Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Power, Michael J.; Owens, David G. C.; Johnstone, Eve C.
2008-01-01
Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence and executive dysfunction, were investigated as a function of behavioural markers of autism. This was irrespective of the presence or absence of a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder. Sixty young people completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), false belief tests, the block design test,…
Event Schemas in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Theory of Mind and Weak Central Coherence
Loth, Eva; Gomez, Juan Carlos; Happe, Francesca
2008-01-01
Event schemas (generalized knowledge of what happens at common real-life events, e.g., a birthday party) are an important cognitive tool for social understanding: They provide structure for social experiences while accounting for many variable aspects. Using an event narratives task, this study tested the hypotheses that theory of mind (ToM)…
Operational Resource Theory of Coherence.
Winter, Andreas; Yang, Dong
2016-03-25
We establish an operational theory of coherence (or of superposition) in quantum systems, by focusing on the optimal rate of performance of certain tasks. Namely, we introduce the two basic concepts-"coherence distillation" and "coherence cost"-in the processing quantum states under so-called incoherent operations [Baumgratz, Cramer, and Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014)]. We, then, show that, in the asymptotic limit of many copies of a state, both are given by simple single-letter formulas: the distillable coherence is given by the relative entropy of coherence (in other words, we give the relative entropy of coherence its operational interpretation), and the coherence cost by the coherence of formation, which is an optimization over convex decompositions of the state. An immediate corollary is that there exists no bound coherent state in the sense that one would need to consume coherence to create the state, but no coherence could be distilled from it. Further, we demonstrate that the coherence theory is generically an irreversible theory by a simple criterion that completely characterizes all reversible states. PMID:27058063
Weak central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease•
Mårdh, Selina
2013-01-01
Central coherence refers to the ability to interpret details of information into a whole. To date, the concept of central coherence is mainly used in research of autism, Asperger's syndrome and recently in the research on eating disorders. The main purpose of the present study was to examine central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Nine Alzheimer's disease patients and ten age- and gender-matched control subjects, who differed significantly in neurological assessment, were show...
Homotopy coherent nerve in Deformation theory
Hinich, V.
2007-01-01
In this note we explain that homotopy coherent simplicial nerve has to used intead of the standard definition in the author's papers on formal deformation theory. A convenient version of the notion of fibered category is presented which is useful once one works with simplicial categories.
Lopez, Beatriz; Leekam, Susan R.; Arts, Gerda R. J.
2008-01-01
This study aimed to test the assumption drawn from weak central coherence theory that a central cognitive mechanism is responsible for integrating information at both conceptual and perceptual levels. A visual semantic memory task and a face recognition task measuring use of holistic information were administered to 15 children with autism and 16…
van Lang, NDJ; Bouma, A; Sytema, S; Kraijer, DW; Minderaa, RB; Van Lang, J.D.; Kraijer, S.W
2006-01-01
Central coherence theory hypothesizes individuals with autism process information in a detail-focused fashion. The present study examined whether adolescents with an intellectual disability and comorbid autism spectrum disorder showed a weaker central coherence than age- and IQ-matched controls. The
Weak central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Selina M(a)rdh
2013-01-01
Central coherence refers to the ability to interpret details of information into a whole. To date, the concept of central coherence is mainly used in research of autism, Asperger's syndrome and recently in the research on eating disorders. The main purpose of the present study was to examine central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Nine Alzheimer's disease patients and ten age- and gender-matched control subjects, who differed significantly in neurological assessment, were shown a picture of a fire. Compared to control subjects, the Alzheimer's disease patients described the picture in a fragmented way by mentioning details and separate objects without perceiving the context of the fire. In conclusion, patients with Alzheimer's disease are at the weak end of central coherence, and hence suffer from a fragmented view of their surroundings. The findings have important clinical implications for the understanding of patients with Alzheimer's diseaseand also for the possibility of caregivers to meet the Alzheimer's disease individual in an appropriate way in the everyday care.
Study on connectivity between coherent central rhythm and electromyographic activities.
Meng, Fei; Tong, Kai-yu; Chan, Suk-tak; Wong, Wan-wa; Lui, Ka-him; Tang, Kwok-wing; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai
2008-09-01
Whether afferent feedback contributes to the generation of cortico-muscular coherence (CMCoh) remains an open question. In the present study, a multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) model and partial directed coherence (PDC) were applied to investigate the causal influences between the central rhythm and electromyographic (EMG) signals in the process of CMCoh. The system modeling included activities from the contralateral and ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and the time series from extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles. The results showed that afferent sensory feedback could also play an important role for the generation of CMCoh. Meanwhile, significant coherence between the EMG signals and the activities in the SMA was found in two subjects out of five. Connectivity analysis revealed a significant descending information flow which possibly reflected direct recruitment on the motoneurons from the SMA to facilitate motor control. PMID:18756033
Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.
Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu
2016-07-01
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability. PMID:27447493
Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.
Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu
2016-07-01
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.
Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence
Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu
2016-07-01
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.
Coherent control of quantum systems as a resource theory
Matera, J. M.; Egloff, D.; Killoran, N.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-08-01
Control at the interface between the classical and the quantum world is fundamental in quantum physics. In particular, how classical control is enhanced by coherence effects is an important question both from a theoretical as well as from a technological point of view. In this work, we establish a resource theory describing this setting and explore relations to the theory of coherence, entanglement and information processing. Specifically, for the coherent control of quantum systems, the relevant resources of entanglement and coherence are found to be equivalent and closely related to a measure of discord. The results are then applied to the DQC1 protocol and the precision of the final measurement is expressed in terms of the available resources.
Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design.
Shieh, W; Bao, H; Tang, Y
2008-01-21
Coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has recently been proposed and the proof-of-concept transmission experiments have shown its extreme robustness against chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. In this paper, we first review the theoretical fundamentals for CO-OFDM and its channel model in a 2x2 MIMO-OFDM representation. We then present various design choices for CO-OFDM systems and perform the nonlinearity analysis for RF-to-optical up-converter. We also show the receiver-based digital signal processing to mitigate self-phase-modulation (SPM) and Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise, which is equivalent to the midspan phase conjugation. PMID:18542158
Torday, John S.
2015-01-01
The history of physiologic cellular–molecular interrelationships can be traced all the way back to the unicellular state by following the pathway formed by lipids ubiquitously accommodating calcium homeostasis, and its consequent adaptive effects on oxygen uptake by cells, tissues and organs. As a result, a cohesive, mechanistically integrated view of physiology can be formulated by recognizing the continuum comprising conception, development, physiologic homeostasis and death mediated by soluble growth factor signaling. Seeing such seemingly disparate processes as embryogenesis, chronic disease and dying as the gain and subsequent loss of cell–cell signaling provides a novel perspective for physiology and medicine. It is emblematic of the self-organizing, self-referential nature of life, starting from its origins. Such organizing principles obviate the pitfalls of teleologic evolution, conversely providing a way of resolving such seeming dichotomies as holism and reductionism, genotype and phenotype, emergence and contingence, proximate and ultimate causation in evolution, cells and organisms. The proposed approach is scale-free and predictive, offering a Central Theory of Biology. PMID:25911556
Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy L
2016-01-01
We present a frame-invariant method for detecting coherent structures from Lagrangian flow trajectories that can be sparse in number, as is the case in many fluid mechanics applications of practical interest. The method, based on principles used in graph coloring and spectral graph drawing algorithms, examines a measure of the kinematic dissimilarity of all pairs of fluid trajectories, either measured experimentally, e.g. using particle tracking velocimetry; or numerically, by advecting fluid particles in the Eulerian velocity field. Coherence is assigned to groups of particles whose kinematics remain similar throughout the time interval for which trajectory data is available, regardless of their physical proximity to one another. Through the use of several analytical and experimental validation cases, this algorithm is shown to robustly detect coherent structures using significantly less flow data than is required by existing spectral graph theory methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pina Filippello
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The central coherence involves the processes of perceptual coding and attention mechanisms, highly deficient in children with ADHD (Booth & Happé, 2010. According to this theory, also children with autism are overly focused on details to the expense of a global perspective, and this negatively affects their ability to integrate environmental stimuli into a coherent whole (Happé, Booth, Charlton, Hughes, 2006. The aim of this study was to determine differences in central coherence of children with high functioning autism (ASD; n=10, children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=10 and typically developing peers (n=10. Individuals with ADHD exhibit significant deficits in perceptual skills and problem solving, failing also in mental states understanding tasks. While the children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in making pragmatic inferences. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the cognitive and psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.
Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David
2011-08-01
tomography, which is a necessary 'primitive' for inferring the target quantum state and thereby diagnosing the control performance. Next, the impact of realistic control and system imperfections in continuous-time Markovian feedback strategies for rapid state preparation is analyzed by Combes and Wiseman. A prominent role is played in the special issue by optimal control (OC) approaches, reflecting their central importance for quantum control and QIP. The OC contributions have been divided into two separate sections, depending on whether the target dynamics is modeled as Hamiltonian (section 3) or dissipative (section 4), respectively. The contribution by Beltrani et al deals with `control landscapes', which provide a foundation for analyzing the performance of numerical OC algorithms and their robustness against control errors. Specifically, this paper characterizes geometric properties of the control landscape, relevant to the optimal control of state-to-state transitions. Application of OC theory to the problem of population transfer and coherence enhancement in Λ-systems is studied by Kumar et al, whereas Goerz et al report on the OC-design of a high-fidelity controlled phase-gate in atomic qubits. The robustness of an OC solution is specifically addressed by Negretti et al, along with an approach for identifying easily implementable while still 'close-to-optimal' control pulses. Powerful relaxation-optimized OC schemes (based on so-called opengrape algorithms) for generating unitary target gates in the presence of known dissipation parameters are discussed by Schulte-Herbrüggen et al. Next, Lapert et al report on the problem of time-optimal control of spin-1/2 systems undergoing Bloch relaxation dynamics, highlighting the crucial role played by singular extremals in the control synthesis. Alternative approaches for optimized control of qubits exposed to various decoherence processes are developed by Esher et al and Xue et al, based on a perturbative 'bath
Effective field theory for coherent optical pulse propagation
Park, Q H; Park, Q Han
1996-01-01
Hidden nonabelian symmetries in nonlinear interactions of radiation with matter are clarified. In terms of a nonabelian potential variable, we construct an effective field theory of self-induced transparency, a phenomenon of lossless coherent pulse propagation, in association with Hermitian symmetric spaces G/H. Various new properties of self-induced transparency, e.g. soliton numbers, effective potential energy, gauge symmetry and discrete symmetries, modified pulse area, conserved U(1)-charge etc. are addressed and elaborated in the nondegenerate two-level case where G/H = SU(2)/U(1). Using the U(1)-charge conservation, a new type of analysis on pulse stability is given which agrees with earlier numerical results.
The Theory and Measurement of Macroeconomic Disequilibrium in Centrally Planned Economies
Richard Portes
1986-01-01
The paper considers issues in recent research on macroeconomic equilibrium in centrally planned economies. I defend the explicit aggregative, macroeconomic approach in theory, institutional relationships and measurement. It has offered a fresh, coherent framework for the analysis of many Centrally Planned Economies phenomena, opened up a range of possibilities for empirical investigation, and generated several important spinoffs: work on planners' behaviour; insights into CPE policy problems ...
Paths to policy coherence to create market economies in Central and Eastern Europe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Careja, Romana
2011-01-01
centralized economies of Central and Eastern Europe into market-driven ones. It shows that government characteristics with likely impact on the quality of policy-making, such as accountability and institutional constraints, are associated with coherent policies only in a limited number of cases. It also shows...
Super-effective-field theory and coherent-anomaly method in cooperative phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conceptual arguments on the coherent-anomaly method (CAM) and on the super-effective-field theory are presented to explain the basic ideas of these theories. Some possible applications are also suggested
The pragmatics of discourse coherence : Theory and applications
Redeker, Gisela; Gruber, Helmut
2014-01-01
Over the past four decades, discourse coherence has been studied from linguistic, psycholinguistic, computational, and applied perspectives. This volume identifies current issues and under-researched topics in the pragmatics of discourse coherence. Nine studies from various disciplines address the r
Kocatürk, Tolga; Erkan, Erol; Çakmak, Harun; Kurt Ömürlü, İmran; Dayanır, Volkan
2015-01-01
AbstractObjective: The aim is to compare the central corneal thickness measurements by optical low-coherence reflectometry and contact ultrasonic pachymeter in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma as well as healthy subjects.Materials and Methods: We have made a survey of the data of the patients with glaucoma who had been followed for ten years at the Department of Ophthalmology. 148 eyes of 76 patients who had central corneal thic...
Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2010-08-01
The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic—scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are “random environment” settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic—scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark’s law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)—in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes—and present “randomized counterparts” to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-01
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-15
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations. PMID:27472102
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saban Gonul
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the results of central corneal thickness (CCT measurements obtained using optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT, and a Scheimpflug camera (SC, combined with Placido corneal topography. Methods: A total of 25 healthy subjects were enrolled in the present study, and one eye of each subject was included. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed in all cases following CCT measurements with OLCR, FD-OCT, and SC. The results were compared using an ANOVA test. Bland-Altman analysis was used to demonstrate agreement between methods. Intra-examiner repeatability was assessed by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between the results of the CCT measurements obtained using the three different devices (p=0.009. Significant correlations were found between OLCR and FD-OCT (r=0.97; p0.98. Conclusion: Although the results of CCT measurements obtained from these three devices were highly correlated with one another and the mean differences between instruments were comparable with the reported diurnal CCT fluctuation, the measurements are not directly interchangeable in clinical practice because of the wide LOA values.
Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-01-01
The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose-Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.
Visual processing of coherent rotation in the central visual field: an fMRI study.
Könönen, Mervi; Pääkkönen, Ari; Pihlajamäki, Maija; Partanen, Kaarina; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Soimakallio, Seppo; Aronen, Hannu J
2003-01-01
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the brain areas that process coherent motion. To reduce the activity related to eye-movement planning and self-motion perception, rotation was used as coherent motion and the stimulus was restricted to the central visual field. Coherent rotation relative to incoherent random-dot motion resulted in consistent activation in the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in the lateral occipital gyrus (presumptive kinetic occipital region, KO), and in the fusiform gyrus (FG). The main novel finding in present study is the bilateral SPL activation, which has not been found in any previous study contrasting coherent and incoherent motion. It is suggested that the SPL activation is related to form-from-motion processing. The stimulus modification that prevented abrupt appearances of dots at the borders of the stimulus field increased the strength of rolling disk-like percept of the coherent stimulus. This perception of form may also be at least partly responsible for the activation in KO and FG. With this explanation, our three consistent activation areas are in line with previous findings. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that even delicate changes in some stimulus aspects can lead to significant changes in the activation of the brain. PMID:14700259
Coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms theory meets experiment
Labeyrie, G; Müller, C A; Miniatura, C; Kaiser, R; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Delande, Dominique; Mueller, Cord A.; Miniatura, Christian; Kaiser, Robin
2003-01-01
Coherent backscattering (CBS) of quasi-resonant light by cold atoms presents some specific features due to the internal structure of the atomic scatterers. We present the first quantitative comparison between the experimentally observed CBS cones and Monte-Carlo calculations which take into account the shape of the atomic cloud as well as the internal atomic structure.
Coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms: theory meets experiment
Labeyrie, Guillaume; Delande, Dominique; Mueller, Cord A.; Miniatura, Christian; Kaiser, Robin
2002-01-01
Coherent backscattering (CBS) of quasi-resonant light by cold atoms presents some specific features due to the internal structure of the atomic scatterers. We present the first quantitative comparison between the experimentally observed CBS cones and Monte-Carlo calculations which take into account the shape of the atomic cloud as well as the internal atomic structure.
G. Ertuğrul Mirza
2014-01-01
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference in central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements obtained by Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and ultrasonic pachymetry in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 healthy consecutively selected individuals without ocular or systemic disease. CCT was first measured using OCT, and then using ultrasonic pachymetry. Results: Mean age of the participants was ...
Stimulus control topography coherence theory: Foundations and extensions
McIlvane, William J.; Dube, William V.
2003-01-01
Stimulus control topography refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control topography coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. Thi...
Maruo, Daiki; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2016-01-01
We present the quantum theory of coherent Ising machines based on networks of degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPOs). In a simple model consisting of two coupled DOPOs, both positive-$P$ representation and truncated Wigner representation predict quantum correlation and inseparability between the two DOPOs in spite of the open-dissipative nature of the system. Here, we apply the truncated Wigner representation method to coherent Ising machines with thermal, vacuum, and squeezed rese...
Søren Ventegodt; Trine Flensborg-Madsen; Niels Jørgen Andersen; Joav Merrick
2005-01-01
A theoretical framework of existential coherence is presented, explaining how health, quality of life (QOL), and the ability to function were originally created and developed to rehabilitate human life from an existential perspective. The theory is inspired by the work of Aaron Antonovsky and explains our surprising recent empirical findings—that QOL, health, and ability primarily are determined by our consciousness. The theory is a matrix of nine key elements in five layers: (1) coherence; (...
Simplifying Central Place Theory Using GIS and GPS
Theo, Lisa
2011-01-01
A constant struggle for teachers at all levels is finding ways to successfully teach students complex theories and concepts. Student comprehension is often enhanced by applying these theories and concepts to real world situations. This project demonstrates central place theory by examining highway billboard signs along major Wisconsin highways. In…
To the theory of coherent resonance tunneling of interacting electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In terms of the model of coherent tunneling of interacting electrons one determined analytical solutions for the Schroedinger equation for a two-barrier structure (a resonance and tunnel diode) with the open boundary conditions. One derived simple expressions for resonance current enabling to analyze the volt-ampere characteristics, hysteresis occurrence conditions and its peculiarities depending on the parameters of a resonance-tunnel diode. Hysteresis is shown to be realized if current is higher than a certain critical value proportional to resonance level width square
A coherent modified Redfield theory for excitation energy transfer in molecular aggregates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang-Fu, Yu-Hsien; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Yuan-Chung, E-mail: yuanchung@ntu.edu.tw
2015-02-02
Highlights: • A CMRT method for coherent energy transfer in molecular aggregates was developed. • Applicability of the method was verified in two-site systems with various parameters. • CMRT accurately describes population dynamics in the FMO-complex. • The method is accurate in a large parameter space and computationally efficient. - Abstract: Excitation energy transfer (EET) is crucial in photosynthetic light harvesting, and quantum coherence has been recently proven to be a ubiquitous phenomenon in photosynthetic EET. In this work, we derive a coherent modified Redfield theory (CMRT) that generalizes the modified Redfield theory to treat coherence dynamics. We apply the CMRT method to simulate the EET in a dimer system and compare the results with those obtained from numerically exact path integral calculations. The comparison shows that CMRT provides excellent computational efficiency and accuracy within a large EET parameter space. Furthermore, we simulate the EET dynamics in the FMO complex at 77 K using CMRT. The results show pronounced non-Markovian effects and long-lasting coherences in the ultrafast EET, in excellent agreement with calculations using the hierarchy equation of motion approach. In summary, we have successfully developed a simple yet powerful framework for coherent EET dynamics in photosynthetic systems and organic materials.
Skorich, Daniel P; May, Adrienne R; Talipski, Louisa A; Hall, Marnie H; Dolstra, Anita J; Gash, Tahlia B; Gunningham, Beth H
2016-03-01
We explore the relationship between the 'theory of mind' (ToM) and 'central coherence' difficulties of autism. We introduce covariation between hierarchically-embedded categories and social information--at the local level, the global level, or at both levels simultaneously--within a category confusion task. We then ask participants to infer the mental state of novel category members, and measure participants' autism-spectrum quotient (AQ). Results reveal a positive relationship between AQ and the degree of local/global social categorization, which in turn predicts the pattern of mental state inferences. These results provide preliminary evidence for a causal relationship between central coherence and ToM abilities. Implications with regard to ToM processes, social categorization, intervention, and the development of a unified account of autism are discussed.
Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors
Grimsmo, Arne L.; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre
2016-01-01
We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].
Theory of nonlinear phononics for coherent light control of solids
A. Subedi; A. Cavalleri; Georges, A.
2014-01-01
We present a microscopic theory for ultrafast control of solids with high-intensity terahertz frequency optical pulses. When resonant with selected infrared-active vibrations, these pulses transiently modify the crystal structure and lead to new collective electronic properties. The theory predicts the dynamical path taken by the crystal lattice using first-principles calculations of the energy surface and classical equations of motion, as well as symmetry considerations. Two classes of dynam...
Correct Path-Integral Formulation of Quantum Thermal Field Theory in Coherent State Representation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU Jun-Chen; ZHENG Fu-Hou
2005-01-01
The path-integral quantization of thermal scalar, vector, and spinor fields is performed newly in the coherent-state representation. In doing this, we choose the thermal electrodynamics and ψ4 theory as examples. By this quantization, correct expressions of the partition functions and the generating functionals for the quantum thermal electrodynamics and ψ4 theory are obtained in the coherent-state representation. These expressions allow us to perform analytical calculations of the partition functions and generating functionals and therefore are useful in practical applications. Especially, the perturbative expansions of the generating functionals are derived specifically by virtue of the stationary-phase method. The generating functionals formulated in the position space are re-derived from the ones given in the coherent-state representation.
Coherent States and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Light Front Scalar Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC; Chakrabarti, D.; /Florida U.; Harindranath, A.; /Saha Inst.; Lloyd, R.; /Arkansas State U.; Martinovic, L.; /Bratislava,; Spence, J.R.; /Iowa State U.
2005-12-14
Recently developed nuclear many-body techniques provide novel results when applied to constituent quark models and to light-front scalar field theory. We show how spontaneous symmetry breaking arises and is consistent with a coherent state ansatz in a variational treatment. The kink and the kink-antikink topological features are identified and the onset of symmetry restoration is demonstrated.
Theory of nonlinear phononics for coherent light control of solids
Subedi, Alaska; Cavalleri, Andrea; Georges, Antoine
2014-06-01
We present a microscopic theory for ultrafast control of solids with high-intensity terahertz frequency optical pulses. When resonant with selected infrared-active vibrations, these pulses transiently modify the crystal structure and lead to new collective electronic properties. The theory predicts the dynamical path taken by the crystal lattice using first-principles calculations of the energy surface and classical equations of motion, as well as symmetry considerations. Two classes of dynamics are identified. In the perturbative regime, displacements along the normal mode coordinate of symmetry-preserving Raman active modes can be achieved by cubic anharmonicities. This explains the light-induced insulator-to-metal transition reported experimentally in manganites. We predict a regime in which ultrafast instabilities that break crystal symmetry can be induced. This nonperturbative effect involves a quartic anharmonic coupling and occurs above a critical threshold, below which the nonlinear dynamics of the driven mode displays softening and dynamical stabilization.
Breaking the coherence barrier: A new theory for compressed sensing
Adcock, Ben; Hansen, Anders C.; Poon, Clarice; Roman, Bogdan
2013-01-01
This paper provides an extension of compressed sensing which bridges a substantial gap between existing theory and its current use in real-world applications. It introduces a mathematical framework that generalizes the three standard pillars of compressed sensing - namely, sparsity, incoherence and uniform random subsampling - to three new concepts: asymptotic sparsity, asymptotic incoherence and multilevel random sampling. The new theorems show that compressed sensing is also possible, and r...
Wavefront sensing based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing
Lei, Huang; Qi, Bian; Chenlu, Zhou; Tenghao, Li; Mali, Gong
2016-07-01
A novel wavefront sensing method based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing is proposed. The wavefront gradient field in the object plane is modulated into intensity distribution in a gang of patterns, making high-density detection available. By applying the method, we have also designed a wavefront sensor. It consists of a classical coherent optical processing system, a CCD detector array, two pieces of orthogonal composite sinusoidal gratings, and a mechanical structure that can perform real-time linear positioning. The simulation results prove and demonstrate the validity of the method and the sensor in high-precision measurement of the wavefront gradient field.
Analytic function theory of several variables elements of Oka’s coherence
Noguchi, Junjiro
2016-01-01
The purpose of this book is to present the classical analytic function theory of several variables as a standard subject in a course of mathematics after learning the elementary materials (sets, general topology, algebra, one complex variable). This includes the essential parts of Grauert–Remmert's two volumes, GL227(236) (Theory of Stein spaces) and GL265 (Coherent analytic sheaves) with a lowering of the level for novice graduate students (here, Grauert's direct image theorem is limited to the case of finite maps). The core of the theory is "Oka's Coherence", found and proved by Kiyoshi Oka. It is indispensable, not only in the study of complex analysis and complex geometry, but also in a large area of modern mathematics. In this book, just after an introductory chapter on holomorphic functions (Chap. 1), we prove Oka's First Coherence Theorem for holomorphic functions in Chap. 2. This defines a unique character of the book compared with other books on this subject, in which the notion of coherence appear...
Hahn, Noemi; Snedeker, Jesse; Rabagliati, Hugh
2015-12-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have often been reported to have difficulty integrating information into its broader context, which has motivated the Weak Central Coherence theory of ASD. In the linguistic domain, evidence for this difficulty comes from reports of impaired use of linguistic context to resolve ambiguous words. However, recent work has suggested that impaired use of linguistic context may not be characteristic of ASD, and is instead better explained by co-occurring language impairments. Here, we provide a strong test of these claims, using the visual world eye tracking paradigm to examine the online mechanisms by which children with autism resolve linguistic ambiguity. To address concerns about both language impairments and compensatory strategies, we used a sample whose verbal skills were strong and whose average age (7; 6) was lower than previous work on lexical ambiguity resolution in ASD. Participants (40 with autism and 40 controls) heard sentences with ambiguous words in contexts that either strongly supported one reading or were consistent with both (John fed/saw the bat). We measured activation of the unintended meaning through implicit semantic priming of an associate (looks to a depicted baseball glove). Contrary to the predictions of weak central coherence, children with ASD, like controls, quickly used context to resolve ambiguity, selecting appropriate meanings within a second. We discuss how these results constrain the generality of weak central coherence. PMID:25820816
Hahn, Noemi; Snedeker, Jesse; Rabagliati, Hugh
2015-12-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have often been reported to have difficulty integrating information into its broader context, which has motivated the Weak Central Coherence theory of ASD. In the linguistic domain, evidence for this difficulty comes from reports of impaired use of linguistic context to resolve ambiguous words. However, recent work has suggested that impaired use of linguistic context may not be characteristic of ASD, and is instead better explained by co-occurring language impairments. Here, we provide a strong test of these claims, using the visual world eye tracking paradigm to examine the online mechanisms by which children with autism resolve linguistic ambiguity. To address concerns about both language impairments and compensatory strategies, we used a sample whose verbal skills were strong and whose average age (7; 6) was lower than previous work on lexical ambiguity resolution in ASD. Participants (40 with autism and 40 controls) heard sentences with ambiguous words in contexts that either strongly supported one reading or were consistent with both (John fed/saw the bat). We measured activation of the unintended meaning through implicit semantic priming of an associate (looks to a depicted baseball glove). Contrary to the predictions of weak central coherence, children with ASD, like controls, quickly used context to resolve ambiguity, selecting appropriate meanings within a second. We discuss how these results constrain the generality of weak central coherence.
What does the frontomedian cortex contribute to language processing: coherence or theory of mind?
Ferstl, Evelyn C; von Cramon, D Yves
2002-11-01
The frontomedian cortex (FMC) has been shown to be important for coherence processes in language comprehension, i.e., for establishing the pragmatic connection between successively presented sentences. The same brain region has a role during theory-of-mind processes, i.e., during the attribution of other people's actions to their motivations, beliefs, or emotions. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to disentangle the relative contributions of the FMC to theory-of-mind (ToM) and coherence processes, respectively. The BOLD response of nine participants was recorded while they listened to pragmatically coherent or unrelated sentence pairs. Using a logic instruction for inanimate sentence pairs, ToM processing was discouraged during the first part of the experiment. Using explicit ToM instructions for sentence pairs mentioning human protagonists, ToM processing was induced during the second part. In three of the resulting four conditions a significant increase in the BOLD response was observed in FMC: when ToM instructions were given, both coherent and incoherent trials elicited frontomedian activation, in replication of previous results showing involvement of the FMC during ToM tasks. When logic instructions were given, the coherent trials, but not the incoherent trials, activated the FMC. These results clearly show that the FMC plays a role in coherence processes even in the absence of concomitant ToM processes. The findings support the view of this cortex having a domain-independent functionality related to volitional aspects of the initiation and maintenance of nonautomatic cognitive processes.
Barnes, Jack A.; Loock, Hans-Peter
2016-10-01
Several mathematical models exist in the literature to describe the properties of optical resonators. Here, coupled mode theory and coherent superposition theory are compared and their consistency is demonstrated as they are applied to phase-shift cavity ring-down measurements in optical (micro-)cavities. In the particular case of a whispering gallery mode in a microsphere cavity these models are applied to transmission measurements and backscattering measurements through the fiber taper that couples light into the microresonator. It is shown that both models produce identical relations when applied to these traveling wave cavities.
A feasible central limit theory for realised volatility under leverage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, Neil
In this note we show that the feasible central limit theory for realised volatility and realised covariation recently developed by Barndor-Nielsen and Shephard applies under arbitrary diusion based leverage eects. Results from a simulation experiment suggest that the feasible version of the limit...
Riches, N. G.; Loucas, T.; Baird, G.; Charman, T.; Simonoff, E.
2016-01-01
According to the weak central coherence (CC) account individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit enhanced local processing and weak part-whole integration. CC was investigated in the verbal domain. Adolescents, recruited using a 2 (ASD status) by 2 (language impairment status) design, completed an aural forced choice comprehension…
Danner, Unna N.; Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Meer, Floor; Adan, Roger A. H.; Hoek, Hans W.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.
2012-01-01
Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine set-shifting, central coherence, and decision making in women currently ill with anorexia nervosa (AN), women recovered from AN, and healthy control women. We aim to test whether these neuropsychological weaknesses persist after recovery, and explor
Maruo, Daiki; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2016-08-01
We present the quantum theory of coherent Ising machines based on networks of degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPOs). In a simple model consisting of two coupled DOPOs, both positive-P representation and truncated Wigner representation predict quantum correlation and inseparability between the two DOPOs in spite of the open-dissipative nature of the system. Here, we apply the truncated Wigner representation method to coherent Ising machines with thermal, vacuum, and squeezed reservoir fields. We find that the probability of finding the ground state of a one-dimensional Ising model increases substantially as a result of reducing excess thermal noise and squeezing the incident vacuum fluctuation on the out-coupling port.
