monitoring and control system (CSA TMCS) is provided for detection of transient over power, blockage of coolant etc. The central sub assembly temperature sensor assembly is provided with four numbers of K-type thermocouples. Out of these, three thermocouples are used for continuous monitoring and the fourth one is a hot stand by. CSATMCS consists of three identical units, each having independent signal conditioner, temperature monitor, set-point input, trip circuit, alarm generator and temperature display. Authorization is provided for changing the set-point. The trip circuit generates SCRAM, which is connected to 2/3- pulse coded safety logic (PCSL). This SCRAM and alarm signals are displayed in control room. Further, they are available through distributed data control system. Self-test diagnostic is available to check the healthiness of the system. The response time of the electronic system shall be 30 ms. The reliability of the temperature monitoring system shall be better than 0.5 spurious failure per year and 10-4 fail danger per demand. The temperature monitoring system complies with EMI/EMC standard IEC 801. The system is classified as safety class-I and it shall be categorized as seismic category-I system. Different design schemes are discussed in detail to achieve high reliability and simple design. The conditioned thermocouple output is also connected to core temperature monitoring system for the calculation of mean outlet temperature rise (δθm) across the core and temperature rise across each subassembly (δθi). This paper also discusses about the verification and validation with reactor subassembly

  16. Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela Rodriguez, F.

    2011-12-01

    The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

  17. Demand management through centralized control system using power line communication for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A pilot system was developed for demand management of equipment in buildings. • The networking was based on LonWorks platform and power line communication. • Demand strategies led to load reductions up to 74% and energy savings up to 25%. • The peak load reduction is expected to reach 3.44 GW by the year 2030. - Abstract: Managing peak demand efficiently is vital for maintaining uninterrupted supply of electrical power by utility providers. In this work, a pilot system was developed for managing and controlling the demand of major power consuming equipment in buildings from a central server, while relying mostly on existing infrastructure and maintaining consumer comfort. The system was successfully demonstrated on a selected group of buildings using the LonWorks networking platform. At the building level, the system utilized power line and twisted pair communication to control the thermostats of air-conditioning (A/C) units. The higher level communication was executed through extensible markup language (XML) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The system provided control capabilities based on A/C unit priority, thermostat temperature, building type and geographic location. The development and execution of demand management strategies for selected buildings led to peak load reductions up to 74%, in addition to energy savings up to 25%. Implementing such a system at a national level in Kuwait is estimated to reduce peak demand by 3.44 GW, amounting to capital savings of $4.13 billion. The use of existing infrastructure reduced the cost and installation time of the system. Based on the successful testing of this pilot system, a larger-scale system is being developed

  18. The central trigger control system of the CMS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider will deliver up to 32 million physics collisions per second. This rate is far too high to be processed by present-day computer farms, let alone stored on disk by the experiments for offline analysis. A fast selection of interesting events must therefore be made. In the CMS experiment, this is implemented in two stages: the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment uses custom-made, fast electronics, while the experiment's high-level trigger is implemented in computer farms. The Level-1 Global Trigger electronics has to receive signals from the subdetector systems that enter the trigger (mostly from muon detectors and calorimeters), synchronize them, determine if a pre-set trigger condition is fulfilled, check if the various subsystems are ready to accept triggers based on information from the Trigger Throttling System and on calculations of possible dead-times, and finally distribute the trigger decision ('Level-1 Accept') together with timing signals to the subdetectors over the so-called ''Trigger, Timing and Control'' distribution tree of the experiment. These functions are fulfilled by several specialized, custom-made VME modules, most of which are housed in one crate. The overall control is exerted by the central 'Trigger Control System', which is described in this paper. It consists of one main module and several ancillary boards for input and output functions.

  19. Time-Varying Scheme for Non-Centralized Model Predictive Control of Large-scale Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez Vicencio, A.A.; Ocampo-Martinez, C.; Maestre, J.M.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Non-Centralized Model Predictive Control (NC-MPC) framework refers in this paper to any distributed, hierarchical, or decentralized model predictive controller (or a combination of them) the structure of which can change over time and the control actions of which are not obtained based on a cent

  20. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  1. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  2. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  3. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System architecture - Centralized versus distributed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.; Behrend, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Both Centralized and Distributed approaches are being evaluated for the installation of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) equipment in the Space Station. In the Centralized facility concept, integrated processing equipment is located in two modules with plumbing used to circulate ECLS services throughout the Station. The Distributed approach locates the ECLS subsystems in every module of the Space Station with each subsystem designed to meet its own module needs. This paper defines the two approaches and how the advantages and disadvantages of each are tied to the choice of Space Station architecture. Other considerations and evaluations include: crew movement, Station evolution and the ducting impact needed to circulate ECLS services from centrally located processing equipment.

  4. System for central monitoring, control, data acquisition, and automatic regulation for ARWQM

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Nataša Ž.; Džunić Jovana S.; Đorđević Đorđe R.; Gruber Günther

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with construction of device for water quality monitoring on open water flows and connection of devices on individual river basins into central system for monitoring and supervision through GPRS modem. The device was tested on the WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant) in coal mine Čitluk, Sokobanja, and laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Nis.

  5. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  6. Elimination of Oscillations in a Central Heating System using Pump Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bidstrup, N.; Svensen, J.; Lovmand, B.

    heating the room. Using the pump speed as an active part in control is it shown that the room temperature may be stabilized in a wider interval of heat demand. The idea is to control the pump speed in a way that keeps the thermostatic valve within a suitable operating area using an estimate of the valve...... position. The position is estimated from the pump terminals, using the pump flow and the pump differential pressure. The concept is tested on a small central heating test bench. The results show that it is possible to stabilize the room temperature even at part load conditions...

  7. System for central monitoring, control, data acquisition, and automatic regulation for ARWQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Nataša Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with construction of device for water quality monitoring on open water flows and connection of devices on individual river basins into central system for monitoring and supervision through GPRS modem. The device was tested on the WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant in coal mine Čitluk, Sokobanja, and laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Nis.

  8. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  9. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  10. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  11. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  12. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  13. Responses to increasing exercise upon reaching the anaerobic threshold, and their control by the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Jesús J; Calderón, Francisco J; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) has been one of the most studied of all physiological variables. Many authors have proposed the use of several markers to determine the moment at with the AT is reached. The present work discusses the physiological responses made to exercise - the measurement of which indicates the point at which the AT is reached - and how these responses might be controlled by the central nervous system. The detection of the AT having been reached is a sign for the central nervous system (CNS) to respond via an increase in efferent activity via the peripheral nervous system (PNS). An increase in CNS and PNS activities are related to changes in ventilation, cardiovascular function, and gland and muscle function. The directing action of the central command (CC) allows for the coordination of the autonomous and motor systems, suggesting that the AT can be identified in the many ways: changes in lactate, ventilation, plasma catecholamines, heart rate (HR), salivary amylase and muscular electrical activity. This change in response could be indicative that the organism would face failure if the exercise load continued to increase. To avoid this, the CC manages the efferent signals that show the organism that it is running out of homeostatic potential. PMID:24818009

  14. Challenges to Providing a Successful Central Configuration Service to Support CERN’s New Controls Diagnostics and Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Makonnen, Z; Zaharieva, Z

    2014-01-01

    The Controls Diagnostic and Monitoring service (DIAMON) provides monitoring and diagnostics tools to the operators in the CERN Control Centre. A recent reengineering presented the opportunity to restructure its data management and to integrate it with the central Controls Configuration Service (CCS). The CCS provides the Configuration Management for the Controls System for all accelerators at CERN. The new facility had to cater for the configuration management of all agents monitored by DIAMON, (>3000 computers of different types), provide deployment information, relations between metrics, and historical information. In addition, it had to be integrated into the operational CCS, while ensuring stability and data coherency. An important design decision was to largely reuse the existing infrastructure in the CCS and adapt the DIAMON data management to it e.g. by using the device/property model through a Virtual Devices framework to model the DIAMON agents. This article will show how these challenging requiremen...

  15. Genetic control of ethanol action on the central nervous system. An EEG study in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propping, P

    1977-03-14

    The purpose of the investigation is to claify the genetic contribution to the interindividual variability of ethanol action on the central nervous system. The 52 adult male healthy twin pairs (26 MZ, 26 DZ) got 1.2 ml/kg ethanol p.o. under standardized conditions; furthermore, 13 non-twin subjects were repeatedly subjected to the same procedure in order to test the intraindividual variability. The EEG was recorded before and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after alcohol intake. The EEGs were off-line analyzed by means of a computer program for time domain analysis. As was already known, on the average alcohol led to a better synchronisation of the EEG, i.e., the number of beta-waves decreased whereas the number of alpha- and theta-waves increased. The extent of the alcohol effect on the EEG varied enormously between individuals; however, the EEGs of MZ twins proved to react indentically to alcohol loading, whereas the EEGs of DZ twins became mor dissimilar during the course of the experiment. The low-voltage EEG presumably is resistant to alchohol; furthermore, it is supposed that there exists a special beta-prone EEG-type which is also genetic in origin. The identical EEG reaction of MZ twins to alcohol loading could not be attributed to more similar blood alcohol concentrations. It is hypothesized that the differences in the extent of the alcohol effect on the EEG between individuals might reflect differences in the sensitivity of the ascending reticular activating system. In the literature it has frequently been reported that alcoholics have preferentially brain wave patterns which are poorly synchronized. These findings are discussed in the light of the present results. PMID:557449

  16. Central Control Over Distributed Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Vissicchio, Stefano; Tilmans, Olivier; Vanbever, Laurent; Rexford, Jennifer; ACM SIGCOMM

    2015-01-01

    Centralizing routing decisions offers tremendous flexibility, but sacrifices the robustness of distributed protocols. In this paper, we present Fibbing, an architecture that achieves both flexibility and robustness through central control over distributed routing. Fibbing introduces fake nodes and links into an underlying link-state routing protocol, so that routers compute their own forwarding tables based on the augmented topology. Fibbing is expressive, and readily supports flexible load b...

  17. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  18. Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bevacizumab Therapy for Radiation Necrosis of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct a controlled trial of bevacizumab for the treatment of symptomatic radiation necrosis of the brain. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients were entered into a placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study of bevacizumab for the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis. All patients were required to have radiographic or biopsy proof of central nervous system radiation necrosis and progressive neurologic symptoms or signs. Eligible patients had undergone irradiation for head-and-neck carcinoma, meningioma, or low- to mid-grade glioma. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous saline or bevacizumab at 3-week intervals. The magnetic resonance imaging findings 3 weeks after the second treatment and clinical signs and symptoms defined the response or progression. Results: The volumes of necrosis estimated on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that although no patient receiving placebo responded (0 of 7), all bevacizumab-treated patients did so (5 of 5 randomized and 7 of 7 crossover) with decreases in T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced volumes and a decrease in endothelial transfer constant. All bevacizumab-treated patients-and none of the placebo-treated patients-showed improvement in neurologic symptoms or signs. At a median of 10 months after the last dose of bevacizumab in patients receiving all four study doses, only 2 patients had experienced a recurrence of magnetic resonance imaging changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis; one patient received a single additional dose of bevacizumab and the other patient received two doses. Conclusion: The Class I evidence of bevacizumab efficacy from the present study in the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis justifies consideration of this treatment option for people with radiation necrosis secondary to

  19. Experimental Verification of Application of Looped System and Centralized Voltage Control in a Distribution System with Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Yuji; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya

    The line voltage control in a distribution network is one of the most important issues for a penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). A loop distribution network configuration is an effective solution to resolve voltage and distribution loss issues concerned about a penetration of RES. In this paper, for a loop distribution network, the authors propose a voltage control method based on tap change control of LRT and active/reactive power control of RES. The tap change control of LRT takes a major role of the proposed voltage control. Additionally the active/reactive power control of RES supports the voltage control when voltage deviation from the upper or lower voltage limit is unavoidable. The proposed method adopts SCADA system based on measured data from IT switches, which are sectionalizing switch with sensor installed in distribution feeder. In order to check the validity of the proposed voltage control method, experimental simulations using a distribution system analog simulator “ANSWER” are carried out. In the simulations, the voltage maintenance capability in the normal and the emergency is evaluated.

  20. Automation system at Kitami centralized control station of Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Ltd.; Hokkaido denryoku (kabu) Kitami shuchu seigyosho jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruma, T.; Tatekoji, T.; Dobashi, K. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Manabe, Y. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-16

    This paper introduces the summary of the automation system at Kitami Centralized Control Station of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Ltd. The system has been discussed to apply a more excellent function-dispersed system that can amalgamate the latest opening techniques, and comply with the trend of up-scaling and more complication of the power systems. The system is a large-scale power automating system that integrates the power supply operations throughout the district in addition to the centralized monitoring and control of about 50 power plants and substations in the district. Further, the features of the function dispersed system are exhibited at a possible maximum extent, an operation system using automatic information service functions and graphical user interface was adopted, and the facilitation of operations was further improved. The system is a function-dispersed system that adopts the token ring LAN having excellent real-time performance in the process system, uses the Ethernet in the man-machine system, and couples the processors divided into function units organically with each other. The main devices are duplicated to execute the system operation factor and the data continuity at the maximum level. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  2. Management Control Systems in Subsidiaries of Multinationals in the Emerging Market of Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Using transaction cost theory and the theory of multinational enterprise, this study examines the extent of the degree to which management of multinational companies can control over its subsidiaries' configuration and coordination abilities. Empirical results showed that the subsidiaries enjoyed a

  3. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  4. FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED, MICROBIALLY TRIGGERED COLON TARGETED SYSTEM USING FACE CENTERED CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Saini et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present investigation was to achieve successful delivery especially to colon using microbially triggered, osmotically controlled approach. Prednisolone was chosen model drug for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Prednisolone-β-cyclodextrin complex were prepared and phase solubility study was carried out. Cellulose acetate solution containing chitosan was used to prepare semi-permeable. Face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect on independent variables (concentration of sodium chloride, polyethylene glycol, and chitosan, % cumulative release and disintegration time. Both independent variables, the proportion of chitosan (X1 and proportion of NaCl and PEG (X2 had an influence on the % drug release in both the media (buffers and buffer with rat ceacal content. Formulations were evaluated for their Preformulation parameters and found within the specified limit. Formulation code F8 and S8 were the optimized batches with an in vitro release of 83.77 and 99.13 % respectively. The formulations containing PEG was found to be a promising drug delivery system better release kinetics.

  5. FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED, MICROBIALLY TRIGGERED COLON TARGETED SYSTEM USING FACE CENTERED CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Saini et al

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of present investigation was to achieve successful delivery especially to colon using microbially triggered, osmotically controlled approach. Prednisolone was chosen model drug for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prednisolone-β-cyclodextrin complex were prepared and phase solubility study was carried out. Cellulose acetate solution containing chitosan was used to prepare semi-permeable. Face centered central composite design was employed to study the effect on indep...

  6. A remote controlled system for centralized online monitoring of radon in uranium mine and operating mine ventilation system on demand basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its decay products contribute a major fraction (∼50%) of the effective radiation dose to workers in uranium mines, the remaining part being mainly due to external gamma ray exposure. However, the dose due to radon and its decay products can be controlled by providing proper ventilation in workplaces. Hence, regular monitoring and control of radon form an essential component of the radiation protection programme in uranium mining and milling facilities. The current technique used for radon measurement in uranium mines is based on manual sampling using scintillation cells followed by alpha counting in the laboratory. In some cases, time integrated measurements using SSNTD based cup dosimeter system are also carried out. These practices have been serving the purpose of radiation dosimetry in uranium mines. However, there have been recent developments in radon monitoring instrumentation by RP and AD, BARC which can make important value addition to radiation dosimetry in these facilities. The present paper describes the development of a system for real time monitoring and control of radon and noxious gases in workplaces of uranium mining and milling facilities. Presently, this system has been installed at underground uranium mine, Turamdih, Jharkhand to study its performance for continuous operation in the mine environment. The system not only monitors and controls all the gaseous products within their permissible levels but also effectively utilizes the manpower in regulating their work location based on online data available at central console. Besides this, the system minimizes the routine practice such as sample collection, counting and data recording as a part of radiation monitoring protocol. Once the real time data is linked to the control system, it automates the switching of ventilation fan in the mine as per demand. This process not only helps cutting down the unnecessary wastage of electrical energy but also maintains a healthy working environment

  7. 全自动刨煤机组集中控制系统的设计%Design of Central Control System of Full Automatic Plough Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永刚; 刘召安; 姚立权

    2012-01-01

    为实现刨煤机组全自动集中控制,系统采用光缆技术、现场总线技术、集中控制技术,不仅可实现井下视频控制和地面控制,并可实现泵站设备、转载机、破碎机、刮板输送机、带式输送机等刨煤机组所有设备的联机控制和保护。重点描述了刨煤机组集中控制系统的设计原理。%In order to realize automatic and centralized control of plough unit, cable technology, field bus technology and centralized control technology are all used in the system. The system can realize underground video control, ground control and the online control. All plough unit equipment, such as pumping station, reversed loader, crusher, scraper conveyor and belt conveyor can be controlled and protected. It focused on the design principle of centralized control system of plough unit.

  8. SIMULATION OF FUZZY CONTROL OF CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM BASED ON TRNSYS%基于Trnsys的中央空调系统模糊控制仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玮; 陈立定; 陈奉刚

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a central air conditioning system of a building in Guangzhou is taken for an example to establish the simulation models of one of the building's layers and its central air conditioning systems, then build dieir control system in Trnsys and MATLAB, analyze the energy consumption in and out of control of the system. This model is mainly used to study some properties of the central air conditioning systems and has great significance to energy-saving optimal control of central air conditioning.%以广州某大厦中央空调系统为例,建立了大厦某层的多区域建筑及其中央空调系统仿真模型,并采用模糊控制策略,联合Trnsys及MATLAB对中央空调系统进行节能控制,进而分析对比控制前后中央空调系统各部件的能耗.系统模型主要用于研究中央空调运行的一些性质,对中央空调的节能优化控制具有重要的意义.

  9. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type; Sistema simplificado para el control de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J. [FI-UNAM, DEPFI Campus Morelos, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  10. Central Verification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CVS is a system managed by OPM that is designed to be the primary tool for verifying whether or not there is an existing investigation on a person seeking security...

  11. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  12. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  13. Automatic system of tests for control equipment in combined cycle power stations; Sistema automatico de pruebas para equipos de control en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Flores L, Zenon; Delgadillo V, Miguel A; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This article deals on the Automatic System of Tests, denominated PROBADOR, used by the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentation (GCI) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)for the accomplishment of dynamic tests in laboratory, to the systems of acquisition and control developed with the electronic line SAC-IIE that are installed in the Thermoelectric Power station of Combined Cycle (CTCC) of Dos Bocas, Veracruz and Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Also the architecture, the functions that are carried out in the equipment of the System of Acquisition and control (SAC) and in the personal computer (PC) that conforms it are described, as well as the methodology used for the development of the tests. The PC constitutes Interface Man-Machine (IMM) and in the SAC equipment the simulation of the processes is made (by means of the execution of algebraic-differential equations) in the compressor, combustion chamber, gas turbine, heat recuperators, steam turbines and condenser equipment that integrate a CTCC. The equations that are used are based in the thermodynamics, flow dynamics and heat transfer; they become attached to the real process with a margin of error that is estimated in 10%. Finally, the tendencies of the PROBADOR and the technical and economic advantages are described that it has provided for the improvement in the performance of the control systems, before different situations, with no need to have the real process. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre el Sistema Automatico de Pruebas, denominado PROBADOR, utilizado por la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas para la realizacion de pruebas dinamicas en laboratorio, a los sistemas de adquisicion y control desarrollado con la linea electronica SAC-IIE que estan instalados en las Centrales Termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado (CTCC) de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Tambien se describen la arquitectura, las funciones que se llevan

  14. The central nervous system environment controls effector CD4+ T cell cytokine profile in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M L; Owens, T

    1997-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), CD4+ T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS). We derived CD4+ T cell lines from SJL/J mice that were specific for encephalitogenic myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides and produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. These lines transferred EAE...... to naive mice. Peptide-specific cells re-isolated from the CNS only produced Th1 cytokines, whereas T cells in the lymph nodes produced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Mononuclear cells isolated from the CNS, the majority of which were microglia, presented antigen to and stimulated MBP-specific T cell...

  15. Central nervous system: brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present radiopharmaceuticals and detector systems have provided nuclear medicine physicians with tools capable of detecting a variety of brain abnormalities with little radiation exposure to pediatric patients. It is essential that the referring physician as well as the physician performing the procedure recognize both the limitations and virtues of these techniques. Appropriate selection of brain imaging procedures in each specific case must be the rule. Brain scintigraphy reliably solves certain problems, such as detecting or excluding intracranial tumors and identifying early cerebral inflammatory disease, cerebral ischemic disease, and a variety of congenital anomalies. Other situations, such as seizures without a focal neurologic deficit, acute meningitis, and hydrocephalus, are less often benefited by these studies. The role of these procedures in acute trauma and its sequelae is at the present time limited in pediatric practice. (auth)

  16. Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina

    2014-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent. PMID:25052409

  17. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sybil Derrible

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the e...

  18. The carbon storage regulator (Csr) system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain nissle 1917

    OpenAIRE

    Revelles, Olga; Millard, Pierre; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Oswald, Eric; Létisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr) system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations) showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the c...

  19. Spatial variability of multi-controlled aeolian supersurfaces in central-erg and marine-erg-margin systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-López, J.P.; Meléndez, N.; de Boer, P.L.; Soria, A.R.; Liesa, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    During the Albian Iberia was under the influence of the Northern-Hemisphere Hot Arid Belt favouring the development of an extensive sandy desert system with a marine-erg margin where prograding aeolian dunes interacted with Tethyan waters. The interplay of different controls, such as synsedimentary

  20. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  1. Central functions of the orexinergic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yang Zhang; Lei Yu; Qian-Xing Zhuang; Jing-Ning Zhu; Jian-Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide orexin is synthesized by neurons exclusively located in the hypothalamus.However,these neurons send axons over virtually the entire brain and spinal cord and therefore constitute a unique central orexinergic system.It is well known that central orexin plays a crucial role in the regulation of various basic non-somatic and somatic physiological functions,including feeding,energy homeostasis,the sleep/wake cycle,reward,addiction,and neuroendocrine,as well as motor control.Moreover,the absence of orexin results in narcolepsy-cataplexy,a simultaneous somatic and non-somatic dysfunction.In this review,we summarize these central functions of the orexinergic system and associated diseases,and suggest that this system may hold a key position in somatic-non-somatic integration.

  2. Interface Control Document Between the Tank Farm System and the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or the Low-Level Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) describes the interface between the Tank Farm System and the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or the Low-Level Burial Ground (LLBG). The Tank Farm System generates solid waste during operations. These facilities do not have a direct physical interface since the waste will be moved by truck to the CWC or LLBG. The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the River Protection Project (RPP) Tank Farm System and organization/companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort. The signatures on the cover page of this document indicate agreement between the parties that this document reflects the current technical baseline for each system and that the requirements contained in this document will not be revised without the agreement of all parties

  3. A new conception for the central control facility of MEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control the AFBU from the Central Control Facility some change will be necessary. This has led to a complete revision of the facilities of both consoles. Some proposals are made to improve the response time of the control systems. These improvements are feasible at short notice. (G.J.P.)