Centrality of the collision and random matrix theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Z.Wazir
2010-01-01
I discuss the results from a study of the central 12CC collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c.The data have been analyzed using a new method based on the Random Matrix Theory.The simulation data coming from the Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics code were used in the analyses.I found that the behavior of the nearest neighbor spacing distribution for the protons,neutrons and neutral pions depends critically on the multiplicity of secondary particles for simulated data.I conclude that the obtained results offer the possibility of fixing the centrality using the critical values of the multiplicity.
Numerical modeling of the central spin problem using the spin coherent states P-representation
Dobrovitski, V. V.; Al-Hassanieh, K. A.; Dagotto, E.; Harmon, B. N.
2006-03-01
We analyze decoherence of a central spin coupled to a spin bath (the central spin problem). Theoretical understanding of this process is important for many experiments, such as the recent study of decoherence of the electron spin by the nuclear spins in a quantum dot. To investigate the important non-perturbative decoherence regimes, we developed an efficient mean-field-based method for modeling the spin-bath decoherence. The method is based on the P-representation for the central spin density matrix, which is very useful in quantum optics, but has not been widely applied to quantum many-spin systems. In contrast with the standard time-dependent mean field theory, our method gives excellent agreement with the exact solution. We demonstrate performance of the method for longitudinal and transversal relaxation at different external fields. In particular, by modeling the quantum systems with up to 16000 bath spins, we make controlled predictions for the slow long-time decoherence of the central spin. We thank L. Glazman, M. Lukin, A. Polkovnikov, and J. Taylor for helpful discussions. This work was supported by NSA, ARDA, ARO, and NSF.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Ertuğrul Mirza
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference in central corneal thickness (CCT measurements obtained by Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and ultrasonic pachymetry in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 healthy consecutively selected individuals without ocular or systemic disease. CCT was first measured using OCT, and then using ultrasonic pachymetry. Results: Mean age of the participants was 31.44 years. Mean CCT measured using SD-OCT was 531.78 µm versus 535.15 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry. Mean CCT measurement obtained by Cirrus SD-OCT showed statistically significant difference by approximately 3.37 µm than the one obtained by ultrasonic pachymetry (t-test, p<0.05; however, Bland-Altman analysis proved that there was high concordance between the measurements. Conclusion: CCT measurements obtained by Cirrus SD-OCT were very similar to those obtained by ultrasonic pachymetry, and as such we think that Cirrus SD-OCT can be used in our present ophthalmology practice to measure OCT. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 259-62
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To assess the agreement of central corneal thickness (CCT) measured by anterior chamber-optical coherence tomography (AC-OCT) and ultrasonic pachymeter and provide an objective basis for clinical application of AC-OCT. Methods: CCT of 150 college student volunteers (300 eyes) measured by two devices were obtained. The data was analyzed by paired t test and Pearson correlation analysis. Bland-Altman plot and Mountain plot were used to assess the agreement. Results: The mean CCT values were (530.05 ± 33.611) μm measured by AC-OCT and (543.68 ± 35.088) μm measured by ultrasonic pachymeter. Regression analysis showed a high correlation between the values obtained by both devices (r=0.960, P<0.001). Compared with AC-OCT, ultrasonic pachymeter overestimated the CCT by a mean of 13.62 μm. The two modalities had incomparable results. Conclusion: It is important to be noted in clinical practice that the measurements acquired by these two modalities are not directly interchangeable. However, the CCT measurements by the AC-OCT and ultrasonic pachymeter are highly correlated. AC-OCT is an effective method to observe the changes of the corneal thickness in the long term. (authors)
Role of diffusional coherency strain theory in the discontinuous precipitation in Mg–Al alloy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K T Kashyap; C Ramachandra; M Sujatha; B Chatterji
2000-02-01
Discontinuous precipitation (DP) occurs in many alloy systems under certain conditions. It is called discontinuous precipitation because precipitation occurs on prior matrix grain boundaries followed by grain boundary movement. The DP nodule consists of alternate lamellae of the precipitate and the matrix respectively. The chemical driving force for DP is one of solute supersaturation. Although solute supersaturation is responsible for precipitation, it has to be coupled with another driving force to explain grain boundary migration. This coupling driving force has been identified to be diffusional coherency strain which has been verified to be active in diffusion induced grain boundary migration and liquid film migration. To test diffusional coherency strain theory for discontinuous precipitation Mg–7Al and Mg–7Al–1Pb alloys were studied. While the fraction transformed was high at 6% in Mg–7Al alloy, it was significantly low at 2% in Mg–7Al–1Pb alloy. The velocity of DP nodules decreased by half in alloy with Pb as compared to the alloy without Pb. Theoretical calculations also predict that the misfit parameter th decreases with the addition of Pb. These observations are an evidence to the fact that diffusional coherency strain is the most active driving force for the movement of the grain boundaries of the DP nodules during discontinuous precipitation in Mg–Al alloy.
A Theory of Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Molecular Rotations by High Harmonic Generation
Faisal, F. H. M.; Abdurrouf, A.
A dynamic theory of mapping coherent molecular motions from high harmonic generation signals is presented. Application to mapping of coherent rotational motions of linear molecules is made. Results of concrete calculations for N2, O2 and CO2 are analyzed both in time and frequency domains. A "magic angle" for the polarization geometry is predicted at which the HHG signals for all pump-probe delay times become equal for linear molecules of σg orbital symmetry. In contrast only a "crossing neighborhood" near the magic angle is predicted for molecules with orbitals of π symmetry. They are expected to help in identifying the orbital symmetry in the inverse problem of orbital reconstruction from experimental data. Comparison with available experimental data show remarkable agreement with all the salient properties of dynamic HHG signals of linear diatomic molecules, N2 and O2, and some simple organic molecules. Additional results for the triatomic molecule CO2 are discussed that might help to test the theory further.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Søren Ventegodt
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A theoretical framework of existential coherence is presented, explaining how health, quality of life (QOL, and the ability to function were originally created and developed to rehabilitate human life from an existential perspective. The theory is inspired by the work of Aaron Antonovsky and explains our surprising recent empirical findings—that QOL, health, and ability primarily are determined by our consciousness. The theory is a matrix of nine key elements in five layers: (1 coherence; (2 purpose and talent; (3 consciousness, love, and physicality/sexuality; (4 light and joy; and (5 QOL/meaning of life. The layer above causes the layer below, with the layer of QOL again feeding the fundamental layer of coherence. The model holds the person responsible for his or her own degree of reality, happiness, and being present. The model implies that when a person takes responsibility in all nine “dimensions” of life, he or she can improve and develop health, the ability to function, all aspects of QOL, and the meaning of life. The theory of existential coherence integrates a wide range of QOL theories from Jung and Maslow to Frankl and Wilber. It is a nine-ray theory in accordance with Gurjieff's enneagram and the old Indian chakra system. It can be used in the holistic medical clinic and in existential coaching. Love is in the center of the model and rehabilitation of love in its broadest sense is, accordingly, the essence of holistic medicine. To know yourself, your purpose of life (life mission and talents, and taking these into full use and becoming coherent with life inside and reality outside is what human life is essentially about. The new model has been developed to integrate the existing knowledge in the complex field of holistic medicine. Its strength is that it empowers the holistic physician to treat the patient with even severe diseases and can also be used for existential rehabilitation, holistic psychiatry, and sexology. Its major
Ventegodt, Søren; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav
2005-05-01
A theoretical framework of existential coherence is presented, explaining how health, quality of life (QOL), and the ability to function were originally created and developed to rehabilitate human life from an existential perspective. The theory is inspired by the work of Aaron Antonovsky and explains our surprising recent empirical findings -- that QOL, health, and ability primarily are determined by our consciousness. The theory is a matrix of nine key elements in five layers: (1) coherence; (2) purpose and talent; (3) consciousness, love, and physicality/sexuality; (4) light and joy; and (5) QOL/meaning of life. The layer above causes the layer below, with the layer of QOL again feeding the fundamental layer of coherence. The model holds the person responsible for his or her own degree of reality, happiness, and being present. The model implies that when a person takes responsibility in all nine "dimensions" of life, he or she can improve and develop health, the ability to function, all aspects of QOL, and the meaning of life. The theory of existential coherence integrates a wide range of QOL theories from Jung and Maslow to Frankl and Wilber. It is a nine-ray theory in accordance with Gurjieff's enneagram and the old Indian chakra system. It can be used in the holistic medical clinic and in existential coaching. Love is in the center of the model and rehabilitation of love in its broadest sense is, accordingly, the essence of holistic medicine. To know yourself, your purpose of life (life mission) and talents, and taking these into full use and becoming coherent with life inside and reality outside is what human life is essentially about. The new model has been developed to integrate the existing knowledge in the complex field of holistic medicine. Its strength is that it empowers the holistic physician to treat the patient with even severe diseases and can also be used for existential rehabilitation, holistic psychiatry, and sexology. Its major weakness is
Nien, Benjamin Chih-Chien
2006-01-01
This paper attempts to analyze “central place theory” of spatial economics based on “supply and demand theory” in microeconomics and “field theory” in physics, and also discuss their relationship. Three most important research findings are described below. Firstly, the concept of market equilibrium could be expressed in the mathematical form of physics field theory under proper hypothesis. That is because the most important aspect of field theory model is that complex analysis is taken as a k...
Urbanek, Diana C.; Berg, Mark A.
2007-07-01
For coherent Raman spectroscopies, common femtosecond pulses often lie in an intermediate regime: their bandwidth is too wide for measurements in the frequency domain, but their temporal width is too broad for homodyne measurements in the time domain. A recent paper [S. Nath et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 267401 (2006)] showed that complete Raman spectra can be recovered from intermediate length pulses by using simultaneous time and frequency detection (TFD). Heterodyne detection and a phase-stable local oscillator at the anti-Stokes frequency are not needed with TFD. This paper examines the theory of TFD Raman in more detail; a companion paper tests the results on experimental data. Model calculations illustrate how information on the Raman spectrum is transferred from the frequency domain to the time domain as the pulse width shortens. When data are collected in both dimensions, the Raman spectrum is completely determined to high resolution, regardless of the probe pulse width. The loss of resolution in many femtosecond coherent Raman experiments is due to the restriction to one-dimensional data collection, rather than due to a fundamental restriction based on the pulse width.
Microscopic theory of coherent and incoherent optical properties of semiconductor heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Martin
2008-09-02
An important question is whether there is a regime in which lasing from indirect semiconductors is possible. Thus, we discuss this question in this thesis. It is shown that under incoherent emission conditions it is possible to create an exciton condensate in multiple-quantum-well (MQW) systems. The influence of a MQW structure on the exciton lifetime is investigated. For the description of the light-matter interaction of a QW in the coherent excitation regime, the semiconductor Bloch equation (SBE) are used. The incoherent regime is described by the semiconductor luminescence equations (SLE). In principle it is even possible to couple SBE and SLE. The resulting theory is able to describe interactions between coherent and incoherent processes we investigate both, the coherent and the incoherent light-emission regime. Thus we define the investigated system and introduce the many-body Hamiltonian that describes consistently the light-matter interaction in the classical and the quantum limit. We introduce the SBE that allow to compute the light-matter interaction in the coherent scenario. The extended scattering model is used to investigate the absorption of a Ge QW for different time delays after the excitations. In this context, we analyze whether there is a regime in which optical gain can be realized. Then we apply a transfer-matrix method to include into our calculations the influence of the dielectric environment on the optical response. Thereafter the SLE for a MQW system are introduced. We derive a scheme that allows for decoupling environmental effects from the pure PL-emission properties of the QW. The PL of the actual QW system is obtained by multiplying this filter function and the free-space PL that describes the quantum emission into a medium with spatially constant background-refractive index. It is studied how the MQW-Bragg structure influences the PL-emission properties compared to the emission of a single QW device. As a last feature, it is shown
Pain sensitivity and headache: an examination of the central theory.
Marlowe, N I
1992-01-01
The central theory of headache was investigated by examining pain sensitivity in headache sufferers and headache-free controls. Headache subjects had lower pain threshold and tolerance levels than controls for electrical stimulation of the finger. Headache subjects also had a lesser tolerance for pain induced by the application of ice to the temporal region, but there was no significant difference between groups on temporal ice pain threshold. Sensitivity to finger pain was not affected by the presence or absence of headache at the time of testing. No significant differences between tension and migraine subjects were observed; neither were headache subjects, reporting unilateral headaches, significantly more sensitive to temporal ice pain on the side affected by headache. It was concluded that headache sufferers may be more sensitive to pain than headache-free persons but, that this heightened sensitivity is not specific to the head, and in itself, seems unable to account for the locus of headache. PMID:1538347
Liu, Zi-Xin; Wen, Sheng-Hui; Li, Ming
2008-06-01
A combination of the iterative perturbation theory (ITP) of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) and coherent-potential approximation (CPA) is generalized to the double exchange model with orbital degeneracy. The Hubbard interaction and the off-diagonal components for the hopping matrix tmnij(m ≠ n) are considered in our calculation of spectrum and optical conductivity. The numerical results show that the effects of the non-diagonal hopping matrix elements are important.
Emre Hekimoglu; Muhammet Kazım Erol; Devrim Toslak; Deniz Turgut Coban; Berna Doğan; Ozgur Yucel
2015-01-01
Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) by spectral domain optical coherence (SD-OCT) in premature infants and compare it to CCT measurement by ultrasonic pachymetry (USP). Methods. Three CCT measurements of the left eyes of 50 premature infants were obtained by SD-OCT using the iVue system. 10 CCT measurements of each 28 left eyes of 28 infants were obtained by USP using the Pacscan 300P system. Bland-Altman plots were developed and the limit ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior
2006-04-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tomografia de coerência óptica como método objetivo de diagnóstico e de seguimento da coriorretinopatia serosa central. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional descritivo de 16 (dezesseis olhos de portadores de coriorretinopatia serosa central unilateral, em fase aguda. Estes pacientes foram submetidos à medida da acuidade visual e a exame oftalmológico completo, incluindo biomicroscopia da mácula, angiofluoresceinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica. Nenhum dos pacientes foi submetido a qualquer tipo de tratamento. RESULTADO: Dos 16 casos consecutivos de coriorretinopatia serosa central, 12 pacientes completaram o seguimento até a resolução da doença. A idade variou entre 27 e 50 anos, com média de 38,9 anos. A predominância foi do sexo masculino. Na tomografia de coerência óptica, o descolamento da retina neurossensorial foi observado em todos os casos e 33,3% dos pacientes apresentaram descolamento do epitélio pigmentado da retina. Houve diferença significativa em todas as variáveis estudadas, constatando melhora na acuidade visual, diminuição na espessura e no volume macular na resolução da doença. CONCLUSÃO: Tomografia de coerência óptica mostrou boa eficácia para detectar e quantificar alterações maculares em olhos com coriorretinopatia serosa central, podendo ser útil em avaliações clínicas na fase aguda e na resolução da doença.PURPOSE: To evaluate optical coherence tomography as an objective diagnostic and follow-up method for central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Observational descriptive study of 16 (sixteen eyes of 16 patients with unilateral acute central serous chorioretinopathy. These patients had their visual acuity measured and complete ophthalmological examination was performed, including macular slit lamp examination, angiofluoresceinography and optical coherence tomography. No treatment was given to any patient. RESULTS: Of the 16 central serous chorioretinopathy eyes
Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi
2016-07-01
Electron transport properties of nanoelectronics can be significantly influenced by the inevitable and randomly distributed impurities/defects. For theoretical simulation of disordered nanoscale electronics, one is interested in both the configurationally averaged transport property and its statistical fluctuation that tells device-to-device variability induced by disorder. However, due to the lack of an effective method to do disorder averaging under the nonequilibrium condition, the important effects of disorders on electron transport remain largely unexplored or poorly understood. In this work, we report a general formalism of Green's function based nonequilibrium effective medium theory to calculate the disordered nanoelectronics. In this method, based on a generalized coherent potential approximation for the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function, we developed a generalized nonequilibrium vertex correction method to calculate the average of a two-Keldysh-Green's-function correlator. We obtain nine nonequilibrium vertex correction terms, as a complete family, to express the average of any two-Green's-function correlator and find they can be solved by a set of linear equations. As an important result, the averaged nonequilibrium density matrix, averaged current, disorder-induced current fluctuation, and averaged shot noise, which involve different two-Green's-function correlators, can all be derived and computed in an effective and unified way. To test the general applicability of this method, we applied it to compute the transmission coefficient and its fluctuation with a square-lattice tight-binding model and compared with the exact results and other previously proposed approximations. Our results show very good agreement with the exact results for a wide range of disorder concentrations and energies. In addition, to incorporate with density functional theory to realize first-principles quantum transport simulation, we have also derived a general form of
Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B; Touyz, Stephen
2013-09-01
Set shifting difficulties and weak central coherence are information-processing biases associated with thinness-oriented eating and body image pathology in women. However, little is known about the relationship between these processing biases and muscularity-oriented eating and body image pathology. We investigated whether set shifting and central coherence were uniquely related to the drive for muscularity and muscularity-oriented disordered eating in a sample of 91 male undergraduates. Participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sort Test, the Matching Familiar Figures Task, the Drive for Muscularity scale, and a modified Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire. Results indicated that set shifting difficulties and weak central coherence were both uniquely positively associated with the drive for muscularity, and that set shifting difficulties were uniquely positively associated with muscularity-oriented disordered eating. Results are discussed with regard to the male experience of body image and eating pathology, and in regard to muscle dysmorphia. PMID:23680082
Yashiki, Satoshi
2016-09-01
We analyze the controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields by introducing the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and entropy, which is defined using the intensity matrix [H. Gamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 976 (1957)]. The analytical derivation of the WDF and entropy is presented for a partially coherent imaging system consisting of two pinholes illuminated by a circular source. It is shown that the WDF, defined in the 4D space–spatial frequency region, and entropy can be useful tools to understand how one can freely and quantitatively control the interference when any optical components in the partially coherent imaging system are changed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony Pak Hin Kong
2014-04-01
Our results seemed to suggest that speakers with anomic aphasia had reduced proportion of essential information content, lower degree of elaboration, simplified discourse structure, and more structural disruptions than their healthy counterparts. We argue that the above characteristics have contributed to the reduced overall coherence in their oral discourse. The use of RST to quantify discourse coherence provided more objective measurement on macro-linguistic characteristics in aphasia and, therefore, warrants further investigation.
Theory of two-atom coherence in gases. II. Continuous-wave spectra
Ben-Reuven, Abraham
1980-12-01
General expressions are derived for the spectral line shapes of resonance absorption and scattering of coherent radiation in collision-broadened gases, taking into account effects of coherent excitation of two or more atoms (or molecules), as steady-state solutions of a hierarchy of master equations described in a previous publication (paper I). Coupling between the coherent motions of the atoms, provided by a Bethe-Salpeter-type effective interaction, in the binary-collision approximation, forms the essential mechanism for introducing cooperative coherent effects into the steady-state spectra. Explicit expressions are given for the effects of two-atom coherence in the binary-collision approximation, in which the Bloch-type dressed-atom self-energy superoperator is modified by the presence of collisions in which both atoms retain memory of their coherent propagation before the collision. The self-energies include the effects of resonance exchange symmetrization in self-broadening, and are renormalized by the coincidence of radiative transitions during the collisions. The impact (near-resonance) and the quasistatic (line-wing) limits of the applied-frequency detunings are discussed. In the quasistatic limit, coherent many-atom excitations become irrelevant; however, interactions of both collision partners with the radiation during the collision accounts for such phenomena as collision-induced absorption or radiative collisions. In the impact limit, the inclusion of the Bethe-Salpeter interactions allows for the appearance of two-atom resonances. Magnitude estimates of these effects are discussed. Effects of higher-rank (many-body) coherences are formally discussed with the help of a diagrammatic method, leading into implicit bootstrap equations that can be solved by iterative or other procedures.
Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government; Theory and Practice
Carlo Cottarelli
1993-01-01
This paper examines central bank independence with reference to the constraints on central bank credit to the government, focusing on how such credit should be regulated. It discusses why credit should be contsrained, and in which forms, and how to implement those constraints.
Hassan, Bilal; Raja, Gulistan; Hassan, Taimur; Usman Akram, M
2016-04-01
Macular edema (ME) and central serous retinopathy (CSR) are two macular diseases that affect the central vision of a person if they are left untreated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is the latest eye examination technique that shows a cross-sectional region of the retinal layers and that can be used to detect many retinal disorders in an early stage. Many researchers have done clinical studies on ME and CSR and reported significant findings in macular OCT scans. However, this paper proposes an automated method for the classification of ME and CSR from OCT images using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Five distinct features (three based on the thickness profiles of the sub-retinal layers and two based on cyst fluids within the sub-retinal layers) are extracted from 30 labeled images (10 ME, 10 CSR, and 10 healthy), and SVM is trained on these. We applied our proposed algorithm on 90 time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) images (30 ME, 30 CSR, 30 healthy) of 73 patients. Our algorithm correctly classified 88 out of 90 subjects with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 97.77%, 100%, and 93.33%, respectively. PMID:27140751
Equivariant K-Theory of Central Extensions and Twisted Equivariant K-theory: Sl3(Z) and St3(Z)
Barcenas, Noe; Velasquez, Mario
2013-01-01
We compare twisted Equivariant K-theory of Sl3Z with untwisted equivariant K-Theory of its universal central extension, St3Z. Using universal coefficient theorems by the authors, the computations explained here give the domain of Baum-Connes assembly maps landing on the topological K-theory of twisted group C*-algebras related to Sl3Z, for which a version of Poincar\\'e Duality studied previously by Echterhoff, Emerson and Kim is verified.
Jaime, Mark; McMahon, Camilla M.; Davidson, Bridget C.; Newell, Lisa C.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.
2016-01-01
Although prior studies have demonstrated reduced resting state EEG coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies have explored the nature of EEG coherence during joint attention. We examined the EEG coherence of the joint attention network in adolescents with and without ASD during congruent and incongruent joint attention…
Coherence properties of third and fourth generation X-ray sources. Theory and experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singer, Andrej
2013-06-15
Interference effects are among the most fascinating optical phenomena. For instance, the butterflies and soap bubbles owe their beautiful colors to interference effects. They appear as a result of the superposition principle, valid in electrodynamics due to the linearity of the wave equation. If two waves interfere, the total radiation field is a sum of these two fields and depends strongly on the relative phases between these fields. While the oscillation frequency of individual fields is typically too large to be observed by a human eye or other detection systems, the phase differences between these fields manifest themselves as relatively slowly varying field strength modulations. These modulations can be detected, provided the oscillating frequencies of the superposed fields are similar. As such, the interference provides a superb measure of the phase differences of optical light, which may carry detailed information about a source or a scattering object. The ability of waves to interfere depends strongly on the degree of correlation between these waves, i.e. their mutual coherence. Until the middle of the 20th century, the coherence of light available to experimentalists was poor. A significant effort had to be made to extend the degree of coherence, which made the electromagnetic field determination using of the interference principle very challenging. Coherence is the defining feature of a laser, whose invention initiated a revolutionary development of experimental techniques based on interference, such as holography. Important contributions to this development were also provided by astronomists, as due to enormous intergalactic distances the radiation from stars has a high transverse coherence length at earth. With the construction of third generation synchrotron sources, partially coherent X-ray sources have become feasible. New areas of research utilizing highly coherent X-ray beams have emerged, including X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), X
Coherence properties of third and fourth generation X-ray sources. Theory and experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Interference effects are among the most fascinating optical phenomena. For instance, the butterflies and soap bubbles owe their beautiful colors to interference effects. They appear as a result of the superposition principle, valid in electrodynamics due to the linearity of the wave equation. If two waves interfere, the total radiation field is a sum of these two fields and depends strongly on the relative phases between these fields. While the oscillation frequency of individual fields is typically too large to be observed by a human eye or other detection systems, the phase differences between these fields manifest themselves as relatively slowly varying field strength modulations. These modulations can be detected, provided the oscillating frequencies of the superposed fields are similar. As such, the interference provides a superb measure of the phase differences of optical light, which may carry detailed information about a source or a scattering object. The ability of waves to interfere depends strongly on the degree of correlation between these waves, i.e. their mutual coherence. Until the middle of the 20th century, the coherence of light available to experimentalists was poor. A significant effort had to be made to extend the degree of coherence, which made the electromagnetic field determination using of the interference principle very challenging. Coherence is the defining feature of a laser, whose invention initiated a revolutionary development of experimental techniques based on interference, such as holography. Important contributions to this development were also provided by astronomists, as due to enormous intergalactic distances the radiation from stars has a high transverse coherence length at earth. With the construction of third generation synchrotron sources, partially coherent X-ray sources have become feasible. New areas of research utilizing highly coherent X-ray beams have emerged, including X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), X
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinhai Huang
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare corneal thickness measurements using Pentacam (Oculus, Germany, Sirius (CSO, Italy, Galilei (Ziemer, Switzerland, and RTVue-100 OCT (Optovue Inc., USA. METHODS: Sixty-six eyes of 66 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Three consecutive measurements were performed with each device. The mean value of the three measurements was used for subsequent analysis. Central corneal thickness (CCT, thinnest corneal thickness (TCT, and midperipheral corneal thickness (MPCT; measured at superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal locations with a distance of 1 mm (CT2mm or 2.5 mm (CT5mm from the corneal apex were analyzed. Differences and agreement between measurements were assessed using the repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA and Bland-Altman analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences (pSirius>Pentacam>RTVue OCT. For these measurements, agreement between measurements by Sirius and Pentacam was good, whereas Galilei overestimated and RTVue underestimated corneal thickness compared to Sirius and Pentacam. As regards CT5mm measurements, Pentacam provided the largest values, whereas RTVue OCT yielded the smallest values. Agreement of the CT5mm measurements was good between the Pentacam, Sirius, moderate between Galilei and the other two Scheimpflug systems, and poor between the RTVue OCT and the remaining devices. CONCLUSIONS: The Pentacam and Sirius can be used interchangeably for CCT measurements, while the Galilei and RTVue systematically over- and underestimate CCT, respectively. The three Scheimpflug cameras, but not the RTVue, may be used interchangeably for MPCT measurements.
The coherent scattering function of the reptation model: simulations compared to theory
Baumgärtner, A.; Ebert, U.; Schäfer, L.
2003-01-01
We present results of Monte Carlo simulations measuring the coherent structure function of a chain moving through an ordered lattice of fixed topological obstacles. Our computer experiments use chains up to 320 beads and cover a large range of wave vectors and a time range exceeding the reptation ti
Tierz, Miguel
2016-01-01
We give explicit analytical expressions for the partition function of $% U(N)_{k}\\times U(N+M)_{-k}$ ABJ theory at weak coupling ($k\\rightarrow \\infty )$ for finite and arbitrary values of $N$ and $M$ (including the ABJM case and its mass-deformed generalization). We obtain the expressions by identifying the one-matrix model formulation with a Meixner-Pollaczek ensemble and using the corresponding orthogonal polynomials, which are also eigenfunctions of a $su(1,1)$ quantum oscillator. Wilson loops in mass-deformed ABJM are also studied in the same limit and interpreted in terms of $su(1,1)$ coherent states.
Stability of Spatial Structure of Urban Agglomeration in China Based on Central Place Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
This paper brings forward the concept of stability of the spatial structure of urban agglomeration (UA) based on Central Place Theory by introducing centrality index and fractal theory. Before assessment, K=4 is selected as parameter to calculate centrality index and fractal dimension (K represents the quantitive relationship between city and the counties in Central Place Theory), and then found the number of nodes, the type of spatial structure, the spatial allocation of nodes with different hierarchy affecting the stability of spatial structure. According to spatial contact direction and the level of stability, UAs in China are classified into five types. Finally, it is posed as a further question that how to use hierarchical relation K=6 and K=7 in central place system to coordinate with the assessment of stability of spatial structure is brought forward.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emre Hekimoglu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT by spectral domain optical coherence (SD-OCT in premature infants and compare it to CCT measurement by ultrasonic pachymetry (USP. Methods. Three CCT measurements of the left eyes of 50 premature infants were obtained by SD-OCT using the iVue system. 10 CCT measurements of each 28 left eyes of 28 infants were obtained by USP using the Pacscan 300P system. Bland-Altman plots were developed and the limit of agreement (LoA was determined to compare the mean of the SD-OCT and USP measurements. Results. No statistically significant difference was found among the 3 CCT measurements by SD-OCT. Both USP and SD-OCT have been performed for only left eyes of 28 of the 50 babies. Those results have been compared with each other. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean CCT measurements by SD-OCT and USP (p<0.05. The LoA between the SD-OCT and USP measurements ranged from 11.4 to −64.1. Conclusions. CCT can be measured using the iVue SD-OCT system with a high level of repeatability. Although measurement of CCT by SD-OCT and USP is highly correlated, the 2 systems cannot be used interchangeably in premature infants.
Allegra, Michele; Giorda, Paolo; Lloyd, Seth
2016-04-01
Assessing the role of interference in natural and artificial quantum dynamical processes is a crucial task in quantum information theory. To this aim, an appropriate formalism is provided by the decoherent histories framework. While this approach has been deeply explored from different theoretical perspectives, it still lacks of a comprehensive set of tools able to concisely quantify the amount of coherence developed by a given dynamics. In this paper, we introduce and test different measures of the (average) coherence present in dissipative (Markovian) quantum evolutions, at various time scales and for different levels of environmentally induced decoherence. In order to show the effectiveness of the introduced tools, we apply them to a paradigmatic quantum process where the role of coherence is being hotly debated: exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes. To spot out the essential features that may determine the performance of the transport, we focus on a relevant trimeric subunit of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and we use a simplified (Haken-Strobl) model for the system-bath interaction. Our analysis illustrates how the high efficiency of environmentally assisted transport can be traced back to a quantum recoil avoiding effect on the exciton dynamics, that preserves and sustains the benefits of the initial fast quantum delocalization of the exciton over the network. Indeed, for intermediate levels of decoherence, the bath is seen to selectively kill the negative interference between different exciton pathways, while retaining the initial positive one. The concepts and tools here developed show how the decoherent histories approach can be used to quantify the relation between coherence and efficiency in quantum dynamical processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manjaly, Z.M.
2007-10-15
The contribution covers the following chapters: 1. In search of the hidden: an FMRI study with implications for the study of patients with autism and with acquired brain injury. 2. Context-dependent interactions of left posterior inferior frontal gyrus in a local visual search task unrelated to language. 3. Neurophysiological correlates of relatively enhanced local visual search in autistic adolescents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contribution covers the following chapters: 1. In search of the hidden: an FMRI study with implications for the study of patients with autism and with acquired brain injury. 2. Context-dependent interactions of left posterior inferior frontal gyrus in a local visual search task unrelated to language. 3. Neurophysiological correlates of relatively enhanced local visual search in autistic adolescents
Theory of spontaneous radiation by electrons in a trajectory-coherent approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first-order quantum correction for the characterization of spontaneous radiation is calculated by means of electron quasi-classical trajectory-coherent states in an arbitrary electromagnetic field. Well known expressions for the characterization of spontaneous radiation are obtained using quasi-classical approximation. The first-order quantum correction is derived as a function from a classical trajectory (among which is a classical spin vector). Transitions with spin flip and without spin flip are distinguished. Those elements connected with photon kick and quantum motion characteristics are selected for first-order quantum correction. It is shown that, using an ultra-relativistic approximation, the latter may be ignored, but when using a non-relativistic approximation their contributions are approximately equal. A special trajectory-coherent representation that significantly simplifies the investigation of spontaneous radiation is proposed. (author)
EEG slow-wave coherence changes in propofol-induced general anesthesia: Experiment and theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaier eWang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The electroencephalogram (EEG patterns recorded during general anesthetic-induced coma are closely similar to those seen during slow-wave sleep, the deepest stage of natural sleep; both states show patterns dominated by large amplitude slow waves. Slow oscillations are believed to be important for memory consolidation during natural sleep. Tracking the emergence of slow-wave oscillations during transition to unconsciousness may help us to identify drug-induced alterations of the underlying brain state, and provide insight into the mechanisms of general anesthesia. Although cellular-based mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the slow oscillation has not yet been unambiguously established. A recent theoretical study by Steyn-Ross et al. [Physical Review X 3(2, 021005 (2013] proposes that the slow oscillation is a network, rather than cellular phenomenon. Modeling anesthesia as a moderate reduction in gap-junction interneuronal coupling, they predict an unconscious state signposted by emergent low-frequency oscillations with chaotic dynamics in space and time. They suggest that anesthetic slow-waves arise from a competitive interaction between symmetry-breaking instabilities in space (Turing and time (Hopf, modulated by gap-junction coupling strength. A significant prediction of their model is that EEG phase coherence will decrease as the cortex transits from Turing--Hopf balance (wake to Hopf-dominated chaotic slow-waves (unconsciousness. Here, we investigate changes in phase coherence during induction of general anesthesia. After examining 128-channel EEG traces recorded from five volunteers undergoing propofol anesthesia, we report a significant drop in sub-delta band (0.05--1.5 Hz slow-wave coherence between frontal, occipital, and frontal-occipital electrode pairs, with the most pronounced wake-versus-unconscious coherence changes occurring at the frontal cortex.
EEG slow-wave coherence changes in propofol-induced general anesthesia: experiment and theory.
Wang, Kaier; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Steyn-Ross, D A; Wilson, Marcus T; Sleigh, Jamie W
2014-01-01
The electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns recorded during general anesthetic-induced coma are closely similar to those seen during slow-wave sleep, the deepest stage of natural sleep; both states show patterns dominated by large amplitude slow waves. Slow oscillations are believed to be important for memory consolidation during natural sleep. Tracking the emergence of slow-wave oscillations during transition to unconsciousness may help us to identify drug-induced alterations of the underlying brain state, and provide insight into the mechanisms of general anesthesia. Although cellular-based mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the slow oscillation has not yet been unambiguously established. A recent theoretical study by Steyn-Ross et al. (2013) proposes that the slow oscillation is a network, rather than cellular phenomenon. Modeling anesthesia as a moderate reduction in gap-junction interneuronal coupling, they predict an unconscious state signposted by emergent low-frequency oscillations with chaotic dynamics in space and time. They suggest that anesthetic slow-waves arise from a competitive interaction between symmetry-breaking instabilities in space (Turing) and time (Hopf), modulated by gap-junction coupling strength. A significant prediction of their model is that EEG phase coherence will decrease as the cortex transits from Turing-Hopf balance (wake) to Hopf-dominated chaotic slow-waves (unconsciousness). Here, we investigate changes in phase coherence during induction of general anesthesia. After examining 128-channel EEG traces recorded from five volunteers undergoing propofol anesthesia, we report a significant drop in sub-delta band (0.05-1.5 Hz) slow-wave coherence between frontal, occipital, and frontal-occipital electrode pairs, with the most pronounced wake-vs.-unconscious coherence changes occurring at the frontal cortex. PMID:25400558
Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Mirza, G. Ertugrul
2016-01-01
Purpose. To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) values via Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and ultrasonic pachymetry in patients with severe dry eye disease (DED) to determine the level of agreement between these 2 methods. Methods. The paired samples t-test was used to compare CCT values in severe DED patients. Matching analysis between methods was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intrasession reliability of the measurement methods was calcu...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Happel, Christoph M.; Thommes, Jan; Thrane, Lars;
2011-01-01
We introduce a new method of rotational image acquisition for four-dimensional (4D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of beating embryonic chick hearts. The rotational axis and the central A-scan of the OCT are identical. An out-of-phase image sequence covering multiple heartbeats is acquired at.......We demonstrate this approach and provide a video of a beating Hamburger and Hamilton stage 16 embryonic chick heart generated from a 4D OCT data set using rotational image acquisition....
Theory of cellwise optimization for solar central receiver system
Lipps, F. W.
1985-05-01
Cost effective optimization of the solar central receiver system is primarily concerned with the distribution of heliostats in the collector field, including the boundaries of the field. The cellwise optimization procedure determines the optimum cell usage and heliostat spacing parameters for each cell in the collector field. Spacing parameters determine the heliostat density and neighborhood structure uniformly in each cell. Consequently, the cellwise approach ignores heliostat mismatch at cell boundaries. Ignoring the cell boundary problem permits an easy solution for the optimum in terms of appropriately defined annual average data. Insolation, receiver interception, shading and blocking, cosine effects, and the cost parameters combine to control the optimum. Many trade offs are represented. Outputs include the receiver flux density distribution for design time, coefficients for an actual layout, the optimum boundary and various performance and cost estimates for the optimum field. It is also possible to optimize receiver size and tower height by a repeated application of the field optimization procedure.
Stupakov, Gennady
2016-01-01
We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to the situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked agains numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.
To the theory of coherent generation of resonance-tunnel diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The strict quantum-mechanical description of coherent generation of a resonance-tunnel diode is given for the simple model of the two-barrier structure. The exact analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for electrons in the presence of a weak electromagnetic field are found. Active and reactive polarization currents are calculated un the wide frequency range. These expressions satisfy Kramers-Kronig correlations. The analysis of threshold conditions of the generation is carried out. It is shown that the generation is possible at superhigh frequency above the inverse lifetime of electrons in a quantum well
Theory of coherent molecule to surface electron injection: An analytical model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Ramakrishna; T Seideman; F Willig; V May
2009-09-01
Electron transfer from a molecular level to empty continuum levels of a substrate is described theoretically. Using a quasicontinuum approach to model the substrate, analytical expressions pertaining to the time-dependent probability among the various levels of the substrate is presented along with its extension to coherently excited molecular vibrational modes. Hidden time scales and dynamics are revealed in the analysis and possible experiments to observe the new results are suggested. We note the applicability of the model to the description of a variety of other phenomena that are formally similar to the electron injection problem, although pertaining to different physics.
Stupakov, Gennady; Zhou, Demin
2016-04-01
We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked against numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.
Yan, Jiawei; Ke, Youqi
In realistic nanoelectronics, disordered impurities/defects are inevitable and play important roles in electron transport. However, due to the lack of effective quantum transport method, the important effects of disorders remain poorly understood. Here, we report a generalized non-equilibrium vertex correction (NVC) method with coherent potential approximation to treat the disorder effects in quantum transport simulation. With this generalized NVC method, any averaged product of two single-particle Green's functions can be obtained by solving a set of simple linear equations. As a result, the averaged non-equilibrium density matrix and various important transport properties, including averaged current, disordered induced current fluctuation and the averaged shot noise, can all be efficiently computed in a unified scheme. Moreover, a generalized form of conditionally averaged non-equilibrium Green's function is derived to incorporate with density functional theory to enable first-principles simulation. We prove the non-equilibrium coherent potential equals the non-equilibrium vertex correction. Our approach provides a unified, efficient and self-consistent method for simulating non-equilibrium quantum transport through disorder nanoelectronics. Shanghaitech start-up fund.
Theory of nonlinear phononics for coherent light-control of solids
Subedi, Alaska; Cavalleri, Andrea; Georges, Antoine
2013-01-01
We present a microscopic theory for ultrafast control of solids with high-intensity terahertz frequency optical pulses. When resonant with selected infrared-active vibrations, these pulses transiently modify the crystal structure and lead to new collective electronic properties. The theory predicts the dynamical path taken by the crystal lattice using first-principles calculations of the energy surface and classical equations of motion, as well as symmetry considerations. Two classes of dynam...
How research on marketing in Central and Eastern Europe can advance international marketing theory
Arnold Schuh
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the question of how research on marketing issues in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) can contribute to the international marketing theory. Regional studies provide valuable insights into business environments, marketing systems and practices in specific countries and geographical areas, which explain their high appeal among marketing practitioners. While contributing to the general body of knowledge in marketing, they often lack a strong role in theory development. Two a...
TWO OPPOSITE SIDED TORSION THEORIES AND RELATIVE COHERENT RINGS%双向挠理论与相对凝聚环
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高祖新
2002-01-01
本文引入了双向挠理论的概念,并且刻画了具有双向挠理论的相对凝聚环.%In this paper, we introduce the concept of two opposite sided torsion theories onrings and characterize relative coherent rings with respect to two opposite sided torsion theor-eies.
Fluid models for kinetic effects on coherent nonlinear Alfvacute en waves. I. Fundamental theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collisionless regime kinetic models for coherent nonlinear Alfvacute en wave dynamics are studied using fluid moment equations with an approximate closure anzatz. Resonant particle effects are modeled by incorporating an additional term representing dissipation akin to parallel heat conduction. Unlike collisional dissipation, parallel heat conduction is presented by an integral operator. The modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation thus has a spatially nonlocal nonlinear term describing the long-time evolution of the envelope of parallel-propagating Alfvacute en waves, as well. Coefficients in the nonlinear terms are free of the (1-β)-1 singularity usually encountered in previous analyses, and have a very simple form that clarifies the physical processes governing the large-amplitude Alfvacute enic nonlinear dynamics. The nonlinearity appears via coupling of an Alfvacute enic mode to a kinetic ion-acoustic mode. Damping of the nonlinear Alfvacute en wave appears via strong Landau damping of the ion-acoustic wave when the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is close to unity. For a (slightly) obliquely propagating wave, there are finite Larmor radius corrections in the dynamical equation. This effect depends on the angle of wave propagation relative to B0 and vanishes for the limit of strictly parallel propagation. Explicit magnetic perturbation envelope equations amenable to further analysis and numerical solution are obtained. Implications of these models for collisionless shock dynamics are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Amador, Filomena; Martinho, Ana Paula; Bacelar-Nicolau, Paula; Caeiro, Sandra; Oliveira, Carla Padrel
2015-01-01
Universities are an important part of the process of change taking place in society. However, this is often overshadowed by these institutions giving priority to technocratic models in the relationship between science and society. In this context, according to Habermas, theories can serve to clarify practical questions and guide praxis into the…
F-theory compactifications and central charges of BPS-states
Obikhod, Tetiana V
2016-01-01
F-theory, as Theory of Everything is compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds or fourfolds. Using toric approximation of Batyrev and mirror symmetry of Calabi-Yau manifolds it is possible to present Calabi-Yau in the form of dual integer polyhedra. With the help of Gelfand, Zelevinsky, Kapranov algorithm were calculated the numbers of BPS-states in F-theory, and by application of Tate algorithm were determined the enhanced symmetries. As the result, any integral dual polyhedron representing a Calabi-Yau manifold, is characterized by its own set of topological invariants - the numbers of BPS states, whose central charges are classified by enhanced symmetries.
Carberry, S; Carberry, Sandra; Harvey, Terrence
1997-01-01
This paper presents a message planner, TraumaGEN, that draws on rhetorical structure and discourse theory to address the problem of producing integrated messages from individual critiques, each of which is designed to achieve its own communicative goal. TraumaGEN takes into account the purpose of the messages, the situation in which the messages will be received, and the social role of the system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Ebneter
Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (p<0.001 compared to baseline, followed by gradual thinning plateauing two weeks after the experimental intervention (p<0.001. Histological findings at day seven correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. The inner layers were predominantly affected by degeneration with the outer nuclear layer and the photoreceptor outer segments largely preserved. The application of this retinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Happel, C. M.; Thommes, J.; Thrane, Lars;
2011-01-01
We introduce a new method of rotational image acquisition for four dimensional (4D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) of beating embryonic chick hearts. The rotational axis and the central A-scan of the OCT are identical. An out-of-phase image sequence covering multiple heartbeats is acquired at...... every angle of an incremental rotation of the deflection mirrors of the OCT system. Image acquisition is accomplished after a rotation of 180. Comparison of a displayed live M-mode of the central A-scan with a reference M-mode allows instant detection of translational movements of the embryo. For....... We demonstrate this approach and provide a video of a beating HH stage 16 embryonic chick heart generated from a 4D OCT data set using rotational image acquisition. The result is validated by comparison of calculated and orignal B-scan sequences (see Figure)....
Aspects of the theory of atoms and coherent matter and their interaction with electromagnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilsen, Halvor Moell
2002-07-01
In the present work I have outlined and contributed to the time-dependent theory of the interaction between atoms and electromagnetic fields and the theory of Bose-Einstein condensates. New numerical methods and algorithms have been developed and applied in practice. Calculations have exhibited certain new dynamical features. All these calculations are in a regime where the applied field is of the same magnitude as the atomic field. In the case of BEC we have investigated the use of time-dependent methods to calculate the excitation frequencies. We also investigated the possibility of nonlinear coupling for a scissors mode and found no such contributions to damping which is consistent with other studies . Special emphasis has also been paid to the gyroscopic motion of rotating BEC where several models were investigated. Briefly, the main conclusions are: (1) Rydberg wave packets appear for direct excitations of Rydberg atoms for long pulses. (2) The survival of just a few states is decided by symmetry of the Hamiltonian. (3) For few cycle intense pulses classical and quantum mechanics show remarkable similarity. (4) Time-dependent methods for finding excitation frequencies have been shown to be very efficient. (5) New dynamical features is shown in gyroscopic motion of BEC. (6) It was shown that no nonlinear mixing of scissors modes occur in the standard Gross-Pitaevskii regime. As mentioned in the introduction, this work is a part of very active research fields and new progress is constantly reported. Thus, the present work cannot be concluded as a closed loop. The fast development of grid based numerical solutions for atoms in intense fields will surely make great contribution to solve many of today's problems. It is a very important area of research to understand both nonperturbative atomic response and highly nonlinear optics. In the field of Bose-Einstein condensation the new experimental achievements constantly drive the field forward. The new
Eidi, Mohammadreza; Niknam, Ali Reza; Morshedian, Nader
2015-01-01
We report a new version of fermion coupled coherent states (FCCS-II) method to simulate two-electron systems based on a self-symmetrized six-dimensional (6D) coherent states grid. Unlike the older fermion coupled coherent states (FCCS-I) method, FCCS-II does not need any new equations in comparison with the coupled coherent states method. FCCS-II uses a simpler and more efficient approach for symmetrizing the spatial wave function in the simulation of fermionic systems. This method, has significantly increased the speed of computations and give us capability to simulate the quantum systems with the larger CS grids. We apply FCCS-II to simulate the Helium atom and the Hydrogen molecule based on grids with a large numbers of coherent states. Moreover, we have derived all the important equations of the FCCS-I by an exact attitude.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuchuan BAI; Andreas MALCHEREK; Changbo JIANG
2001-01-01
The formation of sand wave is such a process in which the roughness and discontinuity of the original bed surface cause the disturbance of the bottom laminar flow in an open channel,and the development of the disturbance in turn leads to instability of the flow and the appearance of the coherent structure. The evolution and development of the coherent structure further promote the undulations of bed surface and sand waves rise finally. The sand wave is explained as a result of action that the bed sediment particles are disturbed by the coherent structure. This study shows that the sand wave formation is the result of disturbance action of neutral coherent structure, and the sand wave shape obtained in computations is identical to the practical one.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JING Hui; GENG Zhen-Duo
2008-01-01
@@ We show that by making a generalized atom-molecule dark state,coherent creation of triatomic molecules can be enhanced in a repulsive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate.The dynamics of heteronuclear trimer creation is significantJy different from the homonuclear case and further enhancement can be realized by controlling its chemical reaction channels,The possibility of manipulating atom-trimer conversion provides an appealing research area for current coherent matter-wave optics.
Reščič, J.; Kalyuzhnyi, Y. V.; Cummings, P. T.
2016-10-01
The approach developed earlier to describe the dimerizing shielded attractive shell (SAS) primitive model of chemical association due to Cummings and Stell is generalized and extended to include a description of a polymerizing SAS model. Our extension is based on the combination of the resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force (RTPT-CF) associating potential and self consistent scheme, which takes into account the changes in the system free volume due to association. Theoretical results for thermodynamical properties of the model at different bonding length, density and temperature are compared against newly generated computer simulation results. The theory gives very accurate predictions for the model with bonding length L * from the range 0 < L * < 0.6 at all values of the density and temperature studied, including the limit of infinitely large temperature.
Central Charges and the Sign of Entanglement in 4D Conformal Field Theories.
Perlmutter, Eric; Rangamani, Mukund; Rota, Massimiliano
2015-10-23
We explore properties of the universal terms in the entanglement entropy and logarithmic negativity in 4D conformal field theories, aiming to clarify the ways in which they behave like the analogous entanglement measures in quantum mechanics. We show that, unlike entanglement entropy in finite-dimensional systems, the sign of the universal part of entanglement entropy is indeterminate. In particular, if and only if the central charges obey a>c, the entanglement across certain classes of entangling surfaces can become arbitrarily negative, depending on the geometry and topology of the surface. The negative contribution is proportional to the product of a-c and the genus of the surface. Similarly, we show that in a>c theories, the logarithmic negativity does not always exceed the entanglement entropy.
Reščič, J; Kalyuzhnyi, Y V; Cummings, P T
2016-10-19
The approach developed earlier to describe the dimerizing shielded attractive shell (SAS) primitive model of chemical association due to Cummings and Stell is generalized and extended to include a description of a polymerizing SAS model. Our extension is based on the combination of the resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force (RTPT-CF) associating potential and self consistent scheme, which takes into account the changes in the system free volume due to association. Theoretical results for thermodynamical properties of the model at different bonding length, density and temperature are compared against newly generated computer simulation results. The theory gives very accurate predictions for the model with bonding length L (*) from the range 0 < L (*) < 0.6 at all values of the density and temperature studied, including the limit of infinitely large temperature. PMID:27545613
Sroufe, L. Alan
1979-01-01
Based on research on patterns of infant-caregiver attachment, a theory of individual development is proposed. Principles of the theory include a focus on adaptation, a view of the person as a coherent whole, a central role for affective constructs and emotion, and a focus on individual differences. (GC)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy Boehlke
2010-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the major methodological challenges in microeconomic theory of the firm in theeconomies of Central and Eastern Europe. The methodological weaknesses of the theory are not only thecause of cognitive limitation but also an important condition for an effective economic policy during thetransition period.
Manning, Robert M.
2011-01-01
An expression for the mutual coherence function (MCF) of an electromagnetic beam wave propagating through atmospheric turbulence is derived within the confines of the Rytov approximation. It is shown that both the first and second Rytov approximations are required. The Rytov MCF is then compared to that which issues from the parabolic equation method of strong fluctuation theory. The agreement is found to be quite good in the weak fluctuation case. However, an instability is observed for the special case of beam wave intensities. The source of the instabilities is identified to be the characteristic way beam wave amplitudes are treated within the Rytov method.
Myslivets, S A; Kimberg, V V; George, T F; George, Thomas F.
2003-01-01
A scheme is analyzed for effcient generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation through four-wave mixing processes assisted by the technique of Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage. These opportunities are associated with pulse excitation of laddertype short-wavelength two-photon atomic or molecular transitions so that relaxation processes can be neglected. In this three-laser technique, a delayed-pulse of strong oR-resonant infrared radiation sweeps the laser-induced Stark-shift of a two-photon transition in a such way that facilitates robust maximum two-photon coherence induced by the first ultraviolet laser. A judiciously delayed third pulse scatters at this coherence and generates short-wavelength radiation. A theoretical analysis of these problems based on the density matrix is performed. A numerical model is developed to carry out simulations of a typical experiment. The results illustrate a behavior of populations, coherence and generated radiation along the medium as well as opportunities of effcient ge...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Riza Cenk Celebi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To compare central corneal thickness (CCT values via Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT and ultrasonic pachymetry in patients with severe dry eye disease (DED to determine the level of agreement between these 2 methods. Methods. The paired samples t-test was used to compare CCT values in severe DED patients. Matching analysis between methods was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Intrasession reliability of the measurement methods was calculated via the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC, variation equivalent, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman procedure was used to graphically represent the differences between CCT values. Results. The study included 56 eyes of 24 female and 4 male patients. Mean age of the patients was 50.9±11.3 years. Mean CCT via Cirrus SD-OCT was 523.82±30.98 μm versus 530.050±31.85 μm via ultrasonic pachymetry (paired samples t-test, P<0.001. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between the examiners. The ICC for repeatability was 0.974. The CCC between the 2 methods’ CCT values was 0.973. The variation equivalent was 0.976 and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 99.3%, which also indicated high correlation between the 2 methods’ measurements. Conclusions. The present findings show that in patients with severe DED Cirrus SD-OCT provides reliable intraobserver CCT values.
Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Mirza, G Ertugrul
2016-01-01
Purpose. To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) values via Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) and ultrasonic pachymetry in patients with severe dry eye disease (DED) to determine the level of agreement between these 2 methods. Methods. The paired samples t-test was used to compare CCT values in severe DED patients. Matching analysis between methods was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Intrasession reliability of the measurement methods was calculated via the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), variation equivalent, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman procedure was used to graphically represent the differences between CCT values. Results. The study included 56 eyes of 24 female and 4 male patients. Mean age of the patients was 50.9 ± 11.3 years. Mean CCT via Cirrus SD-OCT was 523.82 ± 30.98 μm versus 530.050 ± 31.85 μm via ultrasonic pachymetry (paired samples t-test, P variation equivalent was 0.976 and Pearson's correlation coefficient was 99.3%, which also indicated high correlation between the 2 methods' measurements. Conclusions. The present findings show that in patients with severe DED Cirrus SD-OCT provides reliable intraobserver CCT values. PMID:27375899
Streltsov, Alexander
2015-01-01
The basis of any quantum resource theory are free states and free operations, these are states and operations which can be created or performed at no cost. In the resource theory of quantum coherence free states are states which are diagonal in a fixed reference basis. This choice is natural in many experimental scenarios where the reference basis is singled out by the unavoidable decoherence. The corresponding free operations are called incoherent, they can be implemented as a generalized measurement which does not create any coherence. However, a general quantum operation admits different experimental realizations, and a quantum operation which seems incoherent in one experimental realization might create coherence in another. Starting from this observation, we propose the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This simple condition automatically guarantees that the operation is in...
Reich, Daniel M
2013-01-01
Laser cooling of molecules employing broadband optical pumping involves a timescale separation between laser excitation and spontaneous emission. Here, we optimize the optical pumping step using shaped laser pulses. We derive two optimization functionals to drive population into those excited state levels that have the largest spontaneous emission rates to the target state. We show that, when using optimal control, laser cooling of molecules works even if the Franck-Condon map governing the transitions is preferential to heating rather than cooling. Our optimization functional is also applicable to the laser cooling of other degrees of freedom provided the cooling cycle consists of coherent excitation and dissipative deexcitation steps whose timescales are separated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical solution to the Schroedinger equation with open boundary conditions is found out, which makes it possible to describe coherent generation in resonant-tunneling diodes in a broad interval of frequencies and field amplitudes. Within the linear field area approximation results obtained coincide with a high degree of accuracy with analytical results. The power of generation is calculated as a function of the current and other parameters of the resonant-tunneling diode. It is demonstrated that the high-power generation is possible in the quantum regime at frequencies exceeding the level width, i. e. within the THz range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinhai Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and aqueous depth (AD. Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59±27.37 μm, 3.70±0.30 mm, and 3.16±0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14±26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71±0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17±0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45±6.07 μm, P<0.05. The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.
Huang, Jinhai; Lu, Weicong; Savini, Giacomo; Chen, Hao; Wang, Chengfang; Yu, Xinxin; Bao, Fangjun; Wang, Qinmei
2016-01-01
Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan) and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA) for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and aqueous depth (AD). Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59 ± 27.37 μm, 3.70 ± 0.30 mm, and 3.16 ± 0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14 ± 26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71 ± 0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17 ± 0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45 ± 6.07 μm, P LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between -9.44 and 14.35 μm, -0.15 and 0.12 mm, and -0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic. PMID:27403339
Coherent states, wavelets, and their generalizations
Ali, Syed Twareque; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2014-01-01
This second edition is fully updated, covering in particular new types of coherent states (the so-called Gazeau-Klauder coherent states, nonlinear coherent states, squeezed states, as used now routinely in quantum optics) and various generalizations of wavelets (wavelets on manifolds, curvelets, shearlets, etc.). In addition, it contains a new chapter on coherent state quantization and the related probabilistic aspects. As a survey of the theory of coherent states, wavelets, and some of their generalizations, it emphasizes mathematical principles, subsuming the theories of both wavelets and coherent states into a single analytic structure. The approach allows the user to take a classical-like view of quantum states in physics. Starting from the standard theory of coherent states over Lie groups, the authors generalize the formalism by associating coherent states to group representations that are square integrable over a homogeneous space; a further step allows one to dispense with the group context altoget...
Dental Optical Coherence Tomography
Kun-Feng Lin; Jui-che Tsai; Ching-Cheng Chuang; Shyh-Yuan Lee; Yi-Ching Ho; Yao-Sheng Hsieh; Chia-Wei Sun
2013-01-01
This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed.
Symmetric, coherent, Choquet capacities
Kadane, Joseph B.; Wasserman, Larry
1996-01-01
Choquet capacities are a generalization of probability measures that arise in robustness, decision theory and game theory. Many capacities that arise in robustness are symmetric or can be transformed into symmetric capacities. We characterize the extreme points of the set of upper distribution functions corresponding to coherent, symmetric Choquet capacities on [0, 1]. We also show that the set of 2-alternating capacities is a simplex and we give a Choquet representation of this set.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qunying WU
2012-01-01
Consider a sequence of i.i.d. positive random variables with the underlying distribution in the domain of attraction of a stable distribution with an exponent in (1,2].A universal result in the almost sure limit theorem for products of partial sums is established.Our results significantly generalize and improve those on the almost sure central limit theory previously obtained by Gonchigdanzan and Rempale and by Gonchigdanzan.In a sense,our results reach the optimal form.
On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-01
It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.
Quantum Coherence as a Resource
Streltsov, Alexander; Plenio, Martin B
2016-01-01
The coherent superposition of states, in combination with energy quantization, represents one of the most fundamental features that mark the departure of quantum mechanics from the classical realm. Quantum coherence in many-body systems embodies the essence of entanglement and is an essential ingredient for a plethora of physical phenomena in quantum optics, quantum information, solid state physics, and nanoscale thermodynamics. In recent years, research on the presence and functional role of quantum coherence in biological systems has also attracted a considerable interest. Despite the fundamental importance of quantum coherence, the development of a rigorous theory of quantum coherence as a physical resource has only been initiated recently. In this Colloquium we discuss and review the development of this rapidly growing research field that encompasses the characterization, quantification, manipulation, dynamical evolution, and operational application of quantum coherence.
Capuzzi, Pablo; Chitra, R.; Menotti, Chiara; Minguzz, Anna; Vignolo, Patrizia
2006-05-01
opportunity to thank all the participants of ICOMP-X, and in particular the contributors to this issue, for the high quality of science presented at the conference and in this journal. The success of the conference would not have been possible without the program committee which included D Charalambidis, L Cocke, R Freeman, Y Fujimura, S Goreslavsky, A L'Huillier, F Krausz, R Levis, S H Lin, A Maquet, J Marangos, K Midorikawa, G Mourou, P Salieres, W Sandner, K Schafer, A Scrinzi, A M Sergeev, H Stapelfeldt, A Starace, J Ullrich, M Vrakking, and K Yamanouchi. A particularly lively atmosphere in the discussions was ensured by many students who were able to participate in the conference, in part due to generous support of the Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovations (CIPI) to the Canadian, and of the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences to the American students. Additional support to the conference was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Pfeiffer Vacuum, Femtolasers Produktions GmbH, Roentdek Handels GmbH, Coherent Laser Products, and Amplitude Technologies. Last but not least, the guest editors of this special issue would like to acknowledge the tremendous amount of work done by the staff of J. Phys. B in handling all aspects of the publication process. In particular, we would like to thank Isabelle Auffret-Babak, Alice Malhador and Joanna Dingley from the editorial team, Katie Gerrard in production and the Editor-in-Chief, Professor J-M Rost.
R. de Korte (Ronald); G.J. van der Pijl (Gert)
2009-01-01
textabstractPurpose The purpose of the paper is to present a theory of organisational change within the setting of a governmental bureaucracy. Design/methodology/ approach Orthodox grounded theory is employed in the setting of a change programme in 12 Audit departments of the Dutch Ministries (publi
Central Bank Communication and Monetary Policy: A Survey of Theory and Evidence
Alan S. Blinder; Michael Ehrmann; Marcel Fratzscher; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen
2008-01-01
Over the last two decades, communication has become an increasingly important aspect of monetary policy. These real-world developments have spawned a huge new scholarly literature on central bank communication —mostly empirical, and almost all of it written in this decade. We survey this evergrowing literature. The evidence suggests that communication can be an important and powerful part of the central bank’s toolkit since it has the ability to move financial markets, to enhance the predicta...
Centralization and accountability: Theory and evidence from the Clear Air Act
Federico Boffa; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto; Amedeo Piolatto
2013-01-01
This paper studies fiscal federalism when voter information varies across regions. We develop a model of political agency with heterogeneously informed voters. Rent-seeking politicians provide public goods to win the votes of the informed. As a result, rent extraction is lower in regions with higher information. In equilibrium, electoral discipline has decreasing returns. Thus, political centralization reduces aggregate rent extraction. When the central government provides public goods unifor...