  4. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  5. Quality assurance in central nuclear power plant control systems. (Status report containing proposed enhancements for KTA rules)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All enterprises investigated observe the requirements laid down in KTA 1401. In most cases, the quality assurance systems and measures applied even go beyond the requirements of KTA 1401, especially in those enterprises working primarily for export and having to meet foreign quality assurance standards. Quality assurance measures in these enterprises are based primarily on 10 CFR 50, App.B and related rules and standards (e.g. ANSI N 54.2; NUREG 75/087). Internal quality assurance in these enterprises is organized on the basis of graphic flow diagrams which are even presented in the quality assurance manuals. These flow diagrams, in contrast to the German KTA rules, meet the international standards for quality assurance. KTA 1401 requirements not sufficiently met are, e.g. the operator audits with plant producers and unit and equipment producer audits with component producers. The report presents hints for improvements of the quality assurance concept in control systems engineering. (orig./HP)

  6. The carbon storage regulator (Csr system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Revelles

    Full Text Available The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the csrA51 mutant affects the growth efficiency on a broad range of physiologically relevant carbon sources, including compounds utilized by the Entner-Doudoroff (ED pathway. Detailed investigations of the metabolomes and fluxomes of mutants and wild-type cells grown on carbon sources representative of glycolysis and of the ED pathway (glucose and gluconate, respectively, revealed significant re-adjusting of central carbon metabolism for both compounds in the csrA51 mutant. However, the metabolic re-adjusting observed on gluconate was strikingly different from that observed on glucose, indicating a nutrient-specific control of metabolism by the Csr system.

  7. The carbon storage regulator (Csr) system exerts a nutrient-specific control over central metabolism in Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelles, Olga; Millard, Pierre; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Oswald, Eric; Létisse, Fabien; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The role of the post-transcriptional carbon storage regulator (Csr) system in nutrient utilization and in the control of the central metabolism in E. coli reference commensal strain Nissle 1917 was investigated. Analysis of the growth capabilities of mutants altered for various components of the Csr system (csrA51, csrB, csrC and csrD mutations) showed that only the protein CsrA - the key component of the system - exerts a marked role in carbon nutrition. Attenuation of CsrA activity in the csrA51 mutant affects the growth efficiency on a broad range of physiologically relevant carbon sources, including compounds utilized by the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. Detailed investigations of the metabolomes and fluxomes of mutants and wild-type cells grown on carbon sources representative of glycolysis and of the ED pathway (glucose and gluconate, respectively), revealed significant re-adjusting of central carbon metabolism for both compounds in the csrA51 mutant. However, the metabolic re-adjusting observed on gluconate was strikingly different from that observed on glucose, indicating a nutrient-specific control of metabolism by the Csr system. PMID:23840455

  8. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  9. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  10. Advanced access control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype voice verification system has been installed which provides the required positive identification at the main site access control point. This system compares an individual's file voice print with a sample voice print obtained from the individual when an attempt is made to enter the site. The voice system transmits the individual's identify to a central processor. The system installed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described

  11. Generalized conventional and intelligent supervisory control system for combined cycle generation power plants; Sistema de control supervisorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-15

    (conventional or intelligent) is possible to get more power generation than if we use the automatic methods based on feedback MW control. Consequently, the financial benefit due to the MW generated along a period of 2 months, is equivalent to return the investment required if the CCPP would had been repowered. Test also showed that with the fuzzy based SGC is possible to get a 'little more' power generation than if we use the PID based SGC. The development and implementation of the SGC was made in three phases: First Phase: Upgrading of the simulation dynamic mathematical model and implementation in a new software platform based on LabWindows/CVI. Second Phase: Design, implementation and testing of the PID based SGC. Third Phase: Design and implementation and testing of the Intelligent SGC, based in fuzzy logic. [Spanish] El programa de obras de generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) del ano 2004 al ano 2008 esta caracterizado por el dominio del proceso de ciclo combinado para la expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico [CFE, 2000]. De acuerdo con los datos presentados por esta fuente, el incremento estimado en la capacidad de generacion de potencia electrica es de 12876 MW, de los cuales las centrales de ciclo combinado aportaran 10655 MW, lo que representa el 82.75%. Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, en este trabajo de tesis se desarrollo un sistema de control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) convencional (PID) e inteligente (logica difusa) para una central de generacion de ciclo combinado, el cual permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas (TG) y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV). El diseno de estos sistemas

  12. Time presses for the installation of a central controller [in the energy supply industry]. Strategic re-orientation of the present system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of a so-called central controller for the electric power industry has a number of advantages for stakeholders in the energy market: improving the exchange of information between energy utilities, save costs by setting up central registers for connections, meters, measured data and central processes for e.g. reconciliation and management of measured data (in particular with regard to smart metering). As an example attention is paid to the NEMMCO-case (National Electricity Code Administrator) in Australia

  13. Central control element expands computer capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Redundant processing and multiprocessing modes can be obtained from one computer by using logic configuration. Configuration serves as central control element which can automatically alternate between high-capacity multiprocessing mode and high-reliability redundant mode using dynamic mode switching in real time.

  14. The Epicure Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Epicure Control System supports the Fermilab fixed target physics program. The system is distributed across a network of many different types of components. The use of multiple layers on interfaces for communication between logical tasks fits the client-server model. Physical devices are read and controlled using symbolic references entered into a database with an editor utility. The database system consists of a central portion containing all device information and optimized portions distributed among many nodes. Updates to the database are available throughout the system within minutes after being requested

  15. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  16. Upgrading the BEPC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BEPC control system has been put into operation and operated normally since the end of 1987. Three years's experience shows this system can satisfy basically the operation requirements, also exhibits some disadvantages araised from the original centralized system architecture based on the VAX-VCC-CAMAC, such as slow response, bottle neck of VCC, less CPU power for control etc.. This paper describes the method and procedure for upgrading the BEPC control system which will be based on DEC net and DEC-WS, and thus intend to upgrade the control system architecture from the centralized to the distributed and improve the integral system performance. (author)

  17. The field evaluation of a push-pull system to control malaria vectors in Northern Belize, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M Wagman; Grieco, John P; Bautista, Kim; polanco, jorge; Briceño, Ireneo; King, Russell; Nicole L Achee

    2015-01-01

    Background Campaigns for the continued reduction and eventual elimination of malaria may benefit from new and innovative vector control tools. One novel approach being considered uses a push-pull strategy, whereby spatial repellents are used in combination with outdoor baited traps. The desired effect is the behavioural manipulation of mosquito populations to elicit movement of vectors away from people and into traps. Methods Here, a prototype push-pull intervention was evaluated using an exp...

  18. Optimal centralized and decentralized velocity feedback control on a beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the optimization of a velocity feedback controller with a collocated force actuator, to minimize the kinetic energy of a simply supported beam. If the beam is excited at a single location, the optimum feedback gain varies with the position of the control system. It is shown that this variation depends partly on the location of the control force relative to the exciting force. If a distributed excitation is assumed, that is random in both time and space, a unique optimum value of the feedback gain can be found for a given control location. The effect of the control location on performance and the optimal feedback gain can then be examined and is found to be limited provided the control locations are not close to the ends of the beam. The optimization can also be performed for a multichannel velocity feedback system. Both a centralized and a decentralized controller are considered. It is shown that the difference in performance between a centralized and a decentralized controller is small, unless the control locations are closely spaced. In this case the centralized controller effectively feeds back a moment proportional to angular velocity as well as a force proportional to a velocity. It is also shown that the optimal feedback gain can be approximated on the basis of a limited model and that similar results can be achieved

  19. Study of admission and control system in a centralized cognitive radio network for heterogeneous wireless frequency devices

    OpenAIRE

    Torró Vilert, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This project focuses on the Cognitive Radio Technology initially proposed by Joseph Mitola at the end of 90s. The concept of Cognitive Radio introduces the idea that nowadays telecommunications systems must be aware of the environment and the user needs to efficiently use the available resources. Considering this property the efficiency of the wireless frequency spectrum is intended to be optimized, sharing frequencies in an opportunistic manner with licensed (Primary Users) and unlicensed us...

  20. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  1. The Run Control System and the Central Hint and Information Processor of the Data Acquisition System of the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, G; Magnoni, L

    2014-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS detector is composed of a large number of distributed hardware and software components (about 3000 machines and more than 15000 concurrent processes at the end of LHC’s Run I) which in a coordinated manner provide the data-taking functionality of the overall system. The Run Control (RC) system steers the data acquisition by starting and stopping processes and by carrying all data-taking elements through well-defined states in a coherent way (finite state machine pattern). The RC is organized as a hierarchical tree (run control tree) of run controllers following the functional de-composition into systems and sub-systems of the ATLAS detector. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) the RC has been completely re-designed and re-implemented in order to better fulfill the new requirements which emerged during the LHC Run 1 and were not foreseen during the initial design phase, and in order to improve the error management and recovery mechanisms. Indeed gi...

  2. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively minimize development of alluvial bankfull indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that mixed alluvial–bedrock channels exhibit first-order lithologic controls (lithologic resistance and valley confinement) of channel geometry, second

  3. Advanced access control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype voice verification system has been installed which provides the required positive identification at the main site access control point. This system compares an individual's file voice print with a sample voice print obtained from the individual when an attempt is made to enter the site. The voice system transmits the individual's identity to a central processor. The central processor associates that individual's authorization file with a card-key obtained at the access point. The system generates a record of personnel movement, provides a personnel inventory on a real-time basis, and it can retrieve a record of all prior events. The system installed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described

  4. The impulse influence function for de-centralized control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wanxie

    2004-01-01

    Impulse influence matrix function is introduced based on that the de-centralized control analysis is analogous to the sub-structural analysis in structural mechanics. The static sub-structural analysis is analogous to the usual de-centralized control, whereas the dynamic sub-structural analysis corresponds to the de-centralized control theory. The reciprocal symmetry for the impulse influence matrix function is proved, and is solved by the precise integration method for time invariant system, giving the results up to computer precision. Based on the impulse influence functions of subsystems, the combination of subsystems can lead to a set of integral equations and be solved numerically. Numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Coordinated control of a combined cycle thermoelectric central; Control coordinado de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Parra, Marino; Castelo Cuevas, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the coordinated control (CC) of the Distributed Control System (Sistema de Control Distribuido) (SICODI) of the Combined Cycle Central of Gomez Palacio, Durango, is presented. The description of the control scheme and its realization in software is made. From the scheme the operation strategies and automation, supervision and control are described in detail. The software components of the programming are described, the program structure and control data and its implementation in working stations VAX 3100 under the operating system VMS (Virtual Memory System), are described. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el control coordinado (CC) del Sistema de Control Distribuido (Sicodi) de la central de ciclo combinado Gomez Palacio, Durango. Se describe el esquema de control y su realizacion en software. Del esquema se detallan las estrategias de operacion y automatizacion, supervision y control. Del software se describen los componentes de la programacion, la estructura de programas y datos del control y su implementacion en estaciones de trabajo VAX 3100 bajo el sistema operativo VMS (Virtual Memory System).

  6. FMIT facility control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, under construction at Richland, Washington, uses current techniques in distributed processing to achieve responsiveness, maintainability and reliability. Developmental experience with the system on the FMIT Prototype Accelerator (FPA) being designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described as a function of the system's design goals and details. The functional requirements of the FMIT control system dictated the use of a highly operator-responsive, display-oriented structure, using state-of-the-art console devices for man-machine communications. Further, current technology has allowed the movement of device-dependent tasks into the area traditionally occupied by remote input-output equipment; the system's dual central process computers communicate with remote communications nodes containing microcomputers that are architecturally similar to the top-level machines. The system has been designed to take advantage of commercially available hardware and software

  7. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations

  8. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Gregory N., E-mail: gregory.gan@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Camidge, D. Ross [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  9. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival

  10. Experimentation of RT-LOTOS for a critical function of a power plant instrumentation and control system; Experimentation de RT-LOTOS pour une fonction critique d`un systeme de controle-commande en centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriantsiiferana, L.; Courtiat, J.P.; De Oliveira, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the final report of the contract between LAAS-CNRS and the EdF Direction of Researches and Studies about the experimentation of RT-LOTOS formal description technique on a critical function of a nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This report comprises 4 parts: part 1 describes the RT-LOTOS (Real Time-Language of Temporal Ordering Specifications) tutorial and its RTL tool environment, the different RT-LOTOS operators and semantics, and the RTL tool main functionalities; part 2 deals with the methodology and the global architecture for the specification and validation of the CCT (Central Calculator for Treatment); part 3 gives more details about the different processes identified in the specification architecture and presents the main results obtained for the validation of the nominal functioning; part 4 describes some exceptional situations and shows how some failures and their associated recovery mechanisms can be modelled. (J.S.). 6 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appends.

  11. Automatic control system of evaporative cooling semi-centralized air conditioning system%蒸发冷却半集中式空调系统的控制方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔; 卢永梅; 强天伟

    2012-01-01

    Presents the flow process of evaporative cooling semi-centralized air conditioning system. Based on operation modes of different seasons, designs the automatic scheme to guarantee the system's safety and energy efficiency. Presents the control content and hardware configuration in detail. Achieves the communication between the personal computer and the programmable logic controller by configuration software, realizing the functions of centralized control, data logging and printing, so as to provide detailed data for on-site equipment maintenance worker and to simplify operation and maintenance. The project application, shows that the control system wofks steadily and achieves a desired effect.%介绍了蒸发冷却半集中式空调系统的流程.基于该系统不同季节的运行模式,设计了自控方案,以保证该空调系统的安全性和节能性.详细介绍了控制内容和硬件配置.利用组态软件完成PC机与PLC之间的通讯,实现了系统集中控制、数据记录和打印等功能,能为现场设备维护人员提供详细的资料,简化操作、维护工作.工程应用实践表明,该自控系统运行稳定,能达到预期效果.

  12. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  13. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  14. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  15. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  16. NCPC Central Files Information System (CFIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...

  17. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  18. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  19. Control rod drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns an electromotive driving-type control rod driving system of a BWR type reactor, for which sliding resistance (friction) test can be performed of a movable portion of the control rod driving mechanisms. Namely, a hydraulic pressure control unit has following constitutions in addition to a conventional constitution as a sliding resistance test performing function. (1) A restricting valve is disposed downstream of the scram valve of scram pipelines to control flow rate and pressure of pressurized water flown in the pipelines. (2) A pressure gauge detects a pressure between the scram valve and the restricting valve. (3) A flow meter detects the flow rate of pipelines controlled by the restricting valve. (4) A recording pressure detector detects the pressure at the downstream of the restricting valve. (5) The recording device is attached when the sliding resistant test is performed for tracing the pressure measured by the pressure detection device. Further, the scram valve sends electric signals to a central operation chamber when it is fully closed. The central operation chamber has a function of fully opening the restricting valve by way of the electric signals. (I.S.)

  20. Centralized and decentralized network control structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hock, G.; Motl, G.

    1983-03-01

    Network control systems are aids for network operation resulting from take-over, transport and distribution of the electric power generated in power plants. In order to achieve this, the energy used by the consumers must be generated and supplied at the very moment of demand. From this objective the network structure in the Federal Republic of Germany, which in principle is also valid for other contries comparable in infrastructure, has developed.

  1. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in th

  2. Huaneng Lancang River in Yunnan centralized control center monitoring system transformation%华能云南澜沧江集控中心监控改造方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温柳; 周颖; 师碧; 杨忠

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了云南澜沧江集控中心建设的现状,针对存在的后续接入巨型电站可靠接入,现有的双网络、集中式数据库无法满足日益扩大的集控规模需求,而且对安全运维带来较高的风险,提出了对整个系统按模块化、结构化设计、具有良好开放性和可移植性的分布式集控系统重新改造的设计思路,引领了新型的巨型水电站集控中心的发展方向。%This article describes the Lancang River in Yunnan centralized control center construction status,follow-up access for the existing power plants and reliable access to the giant,the existing dual network,centralized database can not meet the growing demand for centralized control of scale,but also to bring safe operation and maintenance higher risk presented by the entire system modular,structural design, with good openness and portability of distributed control system set to reinvent design ideas.Leading the new giant hydropower station centralized control center development.

  3. Application of PLC Centralized Control System of Coal Mine Belt Conveyor%PLC集中控制系统在煤矿胶带输送机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永康; 黄和平

    2011-01-01

    针对某矿胶带运输系统线路长、岗位多、联络环节多的特点,提出了一种采用PLC集中控制系统控制煤矿胶带输送机的方案,介绍了PLC集中控制系统的构成、工作原理和系统功能.该系统通过集中控制和工业电视相结合,对井下主煤流强力胶带输送机和振动给煤机及煤仓煤位计等相关设施进行监测,实现了主煤流系统的集中控制.实际应用表明,该系统运行良好,实现了胶带输送机的安全高效运行.%In view of characteristics of long lines, multi posts and multi links of transport system of belt converyor of a mine, the paper proposed a scheme which adopts PLC centralized control system to control coal mine belt conveyor.It introduced composition, working principle and functions of PLC centralized control system.The system combines industrial television with centralized control to monitor related devices such as underground powerful belt conveyor, vibration coal feeder and coal level sensor of coal bunker, which realizes centralized control of main coal flow system.The practical application showed that the system runs well, and achieves safe and efficient running of conveyor belt.

  4. Central Circadian Control of Female Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BrookeHMiller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, it has become clear just how much of our physiology is under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and the cell-intrinsic molecular clock that ticks with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours. The SCN prepares our digestive system for meals, our adrenal axis for the stress of waking up in the morning, and the genes expressed in our muscles when we prepare to exercise, Long before molecular studies of genes such as Clock, Bmal1, and the Per homologs were possible, it was obvious that female reproductive function was under strict circadian control at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, and in the establishment and successful maintenance of pregnancy. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that the SCN plays in regulating female reproductive physiology, with a special emphasis on the advances made possible through the use of circadian mutant mice.

  5. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions. (author)

  6. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  7. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  8. Decentralized Markets versus Central Control: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Akkermans, H; 10.1613/jair.627

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) promise to offer solutions to problems where established, older paradigms fall short. In order to validate such claims that are repeatedly made in software agent publications, empirical in-depth studies of advantages and weaknesses of multi-agent solutions versus conventional ones in practical applications are needed. Climate control in large buildings is one application area where multi-agent systems, and market-oriented programming in particular, have been reported to be very successful, although central control solutions are still the standard practice. We have therefore constructed and implemented a variety of market designs for this problem, as well as different standard control engineering solutions. This article gives a detailed analysis and comparison, so as to learn about differences between standard versus agent approaches, and yielding new insights about benefits and limitations of computational markets. An important outcome is that "local information plus market communica...

  9. Means and methods used to check radiation detection, signalling and alarm devices in the centralized environment control systems of the INB of CEN-Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having reviewed the prescribed technical measures concerning 'systematic environment controls' in INB (Installations nucleaires de base - basic nuclear facilities) and published in the J.O. (French Official Journal) the authors briefly describe the main radiation detection, signalling and alarm systems at present installed in INB of CEN-Saclay and weigh up the extent to which their characteristics comply with the statutory texts. They then develop the means and methods set up to check on the good working order of these devices which are integrated in centralised one-piece modular analogue or informatics type control systems possible functioning anomalies being classed in two categories: logic type anomalies corresonding to a straightforward breakdown where detection is permanent; developing anomalies corresponding to poor functioning where detection requires a more critical and periodic control. The authors demonstrate the advantages offered by centralised computer type control systems

  10. A 200kW central receiver CPV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raygen Resources has recently completed a Central Receiver CPV (CSPV) pilot plant in Central Victoria, Australia. The system is under final commissioning and initial operation is expected in late April 2015. The pilot demonstrates a full scale CSPV repeatable unit in a form that is representative of a commercial product and provides a test bed to prove out performance and reliability of the CSPV technology. Extensive testing of the system key components: dense array module, wireless solar powered heliostat and control system has been performed in the laboratory and on sun. Results from this key component testing are presented herein

  11. Treatment of Parkinson's disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy López

    2010-12-01

    -induced rotation behavior in hemiparkisonian rats.Results: The in vitro dopamine delivery profiles indicate two regimes of release, a fast and sustained dopamine delivery was observed up to 24 hours, and after this time the rate of delivery became constant. Histologic analysis of formalin-fixed brains performed 24–32 weeks after reservoir implantation revealed that silica–dopamine implants had a reddish-brown color, suggesting the presence of oxidized dopamine, likely caused by the fixation procedure, while implants without dopamine were always translucent.Conclusion: The major finding of the study was that intrastriatal silica–dopamine implants reversed the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, in hemiparkinsonian rats. No dyskinesias or other motor abnormalities were observed in animals implanted with silica or silica–dopamine.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, silica–dopamine, controlled drug release, central nervous system, reservoirs

  12. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases. PMID:26574895

  13. Distributed control system for LEHIPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has spurred tremendous interest in developing high intensity proton accelerator and set challenging demands in terms of developing high current and high intensity proton accelerator. LEHIPA is the the first stage in the development of ADS purpose and portable (MS/ Windows and LINUX) Operator Interface for Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) is designed and developed. This operator interface is already deployed in the field for control of Low Energy Beam Tube section of the LEHIPA. This paper discusses the salient points and features of the operator interface for LEHIPA. LEHIPA will have several subsystems. All subsystems will have their respective control and instrumentation system with required protection. All subsystems will be connected to a centralized control system. To meet the the requirement of phased development and various sub system integration the control system is a distributed system. The paper will describe the distributed control systems features and selected architecture for LEHIPA. (author)

  14. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  15. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. van der Linden; R.R. Jansen; D. Bresters; C.E. Visser; S.E. Geerlings; E.J. Kuijper; W.J.G. Melchers; P.E. Verweij

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  16. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  17. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive...

  18. Exercise, Stress Resistance, and Central Serotonergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders in humans and prevents serotonin-dependent behavioral consequences of stress in rodents. Evidence reviewed herein is consistent with the hypothesis that exercise increases stress resistance by producing neuroplasticity at multiple sites of the central serotonergic system, which all help to limit the behavioral impact of acute increases in serotonin during stressor exposure.

  19. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemoki

  20. MINT centralized radiation monitoring system via ethernet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer networking technologies allow user to receive data and other information easier and faster. This paper describes the development of centralized radiation monitoring system for monitoring of area radiation levels in various locations in MINT complex via Ethernet. The system utilizes a Local Area Network (LAN) known as MINT-NET as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves system configuration, wiring and hardware installation, interface and software development. Apart from that data distribution package in a web form is also developed. Besides monitoring the area radiation levels in MINT centrally, additional features are developed for effective radiation level trend observation and studies. (Author)

  1. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  2. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  3. Instrumentation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains instrumentation control system, which mentions summary, basic theory, kinds, control device, and design of each instrumentation system. The contents of this book are introduction of instrumentation system, temperature detector, pressure sensor, flow detector, level detector, ingredient detector, signal convert and transmission, instructions, record and control of instrumentation system, PID controller control valve of instrumentation system, instrumentation equipment of water system, instrumentation facility of thermal power plant, examples of advance instrumentation facility and install and design of instrumentation system.

  4. Simulation and study of centralized power train speed control system%动力集中型列车调速系统仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路小娟; 杨涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces method of DC speed adjustment using current and speed double 1oop, and describes the construct and mathematic model of the system. The article uses SIMULINK tools of MATLAB to build centralized power SS9 mathematics model, and analyzes the simulation results. The simulation analysis is agreeable to the actual data.%介绍了采用电流、转速双闭环进行直流调速的方法,分别对电流和速度调节器进行了设计,描述了系统的组成及其数学模型.采用MATLAB中SIMULINK仿真软件,对动力集中型SS9(韶山9电力机车)直流调速系统进行建模仿真,仿真结果与实际数据相吻合.

  5. Advanced control system for temperature control in the pressurized fluid bed of Escatron Thermal Plant Power; Sistema de Control Avanzado para Control de la Temperatura del Lecho Fluido a Presion de la Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the P. F-B. C a small problem appears, particularly in Escatron the bed temperature gradient is very high. Such gradient very occasionally reaches 50 degree centigree in a same plane. With the reduction of bed difference of temperature, the average bed temperature could be increased with the result steam cycle benefit, at the same time combustion gases would go at a higher temperature to the gas turbine, increasing therefore its performance. The SCAP system will allow to face the resolution of the injection of combustible problem and in this manner achieve the homogenization of bed temperature in Escatron PFBC Thermal Power Station. (Author)

  6. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  7. Gait Rehabilitation Device in Central Nervous System Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system diseases cause the gait disorder. Early rehabilitation of a patient with central nervous system disease is shown to be benefit. However, early gait training is difficult because of muscular weakness and those elderly patients who lose of leg muscular power. In the patient's walking training, therapists assist the movement of patient's lower limbs and control the movement of patient's lower limbs. However the assistance for the movement of the lower limbs is a serious hard labor for therapists. Therefore, research into and development of various gait rehabilitation devices is currently underway to identify methods to alleviate the physical burden on therapists. In this paper, we introduced the about gait rehabilitation devices in central nervous system disease.

  8. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  9. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Rhailana Fontes; Jéssica Ribeiro; Gupta, Daya S.; Dionis Machado; Fernando Lopes-Júnior; Francisco Magalhães; Victor Hugo Bastos; Kaline Rocha; Victor Marinho; Gildário Lima; Bruna Velasques; Pedro Ribeiro; Marco Orsini; Bruno Pessoa; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms...

  10. Central nervous system tumors: a histopathological study

    OpenAIRE

    Kailash Chand Jat; S. P. Vyas; Naseem A. Bihari; Kuldeep Mehra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors can originate in almost any type of tissue, cell or mixture of cell types in the brain or spinal cord. Tumors in different areas of the central nervous system may be treated differently and have a different prognosis. Methods: In the period between 2011-2015, we studied on 59 patients diagnosed with CNS tumors according to the World Health Organization's diagnostic criteria. Patient data were retrieved from the archives of the department of Pathology, Sardar Patel...

  11. Central Nervous System Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Nathan; Boulware, David R; Marais, Suzaan; Scriven, James; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS) develops in 9 %–47 % of persons with HIV infection and a CNS opportunistic infection who start antiretroviral therapy and is associated with a mortality rate of 13 %–75 %. These rates vary according to the causative pathogen. Common CNS-IRIS events occur in relation to Cryptococcus, tuberculosis (TB), and JC virus, but several other mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses have been associated with IRIS. IRIS symptoms often...

  12. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system

  13. GCFR plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range

  14. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  15. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more of...... behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part of this...... the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  16. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions, with...... focus specifically on the Type I IFNs in physiological and pathological conditions. IFN-α and IFN-β are the predominant Type I IFNs in the CNS. They are produced in the CNS by glial cells, mostly microglia and astrocytes, as well as by neurons. A variety of mechanisms stimulate IFN production in glial...

  17. Internal Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is focused on internal control system. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the development and elements of internal control system, and then demonstrate the possible form of the internal control system in practice. The thesis is divided into two parts -- theoretical and practical. The beginning of the theoretical part is devoted to characteristics of internal controls and their relation to internal control, attention is also paid to economic crimes which the internal control syst...

  18. Central limit behavior of deterministic dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirnakli, Ugur; Beck, Christian; Tsallis, Constantino

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the probability density of rescaled sums of iterates of deterministic dynamical systems, a problem relevant for many complex physical systems consisting of dependent random variables. A central limit theorem (CLT) is valid only if the dynamical system under consideration is sufficiently mixing. For the fully developed logistic map and a cubic map we analytically calculate the leading-order corrections to the CLT if only a finite number of iterates is added and rescaled, and find excellent agreement with numerical experiments. At the critical point of period doubling accumulation, a CLT is not valid anymore due to strong temporal correlations between the iterates. Nevertheless, we provide numerical evidence that in this case the probability density converges to a q -Gaussian, thus leading to a power-law generalization of the CLT. The above behavior is universal and independent of the order of the maximum of the map considered, i.e., relevant for large classes of critical dynamical systems.

  19. Water System Operator Training for the Central Arizona Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlin, Brian; Clemmens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.85 billion cubic meters (1.5 million acre-feet) of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. The CAP canal system is a 540-km (336-mile) long system of conveyance aqueducts, tunnels, pumping plants, and pipelines that is monitored and remotely controlled using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software from CAP headquarters in Phoenix, AZ. Because the CAP is crucial to the renew...

  20. Plants and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  1. Adaptive shared control system

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David

    2009-01-01

    A control system to aid mobility is presented that is intended to assist living independently and that provides physical guidance. The system has two levels: a human machine interface and an adaptive shared controller.

  2. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  3. Central Nervous System Complications of Oncologic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Ellen G

    2016-08-01

    Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed. PMID:27444003

  4. Central configurations, periodic orbits, and Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Llibre, Jaume; Simó, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The notes of this book originate from three series of lectures given at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. The first one is dedicated to the study of periodic solutions of autonomous differential systems in Rn via the Averaging Theory and was delivered by Jaume Llibre. The second one, given by Richard Moeckel, focusses on methods for studying Central Configurations. The last one, by Carles Simó, describes the main mechanisms leading to a fairly global description of the dynamics in conservative systems. The book is directed towards graduate students and researchers interested in dynamical systems, in particular in the conservative case, and aims at facilitating the understanding of dynamics of specific models. The results presented and the tools introduced in this book include a large range of applications.

  5. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate and......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated and...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Design of centralized controlling system for multimedia classroom based on ARM and GPRS%基于ARM及GPRS的多媒体教室中控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓明; 王惠芳; 张新岭; 任丽静; 崔京华

    2012-01-01

    Because separately control of the multimedia classroom is not easy, a centralized controlling system is constituted on the basis of existing multimedia equipment by adding ARM-based controller and GPRS modules. It realized real-time monitoring of multimedia devices, centralized control, and effective management. The lifetime of multimedia classroom and multimedia e-quipment service is improved, and information storage, info-seeking and management are more convenient.%针对目前对媒体教室单独控制不易管理的情况,在现有多媒体设备的基础上,增加基于ARM的主控器以及GPRS模块,构成了中控系统,实现了对多媒体设备的实时监测、集中控制以及日常维护信息的有效管理,提高了多媒体教室的利用率以及多媒体设备的使用寿命,方便了信息的储存、查找与管理.

  7. On Controlled P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krithivasan, Kamala; Paun, Gheorghe; Ramanujan, Ajeesh; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and brie y investigate P systems with controlled computations. First, P systems with label restricted transitions are considered (in each step, all rules used have either the same label, or, possibly, the empty label, ), then P systems with the computations controlled by languages (as in context-free controlled grammars). The relationships between the families of sets of numbers computed by the various classes of controlled P systems are investigated, also comp...

  8. Neuronal Chemokines: Versatile Messengers In Central Nervous System Cell Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; Jong, E.K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemokines are generally found under both physiological and pathological conditions. Whereas many reports describe chemokine expression in astrocytes and microglia and their role in the migration of leuko...

  9. Fluctuations Mitigation of Variable Speed Wind Turbine through Optimized Centralized Controller

    OpenAIRE

    S. Masoud Barakati; Saeed Tavakoli; Sajjad Farajianpour; Ali Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    A wind energy conversion system (WECS) including a variable wind turbine in grid-connected mode is considered to control. In this paper, each component of WECS model is systematically presented and then the integrated overall model is validated.Regarding to nonlinear nature of WECS and the complex system structure as multiple-input- multiple-output (MIMO),control procedure counters the problem which strategy to handle.To simplify the control policy, a centralized controller which is compatibl...

  10. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  11. Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NINDS Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... 496-5717 "Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet", NINDS, Publication date July 2011. NIH ...

  12. Resources Centralization System for Grid Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa F. Muhsem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing expansion of communications that is characterized by quality and availability led to interest on grid computing paradigm. The grid computing solves large-scale scientific problems, by providing the feature of sharing and selecting of various resources accessibility and utility. These resources solve intensive problems by increasing the computation and storage power. This study focuses on system with centralized resources for managing the grid resources. The proposed idea will create a resource list, which includes the resource history that will help the user to search for resources. The proposal resources list system will improve the resource serving by showing the most resources used and will save the time search time for the job request, by these points we will improve the quality of the user jobs execution and the quality type of the used resources.

  13. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop...... survival. Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36......%), radiculopathy (27%), headache (25%), confusion (21%), peripheral neuropathy (9%), dizziness (7%) and seizures (6%). MRI of the brain and/or spine were performed in 156 patients (91%), and showed evidence of disease in 145 (93%). After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median OS for the entire group was 7...

  14. Nova laser alignment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system

  15. A dynamical systems view of network centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter; Higham, Desmond J

    2014-05-01

    To gain insights about dynamic networks, the dominant paradigm is to study discrete snapshots, or timeslices, as the interactions evolve. Here, we develop and test a new mathematical framework where network evolution is handled over continuous time, giving an elegant dynamical systems representation for the important concept of node centrality. The resulting system allows us to track the relative influence of each individual. This new setting is natural in many digital applications, offering both conceptual and computational advantages. The novel differential equations approach is convenient for modelling and analysis of network evolution and gives rise to an interesting application of the matrix logarithm function. From a computational perspective, it avoids the awkward up-front compromises between accuracy, efficiency and redundancy required in the prevalent discrete-time setting. Instead, we can rely on state-of-the-art ODE software, where discretization takes place adaptively in response to the prevailing system dynamics. The new centrality system generalizes the widely used Katz measure, and allows us to identify and track, at any resolution, the most influential nodes in terms of broadcasting and receiving information through time-dependent links. In addition to the classical static network notion of attenuation across edges, the new ODE also allows for attenuation over time, as information becomes stale. This allows 'running measures' to be computed, so that networks can be monitored in real time over arbitrarily long intervals. With regard to computational efficiency, we explain why it is cheaper to track good receivers of information than good broadcasters. An important consequence is that the overall broadcast activity in the network can also be monitored efficiently. We use two synthetic examples to validate the relevance of the new measures. We then illustrate the ideas on a large-scale voice call network, where key features are discovered that are not

  16. Depositional architecture of a mixed travertine-terrigenous system in a fault-controlled continental extensional basin (Messinian, Southern Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Andrea; Della Porta, Giovanna; Capezzuoli, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The extensional Neogene Albegna Basin (Southern Tuscany, Italy) includes several thermogene travertine units dating from the Miocene to Holocene time. During the late Miocene (Messinian), a continental fault-controlled basin (of nearly 500-km2 width) was filled by precipitated travertine and detrital terrigenous strata, characterized by a wedge-shaped geometry that thinned northward, with a maximum thickness of nearly 70 m. This mixed travertine-terrigenous succession was investigated in terms of lithofacies types, depositional environment and architecture and the variety of precipitated travertine fabrics. Deposited as beds with thickness ranging from centimetres to a few decimetres, carbonates include nine travertine facies types: F1) clotted peloidal micrite and microsparite boundstone, F2) raft rudstone/floatstone, F3) sub-rounded radial coated grain grainstone, F4) coated gas bubble boundstone, F5) crystalline dendrite cementstone, F6) laminated boundstone, F7) coated reed boundstone and rudstone, F8) peloidal skeletal grainstone and F9) calci-mudstone and microsparstone. Beds of terrigenous deposits with thickness varying from a decimetre to > 10 m include five lithofacies: F10) breccia, F11) conglomerate, F12) massive sandstone, F13) laminated sandstone and F14) claystone. The succession recorded the following three phases of evolution of the depositional setting: 1) At the base, a northward-thinning thermogene travertine terraced slope (Phase I, travertine slope lithofacies association, F1-F6) developed close to the extensional fault system, placed southward with respect to the travertine deposition. 2) In Phase II, the accumulation of travertines was interrupted by the deposition of colluvial fan deposits with a thickness of several metres (colluvial fan lithofacies association, F10 and F12), which consisted of massive breccias, adjacent to the alluvial plain lithofacies association (F11-F14) including massive claystone and sandstone and channelized

  17. The CEBAF control system for the CHL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) control system consists of independent safety controls located at each subsystem, CAMAC computer interface hardware, and a CEBAF-designed control software called Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL). The paper describes how control software was interfaced with the subsystems of the CHL. Topics of configuration, editing, operator interface, datalogging, and internal logic functions are presented as they relate to the operational needs of the helium plant. The paper also describes the effort underway to convert from TACL to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), the new control system for the CEBAF accelerator. This software change will require customizing EPICS software to cryogenic process control

  18. Piping information centralized management system for nuclear plant, PIMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping works frequently cause many troubles in the progress of construction works, because piping is the final procedure in design and construction and is forced to suffer the problems in earlier stages. The enormous amount of data on quality control and management leads to the employment of many unskilled designers of low technical ability, and it causes confusion in installation and inspection works. In order to improve the situation, the ''piping information management system for nuclear plants (PIMAS)'' has been introduced attempting labor-saving and speed-up. Its main purposes are the mechanization of drafting works, the centralization of piping informations, labor-saving and speed-up in preparing production control data and material management. The features of the system are as follows: anyone can use the same informations whenever he requires them because the informations handled in design works are contained in a large computer; the system can be operated on-line, and the terminals are provided in the sections which require informations; and the sub-systems are completed for preparing a variety of drawings and data. Through the system, material control has become possible by using the material data in each plant, stock material data and the information on the revision of drawings in the design department. Efficiency improvement and information centralization in the manufacturing department have also been achieved because the computer has prepared many kinds of slips based on unified drawings and accurate informations. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  20. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  1. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  2. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  3. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  4. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  5. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  6. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  7. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F ≅100 and F ≅ 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an improvement of more than one order of magnitude was

  8. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author)

  9. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  10. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  11. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  12. Control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  13. Central neural control of thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-04-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. Via the lateral parabrachial nucleus, skin thermal afferent input reaches the hypothalamic preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control heat production by inhibiting thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to thermogenesis-controlling premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation of spinal circuits necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation and elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation. PMID:26924538

  14. The ILC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R and D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  15. Step Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShuochengt; WangDan; QiaoWeimin; JingLan

    2003-01-01

    All kinds of step motors and servomotors are widely used in CSR control system, such as many vacuum valves control that set on the HIRFL-CSR; all kinds of electric switches and knobs of ECR Ion Source; equipment of CSR Beam Diagnostics and a lot of large equipment like Inside Gun Toroid and Collector Toroid of HIRFL. A typical control system include up to 32 16-I/O Control boards, and each 16-I/O Control board can control 4 motors at the same time (including 8 Limit Switches).

  16. Control of the Tevatron Satellite Refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes a computerized control system for 24 satellite refrigerators which cool a six kilometer ring of superconducting magnets. The control system consists of 31 independent microprocessors operating over 400 servo loops, and a central computer system which provides monitoring, alarms, logging and changing of parameters. Topics considered include pressure measurement, flow measurement, temperature measurement, gas analysis, control valves, expansion engine controllers, and control loops. Each refrigerator has 12 active microprocessor based control loops which tune the refrigerator to one of its four operating modes: satellite, liquefier, refrigerator, and stand-by. It is suggested that optimizing the refrigerator control loops and quench recovery scheme will minimize the accelerator down time

  17. Centralized and decentralized control of structural vibration and sound radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.P.; Baumann, O.N.; Elliott, S.J.; Fraanje, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of centralized and decentralized feedback controllers on a plate with multiple colocated velocity sensors and force actuators. The performance is measured by the reduction in either kinetic energy or sound radiation, when the plate is excited with a randomly distr

  18. CFO finance network centrality, errors and internal control material weaknessess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schabus

    2015-01-01

    CFOs finance networks matter in determining certain accounting and reporting outcomes. Drawing on social network theory, this study shows that CFO centrality in a network of financial experts is inversely related to the occurrence of restatements due to errors and disclosure of internal control mate

  19. Torque control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenick, D. K.; Tyler, A. L.; Squillari, W.

    1975-01-01

    System stabilizes aximuth of gondolas which are carried by high-altitude balloons as platforms for tracking telescopes. When telescopes must be constantly aimed at specific targets, control system stabilizes gondola to within 5 arc-seconds.

  20. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  1. The COMPASS control and engineering monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high degree of flexibility of the COMPASS experiment demands a control system readily adaptable to the various modes and operating conditions of the machine. The COMPASS Machine Control System therefore relies on programmable devices with the bulk of the control sequencing resident in the system software. The central control facility provides the main operator interface to the system using touch-sensitive colour monitors to set up the configuration and shot data base. A central computer transmits the processed information to five subsystem control points each of which uses a Programmable Controller to communicate with central control and enable local subsystem operation using a local control panel. Separate from the MCS, though interacting with it, are dedicated systems for fact sequence timing, personnel safety and fast engineering data monitoring. The latter system will collect and process transient signals too fast for the MCS to handle. The data will be archived along with the engineering set-up parameters and physics data and will be available for review at the central control desk

  2. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzer, Julian

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of two with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the factor of two increase in the number of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to three different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis on the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition system. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow for efficient display of the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. The design of the framework aims at reliability, flexibility, and robustness of the system and takes into account the operational experience gained during Run 1. The Level-1 Central Trigger was successfully operated with high efficiency during the cosmic-ray, beam-splash and first Run 2 data taking with the full ATLAS detector.

  3. Studying the central control of food intake and obesity in rats Estudando em ratos o controle central da ingestão alimentar e a obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system regulates energy intake and expenditure through a complex network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. It is of great interest to understand the relevance of these systems to the physiological control of energy balance and to the disturbances of obesity. The present paper discusses some of the methods to address this field used at the laboratory of Endocrine Physiology of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Initially, different experimental models of rat obesity...

  4. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  5. SMS BASED REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecha Ranjan Singh , Sangeeta Agrawal , Saurabh Kapoor ,S. Sharma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A modern world contains varieties of electronic equipment and systems like: TV, security system, Hi-fi equipment, central heating systems, fire alarm systems, security alarm systems, lighting systems, SET Top Box, AC (Air Conditioner etc., we need to handle, ON/OFF or monitor these electrical devices remotely or to communicate with these but, if you are not at the home or that place and you want to communicate with these device. So the new technology for handled these devices remotely and for communication to required the GSM, mobile technology, SMS (short message service and some hardware resources. SMS based remote control for home appliances is beneficial for the human generation, because mobile is most recently used technology nowadays.

  6. Design and Simulation of a Decentralized Railway Traffic Control System

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kara; M. Cengiz Savas

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing use of railway transportation, various methods have been developed for the control and management of train traffic. Train traffic control systems that are currently in use are overwhelmingly centralized systems. In this study, the development of the general structure of railway traffic control techniques is examined, centralized and decentralized control systems are investigated, and an alternative train traffic control system, the Decentralized Train Traffic Management Sy...

  7. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  8. Control system of ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer control system of Accelerator Test Facility(ATF) is described in detail. The ATF presently consists of 60MeV electron injector linac and two klystron Lest stands, and is controlled by a workstation computer with CAMAC interfaces. For its nature of R and D accelerator aimed to realize TeV region linear collider, the control system also should have a flexibility in both hardware and software. Programmable sequence controllers are introduced in the electron gun system and klystron modulator systems and their performances are tested. The control software which is coded using FORTRAN consists in many independent programs. Each program can access to full functions of a specified device or can control the function which is common to many devices

  9. La estimulación eléctrica del sistema nervioso central con finalidad analgésica The electrical stimulation of the central nervous system for pain control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. López-López

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión pretende orientar al lector sobre los procedimientos empleados para el control del dolor crónico, preferentemente neuropático, por medio de la electricidad. Historia de la utilización de la electricidad con finalidad analgésica, con descripción de los usos primitivos en el siglo XVIII y su evolución. Estimulación eléctrica medular: Se describen los mecanismos de acción, la selección de los pacientes, las técnicas de implante, la forma de realización de los diferentes procedimientos y sus complicaciones y el manejo de las mismas. Estimulación cerebral: Se sigue el mismo esquema que en el apartado anterior, diferenciándose en dos apartados: la estimulación cerebral profunda y la estimulación de la corteza prefrontal.Different procedures using electricity for pain control (mainly neuropathic are described in this review. History of the so-called utility of electricity for pain control, describing the early attempts at the XVIII century and their evolution. Spinal cord stimulation: How does it works, patient’s selection, implant techniques, how to do the different procedures and complications and their management are described. Brain stimulation: The same scheme as above, concerning both Deep Brain Stimulation and Motor Cortex Stimulation.

  10. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System 012

    CERN Document Server

    Borrego-Amaral, P; Farthouat, Philippe; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; De Seixas, J M

    2004-01-01

    The central part of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system consists of the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the Local Trigger Processors (LTPs), the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) system, and the Read-out Driver Busy (ROD_BUSY) modules. The CTP combines information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources and makes the final Level-1 Accept decision (L1A) on the basis of lists of selection criteria, implemented as a trigger menu. Timing and trigger signals are fanned out to about 40 LTPs which inject them into the sub-detector TTC partitions. The LTPs also support stand-alone running and can generate all necessary signals from memory. The TTC partitions fan out the timing and trigger signals to the sub-detector front-end electronics. The ROD_BUSY modules receive busy signals from the front-end electronics and send them to the CTP (via an LTP) to throttle the generation of L1As. An overview of the ATLAS Level-1 Central trigger system will be presented, with emphasis on the design...

  11. Mead photovoltaic system controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millner, A.R.

    1979-01-31

    A system controller has been designed, built, tested, and in operation for one year at MIT/Lincoln Laboratory's 25-kW-peak Solar Photovoltaic Power System located at Mead, Nebraska. The controller allows the site to operate without human intervention, and has brought to light some of the problems of charge-control algorithms in a deep-discharge environment.

  12. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Krause

    Full Text Available We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  13. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  14. Control System Segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past seven years, the Jefferson Lab's control system has grown to include more than two hundred distributed computers running over a complex segmented network, controlling a number of semi-independent operational plants. Several of the plants, including that used for running beam for physics users, operate around the clock with only brief, scheduled interruptions for machine repairs. Because of this, high control system availability is critical. Dividing computing resources into distinct sections, called fiefdoms, improves availability of the control system for each plant while facilitating periodic maintenance. In order to maximize uptime, each fiefdom operates as a completely independent control system consisting of a file server machine with a complete set of control system software and files, a local network, operator consoles and computers to execute high and low level control programs. The fiefdoms are isolated using network hardware, while still allowing limited communication between them. By segmenting the control system in this manner, the effect of a computer failure is minimized and machines can be taken down for periodic maintenance and upgrades without disabling other controls capabilities for the site

  15. The CERN SPS Control System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films

    2012-01-01

    Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. Names, facts and credits added on the 1975 version by Bengt Sagnell, Meyrin, Oct 2012. The project leader for the SPS accelerator (with 400 staff) was John Adams - later Sir John. The group responsible for the design and installation of the control system was led by Michael Crowley-Milling. 00:02:14 Bernard Sutton00:02:48 Michael Crowley-Milling, Head of the Controls Group00:03:01 Designed in the Controls Group, this was probably the first use of touch screens in an industrial control system00:04:37 Louis Burnod, Section leader, Beam Instrumentation00:05:36 Claes Frisk, Computer technician 00:06:03 The system contained 24 Norsk Data NORD-10 16-bit mini computers with 16-64 kB of magnetic core memory and external hard disks of from 5MB to 256 MB in size00:06:23 Frank Beck, Section leader, Central Controls00:06:26 Véronique Frammery, Programmer 00:06:31 Hans-Karl Kuhn, Power Supply Controls00:07:55 Raymond Rausch, Control electronics00:10:23 Paul Acti...