Witnessing multipartite entanglement by detecting coherence
Girolami, Davide
2015-01-01
The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Several theoretical quantifiers of coherence have been proposed, and links to quantum correlation measures have been provided. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness the presence of entanglement in multipartite systems by evaluating coherence. We test our scheme by simulating coherence and entanglement detection in a three-qubit GHZ-diagonal state.
关联理论视角下语篇连贯的动态研究%The Dynamic Study of Textual Coherence from the Perspective of Relevance Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王军
2011-01-01
从形式和语义角度对语篇连贯的静态进行研究,以及对其语用推理因素的研究未充分揭示语篇连贯的认知性进行阐述。人类的交际活动是一种认知活动。关联理论是建立在认知基础上、置语篇连贯于动态交际过程之中的。交际双方相互合作通过认知语境建构语篇连贯,所以连贯又是动态的交际双方运用认知语境共同追求最佳关联的结果的。%The static studies of textual coherence from the angle of form and semantics and the factors of its pragmatic inference have ignored the cognitive features of the textual coherence.Human communication is a cognitive activity.On the cognitive basis,the Relevance Theory sets textual coherence in the course of dynamic communication.Communicational partners cooperate to construct textual coherence through cognitive context.Coherence is the result of both partners of dynamic communication pursuing the optimal relevance together with the help of cognitive context.
Spatial representation of coherence.
von Hecker, Ulrich; Hahn, Ulrike; Rollings, Jasmine
2016-07-01
Four experiments examined spatial correlates of the experience of coherence, that is, the extent to which propositions "fit together." Experiment 1 demonstrates for Heiderian triads (i.e., sets of liking/disliking relations between 3 fictitious persons) that name pairs from balanced triads, such as 2 friends commonly disliking a third person (high coherence) are seen as closer to each other in physical space as compared to name pairs from unbalanced triads, such as 2 persons disliking each other and having a common friend (low coherence). This pattern of results is conceptually replicated in 2 further experiments for categorical syllogisms. Two terms in conclusions from valid syllogisms (high coherence) were seen as spatially closer to each other than when 2 terms came from invalid syllogisms (low coherence). In the final 2 experiments, similar closeness effects are demonstrated for word pairs from scenarios that "made sense" in terms of causal connectedness (latent causality) as opposed to word pairs from scenarios perceived as causally unconnected. These findings are discussed in the context of spatial binding theories, applied psychology, and embodied cognition in general, and their methodological implications are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27175899
Operator properties of generalized coherent state systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N Mukunda
2001-02-01
The main properties of standard quantum mechanical coherent states and the two generalizations of Klauder and of Perelomov are reviewed. For a system of generalized coherent states in the latter sense, necessary and sufﬁcient conditions for existence of a diagonal coherent stable representation for all Hilbert-Schmidt operators are obtained. The main ingredients are Clebsch-Gordan theory and induced representation theory.
Quantum speed limits, coherence and asymmetry
Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo
2015-01-01
The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturall...
Channels that do not generate coherence
Hu, Xueyuan
2016-07-01
We define the non-coherence-generating channel as the completely positive trace-preserving map which does not generate quantum coherence from an incoherent state. The incoherent operations are the strict subset of the non-coherence-generating channels. Although the relative entropy of coherence is monotonically decreasing under the non-coherence-generating channels, we prove that the coherence of formation may increase under such channels. Interestingly, by building a mathematical relation between the coherence of formation and the entanglement of formation, we show that the coherence of formation of a single-qubit state is never increased by a non-coherence-generating channel. This leads to the superadditivity property for the coherence increasing power of quantum channels, namely, while two channels cannot increase coherence individually, they may increase the quantum coherence of a composed system. Further, we derive the general form of the rank-2 non-coherence-generating qubit channels. Our results contribute to the resource theory of quantum coherence.
Scatter hoarding by the Central American agouti: a test of optimal cache spacing theory
Gálvez, D.; Kranstauber, B.; Kays, R.W.; Jansen, P.A.
2009-01-01
Optimal cache spacing theory predicts that scatter-hoarding animals store food at a density that balances the gains of reducing cache robbery against the costs of spacing out caches further. We tested the key prediction that cache robbery and cache spacing increase with the economic value of food: t
Scatter hoarding by the Central American agouti : a test of optimal cache spacing theory
Galvez, Dumas; Kranstauber, Bart; Kays, Roland W.; Jansen, Patrick A.
2009-01-01
Optimal cache spacing theory predicts that scatter-hoarding animals store food at a density that balances the gains of reducing cache robbery against the costs of spacing out caches further. We tested the key prediction that cache robbery and cache spacing increase with the economic value of food: t
Coherence and correspondence in medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas G. Tape
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Many controversies in medical science can be framed as tension between a coherence approach (which seeks logic and explanation and a correspondence approach (which emphasizes empirical correctness. In many instances, a coherence-based theory leads to an understanding of disease that is not supported by empirical evidence. Physicians and patients alike tend to favor the coherence approach even in the face of strong, contradictory correspondence evidence. Examples include the management of atrial fibrillation, treatment of acute bronchitis, and the use of Vitamin E to prevent heart disease. Despite the frequent occurrence of controversy stemming from coherence-correspondence conflicts, medical professionals are generally unaware of these terms and the philosophical traditions that underlie them. Learning about the coherence-correspondence distinction and using the best of both approaches could not only help reconcile controversy but also lead to striking advances in medical science.
Centralization and Accountability: Theory and Evidence from the Clean Air Act
BOFFA, F.; Piolatto, A.; Ponzetto, G.A.M.
2012-01-01
This paper studies fiscal federalism when regions differ in voters’ ability to monitor public officials. We develop a model of political agency in which rent-seeking politicians provide public goods to win support from heterogeneously informed voters. In equilibrium, voter information increases government accountability but displays decreasing returns. Therefore, political centralization reduces aggregate rent extraction when voter information varies across regions. It increases welfare as lo...
Mkasiwa, Tausi
2011-01-01
This research investigates the phenomenon of budgeting practices in the Tanzanian Central Government. It seeks to understand how budgeting systems under the New Public Management (NPM), World Bank- and IMF-exhorted systems were adopted and implemented. There were several motives for this research: the significance of budgeting in financial management, the sparsity of empirical studies on NPM in developing countries, and a call for an understanding of the local contexts of the country and an e...
Education in a Period or Social Upheaval. Educational Theories and Concepts in Central East Europe
1994-01-01
The volume contains contributions from nine different Central- and East-European countries which give a total impression of the upheaval in the field of educational science in those countries. The contributions comprise three different focuses. "The first group is occupied with a review of history and the position of educational science in specific countries, in order in this way to gain prerequisites and perspectives for new pedagogical points of departure... The second group of contributors...
World-Economic Theories and Problems: Quigley vs. Wallerstein vs Central Civilization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Wilkinson
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This is one in a series of papers on civilizational issues. Its predecessors have argued for the existence of a world system/civilization, "Central Civilization," born regionally in the Middle East about 1500 B.C. in the collision of two smaller, expanding local civilizations, expanded throughout the globe, engulfing all competing civilizations to become the unique global social system in the last 100-150 years. If continuing social struggles both are and imply continuing social entities, there is social continuity-stabilities, trends and cycles--in the struggles forming and maintaining Central Civilization.ill A consequence of accepting Central Civilization as a genuine entity, or a reason for treating it as a fruitful heuristic, is, in particular, the finding that it possesses a political cycle (states system--univcesal empire characteristic of other entities commonly treated as civilizations (Wilkinson, 1986; 1987, 53-56; 1988 as well as a political evolution (from multistate anarchy to balance-of-power incipient but never successfully established in other world systems (Wilkinson, 1985.
World-Economic Theories and Problems: Quigley vs. Wallerstein vs Central Civilization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Wilkinson
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This is one in a series of papers on civilizational issues. Its predecessors have argued for the existence of a world system/civilization, "Central Civilization," born regionally in the Middle East about 1500 B.C. in the collision of two smaller, expanding local civilizations, expanded throughout the globe, engulfing all competing civilizations to become the unique global social system in the last 100-150 years. If continuing social struggles both are and imply continuing social entities, there is social continuity-stabilities, trends and cycles--in the struggles forming and maintaining Central Civilizations. A consequence of accepting Central Civilization as a genuine entity, or a reason for treating it as a fruitful heuristic, is, in particular, the finding that it possesses a political cycle (states system--universal empire characteristic of other entities commonly treated as civilizations (Wilkinson, 1986; 1987, 53-56; 1988 as well as a political evolution (from multistate anarchy to balance-of-power incipient but never successfully established in other world systems (Wilkinson, 1985.
Robustness of coherence: An operational and observable measure of quantum coherence
Napoli, Carmine; Cianciaruso, Marco; Piani, Marco; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-01-01
Quantifying coherence is an essential endeavour for both quantum foundations and quantum technologies. Here the robustness of coherence is defined and proven a full monotone in the context of the recently introduced resource theories of quantum coherence. The measure is shown to be observable, as it can be recast as the expectation value of a coherence witness operator for any quantum state. The robustness of coherence is evaluated analytically on relevant classes of states, and an efficient semidefinite program that computes it on general states is given. An operational interpretation is finally provided: the robustness of coherence quantifies the advantage enabled by a quantum state in a phase-discrimination task.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thommes, Jan; Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars;
2010-01-01
is used for this purpose, e.g. in MRT or CT of human hearts. For visualization of embryonic chick hearts with high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), a gating trigger generated by laser Doppler velocimetry has been successfully demonstrated (1). But this takes time and adds to system......In vivo analysis of cardiac physiology and non-invasive imaging of the beating early embryonic heart in 2 and 3D remain a challenge in cardiovascular development research. 3D-imaging of the beating heart relies on gating of the acquired images according to the cardiac cycle. Mostly ECG triggering...
You, Yi-Jing; Wang, Chengming; Lin, Yi-Lun; Zaytsev, Alexey; Xue, Ping; Pan, Ci-Ling
2016-02-01
We report on the ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a novel high-power supercontinuum (SC) light source generated by noise-like pulses from an Yb-doped fiber laser. The SC spectrum is flat with a bandwidth of 420 nm centered around ~1.3 μm. The light source is successfully employed in a time-domain OCT (TD-OCT), achieving an axial resolution of 2.3 μm. High resolution fiber-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) imaging of bio-tissue was also demonstrated.
Thommes, Jan; Happel, Christoph M.; Thrane, Lars; Yelbuz, T. Mesud
2010-01-01
In vivo analysis of cardiac physiology and non-invasive imaging of the beating early embryonic heart in 2 and 3D remain a challenge in cardiovascular development research. 3D-imaging of the beating heart relies on gating of the acquired images according to the cardiac cycle. Mostly ECG triggering is used for this purpose, e.g. in MRT or CT of human hearts. For visualization of embryonic chick hearts with high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), a gating trigger generated by laser D...
Blanka Kesic; Pavao Komadina; Dragan Cisic
2000-01-01
A number of methods are available for determining the limits of port gravitational areas, geographic, geometrical, mainland-tariff method or total transport cost method. The basic drawback of this methods is that they take in the account either cost or geographical elements Unified theory of the port gravitational areas, under development at Maritime faculty Rijeka, takes into account other logistic elements which in today's transport conditions can be crucial in choosing the direction of the...
Quantum coherence of steered states
Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.
Electroencephalograpic coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Brežan
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Different brain areas process various aspects of information in parallel as well as segregated way. It is not known, how is this information integrated into a unitary percept or action. The binding problem is one of the key problems in understanding brain function. Synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons is one possible mechanism of the functional integration of different communicating brain areas. The binding has been well-studied in the visual system, but it could also serve as a mechanism in visuomotor integration or functional coupling present with other brain processes and behavioural modes (perception, complex motor behaviour, selective attention, learning, working memory, etc.. Interregional synchronization of the electroencephalographic (EEG signal can be determined by EEG coherence analysis. In the article we present a research example of coherence changes in a visuomotor task. During this task, coherence between visual and motor brain areas increased. This might reflect functional coupling between those areas, but it could also be influenced by other cognitive processes (e.g. selective attention. Coherence analysis is suitable for studying integrative brain function. Because it measures only one of the possible mechanisms of integration, it offers promise especially when combined with other electrophysiological and functional imaging methods.
Coherence and Sense of Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dau, Susanne
2014-01-01
Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question...... of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....
A Method for Ultrashort Electron Pulse Shape-Measurement Using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation
Geloni, G A; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V
2003-01-01
In this paper we discuss a method for nondestructive measurements of the longitudinal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches for X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The method is based on the detection of the Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) spectrum produced by a bunch passing a dipole magnet system. This work also contains a systematic treatment of synchrotron radiation theory which lies at the basis of CSR. Standard theory of synchrotron radiation uses several approximations whose applicability limits are often forgotten: here we present a systematic discussion about these assumptions. Properties of coherent synchrotron radiation from an electron moving along an arc of a circle are then derived and discussed. We describe also an effective and practical diagnostic technique based on the utilization of an electromagnetic undulator to record the energy of the coherent radiation pulse into the central cone. This measurement must be repeated many times with different undulator resonant frequencies in or...
Coherence, Pseudo-Coherence, and Non-Coherence.
Enkvist, Nils Erik
Analysis of the factors that make a text coherent or non-coherent suggests that total coherence requires cohesion not only on the textual surface but on the semantic level as well. Syntactic evidence of non-coherence includes lack of formal agreement blocking a potential cross-reference, anaphoric and cataphoric references that do not follow their…
Coherence and Sense of Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dau, Susanne
2014-01-01
of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....
Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects
Dan-Glauser, Elise S.; Gross, James J.
2013-01-01
One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, on how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion co...
Design of supercontinuum source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hui; CHANG Sheng-jiang; ZHANG Yan-xin; ZHAO Xiang-ting
2008-01-01
A new method to obtain supemontinuum(SC)source for multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering(CARS)micros-copy is proposed.The nonlinear propagation in photonic-crystal fibers(PCF)of femtosecond pulse laser with central wavelength at 800.9 nm is studied with scalar wave theory.Based on the incident laser power and dispersion of PCF,super broadband source for multiplex CARS microscopy is designed.
Energy cost of creating quantum coherence
Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; Pati, Arun Kumar
2016-05-01
We consider physical situations where the resource theories of coherence and thermodynamics play competing roles. In particular, we study the creation of quantum coherence using unitary operations with limited thermodynamic resources. We find the maximal coherence that can be created under unitary operations starting from a thermal state and find explicitly the unitary transformation that creates the maximal coherence. Since coherence is created by unitary operations starting from a thermal state, it requires some amount of energy. This motivates us to explore the trade-off between the amount of coherence that can be created and the energy cost of the unitary process. We also find the maximal achievable coherence under the constraint on the available energy. Additionally, we compare the maximal coherence and the maximal total correlation that can be created under unitary transformations with the same available energy at our disposal. We find that when maximal coherence is created with limited energy, the total correlation created in the process is upper bounded by the maximal coherence, and vice versa. For two-qubit systems we show that no unitary transformation exists that creates the maximal coherence and maximal total correlation simultaneously with a limited energy cost.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何明烈; 戢焕奇
2008-01-01
Based on the investigation of the origin and definition of topic as well as the classification of textual coherence, this paper ana-lyzes the function of topic to non-coherence, imphcit coherence and explicit coherence, and concludes that topic relevance is the primary cri-terion for textual coherence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raymond Trevor Bradley
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This article presents theory and research on the scientific study of emotion thatemphasizes the importance of coherence as an optimal psychophysiological state. Adynamic systems view of the interrelations between psychological, cognitive andemotional systems and neural communication networks in the human organism providesa foundation for the view presented. These communication networks are examined froman information processing perspective and reveal a fundamental order in heart-braininteractions and a harmonious synchronization of physiological systems associated withpositive emotions. The concept of coherence is drawn on to understand optimalfunctioning which is naturally reflected in the heart’s rhythmic patterns. Research ispresented identifying various psychophysiological states linked to these patterns, withneurocardiological coherence emerging as having significant impacts on well being.These include psychophysiological as well as improved cognitive performance. Fromthis, the central role of the heart is explored in terms of biochemical, biophysical andenergetic interactions. Appendices provide further details and research on;psychophysiological functioning, reference previous research in this area, details onresearch linking coherence with optimal cognitive performance, heart brainsynchronization and the energetic signature of the various psychophysiological modes.
Compagnucci, R. H.; Agosta, E. A.; Vargas, W. M.
observed in the South African counterpart with severe characteristics, thereby continuing the quasi-18-year oscillation. Consequently, the low-frequency coherent behaviour between both the Argentine and South African regions is lost from the mid-1970s. The analysis of association of wet/dry spells and warm/cold, El Niño/La Niña episodes appears to be not significant at scales of year-to-year variability although at decadal to multi-decadal scales the association could be relevant. More than one process of multi-decadal variability of global SSTs could influence the Argentine summer rainfall region and the former bi-decadal teleconnection. Finally, potential hypothetical factors of change are discussed, such as the strengthening of direct and indirect mechanisms of moisture flux transport associated with global warming, low-level atmospheric circulation changes and/or to SSTs mean condition long-term variations over tropical and subtropical South Atlantic and South Pacific oceans.
Jones, Dean P
2016-04-01
When Rafael Radi and I wrote about Helmut Sies for the Redox Pioneer series, I was disappointed that the Editor restricted us to the use of "Pioneer" in the title. My view is that Helmut was always ahead of the pioneers: He was a scout discovering paths for exploration and a trailblazer developing strategies and methods for discovery. I have known him for nearly 40 years and greatly enjoyed his collegiality as well as brilliance in scientific scholarship. He made monumental contributions to 20th century physiological chemistry beginning with his first measurement of H2O2 in rat liver. While continuous H2O2 production is dogma today, the concept of H2O2 production in mammalian tissues was largely buried for half a century. He continued this leadership in research on oxidative stress, GSH, selenium, and singlet oxygen, during the timeframe when physiological chemistry and biochemistry transitioned to contemporary 21st century systems biology. His impact has been extensive in medical and health sciences, especially in nutrition, aging, toxicology and cancer. I briefly summarize my interactions with Helmut, stressing our work together on the redox code, a set of principles to link mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics, H2O2 metabolism, redox signaling and redox proteomics into central redox theory. PMID:27095208
Revealing Hidden Coherence in Partially Coherent Light
Svozilík, Jiří; Peřina, Jan; Torres, Juan P
2015-01-01
The coherence of a system can be ultimately related to the nature of its correlations with the surroundings (outside world). The system can be, for instance, the polarization of a photon, which forms part of a polarization-entangled two-photon state, or the spatial shape of a coherent beam, where each spatial mode bears different polarizations. Whereas a local unitary transformation of the system do not affect its coherence, global unitary transformations modifying both the system and its surroundings can enhance its coherence transforming mutual correlations into coherence. The question naturally arises of what is the best measure that quantifies the correlations that can be turned into coherence, and how much coherence can be extracted. We answer both questions, and illustrate its application for some typical simple systems, with the aim at illuminating the general concept of enhancing coherence by modifying correlations.
Asher, D. J.; Clube, S. V. M.; Napier, W. M.; Steel, D. I.
We review the theoretical and observational evidence that, on timescales relevant to mankind, the prime collision hazard is posed by temporally correlated impacts (coherent catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 2-10 4 yr) rather than random ones (stochastic catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 5-10 8 yr). The mechanism whereby coherent incursions into and through the terrestrial atmosphere occur is described as being the result of giant cometary bodies arriving in orbits with perihelia in the inner solar system. Hierarchical fragmentation of such large (100 km-plus) bodies — due to thermal stresses near perihelion, collisions in the asteroid belt, or passages through the Jovian Roche radius — results in numerous ˜kilometre-sized objects being left in short-period orbits, and appearing in telescopic searches as Apollo-type asteroids. Many more smaller objects, in the 10-100 metre size range and only recently observed, by the Spacewatch team, are expected to be in replenished clusters in particular orbits as a result of continuing disintegrations of large, differentiated, cometary objects. Gravitational perturbations by Jupiter bring these clusters around to have a node at 1 AU in a cyclic fashion, leading to impacts at certain times of year every few years during active periods lasting a few centuries, such periods being separated by intervals of a few millennia. Furthermore, fragmentations within the hierarchy result in significant bombardment commensurabilities ( Δt ˜ 10-10 2 yr) during active periods occurring at random intervals ( Δt ˜ 10 2-10 3 yr). It appears that the Earth has been subject to such impacts since the break-up of such a comet ˜2×10 4 years ago; currently we are not passing through a high-risk epoch, although some phenomena originating in the products of this break-up have been observed in the 20th century. This most recent hierarchical disintegration, associated with four well-known meteor showers and termed the Taurid Complex, is now recognized as resulting
Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories
Cranch, James
2010-11-01
We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.
Negative Binomial and Multinomial States: probability distributions and coherent states
Fu, Hong-Chen; Sasaki, Ryu
1996-01-01
Following the relationship between probability distribution and coherent states, for example the well known Poisson distribution and the ordinary coherent states and relatively less known one of the binomial distribution and the $su(2)$ coherent states, we propose ``interpretation'' of $su(1,1)$ and $su(r,1)$ coherent states ``in terms of probability theory''. They will be called the ``negative binomial'' (``multinomial'') ``states'' which correspond to the ``negative'' binomial (multinomial)...
Coherent states on Hilbert modules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We generalize the concept of coherent states, traditionally defined as special families of vectors on Hilbert spaces, to Hilbert modules. We show that Hilbert modules over C*-algebras are the natural settings for a generalization of coherent states defined on Hilbert spaces. We consider those Hilbert C*-modules which have a natural left action from another C*-algebra, say A. The coherent states are well defined in this case and they behave well with respect to the left action by A. Certain classical objects like the Cuntz algebra are related to specific examples of coherent states. Finally we show that coherent states on modules give rise to a completely positive definite kernel between two C*-algebras, in complete analogy to the Hilbert space situation. Related to this, there is a dilation result for positive operator-valued measures, in the sense of Naimark. A number of examples are worked out to illustrate the theory. Some possible physical applications are also mentioned.
Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.
2013-01-01
The investment economy is a main characteristic of prosperous society. The investment portfolio management is a main financial problem, which has to be solved by the investment, commercial and central banks with the application of modern portfolio theory in the investment economy. We use the learning analytics together with the integrative creative imperative intelligent conceptual co-lateral adaptive thinking with the purpose to advance our scientific knowledge on the diversified investment ...
Combescure, Monique; Robert, Didier
2012-06-01
The aim of this paper is to give a self-contained and unified presentation of a fermionic coherent state theory with the necessary mathematical details, discussing their definition, properties and some applications. After defining Grassmann algebras, it is possible to get a classical analog for the fermionic degrees of freedom in a quantum system. Following the basic work of Berezin (1966 The Method of Second Quantization (New York: Academic); 1987 Introduction to Superanalysis (Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company)), we show that we can compute with Grassmann numbers as we do with complex numbers: derivation, integration, Fourier transform. After that we show that we have quantization formulas for fermionic observables. In particular, there exists a Moyal product formula. As an application, we consider explicit computations for propagators with quadratic Hamiltonians in annihilation and creation operators. We prove a Mehler formula for the propagator and Mehlig-Wilkinson-type formulas for the covariant and contravariant symbols of ‘metaplectic’ transformations for fermionic states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
Coherence analysis of optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave interference.
Zheng, Jesse
2006-06-01
I analyze the coherence of optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interference. With a simple model modified from the classical coherence theory, I successfully derive the relationships among the frequency bandwidth, coherence length, and coherence time of the practical optical source, and the contrast of the beat signal in optical FMCW interference. PMID:16724123
Organizational closure and conceptual coherence
Scott
2000-01-01
This paper reviews ideas developed by the late Gordon Pask as part of this conversation theory (CT). CT uses theories of the dynamics of complex, self-organizing systems, in conjunction with models of conceptual structures, in order to give an account of conceptual coherence (for example, of a theory or a belief system) as a form of organizational closure. In Pask's own terms, CT is concerned both with the kinematics of knowledge structures and the kinetics of knowing and coming to know. The main features of modelling conceptual structures and processes used by Pask are presented. We continue by presenting a summary two-cycle model of learning, aimed to capture some of Pask's key insights with respect to conceptual coherence and the organizational closure of conceptual systems. Parallels are drawn with other work in epistemology, classic cybernetic studies of self-organization, and the concept of autopoiesis. The two-cycle model is then applied recursively to generate learning cycles and conceptual structures at different levels of abstraction, as a contribution to the work of Pask on the topology of thought. Finally, the model is applied reflexively. That is, its own form is considered as a topic for conversation and conceptualization. Carrying out such a reflection provides a coherent way of characterizing epistemological limits, while retaining a clear sense of there being an (in principle) unlimited praxeology of awareness. PMID:10818581
Coherence and correspondence in engineering design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos
2009-03-01
Full Text Available I show how the coherence/correspondence distinction can inform the conversation about decision methods for engineering design. Some engineers argue for the application of multi-attribute utility theory while others argue for what they call heuristics. To clarify the differences among methods, I first ask whether each method aims at achieving coherence or correspondence. By analyzing statements in the design literature, I argue that utility theory aims at achieving coherence and heuristics aim at achieving correspondence. Second, I ask if achieving coherence always implies achieving correspondence. It is important to provide an answer because while in design the objective is correspondence, it is difficult to assess it, and coherence that is easier to assess is used as a surrogate. I argue that coherence does not always imply correspondence in design and that this is also the case in problems studied in judgment and decision-making research. Uncovering the conditions under which coherence implies, or does not imply, correspondence is a topic where engineering design and judgment and decision-making research might connect.
Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets
Castaneda, R
2003-01-01
A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function.
On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Leif
1979-01-01
It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between...
Subramanian Rangan; Metin Sengul
2009-01-01
Reflecting amplified hazards in cross-border exchange and imperfections in markets for intangibles, internalization has been central in multinational enterprise (MNE) theory. This centrality notwithstanding, the fact is that internalization coheres with lower-powered incentives and carries an implicit drawback, namely, higher realized production costs. With the emergence and deployment of information and communication technology (ICT), modern MNEs are reshaping their transnational governance ...
GÜLER, O.; Roos, C; Terlaky, T.; J.-Ph. Vial
1995-01-01
The literature in the field of interior point methods for Linear Programming has been almost exclusively algorithmic oriented. Very few contributions have been made towards the theory of Linear Programming itself. In particular none of them offer a simple, self-contained introduction to the theory of Linear Programming and linear inequalities. The purpose of this paper is to show that the interior point methodology can be used to introduce the field of Linear Programming. Starting from scratc...
Practical Witness for Electronic Coherences
Johnson, Allan S; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Krich, Jacob J
2014-01-01
The origin of the coherences in two-dimensional spectroscopy of photosynthetic complexes remains disputed. Recently it has been shown that in the ultrashort-pulse limit, oscillations in a frequency-integrated pump-probe signal correspond exclusively to electronic coherences, and thus such experiments can be used to form a test for electronic vs. vibrational oscillations in such systems. Here we demonstrate a method for practically implementing such a test, whereby pump-probe signals are taken at several different pulse durations and used to extrapolate to the ultrashort-pulse limit. We present analytic and numerical results determining requirements for pulse durations and the optimal choice of pulse central frequency, which can be determined from an absorption spectrum. Our results suggest that for numerous systems the required experiment could be implemented by many ultrafast spectroscopy laboratories using pulses of tens of femtoseconds in duration. Such experiments could resolve the standing debate over th...
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment.
Stockill, R; Le Gall, C; Matthiesen, C; Huthmacher, L; Clarke, E; Hugues, M; Atatüre, M
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin-photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704
Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment
Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.
2016-01-01
The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin–photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704
Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina; Handley, Simon J; Chiesi, Francesca; Galli, Silvia
2012-11-01
In two experiments, we tested some of the central claims of the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Experiment 1 showed that the systemizing quotient (SQ) was unrelated to performance on a mathematics test, although it was correlated with statistics-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and anxiety. In Experiment 2, systemizing skills, and gender differences in these skills, were more strongly related to spatial thinking styles than to SQ. In fact, when we partialled the effect of spatial thinking styles, SQ was no longer related to systemizing skills. Additionally, there was no relationship between the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the SQ, or skills and interest in mathematics and mechanical reasoning. We discuss the implications of our findings for the E-S theory, and for understanding the autistic cognitive profile.
Electron microdiffraction and channeling: Theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three related topics in the theory of dynamical kilovolt electron diffraction are treated, and one practical application of the theory is provided. The first topic concerns the theory of coherent electron microdiffraction for atomic clusters and precipitates. The visibility of High Order Laue Zone (HOLZ) lines within the central-beam disk of coherent electron-microdiffraction patterns was studied using dynamical electron-diffraction theory. The electron source size is also shown to affect HOLZ line visibility. Coherent electron-microdiffraction patterns were obtained from a new crystalline precipitate found in silicon wafers annealed at 635 degree C for 256 h. The most likely structure is that of keatite (SiO2, tetragonal). The implications for the study of oxygen precipitation in silicon are discussed. The second theoretical topic concerns the possibilities for determining the sites of adatoms on surfaces by measurements of the x-ray or Auger electron yield as a function of diffraction conditions in the RHEED geometry. Finally, the effects of wave-function dimensionality and inelastic localization on ALCHEMI (Atom Location by Channeling Enhanced Microanalysis) has been studied. The original ALCHEMI equations are shown to hold for certain conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡晓明
2007-01-01
The ideological trend of "counter-West centralism" is becomingmore and more obvious in the academic circle of Chinese literary theory fromthe 1980s to the beginning of this century.This article regards a certain numberof phenomena as surveying targets,and analyzes that this ideological trendis embodied not only in evident purposes,slogans and views,but also in there-thinking of education history and in the work of literary material and thereestablishing of criticism history.This article holds that the combination of twokinds of opposed learning trends for study and application respectively would behelpful in breaking through the barriers of single-sided logic,emphasizing nativeliterary tradition,participating in contemporary literature practice and definingChinese literary theory in the 21 st century.
Quantitative phase imaging with partially coherent illumination.
Nguyen, T H; Edwards, C; Goddard, L L; Popescu, G
2014-10-01
In this Letter, we formulate a mathematical model for predicting experimental outcomes in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) when the illumination field is partially spatially coherent. We derive formulae that apply to QPI and discuss expected results for two classes of QPI experiments: common path and traditional interferometry, under varying degrees of spatial coherence. In particular, our results describe the physical relationship between the spatial coherence of the illuminating field and the halo effect, which is well known in phase-contrast microscopy. We performed experiments relevant to this common situation and found that our theory is in excellent agreement with the data. With this new understanding of the effects of spatial coherence, our formulae offer an avenue for removing halo artifacts from phase images. PMID:25360915
Shimony-Wolf states and hidden coherences in classical light
Eberly, J. H.
2015-10-01
The classical theory of polarisation coherence is briefly summarised and then extended. The extension is motivated by the recognition that the traditional theory of two-point coherence provides only what we identify as 'diagonal' correlation functions and their associated two-point coherence matrices. It is pointed out that a wider focus is possible when taking account of the three-sector vector space underlying all two-point coherences in classical optics. This reveals the possibility of observing a new type of 'off-diagonal' correlations that arise when the correlation functions under investigation are associated with points in two distinct vector spaces, pairs of points that are not analogous to the pairs of space points or time points that underlie traditional measures of spatial and temporal coherence. Quantum theory has experience with correlations engaging such 'cross-sector' coherences, for example in tests of Bell inequalities, and the quantum formulations are shown to be easily adopted by classical theory without incorporating quantum features in the optical signals. The familiar theory of classical coherence that is associated with the pioneering work of Emil Wolf is extended in conformance with three criteria advanced by Abner Shimony to obtain formulas for correlation functions and for the Bell measure ? of coherence. Values of ? greater than the standard upper limit ? are predicted for certain classical Shimony-Wolf fields, indicating strong cross-sector coherence, but only when standard measures of coherence such as degree of polarisation ? are minimised. Experimental results confirming the predictions for cross-sector coherence are exhibited.
Multinary systems and reliability models from coherence to some kind of non-coherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First restricted to models for binary systems, reliability theory is being generalized for multinary systems, of multinary components. After a general viewpoint on reliability models for multinary systems, coherence generalizations are examined. First studied in terms of structure functions, the binary coherent systems can be fully characterized in terms of their minimal path (cut) sets as well as in terms of their life functions. Various fundamental notions such as minimal path (cut) sets and relevance first are introduced in terms of structure functions. The binary decompositions are studied and used for characterizing the broad-sense coherence in terms of sets. The binary-type coherence, the homogenous coherence and the various types of strict-sense coherence are reviewed and fully characterized in various ways. Life functions lead to some model useful for reliability calculations. Methods for determining, in a exact or approximated way, reliability characteristics of multinary coherent systems are studied from both of the fundamental models of reliability, then possible. Futhermore, some kind of non-coherent multinary system is suggested. This analysis may be interesting in the nuclear field
On coherent structure in wall turbulence
Sharma, A S
2013-01-01
A new theory of coherent structure in wall turbulence is presented. The theory is the first to predict packets of hairpin vortices and other structure in turbulence, and their dynamics, based on an analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, under an assumption of a turbulent mean profile. The assumption of the turbulent mean acts as a restriction on the class of possible structures. It is shown that the coherent structure is a manifestation of essentially low-dimensional flow dynamics, arising from a critical layer mechanism. Using the decomposition presented in McKeon & Sharma (J. Fluid Mech, 658, 2010), complex coherent structure is recreated from minimal superpositions of response modes predicted by the analysis, which take the form of radially-varying travelling waves. By way of example, simple combinations of these modes are offered that predicts hairpins and modulated hairpin packets. The phase interaction also predicts important skewness and correlation results known in the literature. It is also sho...
On -Coherent Endomorphism Rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Li-Xin Mao
2008-11-01
A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let $M_R$ be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of $M_R$. It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudokernel in add $M_R; S$ is a left -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudocokernel in add $M_R$. Some applications are given.
Application Coherency Manager Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes an Application Coherency Manager that implements and manages the interdependencies of simulation, data, and platform information. It will...
Eesley, G L
1981-01-01
Coherent Raman Spectroscopy provides a unified and general account of the fundamental aspects of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, also known as coherent Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical basis from which coherent Raman spectroscopy developed is described, along with its applications, utility, and implementation as well as advantages and disadvantages. Experimental data which typifies each technique is presented. This book is comprised of four chapters and opens with an overview of nonlinear optics and coherent Raman spectroscopy, followed by a discussion on nonlinear transfer function of matter
Ordering states with coherence measures
Liu, C. L.; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, G. F.; Tong, D. M.
2016-07-01
The quantification of quantum coherence has attracted a growing attention, and based on various physical contexts, several coherence measures have been put forward. An interesting question is whether these coherence measures give the same ordering when they are used to quantify the coherence of quantum states. In this paper, we consider the two well-known coherence measures, the l_1 norm of coherence and the relative entropy of coherence, to show that there are the states for which the two measures give a different ordering. Our analysis can be extended to other coherence measures, and as an illustration of the extension we further consider the formation of coherence to show that the l_1 norm of coherence and the formation of coherence, as well as the relative entropy of coherence and the coherence of formation, do not give the same ordering too.
Coherent control near metallic nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efimov, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Efimov, Anatoly [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We study coherent control in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures. Unlike in the case of control in gas or liquid phase, the collective response of electrons in a metallic nanostructure can significantly enhance different frequency components of the control field. This enhancement strongly depends on the geometry of the nanostructure and can substantially modify the temporal profile of the local control field. The changes in the amplitude and phase of the control field near the nanostructure are studied using linear response theory. The inverse problem of finding the external electromagnetic field to generate the desired local control field is considered and solved.
Neuronal avalanches and coherence potentials
Plenz, D.
2012-05-01
The mammalian cortex consists of a vast network of weakly interacting excitable cells called neurons. Neurons must synchronize their activities in order to trigger activity in neighboring neurons. Moreover, interactions must be carefully regulated to remain weak (but not too weak) such that cascades of active neuronal groups avoid explosive growth yet allow for activity propagation over long-distances. Such a balance is robustly realized for neuronal avalanches, which are defined as cortical activity cascades that follow precise power laws. In experiments, scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics have been observed during spontaneous cortical activity in isolated preparations in vitro as well as in the ongoing cortical activity of awake animals and in humans. Theory, models, and experiments suggest that neuronal avalanches are the signature of brain function near criticality at which the cortex optimally responds to inputs and maximizes its information capacity. Importantly, avalanche dynamics allow for the emergence of a subset of avalanches, the coherence potentials. They emerge when the synchronization of a local neuronal group exceeds a local threshold, at which the system spawns replicas of the local group activity at distant network sites. The functional importance of coherence potentials will be discussed in the context of propagating structures, such as gliders in balanced cellular automata. Gliders constitute local population dynamics that replicate in space after a finite number of generations and are thought to provide cellular automata with universal computation. Avalanches and coherence potentials are proposed to constitute a modern framework of cortical synchronization dynamics that underlies brain function.
Goniometer Control System for Coherent Bremsstrahlung Production
Acousta, V. M.
2002-08-01
A system for the generation of a high-intensity, quasi-monochromatic photon beam is discussed. The theory behind coherent bremsstrahlung photon beam production is analyzed and developed. The mechanics of a goniometer control system are presented. The software developed for remote control of the goniometer is also discussed. Finally, the results from various performance measurements are included.
Generalized Weyl Ordering and Nonlinear Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANHong－Yi
2002-01-01
In the context of the nonlinear coherent state(NLCS)theory we introduce the generalized weyl ordering operator formulation.The corresponding generalzied wigner operator turns out to be the Weyl ordered diracδ-operator functions.The completeness relation of NLCS is recast into generalized Weyl ordering form,The relationship between normal ordering,antinormal ordering and the generalized Weyl ordering is established which constitute a self-consistent theory for NLCS.
Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.
Ne'eman, Yuval
1979-01-01
Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)
Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan
2009-07-21
We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæver, Ole
2009-01-01
Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...
García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2008-01-01
In this letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well known coherent information. This lead to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.
García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2009-05-01
In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.
Catalytic coherence transformations
Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde
2016-04-01
Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.
Understanding Causal Coherence Relations
Mulder, G.
2008-01-01
The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be m
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;
2014-01-01
We present a review of research performed in the area of coherent access technologies employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Experimental demonstrations of optical transmission over a passive fiber link with coherent detection using VCSEL local oscillators and directly modula...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Cheng, Ning;
2015-01-01
Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work.......Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work....
Zheng, Yanping
2009-01-01
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
Complex sine-Gordon Equation in Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation
Park, Q H
1999-01-01
It is shown that the McCall-Hahn theory of self-induced transparency in coherent optical pulse propagation can be identified with the complex sine-Gordon theory in the sharp line limit. We reformulate the theory in terms of the deformed gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten sigma model and address various new aspects of self-induced transparency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental study is carried out to investigate the effect of coherence and polarization on the polychromatic partially coherent dark hollow beam (PCDHB). The experimental results show that the spatial coherence and source polarization affect the dark region of the generated hollow beam. The study shows that by varying the source degree of polarization (DOP), we get a tunable dark region. We find that the longer the spatial coherence length of the input beam, the larger the central dark size of the resultant PCDHB. Further, it is shown that polychromatic PCDHB with low spatial coherence travel a longer distance without being distorted than a beam with a high spatial coherence. These kinds of polychromatic beams may find potential application in the field of polychromatic light based free-space optical (FSO) communications. (papers)
Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography
Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.
2015-01-01
Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080
Quantum speed limits, coherence, and asymmetry
Marvian, Iman; Spekkens, Robert W.; Zanardi, Paolo
2016-05-01
The resource theory of asymmetry is a framework for classifying and quantifying the symmetry-breaking properties of both states and operations relative to a given symmetry. In the special case where the symmetry is the set of translations generated by a fixed observable, asymmetry can be interpreted as coherence relative to the observable eigenbasis, and the resource theory of asymmetry provides a framework to study this notion of coherence. We here show that this notion of coherence naturally arises in the context of quantum speed limits. Indeed, the very concept of speed of evolution, i.e., the inverse of the minimum time it takes the system to evolve to another (partially) distinguishable state, is a measure of asymmetry relative to the time translations generated by the system Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the celebrated Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin speed limits can be interpreted as upper bounds on this measure of asymmetry by functions which are themselves measures of asymmetry in the special case of pure states. Using measures of asymmetry that are not restricted to pure states, such as the Wigner-Yanase skew information, we obtain extensions of the Mandelstam-Tamm bound which are significantly tighter in the case of mixed states. We also clarify some confusions in the literature about coherence and asymmetry, and show that measures of coherence are a proper subset of measures of asymmetry.
Asymptotic coherence of gluons and of q-bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, C.A.
1993-12-31
In theoretical physics one of the most important aspects of coherent states is that they can often be simply and reliably used to investigate the quantum coherence and correlation properties of new dynamical, quantum field theories. First, this paper reviews the coherent/degenerate state treatment of the infra-red dynamics of perturbative QCD. This based on the asymptotic behavior of the Hamiltonian operator as {vert_bar}t{vert_bar} {yields} {infinity} in the interaction representation. Second, the paper reviews the usage of q-analogue coherent states {vert_bar}z>{sub q} to deduce coherence and uncertainty properties of the q-analogue quantized radiation field in the {vert_bar}z>{sub q} ``classical limit`` where {vert_bar}z{vert_bar} is large. Third, for future applications, a new ``projector`` definition of the usual coherent states and of the squeezed states is reported.
How to quantify coherence: distinguishing speakable and unspeakable notions
Marvian, Iman
2016-01-01
Quantum coherence is a critical resource for many operational tasks. Understanding how to quantify and manipulate it also promises to have applications for a diverse set of problems in theoretical physics. For certain applications, however, one requires coherence between the eigenspaces of specific physical observables, such as energy, angular momentum, or photon number, and it makes a difference which eigenspaces appear in the superposition. For others, there is a preferred set of subspaces relative to which coherence is deemed a resource, but it is irrelevant which of the subspaces appear in the superposition. We term these two types of coherence unspeakable and speakable respectively. We argue that a useful approach to quantifying and characterizing unspeakable coherence is provided by the resource theory of asymmetry when the symmetry group is a group of translations, and we translate a number of prior results on asymmetry into the language of coherence. We also highlight some of the applications of this ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sven Hassler
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In order to increase the understanding on what determines health among immigrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous people concepts as acculturation, identity and sense of coherence (SOC have become central for the analysis. The process of acculturation and the associated concepts of integration, assimilation, marginalization and separation have often been referred to when describing the health of immigrants and indigenous, of which integration has been considered to provide the better conditions for good health. The aim of this study is to explore the mutual relations between the concepts of acculturation, SOC and identity by an abductive reasoning based on an investigation on a group of Sami regarding their cultural and ethnic self-identification. By this explorative approach the study also seek to touch upon some of the relevant neighboring concepts such as cultural memory and position them among the more established social determinants of health. The study demonstrates that coherence as a psychosocial characteristic is appearing in different concepts and models in the area of acculturation and cognitive development as well as in cultural memory. It has an intra-individual dimension expressed in the theories of cognitive development and cultural memory and inter-individual, social dimension noticeable in SOC and the process of acculturation. The mutual correspondence of these structures of thought, values and perspectives have yet to be clarified and understood, especially in relation to health.
Huang, Hung-Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E.; Chen, Yen-Chi; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Baxter, Eric J.
2016-08-01
The shapes of cluster central galaxies are not randomly oriented, but rather exhibit coherent alignments with the shapes of their parent clusters as well as with the surrounding large-scale structures. In this work, we aim to identify the galaxy and cluster quantities that most strongly predict the central galaxy alignment phenomenon among a large parameter space with a sample of 8237 clusters and 94817 members within 0.1 theories of central galaxy alignments, the impact of primordial alignments with tidal fields, and the importance of anisotropic accretion.
A covariant approach to the analysis of coherent processes
Karasev, V. P.; Shelepin, L. A.
A general group-theory approach to the study of coherent phenomena in many-particle multilevel systems interacting with boson fields is formulated on the basis of the dynamic symmetry theory and the formalism of group representations. Algebraic models of the systems under study are proposed using this approach which yield generalized Dicke models with allowance for both radiation and collisional processes and also consider systems with a varying number of particles. By using Glauber coherent states and generalized coherent states of SU (n) groups, covariant methods are developed for calculating various characteristics of cooperative phenomena and processes on the basis of the models proposed here.
Field Theory for Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation
Park, Q H
1997-01-01
We introduce a new notion of "matrix potential" to nonlinear optical systems. In terms of a matrix potential $g$, we present a gauge field theoretic formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equation that provides a semiclassical description of the propagation of optical pulses through resonant multi-level media. We show that the Bloch part of the equation can solved identically through $g$ and the remaining Maxwell equation becomes a second order differential equation with reduced set of variables due to the gauge invariance of the system. Our formulation clarifies the (nonabelian) symmetry structure of the Maxwell-Bloch equations for various multi-level media in association with symmetric spaces $G/H$. In particular, we associate nondegenerate two-level system for self-induced transparency with $G/H=SU(2)/U(1)$ and three-level $\\L $- or V-systems with $G/H = SU(3)/U(2)$. We give a detailed analysis for the two-level case in the matrix potential formalism, and address various new properties of the system including so...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;
2016-01-01
of coherence in treatment and patient pathways. The aim of our study is to explore the role of health care providers in furthering coherence. Our ambition is to identify areas for improvement or change of collaborative practice between health care providers in municipalities, hospitals and general practice...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Michael Thomas
2005-01-01
@@ What makes a coherent EFL curriculum? How can curriculum planners avoid a mismatch between policy and pragmatics to produce an effective decision-making process? In The Second Language Curriculum, Johnson describes the coherent curriculum as one in which decision outcomes from the various stages of development are mutually consistent and complementary,and learning outcomes reflect curriculum aims.The achievement of coherence is said to depend crucially in most educational contexts upon the formalisation of decision-making processes and products. This formalisation facilitates consensus among those involved and is a prerequisite for effective evaluation and subsequent renewal (1994: xiii)
A random matrix theory of decoherence
Gorin, T.; Pineda, C.; Kohler, H.; Seligman, T. H.
2008-11-01
Random matrix theory is used to represent generic loss of coherence of a fixed central system coupled to a quantum-chaotic environment, represented by a random matrix ensemble, via random interactions. We study the average density matrix arising from the ensemble induced, in contrast to previous studies where the average values of purity, concurrence and entropy were considered; we further discuss when one or the other approach is relevant. The two approaches agree in the limit of large environments. Analytic results for the average density matrix and its purity are presented in linear response approximation. The two-qubit system is analysed, mainly numerically, in more detail.
A random matrix theory of decoherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorin, T [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd Marcelino GarcIa Barragan y Calzada OlImpica, Guadalajara CP 44840, JalIsco (Mexico); Pineda, C [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Kohler, H [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Seligman, T H [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: thomas.gorin@red.cucei.udg.mx, E-mail: carlospgmat03@gmail.com
2008-11-15
Random matrix theory is used to represent generic loss of coherence of a fixed central system coupled to a quantum-chaotic environment, represented by a random matrix ensemble, via random interactions. We study the average density matrix arising from the ensemble induced, in contrast to previous studies where the average values of purity, concurrence and entropy were considered; we further discuss when one or the other approach is relevant. The two approaches agree in the limit of large environments. Analytic results for the average density matrix and its purity are presented in linear response approximation. The two-qubit system is analysed, mainly numerically, in more detail.
Discrete Coherent State Path Integrals
Marchioro, Thomas L., II
1990-01-01
The quantum theory provides a fundamental understanding of the physical world; however, as the number of degrees of freedom rises, the information required to specify quantum wavefunctions grows geometrically. Because basis set expansions mirror this geometric growth, a strict practical limit on quantum mechanics as a numerical tool arises, specifically, three degrees of freedom or fewer. Recent progress has been made utilizing Feynman's Path Integral formalism to bypass this geometric growth and instead calculate time -dependent correlation functions directly. The solution of the Schrodinger equation is converted into a large dimensional (formally infinite) integration, which can then be attacked with Monte Carlo techniques. To date, work in this area has concentrated on developing sophisticated mathematical algorithms for evaluating the highly oscillatory integrands occurring in Feynman Path Integrals. In an alternative approach, this work demonstrates two formulations of quantum dynamics for which the number of mathematical operations does not scale geometrically. Both methods utilize the Coherent State basis of quantum mechanics. First, a localized coherent state basis set expansion and an approximate short time propagator are developed. Iterations of the short time propagator lead to the full quantum dynamics if the coherent state basis is sufficiently dense along the classical phase space path of the system. Second, the coherent state path integral is examined in detail. For a common class of Hamiltonians, H = p^2/2 + V( x) the path integral is reformulated from a phase space-like expression into one depending on (q,dot q). It is demonstrated that this new path integral expression contains localized damping terms which can serve as a statistical weight for Monte Carlo evaluation of the integral--a process which scales approximately linearly with the number of degrees of freedom. Corrections to the traditional coherent state path integral, inspired by a
Bromley, Thomas R; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-01-01
We analyse under which dynamical conditions the coherence of an open quantum system is totally unaffected by noise. For a single qubit, specific measures of coherence are found to freeze under different conditions, with no general agreement between them. Conversely, for an N-qubit system with even N, we identify universal conditions in terms of initial states and local incoherent channels such that all bona fide distance-based coherence monotones are left invariant during the entire evolution. This finding also provides an insightful physical interpretation for the freezing phenomenon of quantum correlations beyond entanglement. We further obtain analytical results for distance-based measures of coherence in two-qubit states with maximally mixed marginals.
... Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and MRA) Computed Tomography (CT) Scan Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Echocardiography Electrocardiogram ... Ultrasound Nuclear Stress Test Nuclear Ventriculography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Stress ... Optical Coherence Tomography | ...
Coherence in Industrial Transformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær
2003-01-01
The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....
Coherence relations in academic spoken discourse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliano Desiderato Antonio
2012-12-01
Full Text Available According to Rhetorical Structure Theory, implicit propositions emerge from the combination of pieces of text which hang together. Implicit propositions have received various labels as coherence relations, discourse relations, rhetorical relations or relational propositions. When two portions of a text hold a relation, the addressee of the text may recognize the connection even without the presence of a formal sign as a conjunction or a discourse marker. In this paper we claim that some intrinsic spoken discourse phenomena like paraphrasing, repetition, correction and parenthetical insertion hold coherence relations with other portions of discourse and, thus, may be considered strategies for the construction of coherence. The analysis, based on academic spoken discourse (five university lectures in Brazilian Portuguese, shows that these phenomena are recurring and relevant for the study of spoken discourse.
Coherent state description of extended objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A convenient method of describing an extended object in quantum field theory, which is regarded as a hadron, is presented. We describe the extended object by a coherent state and treat it on the basis of a variational approximation. The stability and orthogonality problems which are crucial in any attempt to render a physical significance to such a coherent state are investigated. From the stability condition, it is shown that only the models which induce the spontaneous breakdown of symmetry have a stable coherent state. We also show that several topological conservation laws can be understood as a reflection of the orthogonality properties of the Hilbert space. As simple examples, we discuss a self-coupled neutral scalar model, a charged scalar model, the Higgs model and the O(3) iso-triplet scalar model. (auth.)
Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography
Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.
2015-01-01
Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse c...
Spohn, Wolfgang
1999-01-01
The paper proposes two principles of coherence (thus taking up work started in Spohn (1991) "A Reason for Explanation: Explanations Provide Stable Reasons"). The latter indeed serves as a weak, but precise explication of the notion of coherence as it is used in the current epistemological discussion. After discussing their epistemological setting, the paper considers four ways of establishing these principles. They may be inferred neither from enumerative induction, nor from the nature of pro...
Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.; Barty, A.; Benner, W. H.; Bogan, M. J.; Boutet, S.; Cavalleri, A.; Duesterer, S.; Frank, M.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Iwan, B.; Marchesini, S.; Sakdinawat, A.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Seibert, M. M.; Timneanu, N.; Treusch, R.; Woods, B. W.
2009-09-01
We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.
A J Seeds; Fice, M. J.; Balakier, K; M Natrella; Mitrofanov, O.; Pepper, M.; Renaud, C.C.; M. Lamponi; M Chtioui; Van Dijk, F.; Aeppli, G.; A G Davies; Dean, P.; Linfield, E
2013-01-01
We present a review of recent developments in THz coherent systems based on photonic local oscillators. We show that such techniques can enable the creation of highly coherent, thus highly sensitive, systems for frequencies ranging from 100 GHz to 5 THz, within an energy efficient integrated platform. We suggest that such systems could enable the THz spectrum to realize its full applications potential. To demonstrate how photonics-enabled THz systems can be realized, we review the performance...
Coherence vortices of partially coherent beams in the far field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Pu-Sheng; Lü Bai-da
2007-01-01
Based on the propagation law of cross-spectral density function, studied in this paper are the coherence vortices of partially coherent, quasi-monochromatic singular beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator in the far field, where our main attention is paid to the evolution of far-field coherence vortices into intensity vortices of fully coherent beams. The results show that, although there are usually no zeros of intensity in partially coherent beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator, zeros of spectral degree of coherence exist. The coherence vortices of spectral degree of coherence depend on the relative coherence length, mode index and positions of pairs of points.If a point and mode index are kept fixed, the position of coherence vortices changes with the increase of the relative coherence length. For the low coherent case there is a circular phase dislocation. In the coherent limit coherence vortices become intensity vortices of fully coherent Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Stimulated coherent transition radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed
Enhanced delegated computing using coherence
Barz, Stefanie; Dunjko, Vedran; Schlederer, Florian; Moore, Merritt; Kashefi, Elham; Walmsley, Ian A.
2016-03-01
A longstanding question is whether it is possible to delegate computational tasks securely—such that neither the computation nor the data is revealed to the server. Recently, both a classical and a quantum solution to this problem were found [C. Gentry, in Proceedings of the 41st Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2009), pp. 167-178; A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 2009), pp. 517-526]. Here, we study the first step towards the interplay between classical and quantum approaches and show how coherence can be used as a tool for secure delegated classical computation. We show that a client with limited computational capacity—restricted to an XOR gate—can perform universal classical computation by manipulating information carriers that may occupy superpositions of two states. Using single photonic qubits or coherent light, we experimentally implement secure delegated classical computations between an independent client and a server, which are installed in two different laboratories and separated by 50 m . The server has access to the light sources and measurement devices, whereas the client may use only a restricted set of passive optical devices to manipulate the information-carrying light beams. Thus, our work highlights how minimal quantum and classical resources can be combined and exploited for classical computing.
Wakefields in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation
Billinghurst, Brant E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; Dallin, L.; May, Tim E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, Ward A.; Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, D. A.; Kramer, S.; Michaelian, K. H.
2016-06-01
When the electron bunches in a storage ring are sufficiently short the electrons act coherently producing radiation several orders of magnitude more intense than normal synchrotron radiation. This is referred to as Coherent Syncrotron Radiation (CSR). Due to the potential of CSR to provide a good source of Terahertz radiation for our users, the Canadian Light Source (CLS) has been researching the production and application of CSR. CSR has been produced at the CLS for many years, and has been used for a number of applications. However, resonances that permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of 0.074 cm-1, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup, have hampered some experiments. Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by rf diodes. These results are consistent with observations made by the interferometer in the THz range. Also discussed will be some practical examples of the application of CSR for the study of condensed phase samples using both transmission and Photoacoustic techniques.
Preparing attosecond coherences by strong-field ionization
Pabst, Stefan; Lein, Manfred; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2016-01-01
Strong-field ionization (SFI) has been shown to prepare wave packets with few-femtosecond periods. Here, we explore whether this technique can be extended to the attosecond time scale. We introduce an intuitive model, which is based on the Fourier transform of the subcycle SFI rate, for predicting the bandwidth of ionic states that can be coherently prepared by SFI. The coherent bandwidth decreases considerably with increasing central wavelength of the ionizing pulse but it is much less sensi...
Transfer information remotely via noise entangled coherent channels
Allati, A El; Hassouni, Y
2010-01-01
In this contribution, a generalized protocol of quantum teleportation is suggested to investigate the possibility of remotely transfer unknown multiparities entangled coherent state. A theoretical technique is introduced to generate maximum entangled coherent states which are used as quantum channels. We show that the mean photon number plays a central role on the fidelity of the transferred information. The noise parameter can be considered as a control parameter only for small values of the mean photon number.
Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Scholes, Greg
2012-08-01
The last years have witnessed fast growing developments in the use of quantum mechanics in technology-oriented and information-related fields, especially in metrology, in the developments of nano-devices and in understanding highly efficient transport processes. The consequent theoretical and experimental outcomes are now driving new experimental tests of quantum mechanical effects with unprecedented accuracies that carry with themselves the concrete possibility of novel technological spin-offs. Indeed, the manifold advances in quantum optics, atom and ion manipulations, spintronics and nano-technologies are allowing direct experimental verifications of new ideas and their applications to a large variety of fields. All of these activities have revitalized interest in quantum mechanics and created a unique framework in which theoretical and experimental physics have become fruitfully tangled with information theory, computer, material and life sciences. This special issue aims to provide an overview of what is currently being pursued in the field and of what kind of theoretical reference frame is being developed together with the experimental and theoretical results. It consists of three sections: 1. Memory effects in quantum dynamics and quantum channels 2. Driven open quantum systems 3. Experiments concerning quantum coherence and/or decoherence The first two sections are theoretical and concerned with open quantum systems. In all of the above mentioned topics, the presence of an external environment needs to be taken into account, possibly in the presence of external controls and/or forcing, leading to driven open quantum systems. The open system paradigm has proven to be central in the analysis and understanding of many basic issues of quantum mechanics, such as the measurement problem, quantum communication and coherence, as well as for an ever growing number of applications. The theory is, however, well-settled only when the so-called Markovian or memoryless
SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bickel, Douglas Lloyd
2014-01-01
Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.
The relations between quantum coherence and quantum correlations
Pei, Pei; Mei, Di; Li, Chong
2010-01-01
We reexamine entanglement and quantum correlation from the point of their consanguineous quantum property, the coherence, and consider the quantum correlation as a kind of nonlocal coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. Utilizing off-diagonal elements of density matrix, a measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states is proposed. The relations between the proposed measure and others of quantum correlation are investigated with explicit examples. The close relation between nonlocal coherence and quantum correlation provides theory evidence to experimentally measure the bipartite quantum correlation by means of coherence, and indicates a developing way to measure quantum correlation for states with the presence of local coherence.
Superconductivity by means of the subquantum medium coherence
Agop, M.; Ioannou, P. D.; Nica, P.
2005-06-01
In the hydrodynamic formulation of the scale relativity theory one shows that a stable vortices distribution of bipolaron type induces superconducting pairs by means of the quantum potential. Then, usual mechanisms (as, for example, the exchange interaction used in the bipolaron theory) are reduced to the coherence on the subquantum medium, the superconducting pairs resulting as a one-dimensional projection of a fractal. The temperature dependences of the superconducting parameters (coherence length, critical speed, pair breaking time, carriers concentration, penetration depth, critical field, critical current) and the concordance with the experimental data and other theories are analyzed.
Treutlein, P; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Treutlein, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter; Steinmetz, Tilo; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob
2003-01-01
We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $4-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the microtrap is independent of atom-surface distance and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.
Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob
1997-01-01
A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....
Generalized Weyl Ordering and Nonlinear Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi
2002-01-01
In the context of the nonlinear coherent state (NLCS) theory we introduce the generalized Weyl orderingoperator formulation. The corresponding generalized Wigner operator turns out to be the Weyl ordered Dirac δ-operatorfunctions. The completeness relation of NLCS is recast into generalized Weyl ordering form. The relationship betweennormal ordering, antinormal ordering and the generalized Weyl ordering is established which constitute a self-consistenttheory for NLCS.
Maintaining Web Cache Coherency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.
Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev
2011-01-01
This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th
Coherent states measurement entropy
Kwapien, J; Zyczkowski, K; Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol
1996-01-01
Coherent states (CS) quantum entropy can be split into two components. The dynamical entropy is linked with the dynamical properties of a quantum system. The measurement entropy, which tends to zero in the semiclassical limit, describes the unpredictability induced by the process of a quantum approximate measurement. We study the CS--measurement entropy for spin coherent states defined on the sphere discussing different methods dealing with the time limit n \\to \\infty. In particular we propose an effective technique of computing the entropy by iterated function systems. The dependence of CS--measurement entropy on the character of the partition of the phase space is analysed.
Coherence Constraints and the Last Hidden Optical Coherence
Qian, Xiao-Feng; Vamivakas, A Nick; Eberly, Joseph H
2016-01-01
We have discovered a new domain of optical coherence, and show that it is the third and last member of a previously unreported fundamental triad of coherences. These are unified by our derivation of a parallel triad of coherence constraints that take the form of complementarity relations. We have been able to enter this new coherence domain experimentally and we describe the novel tomographic approach devised for that purpose.