  16. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with multiple central nervous system lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meshkini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG is an uncommon histiocytic disorder that is usually benign and limited to the skin. The systemic form of JXG is rare and may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality especially in central nervous system (CNS involvement. Here, we describe a six-year-old boy with disseminated skin lesions and neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnostic work up revealed multiple brain lesions. A skin biopsy and a stereotactic brain biopsy considered suggestive of systemic JXG. Treatment with prednisolone, vinblastine and methotrexate was successful with regression of skin and CNS lesions. The patient has been in remission for almost three years.

  17. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  18. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  19. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  20. Centrality in the Global Network of Corporate Control

    CERN Document Server

    Takes, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Corporations across the world are highly interconnected in a large global network of corporate control. This paper investigates the global board interlock network, covering 400,000 firms linked through 1,700,000 edges representing shared directors between these firms. The main focus is on the concept of centrality, which is used to investigate the embeddedness of firms from a particular country within the global network. The study results in three contributions. First, to the best of our knowledge for the first time we can investigate the topology as well as the concept of centrality in corporate networks at a global scale, allowing for the largest cross-country comparison ever done in interlocking directorates literature. We demonstrate, amongst other things, extremely similar network topologies, yet large differences between countries when it comes to the relation between economic prominence indicators and firm centrality. Second, we introduce two new metrics that are specifically suitable for comparing the...

  1. Drone Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  2. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  3. System control and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid and ongoing development in the energy sector has consequences for system control at all levels. In relation to system control and communication the control system is challenged in five important ways: 1) Expectations for security of supply, robustness and vulnerability are becoming more stringent, and the control system plays a big part in meeting these expectations. 2) Services are becoming increasingly based on markets that involve the transmission system operators (TSOs), generators and distribution companies. Timely, accurate and secure communication is essential to the smooth running of the markets. 3) Adding large amounts of renewable energy (RE) to the mix is a challenge for control systems because of the intermittent availability of many RE sources. 4) Increasing the number of active components in the system, such as small CHP plants, micro-CHP and intelligent loads, means that the system control will be much more complex. 5) In the future it is likely that power, heat, gas, transport and communication systems will be tighter coupled and interact much more. (au)

  4. The control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present control system has matured both in terms of age and capacity. Thus a new system based on a local area network (LAN) is being developed. A pilot project has been started but, owing to difficulties encountered with the present operating system used with the microprocessors, it has become necessary to reconsider the choice of operating system. A recently-released multi-tasking operating system that runs on the existing hardware has been chosen. 1 fig

  5. The CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEBAF has recently upgraded its accelerator control system to use EPICS, a control system toolkit being developed by a collaboration among laboratories in the US and Europe. The migration to EPICS has taken place during a year of intense commissioning activity, with new and old control systems operating concurrently. Existing CAMAC hardware was preserved by adding a CAMAC serial highway link to VME; newer hardware developments are now primarily in VME. Software is distributed among three tiers of computers: first, workstations and X terminals for operator interfaces and high level applications; second, VME single board computers for distributed access to hardware and for local control processing; third, embedded processors where needed for faster closed loop operation. This system has demonstrated the ability to scale EPICS to controlling thousands of devices, including hundreds of embedded processors, with control distributed among dozens of VME processors executing more than 125,000 EPICS database records. To deal with the large size of the control system, CEBAF has integrated an object oriented database, providing data management capabilities for both low level I/O and high level machine modeling. A new callable interface which is control system independent permits access to live EPICS data, data in other Unix processes, and data contained in the object oriented database

  6. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel® Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators

  7. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  8. IGISOL control system modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  9. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  10. Sharing control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building a custom accelerator control system requires effort in the range of 30-100 person-years. This represents a significant investment of time, effort, and risk, as well as challenges for management. Even when the system is successful, the software has not yet been applied to the particular project; no custom control algorithms, either engineering or physics-based, have been implemented; and the system has not been documented for long-term maintenance and use. This paper reviews the requirements for sharing software between accelerator control system projects. It also reviews the three mechanisms by which control system software has been shared in the past and is being shared now, as well as some of the experiences. After reviewing the mechanisms and experiences, one can conclude there is no one best solution. The right software sharing mechanism depends upon the needs of the client site, the client resources available, and the services the provider can give

  11. ROV Motion Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dukan, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about automatic motion control systems for remotely operated vehicles (ROV). The work has focused on topics within guidance and navigation. In addition, a motion control system has been developed, implemented, tested and used on two ROVs in sea trials.The main motivation for the work has been the need to automate ROV tasks in order to make the ROV a more efficient tool for exploring the ocean space. Many parts of a motion control system for a ROV is similar to that of surface v...

  12. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  13. An LQ-solution to a control problem associated with a solar thermal central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, D. D.; Rogers, R. O.

    1983-10-01

    The linearized process dynamics of the steam boiler in a solar-powered central receiver change abruptly when clouds interfere with the sun's rays. The steam temperature regulator used to maintain proper exit steam conditions must control a system with variable structure and discontinuous state trajectories. This paper investigates the quadratic-optimal control of such a system, and gives the design equations for the optimal regulator.

  14. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  15. Controls on a shallow-water hemipelagic carbonate system adjacent to a siliciclastic margin: example from late Turonian of central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurin, Jiří; Uličný, David

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 5 (2004), s. 697-717. ISSN 1527-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/0629; GA AV ČR IAA3111501; GA AV ČR KJB3012310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : Bohemian Cretaceous Basin * hemipelagic carbonate system * sedimentary rhythms Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.323, year: 2004

  16. 中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌鉴定及温热控制%Identification and thermal control on fungi from the filter of central air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付柏淋; 吕阳

    2014-01-01

    To explore the propagative and diffused mechanism of fungi in central air conditioning system and control air microorganism contamination problem, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were researched in different thermal environments by thermal control. Fungi separated from the filter surface of the central air conditioning system in a gym were chosen as the research objects. By isolation, physiology and biochemistry experiments, and molecular biological identification, dominant fungi on the filter of central air conditioning system were confirmed. In order to conduct thermal control experiment of separated dominant fungi, growth rhythms of fungal colony and mycelium were observed at temperature of 25℃ and 22~28℃, respectively. As a result, it was shown that the dominant fungi were Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., colonies were 600 and 140 cfu/cm2 respectively. It was indicated that regardless of constant or variable temperature conditions, the reproduction rate of Penicillium spp. was faster than Cladosporium spp., with a liner correlation between colony diameter and time. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp were obviously restrained by temperature change control. Thermal control was feasible for restraining fungal growth in air conditioning system.%为研究中央空调系统真菌繁殖扩散机理及控制空气微生物污染问题,通过温热控制手段,探究不同温热环境下真菌菌落、菌丝生长繁殖规律.以某体育馆中央空调系统过滤器表面真菌为研究对象,通过分离、生理生化实验和分子生物学鉴定确认空调系统过滤器表面的优势菌属种类及数量.对分离鉴定的优势菌属做温热控制实验,分别在25℃恒温及22℃~28℃变温条件下观察菌落和菌丝的生长规律.结果显示,该空调系统过滤器表面真菌优势菌属为青霉属(Penicillium spp.)和枝孢属(Cladosporium spp.),菌落形成单位分别为600,140cfu/cm2.温热控制研究表明,无论25

  17. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  18. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  19. Control systems under attack?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The enormous growth of the Internet during the last decade offers new means to share and distribute both information and data. In Industry, this results in a rapprochement of the production facilities, i.e. their Process Control and Automation Systems, and the data warehouses. At CERN, the Internet opens the possibility to monitor and even control (parts of) the LHC and its four experiments remotely from anywhere in the world. However, the adoption of standard IT technologies to Distributed Process Control and Automation Systems exposes inherent vulnerabilities to the world. The Teststand On Control System Security at CERN (TOCSSiC) is dedicated to explore the vulnerabilities of arbitrary Commercial-Of-The-Shelf hardware devices connected to standard Ethernet. As such, TOCSSiC should discover their vulnerabilities, point out areas of lack of security, and address areas of improvement which can then be confidentially communicated to manufacturers. This paper points out risks of accessing the Control and Automa...

  20. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  1. Control and Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zahradnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with main tends of scientific research activities of Department of Control and Information Systems at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of University of Zilina and its perspectives in this area.

  2. Three axis attitude control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  3. Controllability of nilpotent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate algebraic conditions which give information about the controllability of invariant control systems on nilpotent Lie groups. With the same purpose, the authors use the co-adjoint representation and define the concept of symplectic vectors. We study the existence of these objects to analyze the controllability. In particular, we obtain a characterization when G is simply connected. (author). 9 refs

  4. Reactor limit control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)

  5. Tectonic Control of Piercement Structures in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Hadi, S.; Etiope, G.; Inguaggiato, S.

    2014-12-01

    A recent field expedition in Central Java targeted the mapping and sampling of several piercements structures in central Java (Indonesia), most of which have never been documented before. Here, at least seven structures erupting mud water and gas are distributed along a NE-SW alignment that extends for about 10 kilometers. Some of the mapped structures (Bledug Kuwu, Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, Mendikil, Banjarsari, Krewek) have been named after the neighboring local village. None of these have obvious elevation despite the vigorous emission of gas and mud, suggesting that significant caldera collapse is ongoing. Among the most relevant: Bledug Kuwu is certainly the most impressive structure with three main eruption sites in the crater area bursting more than 5 m large hot mud bubbles. Similar characteristics are present at the smaller (200 m in diameter) Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, that is also surrounded by numerous pools and gryphons seeping around the main crater. The smaller sized Mendikil is the only visited structure that, at the moment of the sampling, did not show seepage of hot fluids. Banjarsari and Krewek (up to 200 m wide) are characterized by scattered hot water-dominated pools where gas is vented vigorously. In particular the hot pools are systematically covered by travertine concretions. Water and gas geochemisty confirms the seepage of CO2 dominated gas and water with hydrothermal signature. The investigated structures appear to follow an obvious NE-SW oriented lineament that most likely coincides with a tectonic structure (fault?) that controls their location. Indeed the field observations and the analyses suggest that likely scenario is that this fault (?) acts as a preferential pathway for the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids to the surface. Very little is known about this region, neither is known why several of these structures erupt hot mud despite their significant distance from the two closest volcanic structures (i.e. Mt. Muria 60 km to the NW

  6. Method of introducing atmospheric air in a central control room upon accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the danger of radiation exposure to operators in a central control room by introducing external airs through an air intake port where the radioactivity level is the lowest depending on the information from radiation monitors and CO2 densitometers in the central control room. Method: After the occurrence of accident, the control system judges whether it is necessary or not to introduce external airs to the central control room depending on the signals from CO2 densitometers and, if it is not, air valves are kept closed. While on the other hand, if CO2 density is high thus requiring introduction of external airs, air intake ports at the lowest radioactivity level is selected based on the signals from radiation monitors and external airs are introduced to the central control room by sending ''open'' signal to the air valve disposed to a duct in communication with the air intake port, as well as by sending operation signals to a fan. This enables to introduce external airs at sufficiently low radioactivity level by a required amount to the central control room upon accident thereby decreasing the exposure danger to the operators caused by the introduction of the external airs. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Fluctuations Mitigation of Variable Speed Wind Turbine through Optimized Centralized Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masoud Barakati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A wind energy conversion system (WECS including a variable wind turbine in grid-connected mode is considered to control. In this paper, each component of WECS model is systematically presented and then the integrated overall model is validated.Regarding to nonlinear nature of WECS and the complex system structure as multiple-input- multiple-output (MIMO,control procedure counters the problem which strategy to handle.To simplify the control policy, a centralized controller which is compatible with systematic modelling introduced, is employed. In other hand to augment the centralized controller performance, an optimization based on genetic algorithm (GA is accomplished. Simulation results demonstate the proper efficiency in fluctuations mitigation.

  8. Adaptive Inflow Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, Vasily Y; Zhuravlev, Oleg N; Nukhaev, Marat T; Shchelushkin, Roman V

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the idea and realization for the unique Adaptive Inflow Control System being a part of well completion, able to adjust to the changing in time production conditions. This system allows to limit the flow rate from each interval at a certain level, which solves the problem of water and gas breakthroughs. We present the results of laboratory tests and numerical calculations obtaining the characteristics of the experimental setup with dual-in-position valves as parts of adaptive inflow control system, depending on the operating conditions. The flow distribution in the system was also studied with the help of three-dimensional computer model. The control ranges dependences are determined, an influence of the individual elements on the entire system is revealed.

  9. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer; Etude du controle global de l'Interferometre Central de VIRGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Luca [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)

    1999-10-29

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F {approx_equal}100 and F {approx_equal} 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an

  10. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Thilo; ATLAS Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking. It receives the 40 MHz bunch clock from the LHC machine and distributes it to all sub-detectors. It initiates the detector read-out by forming the Level-1 Accept decision, which is based on information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, plus a variety of additional trigger inputs from detectors in the forward regions. The L1CT also provides trigger-summary information to the data acquisition and the Level-2 trigger systems for use in higher levels of the selection process, in offline analysis, and for monitoring. In this paper we give an overview of the operational framework of the L1CT with particular emphasis on cross-system aspects. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently on all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow to efficiently display the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. We present the overall performance during cosmic-ray data taking with the full ATLAS detector and the experience with first beam in the LHC.

  11. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking. It receives the 40 MHz bunch clock from the LHC machine and distributes it to all sub-detectors. It initiates the detector read-out by forming the Level-1 Accept decision, which is based on information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, plus a variety of additional trigger inputs from detectors in the forward regions. The L1CT also provides trigger-summary information to the data acquisition and the Level-2 trigger systems for use in higher levels of the selection process, in offline analysis, and for monitoring. In this paper we give an overview of the operational framework of the L1CT with particular emphasis on cross-system aspects. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently on all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow to efficiently display the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. We present the overall performance during cosmic-ray data taking with the full ATLAS detector and the experience with first beam in the LHC.

  12. Research on Compiling Methods of Train Working Diagram Based on Centralized Traffic Control (“CTC”) System%基于 CTC调度集中系统列车运行图编制方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈农华

    2014-01-01

    研究编制我院CTC调度集中系统的列车运行图,既可以填补综合实训系统的一项空白,使系统的整体功能得到提升,为教学提供更多的实训内容,又可以为新校区的实训基地沙盘的再建设积累经验,有着重要的现实意义。%the research and compilation of the train working diagram based on the centralized traf-fic control system (“CTC”) may fill up the vacancy in the comprehensive training system to upgrade the overall function of the system and to provide more training information to the teaching work and may accumulate experiences to the reconstruction of the sand board of the training base in the campus .It is of important significance to the practice .

  13. Microgrid Central Controller Development and Hierarchical Control Implementation in the Intelligent MicroGrid Lab of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Andrade, Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    this lab is based on the hierarchical control scheme for microgrids and includes primary, secondary and tertiary control. The structure of the lab, including the lab facilities, configurations and communication network, is first introduced. Primary control loops are developed in MATLAB/Simulink and...... compiled to dSPACEs for local control purposes. In order to realize system supervision and proper secondary and tertiary management, a LabVIEW-based microgrid central controller is also developed. The software and hardware schemes are described. An example case is introduced and tested in the iMG lab for...

  14. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  15. The ISOLDE control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  16. MFTF supervisory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized supervisory control system is being developed for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. The system includes nine Perkin-Elmer 7/32 and 8/32 computers connected by a block of common core memory (128 kilobytes). The network is a disk designed for reliability and redundancy. If one computer goes down, the local-control micro-processors that it controls are switched to another computer in a matter of seconds. The control consoles permit operators to open and close valves, start or stop pumps, and adjust operating levels. The experiment is controlled by two superconsoles and five satellite consoles. The software, written in PASCAL, contains such subsystems as organizing the computers into a network, operating the consoles and accessing the data base

  17. The CMS central hadron calorimeter DAQ system upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, A.; Hirschauer, J.

    2015-05-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeters will undergo a complete replacement of their data acquisition system electronics. The replacement is phased, with portions of the replacement starting in 2014 and continuing through LHC Long Shutdown 2 in 2018. The existing VME electronics will be replaced with a μTCA-based system. New on-detector QIE electronics cards will transmit data at 4.8 GHz to the new μHTR cards residing in μTCA crates in the CMS electronics cavern. The μTCA crates are controlled by the AMC13, which accepts system clock and trigger throttling control from the CMS global DAQ system. The AMC13 distributes the clock to the μHTR and reads out data buffers from the μHTR into the CMS data acquisition system. The AMC 13 also provides the clock for in-crate GLIBs which in turn distribute the clock to the on-detector front end electronics. We report on the design, development status, and schedule of the DAQ system upgrades.

  18. Accelerator system for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator system for Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility that consists of 50MeV electron S-band linac, 1.2GeV full energy booster synchrotron and 1.2GeV storage ring, has been constructed. Eight 1.4T bending magnets and four 5T superconducting magnet with compact refrigerator system provide beam lines. For top-up operation, the 1ns single bunch electron beam from 50MeV injector linac is injected by on-axis injection scheme and accelerated up to 1.2GeV at booster synchrotron. The timing system is designed for injection from booster ring is possible for any bunch position of storage ring. To improve efficiency of booster injection, the electron gun trigger and RF frequency of 2856MHz is synchronized with storage ring frequency of 499.654MHz. The EPICS control system is used with timing control system for linac, pulse magnet and also for booster pattern memory system. The beam commissioning for 1.2GeV storage ring has been progressing. (author)

  19. The CMS central hadron calorimeter DAQ system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS central hadron calorimeters will undergo a complete replacement of their data acquisition system electronics. The replacement is phased, with portions of the replacement starting in 2014 and continuing through LHC Long Shutdown 2 in 2018. The existing VME electronics will be replaced with a μTCA-based system. New on-detector QIE electronics cards will transmit data at 4.8 GHz to the new μHTR cards residing in μTCA crates in the CMS electronics cavern. The μTCA crates are controlled by the AMC13, which accepts system clock and trigger throttling control from the CMS global DAQ system. The AMC13 distributes the clock to the μHTR and reads out data buffers from the μHTR into the CMS data acquisition system. The AMC 13 also provides the clock for in-crate GLIBs which in turn distribute the clock to the on-detector front end electronics. We report on the design, development status, and schedule of the DAQ system upgrades

  20. Central Control of Heat Pump for Smart Grid Purposes Tested on Single Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work a central control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The central...... MPC controller optimises the hour by hour energy consumption based on energy prices. A server based solution is tested using inhabited single family houses showing ability to move consumption with minor indoor temperature variations....

  1. CNEOST Control Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-bin; Xia, Yan; Lu, Hao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the messaging mechanism based on the WebSocket protocol, and possesses good flexibility and expansibility. The user interface based on the responsive web design has realized the remote observations under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operation of the software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  2. TMX magnet control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system utilizing a microcomputer has been developed that controls the power supplies driving the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) magnet set and monitors magnet coil operation. The magnet set consists of 18 magnet coils that are driven by 26 dc power supplies. There are two possible modes of operation with this system: a pulse mode where the coils are pulsed on for several seconds with a dc power consumption of 16 MW; and a continuous mode where the coils can run steady state at 10 percent of maximum current ratings. The processor has been given an active control role and serves as an interface between the operator and electronic circuitry that controls the magnet power supplies. This microcomputer also collects and processes data from many analog singal monitors in the coil circuits and numerous status signals from the supplies. Placing the microcomputer in an active control role has yielded a compact, cost effective system that simplifies the magnet system operation and has proven to be very reliable. This paper will describe the TMX magnet control sytem and discuss its development

  3. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at...

  4. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different sub-detector combinations. In this contribution, we give an overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are m...

  5. Asynchronous interactive control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, M. I.; Heer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A class of interactive control systems is derived by generalizing interactive manipulator control systems. The general structural properties of such systems are discussed and an appropriate general software implementation is proposed. This is based on the fact that tasks of interactive control systems can be represented as a network of a finite set of actions which have specific operational characteristics and specific resource requirements, and which are of limited duration. This has enabled the decomposition of the overall control algorithm into a set of subalgorithms, called subcontrollers, which can operate simultaneously and asynchronously. Coordinate transformations of sensor feedback data and actuator set-points have enabled the further simplification of the subcontrollers and have reduced their conflicting resource requirements. The modules of the decomposed control system are implemented as parallel processes with disjoint memory space communicating only by I/O. The synchronization mechanisms for dynamic resource allocation among subcontrollers and other synchronization mechanisms are also discussed in this paper. Such a software organization is suitable for the general form of multiprocessing using computer networks with distributed storage.

  6. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  7. Operating The Central Process Systems At Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Carly P.

    2004-01-01

    As a research facility, the Glenn Research Center (GRC) trusts and expects all the systems, controlling their facilities to run properly and efficiently in order for their research and operations to occur proficiently and on time. While there are many systems necessary for the operations at GRC, one of those most vital systems is the Central Process Systems (CPS). The CPS controls operations used by GRC's wind tunnels, propulsion systems lab, engine components research lab, and compressor, turbine and combustor test cells. Used widely throughout the lab, it operates equipment such as exhausters, chillers, cooling towers, compressors, dehydrators, and other such equipment. Through parameters such as pressure, temperature, speed, flow, etc., it performs its primary operations on the major systems of Electrical Dispatch (ED), Central Air Dispatch (CAD), Central Air Equipment Building (CAEB), and Engine Research Building (ERB). In order for the CPS to continue its operations at Glenn, a new contract must be awarded. Consequently, one of my primary responsibilities was assisting the Source Evaluation Board (SEB) with the process of awarding the recertification contract of the CPS. The job of the SEB was to evaluate the proposals of the contract bidders and then to present their findings to the Source Selecting Official (SSO). Before the evaluations began, the Center Director established the level of the competition. For this contract, the competition was limited to those companies classified as a small, disadvantaged business. After an industry briefing that explained to qualified companies the CPS and type of work required, each of the interested companies then submitted proposals addressing three components: Mission Suitability, Cost, and Past Performance. These proposals were based off the Statement of Work (SOW) written by the SEB. After companies submitted their proposals, the SEB reviewed all three components and then presented their results to the SSO. While the

  8. Control Systems with Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Friction-related problems are frequently encountered in control systems. This thesis treats three aspects of such problems: modeling, analysis, and friction compensation. A new dynamic friction model is presented and investigated. The model is described by a first order nonlinear differential equation with a reasonable number of parameters, yet it captures most of the experimentally observed friction phenomena. The model is suitable both for simulation purposes and control design. Analysis of...

  9. Optimal Control Strategy on the Centralized Control Type Emergency Evacuation System of Super High-rise Building%超高层建筑集中控制型应急疏散系统最优控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全蜀

    2013-01-01

    本文以目前我国在建结构第一高楼天津高银117大厦所采用的集中控制型应急疏散系统为对象,研究建筑中应急疏散系统的最优控制策略。该系统利用最优控制理论中的自适应蚁群算法,将公共区域疏散指示标志灯进行通讯整合,实现集中控制。%This paper takes the centralized control type emer-gency evacuation system of Tianjin high silver 117 building, China’s first high-rise structure currently in construction, as o-bject, researches the optimal control strategy of building eme-rgency evacuation system. The system uses adaptive optimal c-ontrol theory of ant colony algorithm, integrates the communi-cation of evacuation indicator lights in public area, to realize the centralized control.

  10. neural control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic power stabilization control is the desired objective for any reactor operation , especially, nuclear power plants. A major problem in this area is inevitable gap between a real plant ant the theory of conventional analysis and the synthesis of linear time invariant systems. in particular, the trajectory tracking control of a nonlinear plant is a class of problems in which the classical linear transfer function methods break down because no transfer function can represent the system over the entire operating region . there is a considerable amount of research on the model-inverse approach using feedback linearization technique. however, this method requires a prices plant model to implement the exact linearizing feedback, for nuclear reactor systems, this approach is not an easy task because of the uncertainty in the plant parameters and un-measurable state variables . therefore, artificial neural network (ANN) is used either in self-tuning control or in improving the conventional rule-based exper system.the main objective of this thesis is to suggest an ANN, based self-learning controller structure . this method is capable of on-line reinforcement learning and control for a nuclear reactor with a totally unknown dynamics model. previously, researches are based on back- propagation algorithm . back -propagation (BP), fast back -propagation (FBP), and levenberg-marquardt (LM), algorithms are discussed and compared for reinforcement learning. it is found that, LM algorithm is quite superior

  11. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating the...... need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  12. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  13. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  14. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  15. Electric turbocompound control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  16. Regulation of Peripheral Inflammation by the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Firestein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    In inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, cytokines and danger signals are sensed by the central nervous system, which adapts behavior and physiologic responses during systemic stress. The central nervous system can also signal the periphery to modulate inflammation through efferent hormonal and neuronal pathways. The brain and spinal cord are involved in this bidirectional interaction. A variety of neuronal pathways that modulate synovial inflammation have been implicated, incl...

  17. Telerobot control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1993-07-01

    This invention relates to an operator interface for controlling a telerobot to perform tasks in a poorly modeled environment and/or within unplanned scenarios. The telerobot control system includes a remote robot manipulator linked to an operator interface. The operator interface includes a setup terminal, simulation terminal, and execution terminal for the control of the graphics simulator and local robot actuator as well as the remote robot actuator. These terminals may be combined in a single terminal. Complex tasks are developed from sequential combinations of parameterized task primitives and recorded teleoperations, and are tested by execution on a graphics simulator and/or local robot actuator, together with adjustable time delays. The novel features of this invention include the shared and supervisory control of the remote robot manipulator via operator interface by pretested complex tasks sequences based on sequences of parameterized task primitives combined with further teleoperation and run-time binding of parameters based on task context.

  18. Effectiveness of a large mimic panel in an existing nuclear power plant central control board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted the analysis of the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators' behaviors under emergency conditions by using training simulators as a joint research project by Japanese BWR groups for twelve years. In the phase-IV of this project we executed two kinds of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the interfaces. One was for evaluations of the interfaces such as CRTs with touch screen, a large mimic panel, and a hierarchical annunciator system introduced in the newly developed ABWR type central control board. The other was that we analyzed the operators' behaviors in emergency conditions by using the first generation BWR type central control board which was added new interfaces such as a large display screen and demarcation on the board to help operators to understand the plant. The demarcation is one of the visual interface improvements and its technique is that a line enclosing several components causes them to be perceived as a group.The result showed that both the large display panel Introduced in ABWR central control board and the large display screen in the existing BWR type central control board improved the performance of the NPP operators in the experiments. It was expected that introduction of the large mimic panel into the existing BWR type central control boards would improve operators' performance. However, in the case of actual installation of the large display board into the existing central control boards, there are spatial and hardware constraints. Therefore the size of lamps, lines connecting from symbols of the pumps or valves to the others' will have to be modified under these constraints. It is important to evaluate the displayed information on the large display board before actual installation. We made experiments to solve these problems by using TEPCO's research simulator which is added a large mimic panel. (author)

  19. CERN's Technical Control Room (TCR) A Central Service for Everyone

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  20. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  1. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate CERN equipment services or contractors. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity covers the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, and buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaur...

  2. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  3. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  4. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  5. Peripheral and central control of swallowing initiation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Seiya; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Magara, Jin; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ito, Kayoko; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-11-01

    We investigated (1) how peripheral inputs might assist central inputs in the control of voluntary evoked swallowing, (2) inter-individual variation in involuntary and voluntary swallowing initiation, and (3) whether natural chewing behavior affects the initiation of involuntary swallowing in healthy humans. Eleven participants completed a repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), chewing test (CHEW), and rest period (REST). In RSST, participants repetitively swallowed as quickly as possible. In CHEW, subjects chewed gum freely. We delivered pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PEStim) to the laryngopharynx and compared the number of swallows that occurred with and without PEStim. PEStim significantly increased the number of voluntary evoked swallows in RSST, as well as the number of swallows in CHEW and REST trials, although this facilitatory effect was larger in REST trials. We found a positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST without PEStim and that at REST with PEStim within individuals. Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST with PEStim and the sum of that at RSST without PEStim and at REST with PES. Based on the current results, we suggest that (1) peripheral inputs within a certain range appear to facilitate the central inputs that control voluntary swallowing, (2) inter-individual variations in swallowing initiation may arise from differences in the excitability of the common neural network in the lower brainstem, and (3) during chewing, food reduction in the oral cavity is prioritized, such that the neural network associated with chewing may regulate swallowing initiation. PMID:26253217

  6. Centralized computer-based controls of the Nova Laser Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces the overall architecture of the computer-based Nova Laser Control System and describes its basic components. Use of standard hardware and software components ensures that the system, while specialized and distributed throughout the facility, is adaptable. 9 references, 6 figures

  7. Design and Simulation of a Decentralized Railway Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of railway transportation, various methods have been developed for the control and management of train traffic. Train traffic control systems that are currently in use are overwhelmingly centralized systems. In this study, the development of the general structure of railway traffic control techniques is examined, centralized and decentralized control systems are investigated, and an alternative train traffic control system, the Decentralized Train Traffic Management System (DTMS, is suggested. Simulation results on the possible application of the proposed method to a railway line in South-East Turkey are employed to evaluate the performance of the developed system.

  8. Dependable control systems with Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri; Ha, Q P

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled dependable control system (DepCS) for continuous processes. In a DepCS, an actuator and a transmitter form a regulatory control loop. Each processor inside such actuator and transmitter is designed as a computational platform implementing the feedback control algorithm. The connections between actuators and transmitters via IoT create a reliable backbone for a DepCS. The centralized input-output marshaling system is not required in DepCSs. A state feedback control synthesis method for DepCS applying the self-recovery constraint is presented in the second part of the paper. PMID:26329254

  9. Nova control system: goals, architecture, and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the Nova laser must operate reliably in a harsh pulse power environment and satisfy requirements of technical functionality, flexibility, maintainability and operability. It is composed of four fundamental subsystems: Power Conditioning, Alignment, Laser Diagnostics, and Target Diagnostics, together with a fifth, unifying subsystem called Central Controls. The system architecture utilizes a collection of distributed microcomputers, minicomputers, and components interconnected through high speed fiber optic communications systems. The design objectives, development strategy and architecture of the overall control system and each of its four fundamental subsystems are discussed. Specific hardware and software developments in several areas are also covered

  10. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  11. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor responds to treatment. Newly Diagnosed CNS Teratomas Treatment of newly diagnosed mature and immature central nervous system (CNS) teratomas may include the following: Surgery to remove as ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  13. General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  14. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    from this study highlights requirements for a dedicated software environment for fault tolerant control systems design. The second detailed study addressed the detection of a fault event and determination of the failed component. A variety of algorithms were compared, based on two fault scenarios in...... faults, but also that the research field still misses a systematic approach to handle realistic problems such as low sampling rate and nonlinear characteristics of the system. The thesis contributed with methods to detect both faults and specifically with a novel algorithm for the actuator fault...... detection that is superior in terms of performance and complexity to the other algorithms in the comparative study....

  15. Agile Design of Sewer System Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nooijen, R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.; Van Leeuwen, P.E.R.M.; Van Velzen, E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the first part of an attempt to include stakeholder participation in the design of a central automatic controller for a sewer system in a small pilot project (five subcatchments) and present lessons learned so far. The pilot is part of a project aimed at the improvement of water quality

  16. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravish Parekh; Alexis Haftka; Ashleigh Porter

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as we...

  17. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  19. Modular thyristor controlled series capacitor control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, K.; Larsen, E.V.; Wegner, C.A.; Piwko, R.J.

    1995-06-13

    A modular thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) system, including a method and apparatus, uses phase controlled firing based on monitored capacitor voltage and line current. For vernier operation, the TCSC system predicts an upcoming firing angle for switching a thyristor controlled commutating circuit to bypass line current around a series capacitor. Each bypass current pulse changes the capacitor voltage proportionally to the integrated value of the current pulse. The TCSC system promptly responds to an offset command from a higher-level controller to control bypass thyristor duty to minimize thyristor damage, and to prevent capacitor voltage drift during line current disturbances. In a multi-module TCSC system, the higher level controller accommodates competing objectives of various system demands, including minimizing losses in scheduling control, stabilizing transients, damping subsynchronous resonance (SSR) oscillations, damping direct current (DC) offset, and damping power-swings. 67 figs.

  20. Telerobotic virtual control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shumin; Milgram, Paul

    1992-03-01

    A project to develop a telerobotic `virtual control' capability, currently underway at the University of Toronto, is described. The project centers on a new mode of interactive telerobotic control based on the technology of combining computer generated stereographic images with remotely transmitted stereoscopic video images. A virtual measurement technique, in conjunction with a basic level of digital image processing, comprising zooming, parallax adjustment, edge enhancement, and edge detection has been developed to assist the human operator in visualization of the remote environment and in spatial reasoning. The aim is to maintain target recognition, tactical planning, and high-level control functions in the hands of the human operator with the computer performing low-level computation and control. Control commands initiated by the operator are implemented through manipulation of a virtual image of the robot system, merged with a live video image of the remote scene. This paper discusses the philosophy and objectives of the project, with emphasis on the underlying human factor considerations in the design, and reports the progress made to date in this effort.

  1. The Ganil computer control system renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982 the GANIL heavy ion accelerator has been under the control of 16-bit minicomputers MITRA, programmable logic controllers and microprocessorized Camac controllers, structured into a partially centralized system. This control system has to be renewed to meet the increasing demands of the accelerator operation which aims to provide higher quality ion beams under more reliable conditions. This paper gives a brief description of the existing control system and then discusses the main issues of the design and the implementation of the future control system: distributed powerful processors federated through Ethernet and flexible network-wide database access, VME standard and front-end microprocessors, enhanced color graphic tools and workstation based operator interface

  2. Low-profile heliostat design for solar central receiver systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourakis, E.; Severson, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Heliostat designs intended to reduce costs and the effect of adverse wind loads on the devices were developed. Included was the low-profile heliostat consisting of a stiff frame with sectional focusing reflectors coupled together to turn as a unit. The entire frame is arranged to turn angularly about a center point. The ability of the heliostat to rotate about both the vertical and horizontal axes permits a central computer control system to continuously aim the sun's reflection onto a selected target. An engineering model of the basic device was built and is being tested. Control and mirror parameters, such as roughness and need for fine aiming, are being studied. The fabrication of these prototypes is in process. The model was also designed to test mirror focusing techniques, heliostat geometry, mechanical functioning, and tracking control. The model can be easily relocated to test mirror imaging on a tower from various directions. In addition to steering and aiming studies, the tests include the effects of temperature changes, wind gusting and weathering. The results of economic studies on this heliostat are also presented.

  3. NSLS control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans

  4. Controlled Quantum Open Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Alicki, R

    2003-01-01

    The theory of controlled quantum open systems describes quantum systems interacting with quantum environments and influenced by external forces varying according to given algorithms. It is aimed, for instance, to model quantum devices which can find applications in the future technology based on quantum information processing. One of the main problems making difficult the practical implementations of quantum information theory is the fragility of quantum states under external perturbations. The aim of this note is to present the relevant results concerning ergodic properties of open quantum systems which are useful for the optimization of quantum devices and noise (errors) reduction. In particular we present mathematical characterization of the so-called "decoherence-free subspaces" for discrete and continuous-time quantum dynamical semigroups in terms of $C^*$-algebras and group representations. We analyze the non-Markovian models also, presenting the formulas for errors in the Born approximation. The obtain...

  5. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than ten degrees, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masse...

  6. Central Energy System Modernization at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; Dirks, James A.

    2006-11-29

    An evaluation of technology options was conducted for the central energy systems at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. There were two objectives in conducting this study. From a broader viewpoint, the Army would like to develop a systematic approach to management of its central energy systems and selected Fort Jackson for this ''pilot'' study for a prospective Central Energy System Modernization Program. From a site-specific perspective, the objective was to identify the lowest life-cycle cost energy supply option(s) at Fort Jackson for buildings currently served by central boilers and chillers. This study was co-funded by the Army's Southeast Region and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program.

  7. Crawling the Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore Larrieu

    2009-10-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google "mini" search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  8. Crawling the Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google 'mini' search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  9. Management of central nervous system metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the modalities available for treating CNS metastases and the results that one can expect. There are no controlled studies in the literature comparing these several treatment modalities against each other, and thus conclusions about the best treatment are necessarily tentative and to some degree based upon the bias and experience of the writer. Only very recently have animal models of CNS metastatic disease been developed. One hopes that the use of these animal models will in the future allow one to place the treatment of human CNS metastatic disease on a more rational basis

  10. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ISOLATION DOOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to review and refine key design concepts related to the control system presently under consideration for remotely operating the emplacement drift isolation doors at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis will discuss the key design concepts of the control system that may be utilized for remotely monitoring, opening, and closing the emplacement drift isolation doors. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Discuss the purpose and function of the isolation doors (Presented in Section 7.1). (2) Review the construction of the isolation door and other physical characteristics of the doors that the control system will interface with (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Discuss monitoring and controlling the operation of the isolation doors with a digital control system (either a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system or a Distributed Control System (DCS)) (Presented in Section 7.3). (4) Discuss how all isolation doors can be monitored and controlled from a subsurface central control center (Presented in Section 7.4). This analysis will focus on the development of input/output (I/O) counts including the types of I/O, redundancy and fault tolerance considerations, and processor requirements for the isolation door control system. Attention will be placed on operability, maintainability, and reliability issues for the system operating in the subsurface environment with exposure to high temperatures and radiation

  11. Aspects Related to the Control of the Secondary Flow of Water in Centralized Air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechavarría-Hernández J.R.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the tuning of the proportional integral controller, incorporated in the variable frequency drive implemented on the secondary variable flow system of cold water of the centralized air conditioning system of a Hotel is carried out. The proportional gain and the time of integration that guarantee a minimum error of one kPa in the control of pressure were defined. A focus multi-variable of the system is presented. It is defined the structure of artificial neural network that better it predicts the behaviour of the pressure, the power and return temperature with an adjustment of 94%. It is determined that there is a saving of 13% of electric power, in similar operation conditions, when using a control for closed loop with respect to a control for open loop.

  12. Construction and Application of Centralized Control Performance Management System in Thermal Power Plant%火电厂集控绩效管理体系建设与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟守臣

    2015-01-01

    In order to accelerate the revolution of energy production and consumption, further improve the efficient and cleaning development level of coal-fired electricity, and carry out more strict environmental standards, thermal power enterprises should start from the management and reconstruction of equipment, and achieve further efficiencies in terms of optimizing operation adjustment. And its means is to strengthen the management and seek effectiveness from management, set up the performance management system to realize internal potential of centralized control operation personnel, enhance the sense of responsibility, standardize the operators' behaviors, and improve operation skill levels by motivating employees to achieve the goal of reducing cost and increasing efficiency based on the optimization and adjustment.%为加快推动能源生产和消费革命,进一步提升煤电高效清洁发展水平,推行更严格能效环保标准,火电企业不仅要从设备治理和改造入手,还要在优化运行调整方面实现进一步挖潜增效,其手段就是强化管理,向管理要效益。建立运行人员绩效管理体系,实现对集控运行人员规范化、标准化、数据化综合评价的管理模式,激发集控运行人员的内在潜能,提高责任心和责任意识,规范员工的作业行为,通过激励员工努力提升运行操作技能水平,在优化调整上达到降本增效的根本目的。

  13. PEP instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems

  14. Matlab control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Control Systems Engineering introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an in

  15. BLTC control system software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  16. Central cholinergic control of vasopressin release in conscious rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of carbachol into conscious rats evoked a substantial increase in vasopressin secretion and blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the muscarinic blocker, atropine (10 μg icv), but not by the nicotinic blocker, hexamethonium (10 μg icv). Hexamethonium did, however, block the increase in blood pressure, the decrease in heart rate, and they very small elevation in the plasma vasopressin concentration induced by nicotine (10 μg icv). These results indicate that stimulation of either central nicotinic or muscarinic receptors can affect the cardiovascular system and suggest that the cholinergic stimulation of vasopressin secretion may involve primarily muscarinic receptors in the conscious rat

  17. Financial study of commercialization of solar central receiver power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Commercialization requires that central receiver (CR) systems meet the economic criteria used by industry to select systems for capital ventures. Quantitative estimates are given of the investment required by government, utilities, and the manufacturing sector to meet the energy displacement goals for central receiver technology. Initial solar repowering and stand-alone electric utility plants will not have economic comparability with competitive energy sources. A major factor for this is that initial (first of a kind) heliostat costs will be high. As heliostat costs are reduced due to automated manufacturing economies, learning, and high volume production, central receiver technology will become more competitive. Under this task, several scenarios (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 quad/y) were evaluated to determine the effect on commercial attractiveness and to determine the cost to government to bring about commercialization of solar central receivers.

  18. Modelling profitable and sustainable farming systems in Central Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Chudleigh, Fred; Cox, Howard W.; Chapman, Veronica J.

    2002-01-01

    Central Queensland’s dryland farming systems are subject to high levels of climatic variability, are seen as being relatively risky and also suffering falling profitability due (in part) to the rapid decline of nutrient content and physical structure of soils. This suggests that many farming practices in Central Queensland are not sustainable. A multi agency project that uses participatory on-farm research and development processes has been addressing the core issues that contribute to more s...

  19. Automatically controlled training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the computer system for NPP personnel training was developed for training centers in the Soviet Union. The system should be considered as the first step in training, taking into account that further steps are to be devoted to part-task and full scope simulator training. The training room consists of 8-12 IBM PC/AT personal computers combined into a network. A trainee accesses the system in a dialor manner. Software enables the instructor to determine the trainee's progress in different subjects of the program. The quality of any trainee preparedness may be evaluated by Knowledge Control operation. Simplified dynamic models are adopted for separate areas of the program. For example, the system of neutron flux monitoring has a dedicated model. Currently, training, requalification and support of professional qualifications of nuclear power plant operators is being emphasized. A significant number of emergency situations during work are occurring due to operator errors. Based on data from September-October 1989, more than half of all unplanned drops in power and stoppages of power plants were due to operator error. As a comparison, problems due to equipment malfunction accounted for no more than a third of the total. The role of personnel, especially of the operators, is significant during normal operations, since energy production costs as well as losses are influenced by the capability of the staff. These facts all point to the importance of quality training of personnel

  20. LINAC control automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7 MeV Electron Beam Linear Accelerator (LINAC) being used for pulse radiolysis experiments at RC and CDD, B.A.R.C. has been automated with a PLC based control panel designed and developed by Computer Division, B.A.R.C.. The control panel after power on switches ON various units in a pre-defined sequence and intervals on a single turn of START key from OFF to ON position. The control panel also generates various ramp signals in a pre-defined sequence and rate and steady values and feeds to the LINAC bringing it to the ready for experiment condition. Similarly on a single turn of STOP key from OFF to ON position, the panel ramps down the various signals in pre-defined manners and makes OFF the various units in predefined sequence and timing providing safety to the machine. The steady values for various signals are on line settable as and when required so. This automation system relieves the operator from fatigue of time consuming manual ramping up or down of various signals and running around in four rooms for switching ON or OFF the various units enhancing efficiency and safety. This also facilitates the user scientist to do start up and shutdown operation in the absence of skilled operators and thus adds flexibility for working up to extended timing. This unit has been working satisfactorily since August 2002. For extraordinary condition automation to manual or vice versa change over has been provided. (author)

  1. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  2. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  3. RAMI analysis of the ITER Central Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We performed the functional analysis of the ITER CSS. • We performed a failure mode analysis of the ITER CSS. • We estimated the reliability and availability of the ITER CSS. • The ITER RAMI approach was applied to the ITER CSS for technical risk control in the design phase. - Abstract: ITER is the first worldwide international project aiming to design a facility to produce nuclear fusion energy. The technical requirements of its plant systems have been established in the ITER Project Baseline. In the project, the Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) approach has been adopted for technical risk control to help aid the design of the components in preparation for operation and maintenance. A RAMI analysis was performed on the conceptual design of the ITER Central Safety System (CSS). A functional breakdown was prepared in a bottom-up approach, resulting in the system being divided into 2 main functions and 20 sub-functions. These functions were described using the IDEF0 method. Reliability block diagrams were prepared to estimate the reliability and availability of each function under the stipulated operating conditions. Initial and expected scenarios were analyzed to define risk-mitigation actions. The inherent availability of the ITER CSS expected after implementation of mitigation actions was calculated to be 99.80% over 2 years, which is the typical interval of the scheduled maintenance cycles. This is consistent with the project required value of 99.9 ± 0.1%. A Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis was performed with criticality charts highlighting the risk level of the different failure modes with regard to their probability of occurrence and their effects on the availability of the plasma operation. This analysis defined when risk mitigation actions were required in terms of design, testing, operation procedures and/or maintenance to reduce the risk levels and increase the availability of the

  4. Lighting control system of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we described lighting control system for effective management of lighting system according to the size and use of each building of the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP. By introducing lighting control system, it helps work environment enhancement, work efficiency increases and electric power consumption reduction. We also described the organization and function of the lighting control system of PEFP

  5. Lighting control system of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hoi Won; Mun, Kyeong Jun; Han, Yung Gu; Park, Sung Sik; Song, In Teak; Kim, Jun Yeon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we described lighting control system for effective management of lighting system according to the size and use of each building of the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP. By introducing lighting control system, it helps work environment enhancement, work efficiency increases and electric power consumption reduction. We also described the organization and function of the lighting control system of PEFP.

  6. A centralized control architecture for harmonic voltage suppression in islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a centralized control architecture for harmonic voltage suppression in islanded microgrids. The centralized selective harmonic compensator is developed in addition to the autonomous nonlinear load sharing loop in local controllers of inverter-interfaced Distributed Energy...... transformation aided signal modulation method is integrated to the centralized control architecture. The operation principle and case studies based on computer simulations are presented in this paper and validate the proposed control architecture....

  7. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  8. Central Command Architecture for High Order Autonomous Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Chad Michael

    This dissertation describes a High-Order Central Command (HOCC) architecture and presents a flight demonstration where a single user coordinates 4 unmanned fixed-wing aircraft. HOCC decouples the user from control of individual vehicles, eliminating human limits on the size of the system, and uses a non-iterative sequence of algorithms that permit easy estimation of how computational complexity scales. The Hungarian algorithm used to solve a min-sum assignment with a one-task planning horizon becomes the limiting complexity, scaling at O(x3) where x is the larger number of vehicles or tasks in the assignment. This method is shown to have a unique property of creating non-intersecting routes which is used to drastically reduce the computational cost of deconflicting planned routes. Results from several demonstration flights are presented where a single user commands a system of 4 fixed-wing aircraft. The results confirm that autonomous flight of a large number of UAVs is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who will find its utility in the aviation industry and in other emerging markets.

  9. Towards a new Mercator Observatory Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Prins, S.; Saey, P.; Merges, F.; Padilla, J. P.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.