Atomic Coherent Trapping and Properties of Trapped Atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Guo-Jian; XIA Li-Xin; XIE Min
2006-01-01
Based on the theory of velocity-selective coherent population trapping, we investigate an atom-laser system where a pair of counterpropagating laser fields interact with a three-level atom. The influence of the parametric condition on the properties of the system such as velocity at which the atom is selected to be trapped, time needed for finishing the coherent trapping process, and possible electromagnetically induced transparency of an altrocold atomic medium,etc., is studied.
Higher order coherence of exciton-polariton condensates
Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Schwendimann, Paolo; Quattropani, Antonio; Hofling, Sven; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2009-01-01
The second and third order coherence functions $g^{(n)}(0) (n=2 {\\rm and} 3)$ of an exciton-polariton condensate is measured and compared to the theory. Contrary to an ideal photon laser, deviation from unity in the second and third order coherence functions is observed, thus showing a bunching effect, but not the characteristics of a standard thermal state with $g^{(n)}(0)=n!$. The increase of bunching with the order of the coherence function, $g^{(3)}(0) > g^{(2)}(0)>1$, indicates that the ...
Spectral coherence along a lidar-anemometer beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kristensen, Leif; Kirkegaard, P.; Mann, J.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Nielsen, Morten; Sjoeholm, M.
2010-10-15
The theory of measuring the spectral coherence by means of a lidar anemometer has been outlined. It is based on the assumption that the turbulent velocity field can be considered statistically locally isotropic and on the validity of Taylor's hypothesis. This implies that the longitudinal coherence cannot be predicted realistically. Special emphasis has been placed on the effect of line average along the beam. One section has been devoted to the effect of spectral aliasing, which may cause severe problems in the interpretation of measured data. This work is considered the theoretical background for the understanding of the coherences calculated on basis of real date. (Author)
On Discourse Coherence of The Dumb Waiter from the Perspective of the Principle of Goal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马文
2012-01-01
The principle of goal is a new theory which can be used to analyze discourse coherence.However,so far,none of the previous scholars has ever used this principle to analyze the coherence of dialogues in drama.Therefore,this essay will try to analyze the dialogue coherence in Harold Pinter's The Dumb Waiter by the principle of goal in order to reveal the implication and themes underneath the coherent or incoherent dialogues,and present the significance of discourse coherence and incoherence in literary discourse which are quite different from court discourse.
Deformation of coherent structures
Fledderus, E.R.; Groesen, van E.
1996-01-01
In this review we investigate the mathematical description of the distortion of clearly recognisable structures in phenomenological physics. The coherent structures we will explicitly deal with are surface waves on a layer of fluid, kink transitions in magnetic material, plane vortices, swirling flo
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;
2016-01-01
During the past decade, politicians and health care providers have strived to create a coherent health care system across primary and secondary health care systems in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care and lack ...
Hobson, R. Peter
2014-01-01
There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children…
Measuring a coherent superposition
Vitanov, N V; Unanyan, R G; Bergmann, K
1999-01-01
We propose a simple method for measuring the populations and the relative phase in a coherent superposition of two atomic states. The method is based on coupling the two states to a third common (excited) state by means of two laser pulses, and measuring the total fluorescence from the third state for several choices of the excitation pulses.
Coherent detection spectroscopy
Bueren, H.G. van
1969-01-01
Various methods of optical spectroscopy are compared, with special emphasis on resolution and acceptance of the systems. It is shown that coherent detection with a laser as a local oscillator has important advantages for specific applications in astronomical spectroscopy and interferometry, especial
Coherence in multilevel systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathematical descriptions of an excited state multilevel system are developed to include progressively the effects of coherent coupling, feeding, decay and relaxation, and the expressions are illustrated with several pulse coherence experiments utilizing zero field optically detected magnetic resonance of excited triplet states. A new method is described in which the time development of the coherent components in a multilevel system is monitored by using an observable that can measure only relative populations between the levels. The method is illustrated. By treating a coherently driven excited state system as two levels in contact with a population reservoir, exact expressions are obtained for both transient and steady-state behavior in the presence of transverse and spin lattice relaxation, constant incoherent pumping, spontaneous emission between the two levels, and also decay back into the reservoir. The general mathematical development is applied specifically to zero field microwave phosphorescence double resonance. Experimental methods and apparatus are discussed in detail and results of optically detected transient mutations, spin echoes, and Fourier transform spectroscopy are presented. (26 figs, 220 refs)
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D
2001-01-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging
Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.
2008-08-26
An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.
Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-06-17
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.
Jardine, John F
2015-01-01
This monograph on the homotopy theory of topologized diagrams of spaces and spectra gives an expert account of a subject at the foundation of motivic homotopy theory and the theory of topological modular forms in stable homotopy theory. Beginning with an introduction to the homotopy theory of simplicial sets and topos theory, the book covers core topics such as the unstable homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves and sheaves, localized theories, cocycles, descent theory, non-abelian cohomology, stacks, and local stable homotopy theory. A detailed treatment of the formalism of the subject is interwoven with explanations of the motivation, development, and nuances of ideas and results. The coherence of the abstract theory is elucidated through the use of widely applicable tools, such as Barr's theorem on Boolean localization, model structures on the category of simplicial presheaves on a site, and cocycle categories. A wealth of concrete examples convey the vitality and importance of the subject in topology, n...
Vector coherent state representations and their inner products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several advances have extended the power and versatility of coherent state theory to the extent that it has become a vital tool in the representation theory of Lie groups and their Lie algebras. Representative applications are reviewed and some new developments are introduced. The examples given are chosen to illustrate special features of the scalar and vector coherent state constructions and how they work in practical situations. Comparisons are made with Mackey's theory of induced representations. For simplicity, we focus on square integrable (discrete series) unitary representations although many of the techniques apply more generally, with minor adjustment. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (review)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王雪玲
2014-01-01
Cohesion and coherence in discourse analysis are two important terms .This article is mainly built on the basis of previous research on discourse analysis and translation ,and makes an exploratory study on cohesion and co-herence in translating classical poetry by comparing different versions of the same poem from the perspective of dis -course analysis .The main purpose is to learn how to grasp the discourse as a whole ,clarifying the inherent logic in the classical poetry ,the proper use of various cohesive devices to maintain the natural and coherent translation .%衔接和连贯是语篇分析中的两个重要术语。文章主要以前人对语篇分析与翻译的研究为基础，通过对比李白《送友人》的不同译本，从语篇分析的角度对古诗翻译中的衔接与连贯进行分析。同时指出在翻译古诗时，要理清古诗内在的逻辑关系，恰当运用各种语篇衔接手段，使译文保持自然和连贯。
Generalized Grassmannian Coherent States For Pseudo-Hermitian $n$ Level Systems
Najarbashi, G.; Fasihi, M. A.; H. Fakhri
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to generalize fermionic coherent states for two-level systems described by pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian \\cite{Trifonov}, to n-level systems. Central to this task is the expression of the coherent states in terms of generalized Grassmann variables. These kind of Grassmann coherent states satisfy bi-overcompleteness condition instead of over-completeness one, as it is reasonably expected because of the biorthonormality of the system. Choosing an appropriate Grassman...
Cox, David A
2012-01-01
Praise for the First Edition ". . .will certainly fascinate anyone interested in abstract algebra: a remarkable book!"—Monatshefte fur Mathematik Galois theory is one of the most established topics in mathematics, with historical roots that led to the development of many central concepts in modern algebra, including groups and fields. Covering classic applications of the theory, such as solvability by radicals, geometric constructions, and finite fields, Galois Theory, Second Edition delves into novel topics like Abel’s theory of Abelian equations, casus irreducibili, and the Galo
Emergence of non-zonal coherent structures
Bakas, Nikolaos A
2015-01-01
Planetary turbulence is observed to self-organize into large-scale structures such as zonal jets and coherent vortices. One of the simplest models that retains the relevant dynamics of turbulent self-organization is a barotropic flow in a beta-plane channel with turbulence sustained by random stirring. Non-linear integrations of this model show that as the energy input rate of the forcing is increased, the homogeneity of the flow is first broken by the emergence of non-zonal, coherent, westward propagating structures and at larger energy input rates by the emergence of zonal jets. The emergence of both non-zonal coherent structures and zonal jets is studied using a statistical theory, Stochastic Structural Stability Theory (S3T). S3T directly models a second-order approximation to the statistical mean turbulent state and allows the identification of statistical turbulent equilibria and study of their stability. Using S3T, the bifurcation properties of the homogeneous state in barotropic beta-plane turbulence ...
Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1996-12-31
This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Bidirectional coherent classical communication
Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.
2005-01-01
A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...
Interleaved optical coherence tomography.
Lee, Hee Yoon; Sudkamp, Helge; Marvdashti, Tahereh; Ellerbee, Audrey K
2013-11-01
We present a novel and cost-effective technique--interleaved optical coherence tomography (iOCT)--to enhance the imaging speed of swept source OCT systems by acquiring data from multiple lateral positions simultaneously during a single wavelength sweep, using a single detector and a virtually imaged phase array (VIPA) as a multi-band demultiplexer. This technique uses spectral encoding to convert coherence length into higher imaging speed; the speed enhancement factor is independent of the source speed or center wavelength, and the effective A-scan rate scales linearly with sweep speed. The optical configuration requires only a change in the sample arm of a traditional OCT system and preserves the axial resolution and fall-off characteristic of a traditional SS-OCT using the same light source. Using 10 kHz, 20 kHz and 100 kHz sources we provide a first demonstration of image speed enhancement factors of up to 12, 6 and 10, respectively, which yield effective A-scan rates of 120 kHz, 120 kHz and 1 MHz for B-scan imaging, with a sensitivity of up to 82.5 dB. We also show that iOCT can image faster dynamics than traditional OCT B-scan imaging and is capable of 3D biological imaging. The iOCT concept suggests a new route to high-speed OCT imaging for laser developers: that is, by focusing on improving the coherence length and linewidth of existing and emerging sources. Hence, iOCT is a nice complement to ongoing research and commercial efforts to enable faster imaging through development of lasers with faster sweep rates, and offers new hope for existing sources with slow sweep rates and potential for enhancement of coherence length to compete with faster sources to achieve high-speed OCT. PMID:24216876
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litvinenko,V.
2009-05-04
Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.
Korman, Simon; Avidan, Shai
2016-06-01
Coherency Sensitive Hashing (CSH) extends Locality Sensitivity Hashing (LSH) and PatchMatch to quickly find matching patches between two images. LSH relies on hashing, which maps similar patches to the same bin, in order to find matching patches. PatchMatch, on the other hand, relies on the observation that images are coherent, to propagate good matches to their neighbors in the image plane, using random patch assignment to seed the initial matching. CSH relies on hashing to seed the initial patch matching and on image coherence to propagate good matches. In addition, hashing lets it propagate information between patches with similar appearance (i.e., map to the same bin). This way, information is propagated much faster because it can use similarity in appearance space or neighborhood in the image plane. As a result, CSH is at least three to four times faster than PatchMatch and more accurate, especially in textured regions, where reconstruction artifacts are most noticeable to the human eye. We verified CSH on a new, large scale, data set of 133 image pairs and experimented on several extensions, including: k nearest neighbor search, the addition of rotation and matching three dimensional patches in videos. PMID:26372204
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)
1995-10-01
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.
A resistance formula for coherent multi-barrier structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Zhi-Chen; Yang Jian-Hong
2007-01-01
Using the Landauer formula and the quantum S-matrix scattering theory, we derive a resistance formula for multi-barrier structure under phase coherent transmission condition. This formula shows that when the transport is coherent, the potential wells of the structure are just like conductors contributing to the overall resistance. And because the resistance formula is derived based on the scattering theory, the barrier resistance will change with the number of scattering centres (i.e. the number of barriers) in the structure.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Baida; PAN Liuzhan
2004-01-01
Based on the propagation theory of partially coherent light in the space-frequency domain, the anomalous spectral behavior and spectral switches in the far field of partially coherent and polychromatic light diffracted at an aperture are studied. It is shown that, as compared with spatially fully coherent and polychromatic light whose spectral anomalies are induced only by aperture diffraction, the spectral anomalies and spectral switches of partially coherent and polychromatic light depend on the aperture diffraction, spatial correlation βand bandwidth of the original spectrum. Detailed numerical calculations are made to illustrate the behavior of spectral switches of partially coherent and polychromatic light, and the results for spatially fully coherent and polychromatic light are treated as a special case of β=1 and included in our theory.
Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective
Levich, Eugene
2009-07-01
It is claimed that turbulence in fluids is inherently coherent phenomenon. The coherence shows up clearly as strongly correlated helicity fluctuations of opposite sign. The helicity fluctuations have cellular structure forming clusters that are actually observed as vorticity bands and coherent structures in laboratory turbulence, direct numerical simulations and most obviously in atmospheric turbulence. The clusters are named BCC - Beltrami Cellular Clusters - because of the observed nearly total alignment of the velocity and vorticity fields in each particular cell, and hence nearly maximal possible helicity in each cell; although when averaged over all the cells the residual mean helicity in general is small and does not play active dynamical role. The Beltrami like fluctuations are short-lived and stabilize only in small and generally contiguous sub-domains that are tending to a (multi)fractal in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers, Re → ∞. For the model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence the theory predicts the leading fractal dimension of BCC to be: DF = 2.5. This particular BCC is responsible for generating the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law energy spectrum. The most obvious role that BCC play dynamically is that the nonlinear interactions in them are relatively reduced, due to strong spatial alignment between the velocity field v(r, t) and the vorticity field ω(r, t) = curlv(r, t), while the physical quantities typically best characterizing turbulence intermittency, such as entrophy, vorticity stretching and generation, and energy dissipation are maximized in and near them. The theory quantitatively relates the reduction of nonlinear inter-actions to the BCC fractal dimension DF and subsequent turbulence intermittency. It is further asserted that BCC is a fundamental feature of all turbulent flows, e.g., wall bounded turbulent flows, atmospheric and oceanic flows, and their leading fractal dimension remains invariant and universal in these flows
Quantum-coherent mixtures of causal relations
MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Spekkens, Robert W; Resch, Kevin J
2016-01-01
Understanding the causal influences that hold among the parts of a system is critical both to explaining that system's natural behaviour and to controlling it through targeted interventions. In a quantum world, understanding causal relations is equally important, but the set of possibilities is far richer. The two basic ways in which a pair of time-ordered quantum systems may be causally related are by a cause-effect mechanism or by a common cause acting on both. Here, we show that it is possible to have a coherent mixture of these two possibilities. We realize such a nonclassical causal relation in a quantum optics experiment and derive a set of criteria for witnessing the coherence based on a quantum version of Berkson's paradox. The interplay of causality and quantum theory lies at the heart of challenging foundational puzzles, such as Bell's theorem and the search for quantum gravity, but could also provide a resource for novel quantum technologies.
Coherent water transport across the South Atlantic
Wang, Y; Beron-Vera, F J
2015-01-01
The role of mesoscale eddies in transporting Agulhas leakage is investigated using a recent technique from nonlinear dynamical systems theory applied on geostrophic currents inferred from the over two-decade-long satellite altimetry record. Eddies are found to acquire material coherence away from the Agulhas retroflection, near the Walvis Ridge in the South Atlantic. Yearly, 1 to 4 coherent material eddies are detected with diameters ranging from 40 to 280 km. A total of 23 eddy cores of about 50 km in diameter and with at least 30% of their contents traceable into the Indian Ocean were found to travel across the subtropical gyre with minor filamentation. No more than 5\\% of such cores pour their contents on the North Brazil Current. While ability of eddies to carry Agulhas leakage northwestward across the South Atlantic is supported by our analysis, this is more restricted than suggested by earlier ring transport assessments.
Entanglement and coherence in quantum state merging
Streltsov, A; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-01-01
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging where two parties aim to merge their parts of a tripartite quantum state. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered as an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process, and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S. Salimi; A. Mohammadzadet
2011-01-01
Pair coherent state, is a state of a two-mode radiation field that is known as a state with non-gaussian wave function. In this paper, study on the pair coherent state, we notice that with superposition of two first terms of this states, one two-qubits formed. Because of the importance of two-qubits in theory of quantum entanglement, with two different measures with the title of concurrence and D-concurrence, we have studied the amount of entanglement and discussed its details. At the end, we describe these measures for pair coherent states as a function of the amplitude of the SU（2） coherent states.
Amplitude-Nth-power squeezing of PB phase coherent states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马志民; 马爱群; 陈国恒; 刘树田; 冯立峰
2004-01-01
PB Phase Coherent States are very important quantum states in quantum optics. In order to investigate the amplitude- Nth -power squeezing of PB Phase Coherent States, we introduce the algebraic properties of the PB phase operator and the PB Phase Coherent States which are constructed by PB phase theory. We applied amplitude- Nth -power squeezing theory to define the Amplitude- Nth -Power Squeezing of PB Phase Coherent States and investigate the characteristic of the amplitude- Nth -power squeezing of PB Phase Coherent States.Phase Coherent State), the results show that when Z is a real number there only exists amplitude- Nth -power squeezing of X component; when Z is a complex number, there exists amplitude- Nth -power squeezing ofX component and Y component; when Z is a pure imaginary number, if N is odd, then there does not exist amplitudeNth -power squeezing of X component, but there exists amplitude- Nth -power squeezing of Ycomponent and ifN is even, then there exists amplitude-Nth -power squeezing of X component, but there does not exist amplitudeNth -power squeezing of Y component.
Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.
Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P
2016-01-01
We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009
Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.
Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P
2016-08-25
We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐旭宇; 李小波; 梁浩; 牛朝阳; 董杰
2014-01-01
A new central angle estimation method of the coherently distributed sources for bistatic MIMO radar is proposed based on second virtual array aperture extension. Firstly, the bistatic MIMO radar data model for the coherently distributed sources with the identical deterministic angular distribution function and distribution parameter is built based on nonuniform array. The second virtual array aperture extension is also realized by the colocated difference arrays of the minimum redundancy arrays. Furthermore, the new correlation matrix is obtained via transformal, eliminating redundant and changeable dimensional matrix. Finally, the central angles of DODs and DOAs are estimated without pairing algorithm by the idea of ESPRIT. Because of the second virtual array aperture extension, the proposed method provides much more parameter identifiability and better parameter estimation performance than the conventional bistatic MIMO radar. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified with the computer simulation.%该文提出了基于二次虚拟孔径扩展的双基地MIMO雷达相干分布式目标中心角度估计算法。首先构造了基于非均匀阵列的具有相同确定性角信号分布函数和分布参数的相干分布式目标的双基地MIMO雷达信号模型，再利用基于最小冗余的差分共置阵列思想，实现了阵元二次虚拟扩展；然后通过构造置换、去冗余和换维矩阵，得到了新的协方差矩阵；最后利用 ESPRIT 算法思想，估计出相干分布式目标的发射、接收中心角，并且实现了角度参数的自动配对。由于该文算法实现了阵元二次虚拟扩展，因此相比于传统MIMO雷达能识别更多的目标，具有更高的估计精度。实验仿真结果证明了该文算法的有效性。
Liu, J. T. C.
The physical problem of large-scale coherent structures in real, developing free turbulent shear flows are discussed from the point of view of a broader interpretation of the nonlinear aspects of hydrodynamic stability. Variations on the Amsden and Harlow problem are considered, and the role of linear theory in nonlinear problems is addressed. Spatially developing two-dimensional coherent structures and three-dimensional nonlinear effects in large-scale coherent mode interactions are considered.
Holographic microscopy in low coherence
Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel
2016-03-01
Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.
On the coherent behavior of pancreatic beta cell clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loppini, Alessandro, E-mail: a.loppini@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Capolupo, Antonio, E-mail: capolupo@sa.infn.it [Physics Department, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 (Italy); Cherubini, Christian, E-mail: c.cherubini@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128, Rome (Italy); Gizzi, Alessio, E-mail: a.gizzi@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Bertolaso, Marta, E-mail: m.bertolaso@unicampus.it [Faculty of Engineering and Institute of Philosophy of Scientific and Technological Practice, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); Filippi, Simonetta, E-mail: s.filippi@unicampus.it [Nonlinear Physics and Mathematical Modeling Lab, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128 Rome (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, University Campus Bio-Medico, Via A. del Portillo 21, I-00128, Rome (Italy); Vitiello, Giuseppe, E-mail: vitiello@sa.infn.it [Physics Department, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 (Italy)
2014-09-12
Beta cells in pancreas represent an example of coupled biological oscillators which via communication pathways, are able to synchronize their electrical activity, giving rise to pulsatile insulin release. In this work we numerically analyze scale free self-similarity features of membrane voltage signal power density spectrum, through a stochastic dynamical model for beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fine tuned on mouse experimental data. Adopting the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism, we show how coherent molecular domains can arise from proper functional conditions leading to a parallelism with “phase transition” phenomena of field theory. - Highlights: • Beta cells in pancreas are coupled oscillators able to synchronize their activity. • We analyze scale free self-similarity features for beta cells. • We adopt the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism. • We show that coherent molecular domains arise from functional conditions.
On the coherent behavior of pancreatic beta cell clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beta cells in pancreas represent an example of coupled biological oscillators which via communication pathways, are able to synchronize their electrical activity, giving rise to pulsatile insulin release. In this work we numerically analyze scale free self-similarity features of membrane voltage signal power density spectrum, through a stochastic dynamical model for beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fine tuned on mouse experimental data. Adopting the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism, we show how coherent molecular domains can arise from proper functional conditions leading to a parallelism with “phase transition” phenomena of field theory. - Highlights: • Beta cells in pancreas are coupled oscillators able to synchronize their activity. • We analyze scale free self-similarity features for beta cells. • We adopt the algebraic approach of coherent state formalism. • We show that coherent molecular domains arise from functional conditions
Propagation of some coherent and partially coherent laser beams
Cai, Yangjian
2006-01-01
In this thesis, we investigate the propagation of some coherent and partially coherent laser beams, including a dark hollow beam (DHB), an elliptical Gaussian beam (EGB), a flat-topped beam and a twisted anisotropic Gaussian Schell-model (TAGSM) beam, through a paraxial optical system or a turbulent atmosphere. Several theoretical models are proposed to describe a DHB of circular or non-circular symmetry. Approximate analytical formulas for a DHB and a partially coherent TAGSM beam propagatin...
On deformations and quantization in topological string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The study of moduli spaces of N=(2,2) superconformal field theories and more generally of N=(2,2) supersymmetric quantum field theories, has been a longstanding, multifaceted area of research. In this thesis we focus on certain selected general aspects of this study and develop general techniques within the framework of topological string theory. This work is naturally divided into two parts. The first is concerned with aspects of closed topological string theory, and culminates with a theory, where the geometrical structure of the topological anti-topological moduli spaces of N=(2,2) superconformal field theories with central charge c=9 is rediscovered in the light of quantization, within a general framework. The second part is concerned with aspects of the study of the open and closed moduli space of topological conformal field theories at genus zero. In particular, it contains an exposition of a paper, where general results on the classification and computation of bulk-induced deformations of open topological conformal field theories were obtained from a coherent algebraic approach, drawing from the defining L∞ and A∞ structures involved. In part, the latter investigation is restricted to arbitrary affine B-twisted Landau Ginzburg models. Subsequently, further original work is presented that completes the topological string field theory structure of B-twisted Landau Ginzburg models.
Topological Properties of Spatial Coherence Function
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao; DUAN Yi-Shi
2008-01-01
The topological properties of the spatial coherence function are investigated rigorously.The phase singular structures(coherence vortices)of coherence function can be naturally deduced from the topological current,which is an abstract mathematical object studied previously.We find that coherence vortices are characterized by the Hopf index and Brouwer degree in topology.The coherence flux quantization and the linking of the closed coherence vortices are also studied from the topological properties of the spatial coherence function.
Wigner time delay and related concepts: Application to transport in coherent conductors
Texier, Christophe
2016-08-01
The concepts of Wigner time delay and Wigner-Smith matrix allow us to characterise temporal aspects of a quantum scattering process. The paper reviews the statistical properties of the Wigner time delay for disordered systems; the case of disorder in 1D with a chiral symmetry is discussed and the relation with exponential functionals of the Brownian motion is underlined. Another approach for the analysis of time delay statistics is the random matrix approach, from which we review few results. As a practical illustration, we briefly outline a theory of non-linear transport and AC transport developed by Büttiker and coworkers, where the concept of Wigner-Smith time delay matrix is a central piece allowing us to describe screening properties in out-of-equilibrium coherent conductors.
Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew D Sacchet
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.
Objective Eulerian coherent structures
Serra, Mattia; Haller, George
2016-05-01
We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as the instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic, and parabolic OECSs. As an illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.
Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures
Serra, M
2015-01-01
We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic OECSs. As illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.
Diffraction coherence in optics
Françon, M; Green, L L
2013-01-01
Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th
Coherent white light amplification
Jovanovic, Igor; Barty, Christopher P.
2004-05-25
A system for coherent simultaneous amplification of a broad spectral range of light that includes an optical parametric amplifier and a source of a seed pulse is described. A first angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the source of a seed pulse. A first imaging telescope is operatively connected to the first angular dispersive element and operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A source of a pump pulse is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A second imaging telescope is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier and a second angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the second imaging telescope.
Coherent dynamics in semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1998-01-01
enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...
Brignon, Arnaud
2013-01-01
Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme
Generalized Grassmannian Coherent States For Pseudo-Hermitian $n$ Level Systems
Fakhri, G Najarbashi' M A Fasihi' H
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to generalize fermionic coherent states for two-level systems described by pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian \\cite{Trifonov}, to n-level systems. Central to this task is the expression of the coherent states in terms of generalized Grassmann variables. These kind of Grassmann coherent states satisfy bi-overcompleteness condition instead of over-completeness one, as it is reasonably expected because of the biorthonormality of the system. Choosing an appropriate Grassmann weight function resolution of identity is examined. Moreover Grassmannian coherent and squeezed states of deformed group $SU_{q}(2)$ for three level pseudo-Hermitian system are presented.
Quantum correlation via quantum coherence
Yu, Chang-shui; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Haiqing
2014-01-01
Quantum correlation includes quantum entanglement and quantum discord. Both entanglement and discord have a common necessary condition--------quantum coherence or quantum superposition. In this paper, we attempt to give an alternative understanding of how quantum correlation is related to quantum coherence. We divide the coherence of a quantum state into several classes and find the complete coincidence between geometric (symmetric and asymmetric) quantum discords and some particular classes ...
Review of Entangled Coherent States
Sanders, Barry C
2011-01-01
We review entangled coherent state research since its first implicit use in 1967 to the present. Entangled coherent states are important to quantum superselection principles, quantum information processing, quantum optics, and mathematical physics. Despite their inherent fragility they have produced in a conditional propagating-wave quantum optics realization. Fundamentally the states are intriguing because they are entanglements of the coherent states, which are in a sense the most classical of all states of a dynamical system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria da Conceição Samu Pezzi
2010-06-01
managerial practice in CME, describe its process, and construct a theoretical model about human resources management. Study of qualitative nature, whose participants were nurses of three public hospitals of the Rio de Janeiro. We utilized as referential the Symbolic Interaction and the Grounded Theory. Based on the collected data and realities of each CME are found five categories, beyond the central phenomenon. Process of nurses´ basic actuation is attached to the experience in the personal knowledge, work process knowledge and science of its realities.
Relations Between Characteristic Function, Positive P-Representation and Coherent Thermal State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; XU Xing-Lei
2007-01-01
We employ the coherent thermal states (a kind of entangled states) in thermal field dynamics to establish a complete entangled state formalism expressing pseudo-classical representations of density operator for light field.Especially, the relationship between the coherent thermal state and the characteristic function and the positive P representation in quantum optics theory are obtained.
On Nonlinear Bosonic Coherent States
Genovese, Marco; Rasetti, Mario
2009-01-01
Nonlinear coherent states are an interesting resource for quantum technologies. Here we investigate some critical features of the single-boson nonlinear coherent states, which are theoretically constructed as eigenstates of the annihilation operator and experimentally realized as stationary states of a trapped laser-driven ion. We show that the coherence and the minimum-uncertainty properties of such states are broken for values of the Lamb-Dicke parameter corresponding to the roots of the Laguerre polynomials, which enter their explicit expression. The case of the multiboson nonlinear coherent states is also discussed.
Coherence in monoidal track categories
Guiraud, Yves
2010-01-01
We introduce homotopical methods based on rewriting on higher-dimensional categories to prove coherence results in categories with an algebraic structure. We express the coherence problem for (symmetric) monoidal categories as an asphericity problem for a track category and use rewriting methods on polygraphs to solve it. The setting is generalized to more general coherence problems, seen as 3-dimensional word problems in a track category. We prove general results that, in the case of braided monoidal categories, yield the coherence theorem for braided monoidal categories.
Chadzitaskos, G; Tolar, J
2011-01-01
We present a possible construction of coherent states on the unit circle as configuration space. In our approach the phase space is the product Z x S^1. Because of the duality of canonical coordinates and momenta, i.e. the angular variable and the integers, this formulation can also be interpreted as coherent states over an infinite periodic chain. For the construction we use the analogy with our quantization over a finite periodic chain where the phase space was Z_M x Z_M. Properties of the coherent states constructed in this way are studied and the coherent states are shown to satisfy the resolution of unity.
Aflatouni, Firooz; Abiri, Behrooz; Rekhi, Angad; Hajimiri, Ali
2015-02-23
An integrated silicon nanophotonic coherent imager (NCI), with a 4 × 4 array of coherent pixels is reported. In the proposed NCI, on-chip optical processing determines the intensity and depth of each point on the imaged object based on the instantaneous phase and amplitude of the optical wave incident on each pixel. The NCI operates based on a modified time-domain frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) ranging scheme, where concurrent time-domain measurements of both period and the zero-crossing time of each electrical output of the nanophotonic chip allows the NCI to overcome the traditional resolution limits of frequency domain detection. The detection of both intensity and relative delay enables applications such as high-resolution 3D reflective and transmissive imaging as well as index contrast imaging. We demonstrate 3D imaging with 15μm depth resolution and 50μm lateral resolution (limited by the pixel spacing) at up to 0.5-meter range. The reported NCI is also capable of detecting a 1% equivalent refractive index contrast at 1mm thickness. PMID:25836545
Laser pulses for coherent xuv Raman excitation
Greenman, Loren; Whaley, K Birgitta
2014-01-01
We combine multi-channel electronic structure theory with quantum optimal control to derive Raman pulse sequences that coherently populate a valence excited state. For a neon atom, Raman target populations of up to 13% are obtained. Superpositions of the ground and valence Raman states with a controllable relative phase are found to be reachable with up to 4.5% population and phase control facilitated by the pump pulse carrier envelope phase. Our results open a route to creating core-hole excitations in molecules and aggregates that locally address specific atoms and represent the first step towards realization of multidimensional spectroscopy in the xuv and x-ray regimes.