    2010-07-01

    A new control system is currently being developed for the 1.2-meter Mercator Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). Formerly based on transputers, the new Mercator Observatory Control System (MOCS) consists of a small network of Linux computers complemented by a central industrial controller and an industrial real-time data communication network. Python is chosen as the high-level language to develop flexible yet powerful supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software for the Linux computers. Specialized applications such as detector control, auto-guiding and middleware management are also integrated in the same Python software package. The industrial controller, on the other hand, is connected to the majority of the field devices and is targeted to run various control loops, some of which are real-time critical. Independently of the Linux distributed control system (DCS), this controller makes sure that high priority tasks such as the telescope motion, mirror support and hydrostatic bearing control are carried out in a reliable and safe way. A comparison is made between different controller technologies including a LabVIEW embedded system, a PROFINET Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and motion controller, and an EtherCAT embedded PC (soft-PLC). As the latter is chosen as the primary platform for the lower level control, a substantial part of the software is being ported to the IEC 61131-3 standard programming languages. Additionally, obsolete hardware is gradually being replaced by standard industrial alternatives with fast EtherCAT communication. The use of Python as a scripting language allows a smooth migration to the final MOCS: finished parts of the new control system can readily be commissioned to replace the corresponding transputer units of the old control system with minimal downtime. In this contribution, we give an overview of the systems design, implementation details and the current status of the project.

  10. Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Schmeink, C

    2009-03-01

    The study examined the influence of different types of enhanced system support on user performance during the management of a central heating system. A computer-based simulation of a central heating system, called CHESS V2.0, was used to model different interface options, providing different support facilities to the user (e.g., historical, predictive, and instructional displays). Seventy-five participants took part in the study and completed a series of operational scenarios under different support conditions. The simulation environment allowed the collection of performance measures (e.g., energy consumption), information sampling, and system control behaviour. Subjective user evaluations of various aspects of the system were also measured. The results showed performance gains for predictive displays whereas no such benefits were observed for the other display types. The data also revealed that status and predictive displays were valued most highly by users. The implications of the findings for designers of central heating systems are discussed. PMID:18433730

  11. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized controlcontrol with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  12. CT findings of central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant. Methods: CT findings of central nervous system in 11 infants with clinically proved congenital syphilis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: CT findings in 10 syphilis neonates were diffuse hypodense lesions in the white matter, with subarachnoid and intra-encephalic hemorrhage in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. One 2-month-old syphilis infant case and 5 cases of follow-up after 45 days to 6 months of treatment demonstrated bilateral widened sulci and cistern with enlarged ventricles in 3 of them. Conclusion: CT findings of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant are similar to those of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, and extra-encephalic hydrocephalus or brain hypogenesis ensues later on. (authors)

  13. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  14. Recent advances in central cardiovascular control: sex, ROS, gas and inflammation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS in concert with the heart and vasculature is essential to maintaining cardiovascular (CV homeostasis. In recent years, our understanding of CNS control of blood pressure regulation (and dysregulation leading to hypertension has evolved substantially to include (i the actions of signaling molecules that are not classically viewed as CV signaling molecules, some of which exert effects at CNS targets in a non-traditional manner, and (ii CNS locations not traditionally viewed as central autonomic cardiovascular centers. This review summarizes recent work implicating immune signals and reproductive hormones, as well as gasotransmitters and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension at traditional CV control centers. Additionally, recent work implicating non-conventional CNS structures in CV regulation is discussed.

  15. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  16. Control system for a compact synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for a compact superconducting synchrotron (HELIOS) is described. The machine is intended to be used as a prototype production tool for X-ray lithography, so emphasis has been placed on engineering the control system for this purpose. The system has been designed to be flexible for commissioning, but easy to use for an operator at a lithography facility. With this in mind the following facilities have been included: keys to limit control functions, a HELP facility for operators, colour touch-panels and displays, limits and other software protection. The conservative hardware design is based on well established CAMAC interfaces. Similarly, the software runs on a MicroVAX with VMS, is written in FORTRAN 77, and is adapted from a well developed SLAC control system. Design features include the use of local intelligence for some subsystems, modular hardware and software, interlocks and a central database. (orig.)

  17. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  18. Thermal control system technology discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wilbert E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on thermal control systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: heat rejection; heat acquisition and transport; monitoring and control; passive thermal control; and analysis and test verification.

  19. Speed Synchronization of web winding System with Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachemi Glaoui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. A speed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed control strategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designed controller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant with Solar Central Receiver Technology is presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber.

  1. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstanding Central Nervous System anomalies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 77-89

  2. Distributed control systems for reactors and NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made of the centralized and distributed control systems for reactors and NPPs. The methods for constructing the distributed systems based on the use of microcomputer and microprocessor techniques are considered. Advantages of the distributed systems with regard to the most important technical-and-economic indices such as, reliability functional expansion capacity technical servce, economic efficiency are proved. The transition to the distributed system reduces the total extent of its communications at the expense of the position of local computers near transducers and actuating mechanisms, which considerably improves the system reliability. The distributed control systems are characteristic of simple and effective methods of systematic diagnostics, detection and elimination of failures which also improves their reliability as compared with the centralized systems. The module consrtruction principle simplifies the hardware servicing, maintenance and preventive repair, its modification. It is concluded that the key problem of designing the distributed control systems for reactors and NPPs is the development of reliable and effective softWare on which the realization of advantages of such systems, strongly depends

  3. Distributed control systems for reactors and NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosilov, A.N.; Potanin, Yu.G.; Podenkov, K.F.

    1984-06-01

    A comparison is made of the centralized and distributed control systems for reactors and NPPs. The methods for constructing the distributed systems based on the use of microcomputer and microprocessor techniques are considered. Advantages of the distributed systems with regard to the most important technical and economic indices such as reliability, functional expansion capacity, technical service, and economic efficiency are proved. The transition to the distributed system reduces the total extent of its communications at the expense of the position of local computers near transducers and actuating mechanisms, which considerably improves the system reliability. The distributed control systems are characteristic of simple and effective methods of systematic diagnostics, detection and elimination of failures which also improves their reliability as compared with the centralized systems. The module construction principle simplifies the hardware servicing, maintenance and preventive repair, its modification. It is concluded that the key problem of designing the distributed control systems for reactors and NPPs is the development of reliable and effective software on which the realization of advantages of such systems strongly depends.

  4. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the National Synchrotron Light Source is implemented using dual central computers and many remote microprocessors. This paper describes developments in four areas: (1) system organization; (2) hardware status, particularly control desk and operator support facilities; (3) central computer software system organization to support data base structures and access, and communication between application programs and hardware; and (4) high level control programs which allow the operator to examine and control the transport lines and rings in terms of beam and machine parameters using mathematical models of the system. The output of these programs can be viewed on a color graphical display

  5. Control system for HIMAC injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system for HIMAC injector has been designed. The system consists of three mini-computers and many intelligent device controllers. The device controller is a single-board computer with a real time monitor and is installed in each device. Almost man-machine interactions for an operation of the injector system are performed by touch panels and rotary encoders. (author)

  6. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  7. Towards A Taxonomy Of Attacks Against Energy Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von

    Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.

  8. Overview of KSTAR integrated control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After more than 10 years construction, KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) had finally completed its assembly in June 2007, and then achieved the goal of first-plasma in July 2008 through the four month's commissioning. KSTAR was constructed with fully superconducting magnets with material of Nb3Sn and NbTi, and their operation temperatures are maintained below 4.5K by the help of Helium Refrigerator System. During the first-plasma operation, plasmas of maximum current of 133kA and maximum pulse width of 865ms were obtained. The KSTAR Integrated Control System (KICS) has successfully fulfilled its missions of surveillance, device operation, machine protection interlock, and data acquisition and management. These and more were all KSTAR commissioning requirements. For reliable and safe operation of KSTAR, 17 local control systems were developed. Those systems must be integrated into the logically single control system, and operate regardless of their platforms and location installed. In order to meet these requirements, KICS was developed as a network-based distributed system and adopted a new framework, named as EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). Also, KICS has some features in KSTAR operation. It performs not only 24 hour continuous plant operation, but the shot-based real-time feedback control by exchanging the initiatives of operation between a central controller and a plasma control system in accordance with the operation sequence. For the diagnosis and analysis of plasma, 11 types of diagnostic system were implemented in KSTAR, and the acquired data from them were archived using MDSplus (Model Driven System), which is widely used in data management of fusion control systems. This paper will cover the design and implementation of the KSTAR integrated control system and the data management and visualization systems. Commissioning results will be introduced in brief

  9. Reconciling Himalayan midcrustal discontinuities: The Main Central thrust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kyle P.; Ambrose, Tyler K.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Cottle, John M.; Shrestha, Sudip

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of thrust-sense tectonometamorphic discontinuities within the exhumed Himalayan metamorphic core can be explained as part of the Main Central thrust system. This imbricate thrust structure, which significantly thickened the orogenic midcrustal core, comprises a series of thrust-sense faults that all merge into a single detachment. The existence of these various structures, and their potential for complex overprinting along the main detachment, may help explain the contention surrounding the definition, mapping, and interpretation of the Main Central thrust. The unique evolution of specific segments of the Main Central thrust system along the orogen is interpreted to be a reflection of the inherent basement structure and ramp position, and structural level of exposure of the mid-crust. This helps explain the variation in the timing and structural position of tectonometamorphic discontinuities along the length of the mountain belt.

  10. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Ulrich [Alencon LLC; Fishman, Oleg [Alencon LLC

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  11. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  13. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined

  14. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  15. Expedient arrangement of newly constructed systems for centralized heat supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Rotinov, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that for newly constructed combined-cycle cogeneration plants and nuclear cogeneration plants, the optimum arrangement of the centralized heat supply system is the combination of a cogeneration plant and a district heat-supply station (a boiler house).

  16. Isolated central nervous system Whipple's disease: Two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Atay; Acar, Nazire Pinar; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Oguz, Kader K; Dericioğlu, Neşe; Saka, Esen

    2015-12-01

    Although it is an orphan disease, isolated central nervous system Whipple's disease is one of the "must be known" conditions in neurology because it belongs to the list of "treatable disorders". Here, we present two cases which highlight the importance of early diagnosis. Additionally, we provide a discussion on up to date diagnostic approach to this life-threatening disorder. PMID:26407049

  17. Radiotherapy of the central nervous system in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a site of occult and overt involvement with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Prophylactic treatment of the cranial and spinal meninges can significantly reduce the incidence of CNS relapse. This review addresses the issues associated with the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of the CNS in ALL.20 references

  18. ERDA's central receiver solar thermal power system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, L. J.; Heaton, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy for electrical power production was studied. Efforts underway on the central receiver solar thermal power system are presented. Preliminary designs are included of pilot plant utilizing large numbers of heliostats in a collector field. Safety hazards are also discussed, as well as the most beneficial location of such a plant within the United States.

  19. Centralized radiation monitoring system for the JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the outline of centralized radiation monitoring system for the JRR-3M and its functions such as the acquisition, the monitoring, the filing, the display and the statistical analysis of the data measured and the diagnostic program for the projection of the phenomena of the events to offer the measures needed. (author)

  20. The Role of Central Nervous System Plasticity in Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is a vexing disorder of hearing characterized by sound sensations originating in the head without any external stimulation. The specific etiology of these sensations is uncertain but frequently associated with hearing loss. The "neurophysiogical" model of tinnitus has enhanced appreciation of central nervous system (CNS) contributions.…

  1. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  2. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  3. Radiation therapy for histologically confirmed primary central nervous system germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and patterns of recurrence in patients with primary central nervous system germinoma treated with radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Data regarding 48 patients with histologically confirmed, primary central nervous system germinoma were reviewed. All had been operated on at the Mayo Clinic between the years 1935 and 1993. Thirty-two patients (67%) were treated since 1973. The study group included 39 males and 9 females, with a median age at diagnosis of 17 years (range, 6-42 years). Twelve patients (25%) were treated with craniospinal axis irradiation, 11 (23%) received whole-brain irradiation without spinal axis irradiation, and 24 (50%) underwent partial-brain irradiation. Treatment volumes were unknown in one patient. The median dose to the primary tumor was 44.00 Gy (range, 7.44-59.40 Gy). The median follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 4 months to 37 years). Results: Actuarial 5-year and 10-year survival for the entire study group of patients was 80%. There was a trend toward improved survival in patients treated after 1973 (introduction of computed tomography) with 5-year and 10-year survival of 91% vs. 63% in prior years (p = 0.07). For the group of 31 patients treated since 1973 with known treatment volumes, the spinal axis failure rate at 5 years was 49% for patients treated with partial brain fields (11 patients) vs. 0% for those having undergone whole brain (10 patients) or craniospinal axis (10 patients) irradiation (p 0.007). The rate of brain failure was also significantly higher in patients receiving less than whole-brain irradiation; at 5 years, 45% of the patients treated with partial-brain fields had intracranial recurrence of disease compared to 6% of patients treated with craniospinal axis or whole-brain irradiation (p 0.01). Among the 32 modern era patients, the rate of brain failure was higher in patients who received doses less than 40 Gy (median dose, 48.55 Gy; range, 30.60-59.40 Gy) to the primary tumor (5

  4. SPS : the control system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films

    1975-01-01

    English version. Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. "More than 10.000 things to control, 7,00 things to measure and 30,000 ? to survey, distributed over more than 10 square km. That was the problem which faced the controls group." Comments: images of control room, computer screens, and computer centre rather dark

  5. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  6. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Stankiewicz; Dino Bindi; Adrien Oth; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW) systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds) warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for C...

  7. Control of gaseous emissions in central Costanera S.A. of Argentina; Control de emisiones gaseosas en central Costanera S. A. de Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabenec, Edgardo [Unidad de Negocios Central Costanera, S. A., (Argentina)

    1996-12-31

    A description is presented of the equipment utilized at the Central Costanera, S.A. of Argentina, the requirements and the Environmental Management established for this Power Station, and the Standards and the resolutions and law instruments on Environmental issues. Also it is presented the Environmental Management plan of the Ente Nacional Regulador de Electricidad of Argentina as well as the controls and environmental corrective actions implemented at the Central Costanera, S.A. [Espanol] Se presenta una descripcion del equipo utilizado en la Central Costanera S.A. de Argentina, los requerimientos de gestion ambiental establecidos para esta central y las normas, resoluciones e instrumentos juridicos en materia ambiental. Se presenta ademas el plan de gestion ambiental del Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad de Argentina asi como los controles y acciones correctivas ambientales implantadas en la Central Costanera S. A.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Sadananda

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch was studied using enzyme histochemistry. AChE fibres and cells are intensely labelled in the forebrain nucleus area X, strongly labelled in high vocal centre (HVC) perikarya, and moderately to lightly labelled in the somata and neuropil of vocal control nuclei robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), medial magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (MMAN) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). The identified sites of cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons are similar to the cholinergic presence in vocal control regions of other songbirds such as the song sparrow, starling and another genus of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), and to a certain extent in parallel vocal control regions in vocalizing birds such as the budgerigar. AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this circuitry’s involvement in sensory processing and motor control of song.

  9. Dysfunctional astrocytes as key players in the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, Jacques; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.

    2008-01-01

    Once considered little more than the glue that holds neurons in place, astrocytes are now becoming appreciated for the key roles they play in central nervous system functions. They supply neurons and oligodendrocytes with substrates for energy metabolism, control extracellular water and electrolyte

  10. Central Gi(2) proteins, sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 3 (2016), s. 258-259. ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : inhibitory G proteins * sympathetic nervous system * central blood pressure control Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.382, year: 2014

  11. Optimal Power Consumption in a Central Heating System with Geothermal Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Driving a ground source heat pump in a central heating system with the minimum power consumption is studied. The idea of control is based on the fact that, in a heat pump, the temperature of the forward water has a strong positive correlation with the consumed electric power by the compressor. Th...

  12. [Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinah, A

    1975-12-01

    A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

  13. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    of adverse symptoms and building related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow for fully automated IEQ control, such systems should not compromise occupants...

  14. Interconnected power systems of the countries of America Central (SIEPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the project SIEPAC (Sistema de interconexion electrica de los paises de Centro America) describes the current transmission system, and planned SIEPAC transmission system, also describes the objectives: implementation of an central american electrical market named Mercado Electrico Regional that contributes to sustaintable development of the region. Also describes the power transmission lines, the structure of line transmission and its market to be covered. Financing of the project from lending institutions is explained

  15. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso; Ana Claudia Lyon; Stanley de Almeida Araújo; Juliana Márcia Ribeiro Veloso; Enio Roberto Pietra Pedroso; Antônio Lucio Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC) and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseas...

  17. Ranking of Logistics System Scenarios for Central Business District

    OpenAIRE

    Radoman Tadić, Snežana; Marko Zečević, Slobodan; Dragan Krstić, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the procedure for logistics system scenario selection for the central business district (CBD) of the city in the phase of significant urban changes. Scenarios are defined in accordance with the overall logistics concept of the city. Conflicting goals of stakeholders (residents, shippers and receivers, logistics providers and city government) generate a vast number of criteria that need to be included when selecting the scenario for the city area logistics system. Due to li...

  18. The French national system for centralized accounting of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French national system for centralized accounting of nuclear materials located on French soil is described. Texts of accountancy regulations and operator's obligations, which determine the technical conditions for nuclear material management are presented. The NUclear Material Operation Declaration Form used for declaring changes in inventory is considered. The hardware configuration of the automated accounting system for nuclear materials consists of multiprocessor mini-computer, SUN computers, a SYBASE relational database manager and optical fiber network

  19. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joao E.; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the ...

  20. Axon Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Eric A.; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is extremely limited after injury. Consequently, functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and related conditions that involve axonal disconnection. This situation differs from that in the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS), where long- distance axon regeneration and substantial functional recovery can occur in the adult. Both extracellular molecules and the intrinsi...

  1. The Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Marmiroli, PL; Cavaletti, GA

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is one of the major neurotrasmitters in mammalian brain and changes in its concentration have been associated with a number of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular diseases and epilepsy. Moreover, recently a possible role for glutamatergic system dysfunction has been suggested also in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter will revise the current knowledge in the distribution of glutamate and of its receptors and transporters in the central nervo...

  2. Controls of maglev suspension systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Zhu, S.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study investigates alternative control designs of maglev vehicle suspension systems. Active and semi-active control law designs are introduced into primary and secondary suspensions of maglev vehicles. A one-dimensional vehicle with two degrees of freedom, to simulate the German Transrapid Maglev System, is used for suspension control designs. The transient and frequency responses of suspension systems and PSDs of vehicle accelerations are calculated to evaluate different control designs. The results show that active and semi-active control designs indeed improve the response of vehicle and provide an acceptable ride comfort for maglev systems.

  3. Geologic characterization of Cuvette Centrale petroleum systems Congo-DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro; Rezende, Nelio G.A.M. [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Cuvette Centrale is an almost unexplored basin, which contains some petroleum system elements that indicate the presence of hydrocarbons. In this sense; this paper presents an exploratory alternative for this intracratonic basin. The interpretation of the limited gravimetric, magnetometric, geochemical and seismic available data allowed the identification of many huge structural features and also some areas with hydrocarbon potential for stratigraphic traps. The presence of several oil and gas seeps widespread around the Busira and Lokoro sub-basins indicate that at least one active petroleum system exist in the basin. Despite only four wells have been drilled in the basin, one of them presented oil shows during drilling. Geological correlations between Brazilian Paleozoic basins and Cuvette Centrale sedimentary sequences permitted to conclude that Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian source rocks must be present and active in the Cuvette Centrale basin. The tectono-stratigraphic evolution history of the Cuvette Centrale from Neo proterozoic to Recent times shows extensional and compressional/transpressional alternating phases along the geological time. The most confident petroleum system expected in the Cuvette Centrale is characterized by the Cambrian Mamungi shale - source rock - and the Cambro-Ordovician. Upper Arenaceous Sequence - reservoirs, as observed in the MBandaka and Gilson wells and confirmed by surface geology in outcrops. Besides, other potential petroleum systems are expected to occur in the basin. One is characterized by the Neo proterozoic Itury Group source rock and reservoirs in the mature/over mature stage, the others are the Siluro-Devonian and Cretaceous source rocks and reservoirs, expected to occur with better maturity conditions only in the deeper parts of the basin. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of...

  5. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  6. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  7. Improvement of tritium contamination monitoring of air at work places by using centralized control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a detailed preliminary study of actual requirements, the monitoring of atmospheric activity in a laboratory working on tritium was centralized with the aid of an automatic processing unit, almost all the programs of which are fixed. The part accessible to the operator is limited to making the few necessary modifications to the essential parameters, by which it is possible to broaden the scope for dialogue between the system and the operator. The use of a coloured television display is of particular value. Emphasis is placed on deferred treatment of the results, which is done by computing cumulative exposures and recording all incidents, even minor ones, on magnetic discs, so that risk levels at the work places, releases into the environment or the time sequence of incidents can be studied at some later time. The results obtained after a year of operation show that an intelligently designed centralized monitoring system offers many advantages: better knowledge of the risks, possibility of investigating incidents (enabling the causes to be eliminated and the planning of emergency operations to be optimized), and limitation of releases into the environment after determination of the least safe operations. The centralized control unit's performance is such that it will be useful to improve the detection system and to make, in addition, air flow-rate measurements, so that the released activities can be computed more accurately. (author)

  8. Central nervous system regulation of eating: Insights from human brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Olivia M; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-05-01

    Appetite and body weight regulation are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) in a rather complicated manner. The human brain plays a central role in integrating internal and external inputs to modulate energy homeostasis. Although homeostatic control by the hypothalamus is currently considered to be primarily responsible for controlling appetite, most of the available evidence derives from experiments in rodents, and the role of this system in regulating appetite in states of hunger/starvation and in the pathogenesis of overeating/obesity remains to be fully elucidated in humans. Further, cognitive and affective processes have been implicated in the dysregulation of eating behavior in humans, but their exact relative contributions as well as the respective underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We briefly review each of these systems here and present the current state of research in an attempt to update clinicians and clinical researchers alike on the status and future directions of obesity research. PMID:27085777

  9. Imaging the central serotonergic system in neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central serotonergic system has an important impact on numerous functions of the central nervous system. Alterations of brain serotonergic activity have been suggested as pathophysiologically and pathogenetically relevant, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore serotonergic imaging might be of particular scientific (and clinical) interest. Reliable PET- or SPECT imaging of serotonergic structures (receptors, transporters) is so far impaired by the complex neuroanatomical situation and several methodological limitations. Selected clinical PET- and SPECT-studies with 5HT1A/2A-receptor and serotonintransporter ligands in neuropsychiatric patients will be presented and critically discussed. To date the clinical relevance of these techniques remains to be established, however, imaging of the serotonergic system might contribute to our further knowledge of brain pathophysiology. (orig.)

  10. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-06-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  11. Water-Source Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System Characteristic for Central Control Room in a Fossil Fuel Power Plants%火力发电厂集中控制室水源热泵空调系统设计特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明国; 卢柏春

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the water source heat pump air-conditioning system for central control room and electronic equipment room in Puqi Phase II Power Plant project and analyzes the design characteristic of the system. The Water source heat pump air-conditioning system has a broad application value.%介绍了蒲圻电厂二期工程的集控室及电子设备间的水源热泵空调系统,分析了该系统的设计特点,具有推广应用的价值。

  12. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  13. A telerobotic digital controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    This system is a network of joint mounted dual axes digital servo-controllers (DDSC), providing control of various joints and end effectors of different robotic systems. This report provides description of and user required information for the Digital Controller System Network (DSCN) and, in particular, the DDSC, Model DDSC-2, developed to perform the controller functions. The DDSC can control 3 phase brushless or brush type DC motors, requiring up to 8 amps. Only four wires, two for power and 2 for serial communication, are required, except for local sensor and motor connections. This highly capable, very flexible, programmable servo-controller, contained on a single, compact printed circuit board measuring only 4.5 x 5.1 inches, is applicable to control systems of all types from sub-arc second precision pointing to control of robotic joints and end effectors. This document concentrates on the robotic applications for the DDSC.

  14. The GSI control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GSI accelerator facility consists of an old linac and two modern machines, a synchrotron and a storage ring. It is operated from one control room. Only three operators at a time have to keep it running with only little assistance from machine specialists in daytime. So the control tools must provide a high degree of abstraction and modeling to relieve the operators from details on the device level. The program structures to achieve this are described in this paper. A coarse overview of the control architecture is given. (author)

  15. Tectonic control on denudation rates in the central Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Kober, Florian; Hippe, Kristina; Lendzioch, Theodora; Grischott, Reto; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Christl, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Effects of a positive feedback loop between erosion and tectonics have been shown by analogue and numerical models and have been inferred from field observations at the scale of mountain ranges. We present new data from the Bolivian Andes supporting these observations, although common geomorphic parameters do not indicate a simple correlation. The upper Rio Grande segment, located between Cochabamba, Santa Cruz and Sucre, drains a major catchment in the central Bolivian Cordillera, from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) in the W, through the Interandean Zone (IAZ) and the Subandes (SA) in the E. The catchment covers an area of 58939 km² with an altitude range from 400 to 5150 m above sea level. Geologically, the Bolivian Andes comprise (from W to E) the Altiplano, the EC, the IAZ and the SA fold and thrust belts. The Altiplano represents an almost perfectly closed basin with distinct barriers defined by the Western Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera. The Rio Grande does not reach the Altiplano (unlike Rio La Paz and Rio Consata) but has its western drainage divide along the high peaks of the EC that experienced a period of intense shortening between Late Oligocene and Miocene. Near Cochabamba, the EC comprises metasedimentary siliciclastic rocks of Ordovician age. These rocks are overlain by Cretaceous to Paleocene and / or Neogene sediments with an angular unconformity. The IAZ and SA form an east-vergent fold and thrust belt and comprise Paleozoic and Mesozoic units. Farther east, the structures of the SA progressively include Neogene foreland strata of the Chaco foreland basin. The Chaco basin rests on the Brazilian shield east of the Subandean Belt and forms the modern foreland basin, where the lower Rio Grande catchment is sited. We obtained 58 cosmogenic 10Be catchment wide denudation rates for the Rio Grande catchments upstream of Abapó. They range from 7 mm/kyr to 1550 mm/kyr thus integrating at maximum over the last 10.000 years, with a mean of 262 mm/kyr. In

  16. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  17. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  18. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  19. Software for Embedded Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Broenink, Jan F.; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Jovanovic, Dusko S.

    2001-01-01

    The research of our team deals with the realization of control schemes on digital computers. As such the emphasis is on embedded control software implementation. Applications are in the field of mechatronic devices, using a mechatronic design approach (the integrated and optimal design of a mechanical system and its embedded control system). The ultimate goal is to support the application developer (i.e. mechatronic design engineer) such that implementing control software according to ðo it t...

  20. The central nervous system sites mediating the orexigenic actions of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B L; Wang, Q; Zigman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  1. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  2. Information management system breadboard data acquisition and control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallary, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a breadboard configuration of an advanced information management system based on requirements for high data rates and local and centralized computation for subsystems and experiments to be housed on a space station. The system is to contain a 10-megabit-per-second digital data bus, remote terminals with preprocessor capabilities, and a central multiprocessor. A concept definition is presented for the data acquisition and control system breadboard, and a detailed account is given of the operation of the bus control unit, the bus itself, and the remote acquisition and control unit. The data bus control unit is capable of operating under control of both its own test panel and the test processor. In either mode it is capable of both single- and multiple-message operation in that it can accept a block of data requests or update commands for transmission to the remote acquisition and control unit, which in turn is capable of three levels of data-handling complexity.

  3. Standardization of detector control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  4. Studying the central control of food intake and obesity in rats Estudando em ratos o controle central da ingestão alimentar e a obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system regulates energy intake and expenditure through a complex network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. It is of great interest to understand the relevance of these systems to the physiological control of energy balance and to the disturbances of obesity. The present paper discusses some of the methods to address this field used at the laboratory of Endocrine Physiology of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Initially, different experimental models of rat obesity are presented, namely the hypothalamic induced monosodium glutamate model, the Zucker genetic model, and the dietary model. The principles of brain microdialysis are also presented, the technique applied to obtain representative samples of the extracellular fluid of brain sites involved in feeding control. The microdialysate levels of serotonin, an important anorexigenic neurotransmitter, are determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The immunoblot technique (Western blot is used to determine hypothalamic levels of proteins relevant to the anorexigenic effect of serotonin and to analyze the acute activation of the insulin signaling cascade in the hypothalamus. The final section addresses the potential applications of proteomics in the study of the central control of feeding.O sistema nervoso central controla a ingestão e o gasto de energia por meio de um complexo circuito de neurotransmissores e neuromoduladores. É de grande interesse entender a relevância fisiológica destes sistemas e o papel que desempenham nos distúrbios da obesidade. No presente artigo, discutem-se alguns dos métodos que têm sido utilizados no laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, em estudos neste campo. Inicialmente, são apresentados alguns modelos de obesidade experimental em ratos, como a obesidade hipotalâmica induzida por glutamato monossódico, o modelo genético Zucker e também obesidades induzidas por dieta. Comenta

  5. ON COMPLEX DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Daizhan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents some recent works on the control of dynamic systems, which have certain complex properties caused by singularity of the nonlinear structures, structure-varyings, or evolution process etc. First, we consider the structure singularity of nonlinear control systems. It was revealed that the focus of researches on nonlinear control theory is shifting from regular systems to singular systems. The singularity of nonlinear systems causes certain complexity. Secondly, the switched systems are considered. For such systems the complexity is caused by the structure varying. We show that the switched systems have significant characteristics of complex systems. Finally, we investigate the evolution systems. The evolution structure makes complexity, and itself is a proper model for complex systems.

  6. Precision Segmented Reflector figure control system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-01-01

    A control system architecture for an actively controlled segmented reflector is described along with a design realization for achieving precision alignment of reflector panels. Performance requirements are derived in part from the Large Deployable Reflector, which is a representative mission, and error allocations are made which consider mirror panel surface errors, position measurement and figure estimation, and position control of both quasi-static and dynamic disturbances. The design uses multiple wavelength interferometric edge sensors and voice coil actuators in conjunction with a hybrid control strategy to correct panel position errors. A unit cell shown to be central to the concept is analyzed. The cell integrates the sensing, actuation, and mechanical functions of a control module together with a reflector panel to form a unitized assembly.

  7. CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  8. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  9. COST CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Маrtseva

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers methodology for formation of product cost while applying «direct-costing» system. It has been shown that the application of the given system permits economically to justify and accurately to determine financial results of an enterprise activity which is planned for the future.

  10. Language disorders in children with central nervous system injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Children with injury to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit a variety of language disorders that have been described by members of different disciplines, in different journals, using different descriptors and taxonomies. This paper is an overview of language deficits in children with CNS injury, whether congenital or acquired after a period of normal development. It first reviews the principal CNS conditions associated with language disorders in childhood. It then describes a functional ...

  11. The central nervous system in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Duquette, Peter J; Icard, Phil F; Hooper, Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits in pediatric and adult survivors of childhood onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been documented for many years. This paper reviews the available literature on central nervous system involvement incurred in childhood CKD. The studies reviewed include recent work in neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and neuropsychology, along with commentary on school functioning and long-term outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for monitoring the neurodevelopmental status and pursuing appropriate early interventions for children with CKD. PMID:17072652

  12. The role of Pumilio2 in central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-ling WU; Yang-mei CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Pumilio2 (Pum2) is one of the newly discovered transcription regulatory factors in recent years, which exhibits similar function to microRNA (miRNA). Pumilio2 hinders the formation of translation initiation complexes and represses target gene expression from the combination of its specific structure domain with mRNA. Recent studies suggest that Pumilio2 is closely related to the morphogenesis and function of central nervous system. The different expression levels of Pumilio2 are involve...

  13. Investigation of bubble behaviours in wet central heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shefik Ali; Ge Yunting

    2014-01-01

    A series of experimental measurements has been conducted in order to investigate the bubble behaviours through the horizontal pipe line of the domestic wet central heating systems. Obtained results exposed the effect of 90 degree bend, buoyancy forces on bubbly two phase flow patterns and effect of velocity on void fractions and bubble diameters. Distance chosen for the first sight glass (HSG0) was sufficient enough to note the effect of 90 degree bend on void fraction patterns. Due to the ef...

  14. Spontaneous electrical activity recorded from the aphid central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dan-Thanh T.; Blacker, Melissa J.; Goodchild, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst many classes of insecticides target the insect central nervous system (CNS), their effects in the CNS of pest aphids have not been demonstrated. In this report, we describe an electrophysiological method for recording spontaneous neuronal activity from the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus). Using extracellular recording electrodes and two analysis methods (threshold and template search), spontaneous spike activity was shown to exhibit sensitivity to the neuroexcitatory insect...

  15. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Arnoud

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is roughly 12 months and only 5 % of the patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis. Fifty % of astrocytomas are ryped as glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant form of glioma. Glioblast...

  16. Heroin-associated lesions within the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare patterns of heroin-associated lesions within the central nervous systems are described. In one case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the combination of a border zone infarct within the thoracal spinal cord and a bilateral lesion within the globus pallidus. In a second case, cerebral border zone infarctions were observed which were attributed to a vasospasm of the basal cerebral arteries. Drug-abuse should be considered as a potential cause of these unusual manifestations of ischemic lesions in young patients. (orig.)

  17. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  18. Neurotrophic effects of neudesin in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Ikuo; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Zhao, Ying; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Neudesin (neuron-derived neurotrophic factor; NENF) was identified as a neurotrophic factor that is involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. It is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, and its neurotrophic activity is exerted via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Neudesin is also an anorexigenic factor that suppresses food intake in the hypothalamus. It is a member of the membrane-associated progesterone rece...

  19. Crowded Trades: An Overlooked Systemic Risk for Central Clearing Counterparties

    OpenAIRE

    Albert J. Menkveld

    2014-01-01

    Counterparty default risk might hamper trade and trigger a financial crisis. The introduction of a central clearing counterparty (CCP) benefits trading but pushes systemic risk into CCP default. Standard risk management strategies at CCPs currently overlook a risk associated with crowded trades. This paper identifies it, measures it, and proposes a margin methodology that accounts for it. The application to actual CCP data illustrates that this hidden risk can become large, in particular at t...

  20. Pathogenesis of HIV in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Valcour, Victor; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Letendre, Scott; Ances, Beau

    2010-01-01

    HIV can infect the brain and impair central nervous system (CNS) function. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has not eradicated CNS complications. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain common despite cART, although attenuated in severity. This may result from a combination of factors including inadequate treatment of HIV reservoirs such as circulating monocytes and glia, decreased effectiveness of cART in CNS, concurrent illnesses, stimulant use, and factors associated...

  1. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  2. Model based control of refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth Larsen, L.F.

    2005-11-15

    with a distributed control structure, the cross-couplings are not naturally incorporated in the design of the controllers. The disturbances caused by the individual subsystems might be insignificant, however if the effect from all of the subsystems is synchronized it might cause a sever deterioration in the system performance. In the part of the thesis covering dynamical optimization, the main emphasis is laid on analyzing the phenomena of synchronization of hysteresis controlled subsystems. The propose method for desynchronization is based on a model predictive control setup. By formulating a cost function that penalizes the effects of synchronization hard, an optimal control sequence for the subsystems can be computed that desynchronizes the operation. A supermarket's refrigeration system consists of a number of refrigerated display cases located in the supermarkets sales area. The display cases are connected to a central refrigeration system, moreover the temperature control in the display cases is carried out by hysteresis controller. Practice however shows that the display cases have a tendency to synchronize the temperature control. This cause periodically high loads on the central refrigeration system and thereby an increased energy consumption and wear. By studying a nonlinear system model it has been analyzed, which parameter that are important for the synchronization. Applying the proposed method on the nonlinear system model has proved that it is capable of desynchronizing the operation of the display cases. (au)

  3. The APS control system network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  4. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8).

  5. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , controlled, and interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8)

  6. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2012-03-31

    Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use this technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.

  7. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  8. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    control, as perceived by occupants, seemed more important for the prevalence of adverse symptoms and building-related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow for...

  9. Interactive robot control system and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having joints, actuators, and sensors, and a distributed controller. The controller includes command-level controller, embedded joint-level controllers each controlling a respective joint, and a joint coordination-level controller coordinating motion of the joints. A central data library (CDL) centralizes all control and feedback data, and a user interface displays a status of each joint, actuator, and sensor using the CDL. A parameterized action sequence has a hierarchy of linked events, and allows the control data to be modified in real time. A method of controlling the robot includes transmitting control data through the various levels of the controller, routing all control and feedback data to the CDL, and displaying status and operation of the robot using the CDL. The parameterized action sequences are generated for execution by the robot, and a hierarchy of linked events is created within the sequence.

  10. Hyperbaric Pressure Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Brian; Skjørten, Anders; Nicolaysen, Jonas; Skarseth, Thor Ove; Carlstedt, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The requirement specification for the project where changed from delivery of a fully working product to contain only the design of this system due to long lead times on some of the high-pressure hydraulic parts. Three of the students where already working for FMC before project start, where two of them had experience with hydraulic Subsea Systems. Our project model where changed during the project. We started out with a Waterfall model and ended up with an Evolutionary model

  11. Intelligent house control system

    OpenAIRE

    Stražišar, Rok

    2008-01-01

    The thesis describes a smart house and the system that empowers it with intelligence. The goal of the thesis is to present the hardware and software involved and debate about the usability, pros and cons of such a system. The work addresses the smart house from several viewpoints: safety, comfort, economy, accessibility for people with special needs and affordability. Using smart house makes every day´s life more secure and comfortable, while it also enables independency to the people with sp...

  12. NSTX-U Control System Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, K.G., E-mail: kerickso@pppl.gov; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Lawson, J.E.; Mozulay, R.; Sichta, P.; Tchilinguirian, G.J.

    2014-06-15

    The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forward port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control.

  13. Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.

  14. Dynamically controlled crystal growth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); Kim, Larry J. (Inventor); Harrington, Michael (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Crystal growth can be initiated and controlled by dynamically controlled vapor diffusion or temperature change. In one aspect, the present invention uses a precisely controlled vapor diffusion approach to monitor and control protein crystal growth. The system utilizes a humidity sensor and various interfaces under computer control to effect virtually any evaporation rate from a number of different growth solutions simultaneously by means of an evaporative gas flow. A static laser light scattering sensor can be used to detect aggregation events and trigger a change in the evaporation rate for a growth solution. A control/follower configuration can be used to actively monitor one chamber and accurately control replicate chambers relative to the control chamber. In a second aspect, the invention exploits the varying solubility of proteins versus temperature to control the growth of protein crystals. This system contains miniature thermoelectric devices under microcomputer control that change temperature as needed to grow crystals of a given protein. Complex temperature ramps are possible using this approach. A static laser light scattering probe also can be used in this system as a non-invasive probe for detection of aggregation events. The automated dynamic control system provides systematic and predictable responses with regard to crystal size. These systems can be used for microgravity crystallization projects, for example in a space shuttle, and for crystallization work under terrestial conditions. The present invention is particularly useful for macromolecular crystallization, e.g. for proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids, viruses and virus particles.

  15. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Emphasizes the physical and engineering aspects of the power system frequency control design problem while providing a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and application of robust control techniques. This book summarizes the author's research outcomes, contributions and experiences with power system frequency regulation.

  16. Classifications of Linear Controlled Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing

    2008-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a study of linear, differential and topological classifications for linear controlled systems governed by ordinary differential equations. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the linear and topological equivalence are given. It is also shown that the differential equivalence is the same as the linear equivalence for the linear controlled systems.

  17. Controlling systems of cogeneration blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the main parts of cogeneration unit control system are described. Article is aimed on electric power measurement with electricity protection as with temperature system regulation. In conclusion of the article, the control algorithm with perspective of cogeneration solve is indicated. (authors)

  18. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  19. Performance of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data packet dropout is a special kind of time delay problem. In this paper, predictive controllers for networked control systems (NCSs with dual-network are designed by model predictive control method. The contributions are as follows. (1 The predictive control problem of the dual-network is considered. (2 The predictive performance of the dual-network is evaluated. (3 Compared to the popular networked control systems, the optimal controller of the new NCSs with data packets dropout is designed, which can minimize infinite performance index at each sampling time and guarantee the closed-loop system stability. Finally, the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the controllers designed.

  20. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracey, T. R.

    1978-09-01

    The design of a 300 MWe tower focus power plant which uses molten salt heat transfer fluids and sensible heat storage is described in detail. The system consists of nine heliostat fields with 7711 heliostats in each. Four cavity receivers are located at the top of a 155-meter tower. Tasks include: (1) review and analysis of preliminary specification; (2) parametric analysis; (3) selection of preferred configuration; (4) commercial plant conceptual design; (5) assessment of commercial-sized advanced central power system; (6) development plan; (7) program plan; (8) reports and data; (9) program management; (10) safety analysis; and (11) material study and test program. (WHK)

  1. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  2. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the clinical, immunological and pathological data of 5 eases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Each of the five cases has typical SLE damages on the skin and multiple organs. Among

  3. Decentralized control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Siljak, Dragoslav D

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  4. Design, implementation and evalution of a central unit for controlling climatic conditions in the greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Zarei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse culture, in addition to increasing the quantity and quality of crop production in comparison with traditional methods, the agricultural inputs are saved, too. Recently, using new methods, designs and materials, and higher automation in greenhouses, better management has become possible for enhancing yield and improving the quality of greenhouse crops. The constructed and evaluated central controller unit (CCU is a central controller system and computerized monitoring unit for greenhouse application. Several sensors, one CCU, several operators, and a data-collection and recorder unit were the major components of this system. The operators included heating, cooling, spraying, ventilation and lighting systems, and the sensors are for temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, oxygen and light in inside and outside the greenhouse. Environmental conditions were measured by the accurate sensors and transmitted to the CCU. Based on this information, the CCU changed variables to optimize the greenhouse environmental conditions to predetermined ranges. This system was totally made of local instruments and parts and had the ability to integrate with the needs of the client. The designed and implemented CCU was tested in a greenhouse located in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan Province during summer season of 2011. The CCU was operated successfully for controlling greenhouse temperature in the range of 22-29 ˚C, relative humidity of 35-55%, artificial lighting in the case of receiving radiation of less than 800 Lux and turning on the ventilation units if the concentration of carbon dioxide was more than 800 mg/L.

  5. Salt movements within the Central European basin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy; Bayer, Ulf; Scheck-Wenderoth [GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany); Littke, Ralf [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    2010-04-15

    Evolution of salt structures in relation to tectonic events within central part of the Central European Basin System is described by summarizing results which have been obtained and published in frame of the research project DFG-SPP 1135. These results illustrate main phases of salt tectonics within the basin system from the Triassic to present day. During the Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk, extension triggered raft tectonics and salt movements within the Ems Trough, the Glueckstadt and the Horn Grabens. The next phase of salt movements occurred in response to a Middle-Late Keuper regional extensional event which was strongest within the Triassic depocenters of the Central European Basin System, such as the Horn Graben, the Glueckstadt Graben, the Ems and the Rheinsberg Troughs. Regional erosion truncated the study area during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous time. The magnitude of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous erosion is declining towards southern margin of the basin system where a dextral transtensional regime was established in the Lower Saxony Basin and neighboring areas during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous is characterized by a relative tectonic quiescence without strong salt movements. The Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion provocated renewed salt movements, causing the thick-skinned salt tectonics along the Elbe Fault System and the thin-skinned character of salt movements towards the north from the area of strain localisation. Post-inversion Cenozoic subsidence was accompanied by salt movements, related either to diapiric rise due to regional shortening and/or to local almost E-W directed extension. (orig.)

  6. Integrated control system for LEHIPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) is a 20 MeV 30 mA proton accelerator which will be achieved in multiple stages. LEHIPA consists of several sub systems/devices located at different positions of the beam path which includes ION source, RF Power, RF Protection Interlock System, Low Conductivity Water plant, Low Level RF Control Systems, Vacuum System, Beam Diagnostics and Beam Line Devices. All these subsystems have their own local control systems (LCS) which will coordinate the operation of the corresponding subsystem. The control system for LEHIPA is thus being designed as a Distributed Control System with different teams developing each LCS. The control system will assist the operator to achieve a beam of desired characteristics by interacting with various sub systems of the accelerator in a seamless manner, protect the various parts of machine by generating the necessary interlocks, keep track of various parameters monitored periodically by suitably archiving them, alarms annunciation and trouble shoot from the control room. This paper describes approach to system design of ICS. (author)

  7. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  8. Cerebellar control of postural scaling and central set in stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, F B; Diener, H C

    1994-08-01

    1. The effects of cerebellar deficits in humans on scaling the magnitude of automatic postural responses based on sensory feedback and on predictive central set was investigated. Electromyographic (EMG) and surface reactive torques were compared in patients with anterior lobe cerebellar disorders and in normal healthy adults exposed to blocks of four velocities and five amplitudes of surface translations during stance. Correlations between the earliest postural responses (integrated EMG and initial rate of change of torque) and translation velocity provided a measure of postural magnitude scaling using sensory information from the current displacement. Correlations of responses with translation amplitude provided a measure of scaling dependent on predictive central set based on sequential experience with previous like displacements because the earliest postural responses occurred before completion of the displacements and because scaling to displacement amplitude disappeared when amplitudes were randomized in normal subjects. 2. Responses of cerebellar patients to forward body sway induced by backward surface displacements were hypermetric, that is, surface-reactive torque responses were two to three times larger than normal with longer muscle bursts resulting in overshooting of initial posture. Despite this postural hypermetria, the absolute and relative latencies of agonist muscle bursts at the ankle, knee, and hip were normal in cerebellar patients. 3. Although they were hypermetric, the earliest postural responses of cerebellar patients were scaled normally to platform displacement velocities using somatosensory feedback. Cerebellar patients, however, were unable to scale initial postural response magnitude to expected displacement amplitudes based on prior experience using central set. Randomization of displacement amplitudes eliminated the set effect of amplitude on initial responses in normal subjects, but responses to randomized and blocked trials were not

  9. Mobile robot control system

    OpenAIRE

    Jiruška, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with differential drive wheeled mobile robot which is running under a real-time operating system. Introductory part is focused on theoretical description of robot and its original firmware. Practical part deals with creating software and implementation several methods that allow following the line by robot using reflectance sensor array. Significant part of this thesis is focused on design and implementation of communication protocol, based on IEEE 802.15.4 which provides co...

  10. A Novel Secondary Control for Microgrid Based on Synergetic Control of Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In power systems, the secondary control is a very useful way to restore the system frequency and voltage to the rated value. This paper tries to propose a secondary frequency and voltage control of islanded microgrids based on the distributed synergetic control of multi-agent systems. In the proposed control, since each distributed generation only requires its own information and that of the neighbors, the secondary control is fully distributed. The system is more reliable because the central controller and complex communication network are reduced in the distributed structure. Based on multi-agent systems, the dynamic model is established, and distributed synergetic control algorithms are given to design the secondary control of the islanded microgrid. Meanwhile, the system has globally asymptotic stability under the proposed control, which is proved by the direct Lyapunov method. Simulation results about a test microgrid are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  11. PATTERNS OF DELIVERY, FINANCING AND CONTROL FOR HEALTH SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina TOMESCU

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I analyse different types of health systems, in terms of funding, control, supply schemes and level of social redistribution. I show that the state plays a central role in determining the coverage and the nature of benefits, choices of financing the health systemand the structure of servicesin every European health system. Two major types are ideal in terms of funding, supply and control in Europe: Health insurance system (German type) and The National Health System (British ...

  12. Performance of Early Warning Systems on Landslides in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    We performed a reconnaissance about Early Warning Systems (EWS) on Landslides (EWSL) in the countries of Central America. The advance of the EWSL began in the 1990-ies and accelerated dramatically after the regional disaster provoked by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. In the last decade, Early Warning Systems were intensely promoted by national and international development programs aimed on disaster prevention. Early Warning on landslides is more complicated than for other geological phenomena. But, we found information on more than 30 EWSL in the region. In practice, for example in planning, implementation and evaluation of development projects, it is often not clearly defined what exactly is an Early Warning System. Only few of the systems can be classified as true EWSL that means 1) being directly and solely aimed at persons living in the well-defined areas of greatest risk and 2) focusing their work on saving lives before the phenomenon impacts. There is little written information about the work of the EWSL after the initial phase. Even, there are no statistics whether they issued warnings, if the warnings were successful, how many people were evacuated, if there were few false alerts, etc.. Actually, we did not find a single report on a successful landslide warning issued by an EWSL. The lack of information is often due to the fact that communitarian EWSL are considered local structures and do not have a clearly defined position in the governmental hierarchy; there is little oversight and no qualified support and long-term support. The EWSL suffer from severe problems as lack of funding on the long term, low technical level, and insufficient support from central institutions. Often the EWSL are implemented by NGÓs with funding from international agencies, but leave the project alone after the initial phase. In many cases, the hope of the local people to get some protection against the landslide hazard is not really fulfilled. There is one case, where an EWSL with a

  13. Internal Control - Key Element of the Financial Control System in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Budacia Lucian Constantin Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The internal control refers to the financial control performed by organizational structures of internal control at the economic entity (public authorities of central and local administration), including a priori approval systems (ex-ante) and internal audit (a-posteriori or ex-post). One of the basic features of internal control is the distinction between management and public internal financial control (PIFC), on one hand, and internal audit, on the other hand, which provides the functioning...

  14. Short-lived isotopes in central chemical control of ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central chemical ventilatory drive is dependent on elecrolyte and acid-base status of brain ECF, as well as the interaction between H+ metabolism and CO2 fixation and metabolism of amino acid neutrotransmitters - GABA and glutamate. In the anesthetized dogs, using the short-lived positron emitting isotope of carbon (11C) either in the form of molecular CO2 or as HCO3- injected intraarterially it was demonstrated that there is first pass uptake of 16% of HCO3- from blood into brain and 86% uptake of molecular CO2, thus indicating that the brain-blood barrier is permeable to HCO3-, but that HCO3- content in the CNS is regulated as a function of dissociation of strong ions such as Cl- and Na+. Relationship between CO2 fixations and brain glutamine was studied with intraarterial injection of 13N-ammonia and its turnover into glutamine when PCO2 was increased. Ammonia turnover into glutamine was increased by a factor of 2 when PaCO2 was increased by 35 torr, and this rise in glutamine was linearly related to the rise in CSF [HCO3-]. Glutamine is then converted into the active neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate. Thus, the short-lived isotopes allow for assessment of the interaction of biochemical events in the CNS in the central respiratory drive. (orig.)

  15. JT-60 plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JT-60 plasma control can be performed by the supervisory controller, the measurement system and actuators such as the poloidal field coil power supplies, gas injectors, neutral beam injection (NBI) heating system and radio frequency (RF) heating system. One of the most important characteristics of this system is a perfect digital control one composed of mini-computers, fast array processors and CAMAC modules, and it has large flexibility and few troubles to adjust the system. This system started to be operated in April 1985, after the six-year-long design, construction and testing, and have been operated and improved many times for two years. In this paper, the final system specification and its performance are presented aiming at the technological aspect of hardware and software. In addition, and experienced troubles are also presented. (author)

  16. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  17. [Successful long-term control of recurrent primary central nervous system anaplastic large cell lymphoma after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with concurrent whole brain and spinal cord radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima, Yuki; Kaiume, Hiroko; Kirihara, Takehiko; Takeda, Wataru; Kurihara, Taro; Sato, Keijiro; Shimizu, Ikuo; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Sumi, Masahiko; Ueno, Mayumi; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Asano, Naoko; Watanabe, Masahide; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2015-12-01

    A 24-year-old woman was hospitalized with seizures in 2002. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intraspinal mass and inhomogeneous gadolinium enhancement along the cerebrospinal meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology showed large atypical cells expressing CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD7, CD13 and CD30. The patient was finally diagnosed with primary central nervous system anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). She completed 5 courses of methotrexate (MTX)/ procarbazine (PCZ)/ vincristine (VCR) (MPV) chemotherapy, followed by 2 courses of high dose cytarabine (AraC) and achieved a complete remission. In 2003, she suffered from headache. CSF analysis showed atypical lymphoid cells expressing CD 30. First CNS relapse was diagnosed. She then underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) after administration of thiotepa, buslfan, and cyclophosphamide. However, second CNS relapse occurred in 2004. She received 5 courses of MPV chemotherapy followed by 36 Gy of craniospinal irradiation. Although there was no recurrence of the CNS disease, a third relapse was detected in the right breast in 2009. Pathological and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed ALK-1 positive ALCL. She was treated with 6 courses of cyclophosphamide/adriamycin/vincristine/predonine (CHOP) chemotherapy and 30.6 Gy of local radiation therapy. She has remained in remission for 6 years, to date, since the last therapy and has an excellent quality of life. PMID:26725359

  18. Upgrading the ATLAS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion accelerators are tools used in the research of nuclear and atomic physics. The ATLAS facility at the Argonne National Laboratory is one such tool. The ATLAS control system serves as the primary operator interface to the accelerator. A project to upgrade the control system is presently in progress. Since this is an upgrade project and not a new installation, it was imperative that the development work proceed without interference to normal operations. An additional criteria for the development work was that the writing of additional ''in-house'' software should be kept to a minimum. This paper briefly describes the control system being upgraded, and explains some of the reasons for the decision to upgrade the control system. Design considerations and goals for the new system are described, and the present status of the upgrade is discussed

  19. ISABELLE control system: design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISABELLE is a Department of Energy funded proton accelerator/storage ring being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, New York). It is large (3.8 km circumference) and complicated (approx. 30,000 monitor and control variables). It is based on superconducting technology. Following the example of previous accelerators, ISABELLE will be operated from a single control center. The control system will be distributed and will incorporate a local computer network. An overview of the conceptual design of the ISABELLE control system will be presented

  20. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Conti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  1. Emission control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  2. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  3. Structural interaction with control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. B.; Zvara, J.

    1971-01-01

    A monograph which assesses the state of the art of space vehicle design and development is presented. The monograph presents criteria and recommended practices for determining the structural data and a mathematical structural model of the vehicle needed for accurate prediction of structure and control-system interaction; for design to minimize undesirable interactions between the structure and the control system; and for determining techniques to achieve the maximum desirable interactions and associated structural design benefits. All space vehicles are treated, including launch vehicles, spacecraft, and entry vehicles. Important structural characteristics which affect the structural model used for structural and control-system interaction analysis are given.

  4. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  5. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  6. Pematang-Sihapas petroleum system of Central Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, B.J.; Dawson, W.C. (Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The Pematang - Sihapas (PAD) petroleum system of Central Sumatra is one of the most important lacustrine oil systems in Southeast Asia. The Brown Shale Formation (lacustrine) of the Pematang Group has sourced [approx]60 x 10[sup 9] BO. Reservoirs are developed within the uppermost Pematang Gp. (Paleogene) and superjacent Sihapas Group (Early Miocene). Sihapas sandstones are the principal reservoirs of this system. Giant fields (e.g., Minas and Dud) having Sihapas (marine sandstone) reservoirs occur principally along the eastern margins of the rift basins. Smaller fields having Pematang (nonmarine sandstone) reservoirs are confined to the rift basins. The Pematang Gp. was deposited in a series of small grabens. It exhibits a tripartite arrangement: basal (Lower Red Bed) fluvial/alluvial unit; medial (Brown Shale) lacustrine unit; and upper (Upper Red Bed) fluvial/alluvial unit. Source rock attributes of the Brown Shale are highly variable. Pyrolysis yields of samples containing [ge] 1.0 wt.% TOC range up to [approx]120 mg HC/g rock, with a mean of [approx]25.3 mg HC/g rock. Differences in kerogen reflect variations in preservation rather than organic input. The overlying Menggala Formation (basal transgressive unit of Sihapas Gp.) has an average porosity of >20 % and an average permeability of 1500 md. The amount of sandstone (gross) in the Menggala Fm. typically exceeds 50%. Menggala strata consist of well-sorted quartzose to subarkosic sandstones. Menggala sandstones are the most prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in Central Sumatra. Many of the oil fields in Central Sumatra are associated with structures formed during a mid-Miocene compressional event.

  7. Pematang-Sihapas petroleum system of Central Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, B.J.; Dawson, W.C. [Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Pematang - Sihapas (PAD) petroleum system of Central Sumatra is one of the most important lacustrine oil systems in Southeast Asia. The Brown Shale Formation (lacustrine) of the Pematang Group has sourced {approx}60 x 10{sup 9} BO. Reservoirs are developed within the uppermost Pematang Gp. (Paleogene) and superjacent Sihapas Group (Early Miocene). Sihapas sandstones are the principal reservoirs of this system. Giant fields (e.g., Minas and Dud) having Sihapas (marine sandstone) reservoirs occur principally along the eastern margins of the rift basins. Smaller fields having Pematang (nonmarine sandstone) reservoirs are confined to the rift basins. The Pematang Gp. was deposited in a series of small grabens. It exhibits a tripartite arrangement: basal (Lower Red Bed) fluvial/alluvial unit; medial (Brown Shale) lacustrine unit; and upper (Upper Red Bed) fluvial/alluvial unit. Source rock attributes of the Brown Shale are highly variable. Pyrolysis yields of samples containing {ge} 1.0 wt.% TOC range up to {approx}120 mg HC/g rock, with a mean of {approx}25.3 mg HC/g rock. Differences in kerogen reflect variations in preservation rather than organic input. The overlying Menggala Formation (basal transgressive unit of Sihapas Gp.) has an average porosity of >20 % and an average permeability of 1500 md. The amount of sandstone (gross) in the Menggala Fm. typically exceeds 50%. Menggala strata consist of well-sorted quartzose to subarkosic sandstones. Menggala sandstones are the most prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in Central Sumatra. Many of the oil fields in Central Sumatra are associated with structures formed during a mid-Miocene compressional event.

  8. Isolated Central Nervous System Vasculitis Associated with Antiribonuclear Protein Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer M. Awad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young woman who was referred to a tertiary care center with unexplained subacute progressive encephalopathy preceded by long-standing severe headaches. Her extensive workup was remarkable for abnormal intracranial angiography suggestive of small- and medium-vessel vasculitis, persistently elevated protein in the cerebrospinal fluid and persistently high titers of antiribonuclear protein antibody. The patient showed a modest response to intravenous high-dose steroids. We propose that the patient's neurologic disease is secondary to immune-mediated central nervous system vasculitis, possibly as an initial manifestation of mixed connective tissue disease.

  9. Central Nervous System Aspergillosis causing Spinal Cord Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Ahmed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS aspergillosis is a rare and uniformly fatal complication of disseminated disease, involving the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum in the majority of cases. It is a ubiquitous mold and refers to a group of diseases caused by monomorphic mycelial fungi of the genus Aspergillosis fumigatus. Outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis are a problem in immunocompromized persons after they are exposed to air-borne spores.1 Aspergillosis causing spinal cord compression due to epidural abscess formation and hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare entity, thus such a case is presented herewith.

  10. Central nervous system relapse of treated stage IV neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, S.; Egelhoff, J.C.; Koch, B.L.; Ball, W.S. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Morris, J.D. [Department of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics. The long-term survival of patients with advanced-stage neurobastoma has remarkably improved secondary to aggressive treatment protocols including autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT). As a result, a different natural history of this disease is being reported with unusual, late manifestations. The central nervous system (CNS), once a rare site of disease, is being involved with increasing frequency. Appropriate neuroimaging in these patients is important. Two cases of patients with treated stage IV neuroblastoma who developed isolated CNS metastases are presented. The proposed pathogenesis and neuroradiologic manifestations of this complication are reviewed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 23 refs.

  11. New challenges to electrical interconnection systems in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical interconnection between Central America countries is a project of regional integration, whose purpose is to optimize the advantage of interconnecting of six electrical systems of their respective countries. This require the establishment of legal procedures to operate the high voltage transmission grid from Guatemala to Panama. The mid and long term planning of the interconnected electrical grid, is a new challenge for the electrical companies, considering that as up to now, they have been satisfying small markets. The possibility to use nuclear energy to satisfy a bigger market is now feasible and deserves to be considered since the beginning of the interconnection project. (author)

  12. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  13. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  14. Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Carolyn J; Cree, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, the related acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis variants, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and idiopathic transverse myelitis. These syndromes are often managed with similar acute treatments including high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis; however, long-term management varies. Although the prognosis of fulminant demyelinating disease was historically poor, outcomes today may be improved due to earlier diagnosis, rapid implementation of anti-inflammatory therapies such as high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis, and improved supportive care. PMID:26595866

  15. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ St-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Rooienberg 25, 2750 Duffel (Belgium); Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Altena, R. van [Tuberculosecentrum Beatrixoord, Dilgtweg 5, 9751 ND Haren (Netherlands); Laridon, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Coeman, V. [Department of Radiology, AZ St-Jan, Ruddershove 10, 8000 Brugge (Belgium)

    2003-08-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  16. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  17. Linux in Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Riesco, T

    2001-01-01

    Today the Linux operating system has become a real alternative for industrial control systems. Linux supports all layers in control systems starting with Real-Time or embedded systems for data acquisition, following with treatment, storage, communication and data adaptation, and finally, with supervision and user interfaces. In the last years the Linux development has grown being incorporated in several industrial systems demonstrating high performance, availability and stability for complex processes in chemical, automobile or petrol industries. In many of these industries Linux architectures have been tested and validated successfully. The new CERN policy supporting Linux, as well as the emergence of cheap and robust Linux solutions, motivates its implementation in our safety control and supervision systems in the near future.

  18. Evolving character of chronic central nervous system HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard W; Spudich, Serena S; Peterson, Julia; Joseph, Sarah; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24715483

  19. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...... and/or demyelinating pathology. This article will review the molecular and cellular dynamics of immune responses in the CNS, with particular emphasis on autoimmune inflammation, as has been studied in the authors' laboratory....

  20. Multifaceted interactions between adaptive immunity and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-19

    Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. Unanswered questions include those relating to the diversity and specificity of the meningeal T cell repertoire; the routes taken by immune cells that patrol the meninges under healthy conditions and invade the parenchyma during pathology; the opposing effects (beneficial or detrimental) of these cells on CNS function; the role of immune cells after CNS injury; and the evolutionary link between the two systems, resulting in their tight interaction and interdependence. This Review summarizes the current standing of and challenging questions related to interactions between adaptive immunity and the CNS and considers the possible directions in which these aspects of neuroimmunology will be heading over the next decade. PMID:27540163

  1. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  2. Proposed Support Decision Making System for the Remote Monitoring of Commercial and Residencial Central Alarm Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Luiz de Sousa; André Bittencourt Leal; Ricardo Ferreira Martins; Claudio Cesar de Sá

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a system to support decision making for the remote monitoring of commercial and residencial central alarm systems. The basis of the system is modeled with deterministic finite automata and the support for decision-making uses of induction of decision trees and case-based reasoning. A prototype system was developed for validation and testing.

  3. Proposed Support Decision Making System for the Remote Monitoring of Commercial and Residencial Central Alarm Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a system to support decision making for the remote monitoring of commercial and residencial central alarm systems. The basis of the system is modeled with deterministic finite automata and the support for decision-making uses of induction of decision trees and case-based reasoning. A prototype system was developed for validation and testing.

  4. FPGA based control system hardware for microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up-gradation of control systems for various subsystems of Indus-1 is taken up. Control system for Microtron is one of them. The newly made control system is based on a distributed supervisory control system scheme. Each of the subsystems of the Microtron is supervised by FPGA based dedicated controller named as Equipment Control Modules (ECM). The ECMs provide all the needed functionalities like monitoring of status, interlocks, the readbacks of parameters, switching ON/OFF and providing references of required shape to the subsystems. Various interlocks information from all over the field is collected in a central Interlock Information Distribution module, which in-turn sends the interlock signals to the ECMs over the interlock bus. Each ECM inputs the interlocks, isolates and reads them. Actions on interlock failure are governed by equations implemented locally for any subsystem on the respective ECM interlock card. The interlock information from each module is also sent to operators' console or workstation. All the ECMs are connected over RS485 link for communication with the work stations. Custom protocol is designed for communication between the work station and the ECMs. With the prototype protocol the work station can update the system information at more than 1 Hz rate. The new scheme will help in reducing cable load, increase in flexibility of hardware to accommodate future requirements through expansion, maintainability due to modular design and synchronization of reading of the system to an external event or a read-clock. The FPGA based controller will be helpful in increasing the functional requirements and configurability of the design. The paper describes the scheme, the hardware, custom protocol, lab results etc. at length. (author)

  5. Integrated control system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Paul Sai Keat; Baldwin, Darryl; Kim, Myoungjin

    2013-10-29

    An integrated control system for use with an engine connected to a generator providing electrical power to a switchgear is disclosed. The engine receives gas produced by a gasifier. The control system includes an electronic controller associated with the gasifier, engine, generator, and switchgear. A gas flow sensor monitors a gas flow from the gasifier to the engine through an engine gas control valve and provides a gas flow signal to the electronic controller. A gas oversupply sensor monitors a gas oversupply from the gasifier and provides an oversupply signal indicative of gas not provided to the engine. A power output sensor monitors a power output of the switchgear and provide a power output signal. The electronic controller changes gas production of the gasifier and the power output rating of the switchgear based on the gas flow signal, the oversupply signal, and the power output signal.

  6. System Identification and Robust Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    uncertainty structures permitted by m is definitely much more flexible than those used in H inifity. Unfortunately m synthesis is a very difficult mathematical problem which is only well developed for purely complex perturbation sets. In order to develop our main result we will unfortunately need to...... these uncertainty ellipses may be represented or, more correct, approximated with a mixed complex and real perturbation set. This is the link needed to combine the results in robust control and system identification into a step-by-step design philosophy for synthesis of robust control systems for scalar......The main purpose of this work is to develop a coherent system identification based robust control design methodology by combining recent results from system identification and robust control. In order to accomplish this task new theoretical results will be given in both fields. Firstly, however, an...

  7. Hybrid systems controller design methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Pluska, Michal; Sinclair, David

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Around ninety percent of vehicle innovations are driven mainly by electronics. The software implementing control algorithms combines the sensor values and calculates some meaningful actuator signals. On the other hand software in the vehicle can be seen as a part of a hybrid system. The hybrid system is a dynamic system that can have both continuous and discrete dynamic behaviour, its mean a system is described by both a differential equation and a difference equation. Moreov...

  8. Certifying controls and systems software

    OpenAIRE

    Feron, Eric; Roozbehani, Mardavij

    2007-01-01

    Software system certification presents itself with many challenges, including the necessity to certify the system at the level of functional requirements, code and binary levels, the need to chase down run-time errors, and the need for proving timing properties of the eventual, compiled system. This paper illustrates possible approaches for certifying code that arises from control systems requirements as far as stability properties are concerned. The relative simplicity of the certification p...

  9. CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR HYBRID POWER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Prabhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient design along with modeling and simulation of a transformer-less small-scale centralized AC—bus Connected Hybrid (Wind–PV power system for supplying electric power to a single phase load. The main components of the hybrid system are: a PV generator (PVG; and an array of horizontal-axis, fixed pitch, small-size, variable-speed wind turbines (WTs with direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG having an embedded uncontrolled bridge rectifier. An overview of the basic theory of such systems along with their modeling and simulation via Simulink/MATLAB software package are presented. An intelligent control method is applied to the proposed configuration to simultaneously achieve three desired goals: to extract maximum power from each hybrid power system component (PVG and WTs; to guarantee DC voltage regulation/stabilization at the input of the inverter; to transfer the total produced electric power to the electric load.

  10. Computer control system in RIBLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Computer Control System applied in the Radioactive Ion Beam Line Lanzhou (RIBLL) is introduced. Accurate motion and position of ion beam diagnosing devices and detecting elements controlled by computer are emphatically described. It consists of the characteristics and working principle of step motor model 86BYG450B-02. Its computer interface circuit, and controlling program flow coded in Microsoft Visual C++ based on Windows NT or Windows 95 are introduced as well

  11. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  12. The ILC global control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scale and performance parameters of the ILC require new thinking in regards to control system design. This design work has begun quite early in comparison to most accelerator projects, with the goal of uniquely high overall accelerator availability. Among the design challenges are high control system availability, precision timing and rf phase reference distribution, standardizing of interfaces, operability, and maintainability. We present the current state of the design and take a prospective look at ongoing research and development projects.

  13. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  14. [Malignant lymphoma in the central nervous system: overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Michito

    2014-08-01

    Malignant lymphoma can affect the central nervous system (CNS) in three different ways: as a consequence (relapse or invasion) of systemic lymphoma, as a primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) without systemic involvement, and through intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL). It is essential to distinguish PCNSL from the others, since the therapeutic strategy for treating this disease differs. FDG-PET/CT fusion imagery is a powerful tool for detecting systemic lesions. If a marked elevation of lactate dehydrogenase and the soluble IL-2 receptor suggests IVL, a random skin biopsy can permit a differential diagnosis. It is not certain why PCNSL occurs solely in the CNS, where there is no lymphatic system. The special environment, so-called "sanctuary site", where is free from attack of the immune system and penetration of chemotherapeutic agents by blood-brain barrier is deeply related to malignant transformation. The prognoses for patients with CNS invasion of systemic lymphoma and those with PCNSL remain bleak in the post-rituximab era. Over half of the patients who received high-dose methotrexate will subsequently relapse. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are earnestly sought. PMID:25082313

  15. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant. (J.P.N.)

  16. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs. Chr

  17. Central inertial collector - a novel device for controlling coolant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the construction phase of the early AGRs it was predicted that active oxide would spall from the fuel can surfaces as small particles and deposit elsewhere in the primary circuit such as boilers where they might give dose rates leading to problems of man access. An investigation of existing methods of particle removal devices showed them to have excessively high pressure drops; a new device, the Central Inertial Collector, was developed. In operation the collector is placed immediately downstream (i.e. above) the fuel in the fuel channel. The coolant carrying the spalled oxide particles passes through an orifice and beyond that orifice the particles, by virtue of their inertia, are no longer uniformly distributed across the channel diameter. These regions of high particle concentration are guided out of the main gas flow and, because the fraction of flow taken is small, a higher pressure loss clean-up device is used to remove the particles from this reduced gas volume without imposing a similar high pressure drop on the total gas flow. Overall shaping is such that only smooth bends are imposed upon the main gas flow and, by combining this with careful design to reduce eddy formation, the overall pressure drop is minimised. By carefully selecting suitable channels and utilising the recirculating nature of the primary circuit with a single pass collection efficiency lower than that of the CIC, it is possible to achieve significant circuit clean-up with no power output penalty imposed upon the reactor. (author)

  18. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  19. Architecture of distributed control system at Hazira (Paper No. 3.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The architecture of control system at Heavy Water Plant, Hazira has a physically centralized and functionally de-centralized configuration. The sub-systems for the functional areas such as automation system (AS), operating and monitoring system (OS) and communication system (CS) are described. (author). 3 figs

  20. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T2-weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T1-weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were not as good as T2-weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)