Discourse Coherence:Receiver’s Context Selection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董淑新
2012-01-01
Discourse is a kind of ostensive-inferential communication. Discourse as a communication always occurs in certain context which helps us interpret an utterance. Obviously, context or contextual assumptions play a crucial role in answering these questions. Therefore, the crucial point to solve the problem of discourse coherence is how to select the contexts. Con⁃text selection is not random but limited by the language users’cognitive environment. According to Relevance Theory, con⁃text selection is achieved through seeking for relevance.
The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new
He, Xi; Wu, Fengtie; Chen, Ziyang; Pu, Jixiong; Chavez-Cerda, Sabino
2016-05-01
The transverse focusing properties at the ‘pseudo-focal’ plane of coherent Bessel beams with angular momentum are analyzed in detail. The transverse magnification of the central dark region of Bessel beams at this pseudo-focal plane is derived for the first time by calculating the ratio of the magnitude of the transverse components of the corresponding wave vectors before and after the focusing lens. We test our results experimentally with coherent laser Bessel beams and excellent agreement is observed. Then, an LED light source is used to generate Bessel beams. By modifying the coherence of the LED light source, we observe that by reducing coherence a smaller and shallower central dark region of Bessel beams with angular momentum is produced at the pseudo-focal plane. This technique can be used as a method to characterize the degree of coherence of vortex beams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transverse focusing properties at the ‘pseudo-focal’ plane of coherent Bessel beams with angular momentum are analyzed in detail. The transverse magnification of the central dark region of Bessel beams at this pseudo-focal plane is derived for the first time by calculating the ratio of the magnitude of the transverse components of the corresponding wave vectors before and after the focusing lens. We test our results experimentally with coherent laser Bessel beams and excellent agreement is observed. Then, an LED light source is used to generate Bessel beams. By modifying the coherence of the LED light source, we observe that by reducing coherence a smaller and shallower central dark region of Bessel beams with angular momentum is produced at the pseudo-focal plane. This technique can be used as a method to characterize the degree of coherence of vortex beams. (paper)
Highly coherent modeless broadband semiconductor laser.
Sellahi, M; Myara, M; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Garnache, A
2015-09-15
We report on the highly coherent modeless broadband continuous wave operation of a semiconductor vertical-external-cavity-surface-emitting laser. The laser design is based on a frequency-shifted-feedback scheme provided by an acousto-optic frequency shifter inserted in a linear or a ring traveling wave cavity. The gain mirror is a GaAs-based multiple quantum well structure providing large gain at 1.07 μm. This laser exhibits a coherent optical spectrum over 1.27 nm (330 GHz) bandwidth, with 70 mW output power and a high beam quality. The light polarization is linear (>30 dB extinction ratio). The laser dynamics exhibits a low intensity noise close to class A regime, with a ∼1.5 MHz cutoff frequency. The frequency noise spectral density shows a first-order low-pass like shape (130 kHz cutoff) leading to a Gaussian shape for homodyne interferometric signals. The measured beat width is ≃54 kHz and the coherence time of ∼19 μs. No nonlinear effects are observed, showing dynamics very close to theory. PMID:26371921
A Cohesive and Coherent Analysis of The Purloined Letter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜娟娟; 郭鸿雁
2013-01-01
The thesis aims to do a research on the cohesion and coherence in The Purloined Letter written by Edgar Allan Poe based on the theories of Halliday and Hasan as well as the Chinese scholars Zhang Delu and Liu Rushan. By the means of them, Poe’s ingenious composition and vivid characters emerge in the mind of the readers.
Stochastic modeling of coherent wave fields over variable depth
Smit, P.B.; Janssen, T.T.; Herbers, T.H.C.
2015-01-01
Refractive focusing of swell waves can result in fast-scale variations in the wave statistics because of wave interference, which cannot be resolved by stochastic wave models based on the radiative transport equation. Quasi-coherent statistical theory does account for such statistical interferences
Coherent backscattering of light by resonant atomic dipole transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study coherent backscattering (CBS) of resonant light by cold atomic vapors, both experimentally and theoretically. The theory predicts a drastic reduction of the CBS enhancement factor when a degenerate internal structure is present in the ground state. We test this prediction in experiments using different atoms and various transitions
Robustness of a coherence vortex.
Alves, Cleberson R; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J; Fonseca, Eduardo J S
2016-09-20
We study, experimentally and theoretically, the behavior of a coherence vortex after its transmission through obstacles. Notably, we find that such a vortex survives and preserves its effective topological charge. Despite suffering changes on the modulus of the coherence function, these changes disappear during propagation.
Dynamics of generalized coherent states
De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; De Martino, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F
1995-01-01
We show that generalized coherent states follow Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics in time-dependent potentials. The normalized wave-packets follow a classical evolution without spreading; in turn, the Schr\\"{o}dinger potential depends on the state through the classical trajectory. This feedback mechanism with continuous dynamical re-adjustement allows the packets to remain coherent indefinetely.
Dymanics of Generalized Coherent States
Martino, S; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.
1995-01-01
We show that generalized coherent states follow Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics in time-dependent potentials. The normalized wave-packets follow a classical evolution without spreading; in turn, the Schr\\"{o}dinger potential depends on the state through the classical trajectory. This feedback mechanism with continuous dynamical re-adjustement allows the packets to remain coherent indefinetely.
OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN JUVENILE NEURONAL CEROID LIPOFUSCINOSIS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael S; Hove, Marianne Nørgaard; Jensen, Hanne;
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: To report optical coherence tomography findings obtained in two patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. METHODS: Two case reports. RESULTS: Two 7-year-old girls presented with decreased visual acuity, clumsiness, night blindness, and behavioral problems. Optical coherence...... tomography showed an overall reduction in thickness of the central retina, as well as the outer and the inner retinal layers. The degenerative retinal changes were the same, despite different mutations in the CLN3 gene. CONCLUSION: In these rare cases of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, optical...
Coherent imaging without phases
Moscoso, Miguel; Papanicolaou, George
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider narrow band, active array imaging of weak localized scatterers when only the intensities are recorded at an array with N transducers. We consider that the medium is homogeneous and, hence, wave propagation is fully coherent. This work is an extension of our previous paper, where we showed that using linear combinations of intensity-only measurements imaging of localized scatterers can be carried out efficiently using MUSIC or sparsity promoting optimization. Here we show the same strategy can be accomplished with only 3N-2 illuminations, therefore reducing enormously the data acquisition process. Furthermore, we show that in the paraxial regime one can form the images by using six illuminations only. In particular, this paraxial regime includes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. The key point of this work is that if one controls the illuminations, imaging with intensity-only can be easily reduced to a imaging with phases and, therefore, one can apply standard imaging techniques. Det...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;
2016-01-01
Background During the past decade, politicians and healthcare providers have strived to create a coherent healthcare system across primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care...... to an acute care ward to discharge and later in meetings with healthcare providers in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations were conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Research design An explorative design based...... on an interactionistic approach was used. As a consequence, the focus of data collection is the production of meaning happening between human beings in social interaction in the field of cross-sectorial collaboration. Research questions The research questions reflect the interactionistic approach as they concentrate...
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements
Ur Rehman, Mahboob
In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.
S. Kern
2005-01-01
textabstractThe preceding analysis investigated private interest groups’ behaviour towards monetary policy makers and central banks, exploring the extent to which they seek to influence monetary policy and their motivations for doing so or not. Where evidence of interest group activity with respe
Ultrabroadband coherent supercontinuum frequency comb
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruehl, Axel; McKay, Hugh; Thomas, Brian; Dong, Liang; Fermann, Martin E.; Hartl, Ingmar [IMRA America Inc., 1044 Woodridge Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States); Martin, Michael J.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Chen Lisheng; Benko, Craig; Ye Jun [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Department of Physics, 440 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dudley, John M. [Institute FEMTO-ST, CNRS-University of Franche-Comte UMR 6174, Besancon (France)
2011-07-15
We present detailed studies of the coherence properties of an ultrabroadband supercontinuum, enabled by a comprehensive approach involving continuous-wave laser sources to independently probe both the amplitude and phase noise quadratures across the entire spectrum. The continuum coherently spans more than 1.5 octaves, supporting Hz-level comparison of ultrastable lasers at 698 nm and 1.54 {mu}m. We present a complete numerical simulation of the accumulated comb coherence in the limit of many pulses, in contrast to the single-pulse level, with systematic experimental verification. The experiment and numerical simulations reveal the presence of quantum-seeded broadband amplitude noise without phase coherence degradation, including the discovery of a dependence of the supercontinuum coherence on the fiber fractional Raman gain.
Bennis, Driss
2010-01-01
This paper unifies several generalizations of coherent rings in one notion. Namely, we introduce $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings, where $\\mathscr{X}$ is a class of modules and $n$ is a positive integer, as those rings for which the subclass $\\mathscr{X}_n$ of $n$-presented modules of $\\mathscr{X}$ is not empty, and every module in $\\mathscr{X}_n$ is $n+1$-presented. Then, for each particular class $\\mathscr{X}$ of modules, we find correspondent relative coherent rings. Our main aim is to show that the well-known Chase's, Cheatham and Stone's, Enochs', and Stenstrom's characterizations of coherent rings hold true for any $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings.
Experimental evidence of coherent transport.
Flores-Olmedo, E; Martínez-Argüello, A M; Martínez-Mares, M; Báez, G; Franco-Villafañe, J A; Méndez-Sánchez, R A
2016-01-01
Coherent transport phenomena are difficult to observe due to several sources of decoherence. For instance, in the electronic transport through quantum devices the thermal smearing and dephasing, the latter induced by inelastic scattering by phonons or impurities, destroy phase coherence. In other wave systems, the temperature and dephasing may not destroy the coherence and can then be used to observe the underlying wave behaviour of the coherent phenomena. Here, we observe coherent transmission of mechanical waves through a two-dimensional elastic Sinai billiard with two waveguides. The flexural-wave transmission, performed by non-contact means, shows the quantization when a new mode becomes open. These measurements agree with the theoretical predictions of the simplest model highlighting the universal character of the transmission fluctuations. PMID:27121226
Integrated coherent matter wave circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry
Origin of long-lived coherence and excitation dynamics in pigment-protein complexes
Zhang, Zhedong
2015-01-01
We uncover the mechanism of long-lived coherence that the discrete vibrational modes effectively weaken the exciton-environment interaction. This subsequently demonstrates the role of vibrational coherence which greatly contributes to long-lived feature of the excitonic coherence that has been observed in femtosecond experiments. To test the validity of our effective theory, we study the pigment-protein complex in details by exploring the energy transfer and coherence dynamics. The ground-state coherence generated by incoherent radiations is demonstrated to be significant to promote the excitation energy transfer. This on the other hand, seems to be natural from the point of view of nonequilibriumness, which funnels the downhill immigration of excitons. Moreover we also confirm that the considerable improvement of energy transfer is always accompanied by the long-lived oscillation of coherence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graphical abstract: Temporal behaviors due to quantum mechanical interferences between the nonadiabatically coupled quasi-degenerate excited states (b and c) after a coherent excitation. Highlights: ► A nonadiabatic theory of quasi-degenerate π-electronic states in aromatic molecules. ► Quantum interferences between the nonadiabatically-coupled π-electronic states. ► Analysis of time-dependent vibrational coherence transfer via nonadiabatic couplings. - Abstract: Results of a theoretical study of ultrafast coherent dynamics of nonadiabatically coupled quasi-degenerate π-electronic excited states of molecules were presented. Analytical expressions for temporal behaviors of population and vibrational coherence were derived using a simplified model to clarify the quantum mechanical interferences between the two coherently excited electronic states, which appeared in the nuclear wavepacket simulations [M. Kanno, H. Kono, Y. Fujimura, S.H. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett 104 (2010) 108302]. The photon-polarization direction of the linearly polarized laser, which controls the populations of the two quasi-degenerate electronic states, determines constructive or destructive interference. Features of the vibrational coherence transfer between the two coupled quasi-electronic states through nonadiabatic couplings are also presented. Information on both the transition frequency and nonadiabatic coupling matrix element between the two states can be obtained by analyzing signals of two kinds of quantum beats before and after transfer through nonadiabatic coupling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim was to give advanced students of philosophy with interest for physics an actual and solid introduction to the quantum theory. Simultaneously the book confronts also physicists with the philosophical questions of their field. After clearance of the foundations the second chapters introduces to the minimal interpretation and the ''Copenhagen interpretation''. In the third chapter many-particle systems are introduced and their pecularities discussed. The fourth chapter deals with the theme-circle ''entangled states'' and ''nonlocality''. In the first parter of the fifth chapter the De-Broglie-Bohm theory and in the second part the many-world interpretation of the quantum theory are presented. In the sixth chapter the bow is spanned to (relativistic) quantum field theories. Finally the seventh chapter rounds the book off in the framework of a small chronology of important development steps in physical-mathematical as also interpretatorical view.
Gurr, Henry
2014-03-01
Princeton Physicist J. J. Hopfield's Mathematical Model of the Mammalian Brain, (Similar To Ising Glass Model of a crystal of magnetic spin particles) says our Brain-Work for Memory, Perception, Language, Thinking, etc, (Even the AHA-EUREKA-Flash Of Insight Type Problem Solving), is achieved by our massively inter-connected CNS Neurons ... working together ... MINIMIZING an analog of physical energy ... thus yielding Optimal Solutions: These ``best'' answers, correspond to highest mental coherence, for most facets organism response, beit mental (eg: perception, memory, ideas, thinking, etc) or physical-muscular-actions (eg speaking, tool using, trail following, etc). Our brain is this way, because living creature, MUST be evolved, so they will find & use the best actions, for survival!!! Our human heritage, is to instantly compute near optimal future plans, (mental & physical-muscular), and be able to accomplish plans reliably & efficiently. If you know of book or articles in these topic areas, please email to HenryG--USCA.edu How to work well, with your own ``self'', called mind-body, will follow!! Conjectures: Who is the ``I'' that appears to make decisions? Am ``I'' the master of my domain? Is there an ``I'' or am ``I'' merely an illusion of reality.
Two-pion interferometry for a partially coherent evolution source
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jian-Wei; YU Li-Li; ZHANG Wei-Ning
2008-01-01
We give the formulas of two-pion Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlation function for a partially coherent evolution pion-emitting source,using quantum probability amplitudes in a path-integral formalism.The multiple scattering of the particles in the source is taken into consideration based on Glauber scattering theory.Two-pion interferometry with effects of the multiple scattering and source collective expansion is examined for a partially coherent source of hadronic gas with a finite baryon density and evolving hydrodynamically.We do not find observable effect of either the multiple scattering or the source collective expansion on HBT chaotic parameter.
Coherent quantum trasport in ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet graphene junctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Salehi
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the coherent quantum transport in grapheme-based ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagent junctions within the framework of BCS theory using DBdG quasiparticles equation .The coherency with the finite size of superconductor region has two characteristic features subgap electron transport and oscillations of differential conductance. we show that periodic vanishing of the Andreev reflection at the energies called geometrical resonances above the superconducting gap is a striking consequence of quasiparticles interference. We suggest to make devices that produce polarized spin-current with possible applications in spintronics.
Coherence Properties of the LCLS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ocko, Samuel
2010-08-25
The LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an X-Ray free-electron laser(FEL) based on the self amplified spontaneous emission principle, has recently come on-line. For many users it is desirable to have an idea of the level of transverse coherence of the X-Ray beam produced. In this paper, we analyze the output of GENESIS simulations of electrons traveling through the FEL. We first test the validity of an approach that ignores the details of how the beam was produced, and instead, by assuming a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, predicts the level of transverse coherence simply through looking at the beam radius at several longitudinal slices. We then develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to calculating the degree of transverse coherence, which offers a {approx}100-fold speedup compared to the brute-force algorithm previously in use. We find the beam highly coherent. Using a similar Markov chain Monte Carlo approach, we estimate the reasonability of assuming the beam to have a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, with inconclusive results.
Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.
Walker, Gavin
2012-01-01
[[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.
International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc' h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B
2005-07-01
The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters.
International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters
Optical coherent control in semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2001-01-01
The developments with coherent control (CC) techniques in optical spectroscopy have recently demonstrated population control and coherence manipulations when the induced optical phase is explored with phase-locked laser pulses. These and other developments have been guiding the new research field...... of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase-locked...
Second harmonic optical coherence tomography
Jiang, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, Z; Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping
2004-01-01
Second harmonic optical coherence tomography, which uses coherence gating of second-order nonlinear optical response of biological tissues for imaging, is described and demonstrated. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to excite second harmonic waves from collagen harvested from rat tail tendon and a reference nonlinear crystal. Second harmonic interference fringe signals were detected and used for image construction. Because of the strong dependence of second harmonic generation on molecular and tissue structures, this technique offers contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography.
Nel, Louis
2016-01-01
This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔振宇; 王铁
2014-01-01
本文以中心地理论为基础，建立了山东省城市旅游中心性的评价指标体系。使用因子分析法与加权求和法，确定了山东省三级旅游中心地体系，即青岛、济南为一级旅游中心地，烟台、威海、日照、泰安、济宁、临沂、潍坊为二级旅游中心地，淄博、莱芜、东营、滨州、德州、聊城、菏泽、枣庄为三级旅游中心地。在此基础上，结合空间位置、交通连接等要素，本研究将山东省划分为以两个一级旅游中心地为辐射源的旅游区，又在以济南为辐射源的旅游区内划分出三个次级旅游区，并提出了山东省旅游空间结构的优化和提升建议。%Based on the central place theory, an index system used to evaluate central tourism ability of Shan-dong Province was constructed. Using factor analysis and the weighted summation method, three grades of Shandong Province tourism central places were established as follow:Qingdao and Jinan are Grade A toursim central places;Yantai,Weihai,Rizhao,Taian,Jining,Linyi and Weifang are Grade B tourism central places;Zi-bo,Binzhou,Dongying, Dezhou, Liaocheng, Heze, Laiwu and Zaozhuang are Grade C tourism central places. Based on the above research combined with spatial location, tourism resources,transportation links and other factors,this paper divided Shandong Province into two tourism areas which were radiated by the two Grade A tourism central places. And three secondary toursim areas were divided from the tourism area radiated by Jinan. And then some suggestions were put forward.
Transient quantum coherent response to a partially coherent radiation field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeq, Zaheen S.; Brumer, Paul, E-mail: pbrumer@chem.utoronto.ca [Department of Chemistry and Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, Chemical Physics Theory Group, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2014-02-21
The response of an arbitrary closed quantum system to a partially coherent electric field is investigated, with a focus on the transient coherences in the system. As a model we examine, both perturbatively and numerically, the coherences induced in a three level V system. Both rapid turn-on and pulsed turn-on effects are investigated. The effect of a long and incoherent pulse is also considered, demonstrating that during the pulse the system shows a coherent response which reduces after the pulse is over. Both the pulsed scenario and the thermally broadened CW case approach a mixed state in the long time limit, with rates dictated by the adjacent level spacings and the coherence time of the light, and via a mechanism that is distinctly different from traditional decoherence. These two excitation scenarios are also explored for a minimal “toy” model of the electronic levels in pigment protein complex PC645 by both a collisionally broadened CW laser and by a noisy pulse, where unexpectedly long transient coherence times are observed and explained. The significance of environmentally induced decoherence is noted.
[Optical coherence tomography].
von Braunmühl, T
2015-07-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced in the 1990s in dermatology and is nowadays established as a noninvasive high-resolution technique for the in vivo evaluation of the skin. To date several studies have been successfully demonstrated the application of OCT for various dermatological questions. The main indication for OCT in the daily practice is the noninvasive diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer such as actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. OCT has also been shown to be a valuable tool in treatment monitoring and evaluation of therapeutic success of noninvasive treatment strategies like topical immune modulators or photodynamic treatment. Other potential applications for OCT include inflammatory diseases, microbial or parasitic infestations of the skin, e.g. scabies mites or onychomycosis. In recent years high-definition OCT devices have been developed that can potentially be used for the evaluation of melanocytic lesions and, due to the higher resolution, for the visualization of intrafollicular demodex mites. Furthermore different commercially available devices offer-in addition to the cross-sectional images-a fast-generated horizontal (en face) imaging mode. With respect to resolution and penetration depth the OCT technique is taking a middle position in comparison to other noninvasive imaging devices in dermatology such as sonography and reflectance confocal microscopy. PMID:25809459
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
洪明; 徐艳霞
2015-01-01
语篇局部注意焦点保持与更新及其指称形式的选择是影响语篇局部连贯性的两个重要方面。本文运用基于向心理论的四项原则分析法，对中国高校英语专业四级、八级考试的作文语料进行对比分析，从局部注意焦点及其指称形式等两个方面分析不同年级作文的局部连贯特征差异，从而分析不同年级学生局部连贯能力的发展性特征。研究发现，随着整体语言能力的提升，学生的局部注意焦点的保持能力有所增长，并且正确运用代词和定冠词的能力也随之提高。%Retaining or shifting of the local focus of attention in a discourse and its choice of referring ex-pressions are two important factors which may affect the local coherence in that discourse .By making a com-parative analysis of the two factors mentioned above between TEM 4 and TEM8 compositions of Chinese univer-sity English majors and by applying Four Principle Model based on Centering Theory , the study tends to ex-plore differences in local coherence features between the compositions at different levels , which helps find out the developmental features of students ’ ability in achieving local coherence .Results show that as students ’ language proficiency improves , their ability of retaining the local focus of attention develops , and their ability of using properly pronouns and definite articles improves as well .
Pairing versus quarteting coherence length
Delion, Doru S
2015-01-01
We systematically analyse the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have in all considered cases a long range character inside the nucleus and decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are evidenced, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar...
Studies in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Washington University is currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: strong-coupling approximation; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; lattice gauge calculations; the nature of perturbation theory in large orders; quark condensation in QCD; chiral symmetry breaking; the l/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including QCD
Dyadic analysis of partially coherent submillimeter-wave antenna systems
Withington, S.; Yassin, G.; Murphy, J. A.
2001-08-01
We describe a procedure for simulating the behavior of partially coherent submillimeter-wave antenna systems. The procedure is based on the principle that the second-order statistical properties of any partially coherent vector field can be decomposed into a sum of fully coherent, but completely uncorrelated, natural modes. Any of the standard electromagnetic analysis techniques-physical optics, geometrical theory of diffraction, etc.-can be used to propagate and scatter the modes individually, and the statistical properties of the total transformed field reconstructed at the output surface by means of superposition. In the case of modal optics-plane waves, Gaussian optics, waveguide mode matching, etc.-the properties of the field can be traced directly by means of scattering matrices. The overall procedure is of considerable value for calculating the behavior of astronomical instruments comprising planar and waveguide multimode bolometers, submillimeter-wave optical components, and large reflecting antennas.
The density matrix picture of laser coherent control current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHOU Qian; ZHANG Haichao; LIU Luning; LIN Weizhu
2004-01-01
The physical substance of the coherent control current and the optical rectification have been analyzed based on density matrix perturbation theory. The analytical results demonstrate that they arise from the real and virtual manifestations of the same nonlinear process associated with diagonal and non-diagonal density matrix.And in terms of polarization, they respectively arise from the intraband and interband polarizations. Both the evolution of the coherent control current exited by ultrafast laser pulse and its dependence on frequency have been studied in time and frequency domains. In order to get an explicit knowledge of intraband polarization and the origination of the coherent control current, we have investigated the initial photo-carriers momentum distribution. The ultrafast decay of the polar momentum population in order of tens of femtosends is given to illustrate its instantaneous optical response.
Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R
2009-06-21
A new quantum dynamic equation for excitation energy transfer is developed which can describe quantum coherent wavelike motion and incoherent hopping in a unified manner. The developed equation reduces to the conventional Redfield theory and Forster theory in their respective limits of validity. In the regime of coherent wavelike motion, the equation predicts several times longer lifetime of electronic coherence between chromophores than does the conventional Redfield equation. Furthermore, we show quantum coherent motion can be observed even when reorganization energy is large in comparison to intersite electronic coupling (the Forster incoherent regime). In the region of small reorganization energy, slow fluctuation sustains longer-lived coherent oscillation, whereas the Markov approximation in the Redfield framework causes infinitely fast fluctuation and then collapses the quantum coherence. In the region of large reorganization energy, sluggish dissipation of reorganization energy increases the time electronic excitation stays above an energy barrier separating chromophores and thus prolongs delocalization over the chromophores.
Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2013-01-01
We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....
Diffusion Processes and Coherent States
Martino, S; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Vitiello, G.
1994-01-01
It is shown that stochastic processes of diffusion type possess, in all generality, a structure of uncertainty relations and of coherent and squeezed states. This fact is used to obtain, via Nelson stochastic formulation of quantum mechanics, the harmonic-oscillator coherent and squeezed states. The method allows to derive new minimum uncertainty states in time-dependent oscillator potentials and for the Caldirola-Kanai model of quantum damped oscillator.
Pseudo-Fermionic Coherent States
Cherbal, Omar; Drir, Mahrez
2009-01-01
We have generalized the fermionic coherent states to pseudo-fermion oscillator system. The system of coherent states constructed consist of two subsets, which are bi-normalized and bi-overcomplete. The two subsets are built up as eigenstates of two annihilation operators $b$ and $\\tilde{b} = \\eta b \\eta^{-1}$ of respectively $H$ and $H^+$ where $\\eta$ is the Hermitian and invertible operator that ensures the pseudo-Hermiticity of the Hamiltonian $H = \\eta^{-1} H^+ \\eta$
Stewart, Ian
2003-01-01
Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Researchers are suggesting unipolar affective disorders may be related to an abnormality in biogenic amine receptor-sensitivity. This abnormality may be a result of a dysfunction in central serotonin (5-HT) release mechanisms. 5-HT neurotransmission is modulated by presynaptic autoreceptors, which are members of the 5-HT1 receptor subtype. The autoreceptor is thought to play an important role in the homeostasis of the central 5-HT synapse and could be a site at which some antidepressants mediate their therapeutic effect. The number of 5-HT1 type receptor binding sites are reduced and behavior mediated by this receptor is abolished following repeated injections of monoamine oxidase inhibitor type antidepressants. These changes did not occur following a single injection. It was hypothesized that repeated treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor would reduce the sensitivity of 5-HT autoreceptors and enhance 5-HT release. Rats were pretreated with single or repeated (twice daily for 7 days) intraperitoneal injections of nialamide (40 mg/kg) or chlorimipramine (10 mg/kg) and the ability of the autoreceptor agonist to inhibit potassium-induced 3H-5-HT release was evaluated using an in vitro superfusion system. These changes in 5-HT autoreceptor activity are consistent with other reports evaluating monoamine oxidase inhibitors on 5-HT1 type receptors. It is hypothesized that the changes in 5-HT neurotransmission are related to the antidepressant mechanism of monoamine oxidase inhibitors
On gl((⌒)2｜2)(2)k Current Superalgebra and Twisted Conformal Field Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING Xiang-Mao; WANG Gui-Dong; WANG Shi-Kun
2007-01-01
Motivated by the recently discovered hidden symmetry of the type ∏B Green-Schwarz superstring on certain background, the non-semisimple Kac-Moody twisted superalgebra gl((⌒)2|2)(2)k is investigated by means of the vector coherent state method and boson-fermion realization. The free field realization of the twisted current superalgebra at general level k is constructed. The corresponding Conformal Field Theory (CFT) has zero central charge. According to the classification theory, this CFT is a nonunitary field theory. After projecting out a U(1) factor and an outer automorphism operator, we get the free field representation of psl((⌒)2|2)(2)k, which is the algebra of gl((⌒)2|2)(2)k modulo the Z4-outer automorphism, the CFT has central charge -2.
Qin, Zhiyuan; Tao, Rumao; Zhou, Pu; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Zejin
2013-11-20
Based on partially coherent Bessel-Gaussian beams (BGBs), the coherence evolution of the partially coherent beams carrying optical vortices in non-Kolmogorov turbulence is investigated in detail. The analytical formulas for the spatial coherence length of partially coherent BGBs with optical vortices in non-Kolmogorov turbulence have been derived by using the combination of a coherence superposition approximation of decentered Gaussian beams and the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. The influences of beam and turbulence parameters on spatial coherence are investigated by numerical examples. Numerical results reveal that the coherence of the partially coherent laser beam with vortices is independent of the optical vortices, and the spatial correlation length of the beams does not decrease monotonically during propagation in non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Within a certain propagation distance, the coherence of the partially coherent beam will improve, and the improvement of the coherence of the partially coherent beams is closely related to the beam and turbulence parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pier Alberto Testoni
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical imaging modality that performs high-resolution, cross-sectional, subsurface tomographic imaging of the microstructure of tissues. The physical principle of OCT is similar to that of B-mode ultrasound imaging, except that it uses infrared light waves rather than acoustic waves. The in vivo resolution is 10–25 times better (about 10 µm than with high-frequency ultrasound imaging, but the depth of penetration is limited to 1–3 mm, depending on tissue structure, depth of focus of the probe used, and pressure applied to the tissue surface. In the last decade, OCT technology has evolved from an experimental laboratory tool to a new diagnostic imaging modality with a wide spectrum of clinical applications in medical practice, including the gastrointestinal tract and pancreatico-biliary ductal system. OCT imaging from the gastrointestinal tract can be done in humans by using narrow-diameter, catheter-based probes that can be inserted through the accessory channel of either a conventional front-view endoscope, for investigating the epithelial structure of the gastrointestinal tract, or a side-view endoscope, inside a standard transparent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter, for investigating the pancreatico-biliary ductal system. The esophagus and esophagogastric junction have been the most widely investigated organs so far; more recently, duodenum, colon, and the pancreatico-biliary ductal system have also been extensively investigated. OCT imaging of the gastrointestinal wall structure is characterized by a multiple-layer architecture that permits an accurate evaluation of the mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, and part of the submucosa. The technique may therefore be used to identify preneoplastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's epithelium and dysplasia, and evaluate the depth of penetration of early-stage neoplastic lesions. OCT imaging
Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad. Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.
Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel
2013-01-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.
Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding
Coherent states and applications in mathematical physics
Combescure, Monique
2012-01-01
This book presents the various types of coherent states introduced and studied in the physics and mathematics literature and describes their properties together with application to quantum physics problems. It is intended to serve as a compendium on coherent states and their applications for physicists and mathematicians, stretching from the basic mathematical structures of generalized coherent states in the sense of Perelomov via the semiclassical evolution of coherent states to various specific examples of coherent states (hydrogen atom, quantum oscillator, ...).
Coherence measurements and coherent diffractive imaging at FLASH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vartanyants, I A; Mancuso, A P; Singer, A; Yefanov, O M; Gulden, J, E-mail: ivan.vartaniants@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)
2010-10-14
We present an overview of recent experiments performed at the free-electron laser (FEL) FLASH at DESY in Hamburg. Experiments were focused on coherence measurements and coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) of periodic and non-periodic biological samples. Young's double slit experiment was performed at FLASH to measure its coherence properties at a fundamental wavelength of 13.7 nm. Additionally, a uniformly redundant array was used to measure the coherence properties of the third harmonic (2.7 nm) of an 8 nm fundamental wavelength at FLASH. Coherent imaging of a two-dimensional (2D) finite crystal structure using a single pulse train of FLASH radiation was demonstrated. We show that the structure is reconstructed to the detector-limited resolution of 220 nm, given an adequate signal to noise ratio. We have also employed CXDI in a non-destructive regime to compare the images of a biological sample using single, femtosecond pulses of FLASH radiation. We have verified that images reconstructed using CXDI are similar for statistically different FEL pulses. We have also demonstrated Fourier transform holography of the same biological sample and present diffraction data measured at the third harmonic of FLASH, reaching into the water window.
Quantum correlations and coherence in spin-1 Heisenberg chains
Malvezzi, A. L.; Karpat, G.; ćakmak, B.; Fanchini, F. F.; Debarba, T.; Vianna, R. O.
2016-05-01
We explore quantum and classical correlations along with coherence in the ground states of spin-1 Heisenberg chains, namely the one-dimensional XXZ model and the one-dimensional bilinear biquadratic model, with the techniques of density matrix renormalization group theory. Exploiting the tools of quantum information theory, that is, by studying quantum discord, quantum mutual information, and three recently introduced coherence measures in the reduced density matrix of two nearest neighbor spins in the bulk, we investigate the quantum phase transitions and special symmetry points in these models. We point out the relative strengths and weaknesses of correlation and coherence measures as figures of merit to witness the quantum phase transitions and symmetry points in the considered spin-1 Heisenberg chains. In particular, we demonstrate that, as none of the studied measures can detect the infinite-order Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the XXZ model, they appear to be able to signal the existence of the same type of transition in the biliear biquadratic model. However, we argue that what is actually detected by the measures here is the SU(3) symmetry point of the model rather than the infinite-order quantum phase transition. Moreover, we show in the XXZ model that examining even single site coherence can be sufficient to spotlight the second-order phase transition and the SU(2) symmetry point.
Theory for upconversion of incoherent images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter
2012-01-01
Upconversion of images is a generic method for shifting the spectral content of entire images. A comprehensive theory for upconversion of incoherent light images is presented and compared against experiments. In particular we consider the important case for upconversion of infinity corrected light....... We show that the spatial resolution for upconversion of incoherent light images is better than for the corresponding coherent image upconversion case. The fundamental differences between upconversion of coherent and incoherent images are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theory...
Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2015-09-15
There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Yanping; Song Yaoliang; Chen Jinli; Zhao Delin
2012-01-01
Compressed Sensing (CS) theory is a great breakthrough of the traditional Nyquist sampling theory.It can accomplish compressive sampling and signal recovery based on the sparsity of interested signal,the randomness of measurement matrix and nonlinear optimization method of signal recovery.Firstly,the CS principle is reviewed.Then the ambiguity function of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) radar is deduced.After that,combined with CS theory,the ambiguity function of MIMO radar is analyzed and simulated in detail.At last,the resolutions of coherent and non-coherent MIMO radars on the CS theory are discussed.Simulation results show that the coherent MIMO radar has better resolution performance than the non-coherent.But the coherent ambiguity function has higher side lobes,which caused a deterioration in radar target detection performances.The stochastic embattling method of sparse array based on minimizing the statistical coherence of sensing matrix is proposed.And simulation results show that it could effectively suppress side lobes of the ambiguity function and improve the capability of weak target detection.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, W.; Duan, Z.H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner;
2006-01-01
By controlling the irradiance of an extended quasimonochromatic, spatially incoherent source, an optical field is generated that exhibits spatial coherence with phase singularities, called coherence vortices. A simple optical geometry for direct visualization of coherence vortices is proposed, and...
Higher Order Nonclassicality from Nonlinear Coherent States for Models with Quadratic Spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anaelle Hertz
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Harmonic oscillator coherent states are well known to be the analogue of classical states. On the other hand, nonlinear and generalised coherent states may possess nonclassical properties. In this article, we study the nonclassical behaviour of nonlinear coherent states for generalised classes of models corresponding to the generalised ladder operators. A comparative analysis among them indicates that the models with quadratic spectrum are more nonclassical than the others. Our central result is further underpinned by the comparison of the degree of nonclassicality of squeezed states of the corresponding models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Overgaard Ptaszynski
2011-10-01
Full Text Available
Abstract: The aim of this article is to contribute to the development of the modern theory of lexi-cographical functions by offering a critical examination of the following concepts associated with it: primary needs, primary data, secondary needs, secondary data, function-related needs, and function-related data. By way of introduction, a presentation of the basic tenets of the theory is offered, followed by a description of the gen-eral characteristics of secondary needs and data. Next, on the basis of both a critical analysis of the theory and an examination of selected data types in existing lexicographical products, it is argued that all user needs and all data that satisfy those needs are function-related. The distinction between the concepts function-related and usage-related is thus rejected. Since this has serious implications for the relation between secondary needs and data on the one hand and primary needs and data on the other, this relation is subsequently reconsid-ered. This leads to a redefinition of all the concepts examined. It is also explained why an ideal state of lexico-graphy, where secondary needs and data do not exist, cannot be achieved in the real world.
Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHICAL FUNCTION, PRIMARY NEED, PRIMARY DATA, SECONDARY NEED, SECONDARY DATA, FUNCTION-RELATED NEED, FUNCTION-RELATED DATA, EXTRA-LEXICOGRAPHICAL SITUATION, INTRA-LEXICOGRAPHICAL SITUATION, COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, OPERATIVE FUNCTION, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION
Opsomming: Funksieverwante sekondêre gebruikersbehoeftes en sekon-dêre data? 'n Kritiese ondersoek na 'n aantal kernbegrippe in die moderne teorie van leksikografiese funksies. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om by te dra tot die ontwikkeling van die moderne teorie van leksikografiese funksies deur 'n kritiese ondersoek aan te bied van die volgende begrippe wat daarmee verbind word: primêre behoeftes, primêre data
Coherent Patterns in Nuclei and in Financial Markets
Drozdz, S; Speth, J
2010-01-01
In the area of traditional physics the atomic nucleus belongs to the most complex systems. It involves essentially all elements that characterize complexity including the most distinctive one whose essence is a permanent coexistence of coherent patterns and of randomness. From a more interdisciplinary perspective, these are the financial markets that represent an extreme complexity. Here, based on the matrix formalism, we set some parallels between several characteristics of complexity in the above two systems. We, in particular, refer to the concept - historically originating from nuclear physics considerations - of the random matrix theory and demonstrate its utility in quantifying characteristics of the coexistence of chaos and collectivity also for the financial markets. In this later case we show examples that illustrate mapping of the matrix formulation into the concepts originating from the graph theory. Finally, attention is drawn to some novel aspects of the financial coherence which opens room for s...
Land Reform and Land Consolidation in Central and Eastern Europe after 1989
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvigsen, Morten B.
instruments are well on the way in the region, land banking instruments have largely failed in the region, at least as tools for supporting land consolidation programs. Based on the limited theory available, the analysis has revealed how limited land mobility is often hampering the outcome of land...... are not competitive in the globalized economy. Drawing on the classical theory on land fragmentation, this PhD study explores the coherence between the land reform approaches applied in 25 study countries and the outcome in form of farm structures and land fragmentation. Most of the Central and Eastern European...... countries have introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems in agriculture. The PhD study analyses the experiences from introduction of land consolidation and land banking instruments and provides the first full overview of the experiences achieved. While land consolidation...
Coherent distributions for the rigid rotator
Grigorescu, Marius
2016-06-01
Coherent solutions of the classical Liouville equation for the rigid rotator are presented as positive phase-space distributions localized on the Lagrangian submanifolds of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. These solutions become Wigner-type quasiprobability distributions by a formal discretization of the left-invariant vector fields from their Fourier transform in angular momentum. The results are consistent with the usual quantization of the anisotropic rotator, but the expected value of the Hamiltonian contains a finite "zero point" energy term. It is shown that during the time when a quasiprobability distribution evolves according to the Liouville equation, the related quantum wave function should satisfy the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.
Enhanced coherent Raman emission from uniform plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A mechanism for the coherent emission of radio and microwaves from a warm uniform plasma is proposed. The output power from this mechanism appears to have the characteristics of a classical parametric amplification process. An earlier kinetic theory model for radiation by the scattering of plasma waves in a homogeneous plasma is revamped and modified to incorporate the dominant role of longitudinal Rayleigh scattered waves which stimulate the emission of transverse combination radiation (sum and difference of impressed and natural frequencies) by the resonant Raman scattering process in the plasma. This results in intense radio or microwave radiation at approximately twice the plasma frequency, the intensity depending upon plasma parameters. This intensity, its angular pattern, and the threshold condition for its enhanced emission are calculated. Comparisons of the computed results with the laboratory observation of the radiation output from dc discharges in argon gas, and from a helium theta-pinch plasma are made. Both qualitative and quantitative agreement are found
Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2006-01-01
A large number of modern problems in physics, chemistry, and quantum electronics require a consideration of population dynamics in complex multilevel quantum systems. The purpose of this book is to provide a systematic treatment of these questions and to present a number of exactly solvable problems. It considers the different dynamical problems frequently encountered in different areas of physics from the same perspective, based mainly on the fundamental ideas of group theory and on the idea of ensemble average. Also treated are concepts of complete quantum control and correction of decoherence induced errors that are complementary to the idea of ensemble average. "Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems" is aimed at senior-level undergraduate students in the areas of Atomic, Molecular, and Laser Physics, Physical Chemistry, Quantum Optics and Quantum Informatics. It should help them put particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby take advantage of the well-elabora...
Spatial coherences of the sound pressure and the particle velocity in underwater ambient noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Jin; LUO Xianzhi; HOU Chaohuan
2007-01-01
The spatial coherences were investigated between the sound pressure and the three orthogonal components of the particle velocity in underwater ambient noise. Based on the ray theory, integral expression was derived for the spatial coherence matrix of the sound pressure and the particle velocity in a stratified ocean with dipole noise sources homogenously distributed on the surface. The integrand includes a multiplying factor of the vertical directivity of the noise intensity, and the layered ocean environment affects the spatial coherences via this directivity factor. For a shallow water environment and a semi-infinite homogenous medium, the coherence calculation results were given. It was showed that the sound speed profile and the sea bottom could not be neglected in determining the spatial coherences of the ambient noise vector field.
Zimanyi, Eric N; Silbey, Robert J
2010-10-14
Recent experiments on resonance energy transfer (RET) in photosynthetic systems have found evidence of quantum coherence between the donor and the acceptor. Under these conditions, Förster's theory of RET is no longer applicable and no theory of coherent RET advanced to date rivals the intuitive simplicity of Förster's theory. Here, we develop a framework for understanding RET that is based on classical electrodynamics but still captures the essence of the quantum coherence between the molecules. Our theory requires only a knowledge of the complex polarizabilities of the two molecules participating in the transfer as well as the distance between them. We compare our results to quantum mechanical calculations and show that the results agree quantitatively.
Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics.
Kammerlander, P; Anders, J
2016-01-01
Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed. PMID:26916503
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diego Echevenguá Borges
2014-10-01
Full Text Available O presente estudo concentra esforços em identificar e analisar quais respostas estratégicas (OLIVER, 1991 três vinícolas da região central do Rio Grande do Sul acionaram frente às pressões do ambiente institucional relativas ao gerenciamento de práticas ambientalmente corretas. Ainda, pretende-se identificar se há resquícios de isomorfismo entre as ações das vinícolas objetos de estudo frente às pressões institucionais. Para tanto, foram revisados temas relativos à teoria institucional, em suas vertentes respostas estratégicas e pressões ambientais, bem como se buscou em sítios eletrônicos, artigos acadêmicos, etc., pressões oriundas do ambiente institucional relacionadas com o gerenciamento de práticas ambientalmente corretas. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, tendo como instrumento para coletar os dados primários junto a três vinícolas que compunham a amostra, um questionário semiestruturado com três questões abertas. Os resultados mostram que frente a pressão oriunda do governo e dos consumidores, as três vinícolas tendem a adotar comportamentos isomórficos, se conformando as exigência de ambos os constituintes. Conclui-se que as três vinícolas mesmo não buscando a certificação ISO 14001:2004, ou não percebendo a preocupação do consumidor com relação à gestão ambiental, estas trabalham de maneira proativa, mantendo bom relacionamento com os órgãos fiscalizadores, para que suas ações não venham a afetar o meio ambiente.
Coherent controlization using superconducting qubits.
Friis, Nicolai; Melnikov, Alexey A; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Briegel, Hans J
2015-01-01
Coherent controlization, i.e., coherent conditioning of arbitrary single- or multi-qubit operations on the state of one or more control qubits, is an important ingredient for the flexible implementation of many algorithms in quantum computation. This is of particular significance when certain subroutines are changing over time or when they are frequently modified, such as in decision-making algorithms for learning agents. We propose a scheme to realize coherent controlization for any number of superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave resonator. For two and three qubits, we present an explicit construction that is of high relevance for quantum learning agents. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal, taking into account loss, dephasing, and the cavity self-Kerr effect.
Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface
Kang, Ming; Y. D. Chong
2015-01-01
We describe the mechanism by which a metamaterial surface can act as an ideal phase-controlled rotatable linear polarizer. With equal-power linearly polarized beams incident on each side of the surface, varying the relative phase rotates the polarization angles of the output beams, while keeping the polarization exactly linear. The explanation is based on coupled-mode theory and the idea of coherent perfect absorption into auxiliary polarization channels. The polarization-rotating behavior oc...
On the Dual Representation of Coherent Risk Measures
Ang, Marcus; Sun, Jie; Yao, Qiang
2015-01-01
A classical result in risk measure theory states that every coherent risk measure has a dual representation as the supremum of certain expected value over a risk envelope. We study this topic in more detail. The related issues include: 1. Set operations of risk envelopes and how they change the risk measures, 2. The structure of risk envelopes of popular risk measures, 3. Aversity of risk measures and its impact to risk envelopes, and 4. A connection between risk measures in stochastic optimi...
Coherence measures for heralded single-photon sources
Bocquillon, E.; Couteau, C.; Razavi, M.; Laflamme, R.; Weihs, G.
2008-01-01
Single-photon sources (SPSs) are mainly characterized by the minimum value of their second-order coherence function, viz. their $g^{(2)}$ function. A precise measurement of $g^{(2)}$ may, however, require high time-resolution devices, in whose absence, only time-averaged measurements are accessible. These time-averaged measures, standing alone, do not carry sufficient information for proper characterization of SPSs. Here, we develop a theory, corroborated by an experiment, that allows us to s...
Unified theory of effective interaction
Takayanagi, Kazuo
2016-09-01
We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.
Nonideal rotations in nuclear magnetic resonance: Estimation of coherence transfer leakage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jerschow, Alexej [Materials Sciences Division, 11-D62, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemistry Department, D62 Hildebrand, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2000-07-15
When spherical tensors are rotated by certain angles, coherence transfer selection rules may apply. For example, a {pi} rotation cleanly inverts the coherence order. A {pi}/2 rotation of a T{sub 0}{sup 1} tensor creates only T{sub {+-}}{sub 1}{sup 1} tensors. In this work estimations are given for the coherence transfer leakage under the action of rotations with small errors in the rotation angle or axis. Although the theory is stated with particular applications to NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) in mind it is equally applicable wherever nonideal rotations of spherical tensors are considered (e.g., quantum computing and relaxation theory). In NMR it is useful for the estimation of coherence transfer leakage, especially in pulse sequences with many n{pi} pulses. The results are also applicable to spinors and half-integer representations of the rotation group. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Physics-Based Predictions for Coherent Change Detection Using X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Preiss
2005-12-01
Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The model is derived using a dyadic form for surface reflectivity in the Kirchhoff approximation. This permits the combination of Kirchhoff theory and spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR image formation theory. The resulting model is used to describe the interferometric coherency between pairs of SAR images of rough soil surfaces. The theoretical model is applied to SAR images formed before and after surface changes observed by a repeat-pass SAR system. The change in surface associated with a tyre track following vehicle passage is modelled and SAR coherency estimates are obtained. Predicted coherency distributions for both the change and no-change scenarios are used to estimate receiver operator curves for the detection of the changes using a high-resolution, X-band SAR system.
Interference due to coherence swapping
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arun Kumar Pati; Marek Zukowski
2001-02-01
We propose a method called ‘coherence swapping’ which enables us to create superposition of a particle in two distinct paths, which is fed with initially incoherent, independent radiation. This phenomenon is also present for the charged particles, and can be used to swap the effect of ﬂux line due to the Aharonov–Bohm effect. We propose an optical version of experimental set-up to test the coherence swapping. The phenomenon, which is simpler than entanglement swapping or teleportation, raises some fundamental questions about the true nature of wave-particle duality, and also opens up the possibility of studying the quantum erasure from a new angle.
Coherent broadband light source for parallel optical coherence tomography
Rivier, S.; Laversenne, L.; Bourquin, S.; Salathé, R.P.; Pollnau, M.; Grivas, C.; Shepherd, D.P.; Eason, R.W.; Flury, M.; Philipoussis, I.; Herzig, H.P.
2004-01-01
A Ti:sapphire planar waveguide is rib structured by Ar ion milling to provide parallel channel waveguides. By coupling high-power pump light through a microlens array into the waveguides, a novel broadband luminescent parallel emitter is demonstrated as a light source for parallel optical coherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾阳发; 李彬彬; 黄国富; 李月桃; 何明光
2009-01-01
目的 探讨眼前段光学相干断层扫描技术(anteriorsegment optical coherence tomography,AS-OCT)和A型超声波生物测量技术(A超)测量,中央角膜厚度(central corneal thickness,CCT)和前房深度(anterior chamber depth,ACD)的异同.方法 分别采用AS-OCT和A超测量33名(54只眼)正常人的CCT和ACD,分别采用配对t检验、Pearson相关和Bland-Altman方法,分析两种仪器的测量值的差异、相关性和一致性.结果 A超与AS-OCT的CCT值分别为(524.41±23.24)μm、(513.37±22.71)μm,之间的差异有统计学意义(t=15.906,P=0.000),差值均数为(11.04±5.10)μm.两种仪器的CCT值正相关(r=0.976,P=0.000).95%LoA(95% Limts of Agreement)为(-21.03,-1.04)μm,95%LoA的区间范围为19.99μm,为A超CCT平均值的3.81%.A超与AS-OCT的ACD值分别为(2.89±0.29)mm、(3.18±0.26)mm,之间的差异有统计学意义(f=-12.052,P=0.000),差值的均数为(-0.29±0.17)mm.两种仪器的ACD值相关(r=0.803,P=0.000).95%LoA为(-0.63,-0.06)mm,95%LoA的区间范围为0.57mm,为A超ACD平均值的19.72%.结论 AS-OCT的CCT值和ACD值与A超的测量值相关.与A超相比,AS-OCT的CCT测量值更小,而ACD值更大.两种仪器测量CCT的一致性比ACD高.%Objective To assess central corneal thickness(CCT)and anterior chamber depth (ACD) measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)comparing with A-scan ultrasonography (A-scan US).Methods 54 eyes of 33 normal subjects were enrolled in the study.CCT and ACD were measured using AS-OCT and A-scan US.The measurements of two instruments were analyzed using paired t test,Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plot,respectively.Results The CCT of AS-OCT and A-scan US were 524.41± 23.24 microm and 513.37± 22.7 microm,respectively.The CCT values measured by A-scan US were significantly greater than AS-OCT, paired difference was 11.04± 5.10 microm (t =15.906, P =0.000).There were a significantly correlation between CCTs value of two instruments (r =0
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周恒; 马良
1995-01-01
By a proper combination of the modified weakly nonlinear theory of hydrodynamic stability and the energy method, the spatial evolution of the large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer has been calculated. The results are satisfactory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林隆清
2007-01-01
In the process of college English intensive reading teaching,the analysis of textual cohesion and coherence is of great significance in that it can help students better understand the structure and contents of the teaching mterials,improve their ability in commnding and applying the language,thus improving the quality of college English teaching.This paper tries to analyze how to apply the theory of textual cohesion and coherence to the teaching of college English intensive reading.
Meta-Structures: The Search of Coherence in Collective Behaviours (without Physics)
Eliano Pessa; Ignazio Licata; Gianfranco Minati
2013-01-01
This contribution shortly outlines and reviews a theoretical and computational approach for a theory of change concerning systems where it is not possible to apply the laws of motion ab initio. The concept of meta-structure relates to the emergence of forms of spatiotemporal coherences in collective behaviours intended as coherent sequences of multiple structures. The essential difference compared with traditional methods is the role of the cognitive design by the observer when identifying mu...
Fifth-Order Harmonic Generation using a Coherent Controlled Two-Pulsed Optical Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘婷婷; 王大威; 陆伟新; 孙泉; 杨宏; 蒋红兵; 龚旗煌
2002-01-01
We have experimentally studied the characteristics of fifth-order harmonic radiation produced by two coherent femtosecond laser pulses with a changeable relative phase. The intensities of harmonic generation are found to increase vith the coherent degree. In one optical period, the temporal variation of harmonics exhibits an asymmetric characteristic, vhich is interpreted in terms of ionization theory and the deformation of the wave packets of fundamental field contribution to harmonic generation.
Coherence and its application in the beam-foil light source
Liu, C. H.; Bashkin, S.
1974-01-01
The beam-foil light source is shown to be very useful in spectroscopic work. Not only the lifetimes of highly excited, multiply charged atoms can be measured in a straightforward way, but also the fine-structure and hyperfine-structure separations and the Lande factors can be obtained due to the fact that the coherent excitations are created in the impulsive beam-foil collision. The theories suggested to explain the origin of coherence are presently incomplete.
Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states
Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana
2016-08-01
In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.
Controlling quantum coherence of atom laser by light with strong strength
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JING; Hui(景辉); GE; Molin(葛墨林); GE; Molin(葛墨林)
2002-01-01
A new method for controlling the quantum coherence of atom laser by applying input light with strong strength is presented within the framework of quantum dynamical theory. Unlike the case of rotating wave approximation(RWA), we show that the non-classical properties, such as sub-Poisson distribution and quadrature squeezed effect, can appear in the output atom laser beam with time. By choosing suitable initial RF phase, a steady and brighter output of squeezed coherent atom laser is also available.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leilei Jia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using the bifurcation theory of dynamical systems, we present the exact representation and topological classification of coherent matter waves in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs, such as solitary waves and modulate amplitude waves (MAWs. The existence and multiplicity of such waves are determined by the parameter regions selected. The results show that the characteristic of coherent matter waves can be determined by the “angular momentum” in attractive BECs while for repulsive BECs; the waves of the coherent form are all MAWs. All exact explicit parametric representations of the above waves are exhibited and numerical simulations support the result.
Tolerance on tilt error for coherent combining of fiber lasers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pu Zhou; Zilun Chen; Xiaolin Wang; Xiao Li; Zejin Liu; Xiaojun Xu
2009-01-01
Limited by the precision of optical machining and assembling, the optical axes of lasers in an array cannot be strictly parallel to each other, which will result in the beam quality degradation of the combined beam. The tolerance on tilt error for coherent combining of fiber lasers is studied in detail. The complex amplitude distribution in the far field for the Gaussian beam with tilt angle is obtained by a novel coordinate transform method. Effect of tilt error on coherent combining is modelled analytically. Beam propagation factor is used to evaluate the effect of coherent combining. Numerical results show that for ring-distributed fiber laser array with central wavelength 位 and geometry size D, if the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the tilt error is smaller than 0.72位/D, the energy encircled in the diffraction-limited bucket can be ensured to be more than 50% of the value when there is no tilt error. The results are helpful to the designing and manufacturing of fiber array for coherent combining.
Tan, S.; Tsang, L.; Xu, X.; Ding, K. H.
2015-12-01
In this paper we describe partial coherent model and fully coherent snowpack scattering model based on numerical simulation of Maxwell's equation. In medium characterization, we derive the correlation functions from the pair distribution functions of sticky spheres and multiple-size spheres used in QCA. We show that both the Percus-Yevick pair functions and the bicontinuous model have tails in the correlation functions that are distinctly different from the traditional exponential correlation functions. The methodologies of using ground measurements of grain size distributions and correlation functions to obtain model parameters are addressed. The DMRT theory has been extended to model the backscattering enhancement. We developed the methodology of cyclical corrections beyond first order to all orders of multiple scattering. This enables the physical modeling of combined active and passive microwave remote sensing of snow over the same scene. The bicontinuous /DMRT is applied to compare with data acquired in the NoSREx campaign, and the model results are validated against coincidental active and passive measurements using the same set of physical parameters of snow in all frequency and polarization channels. The DMRT is a partially coherent approach that one accounts for the coherent wave interaction only within few wavelengths as represented by phase matrix. However, the phase information of field is lost in propagating the specific intensity via RT and this hinders the use of DMRT in coherent synthetic aperture radar (SAR) analysis, including InSAR, PolInSAR and Tomo-SAR. One can alternatively calculate the scattering matrix of the terrestrial snowpack above ground by solving the volume integral equations directly with half space Green's function. The scattering matrix of the snowpack is computed for each realization giving rise to the speckle statistics. The resulting bistatic scattering automatically includes the backscattering enhancement effects. Tomograms of
Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface
Kang, Ming
2015-01-01
We describe the mechanism by which a metamaterial surface can act as an ideal phase-controlled rotatable linear polarizer. With equal-power linearly polarized beams incident on each side of the surface, varying the relative phase rotates the polarization angles of the output beams, while keeping the polarization exactly linear. The explanation is based on coupled-mode theory and the idea of coherent perfect absorption into auxiliary polarization channels. The polarization-rotating behavior occurs at a critical point of the coupled-mode theory, which can be associated with the exceptional point of a parity-time (PT) symmetric effective Hamiltonian.
Coherent states: a contemporary panorama Coherent states: a contemporary panorama
Twareque Ali, S.; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bagarello, Fabio; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2012-06-01
Coherent states (CS) of the harmonic oscillator (also called canonical CS) were introduced in 1926 by Schrödinger in answer to a remark by Lorentz on the classical interpretation of the wave function. They were rediscovered in the early 1960s, first (somewhat implicitly) by Klauder in the context of a novel representation of quantum states, then by Glauber and Sudarshan for the description of coherence in lasers. Since then, CS have grown into an extremely rich domain that pervades almost every corner of physics and have also led to the development of several flourishing topics in mathematics. Along the way, a number of review articles have appeared in the literature, devoted to CS, notably the 1985 reprint volume of Klauder and Skagerstam [1], the 1990 review paper by Zhang et al [2], the 1993 Oak Ridge Conference [3] and the 1995 review paper by Ali et al [4]. Textbooks also have been published, among which one might mention the ground breaking text of Perelomov [5] focusing on the group-theoretical aspects, that of Ali et al [6]1 analyzing systematically the mathematical structure beyond the group-theoretical approach and also the relation to wavelet analysis, that of Dodonov and Man'ko [7] mostly devoted to quantum optics, that of Gazeau [8] more oriented towards the physical, probabilistic and quantization aspects, and finally the very recent one by Combescure and Robert [9]. In retrospect, one can see that the development of CS has gone through a two-phase transition. First, the (simultaneous) discovery in 1972 by Gilmore and Perelomov that CS were rooted in group theory, then the realization that CS can be defined in a purely algebraic way, as an eigenvalue problem or by a series expansion (Malkin and Man'ko 1969, Barut and Girardello 1971, Gazeau and Klauder 1999; references to the original articles may be found in the textbooks quoted above). Both facts resulted in an explosive expansion of the CS literature. We thought, therefore, that the time was ripe
Coherent state quantization of quaternions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muraleetharan, B., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Jaffna, Thirunelveli (Sri Lanka); Thirulogasanthar, K., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)
2015-08-15
Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.
Coherent control of quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier measur...
Coherent Detection of Electron Dephasing
Strambini, E.; Chirolli, L.; Giovanetti, V.; Taddei, F.; Fazio, R.; Piazza, V.
2010-01-01
We show that an Aharonov-Bohm ring with asymmetric electron injection can act as a coherent detector of electron dephasing. The presence of a dephasing source in one of the two arms of a moderately-to-highly asymmetric ring changes the response of the system from total reflection to complete transmi
Coherent state quantization of quaternions
Muraleetharan, B.; Thirulogasanthar, K.
2015-08-01
Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.
Localized coherence of freak waves
Latifah, Arnida L.; van Groesen, E.
2016-09-01
This paper investigates in detail a possible mechanism of energy convergence leading to freak waves. We give examples of a freak wave as a (weak) pseudo-maximal wave to illustrate the importance of phase coherence. Given a time signal at a certain position, we identify parts of the time signal with successive high amplitudes, so-called group events, that may lead to a freak wave using wavelet transform analysis. The local coherence of the critical group event is measured by its time spreading of the most energetic waves. Four types of signals have been investigated: dispersive focusing, normal sea condition, thunderstorm condition and an experimental irregular wave. In all cases presented in this paper, it is shown that a high correlation exists between the local coherence and the appearance of a freak wave. This makes it plausible that freak waves can be developed by local interactions of waves in a wave group and that the effect of waves that are not in the immediate vicinity is minimal. This indicates that a local coherence mechanism within a wave group can be one mechanism that leads to the appearance of a freak wave.
Auñón, Juan Miguel; Nieto-Vesperinas, Manuel
2014-01-01
We present a theory and computation method of radiation pressure from partially coherent light by establishing a coherent mode representation of the radiation forces. This is illustrated with the near field emitted from a Gaussian Schell model source, mechanically acting on a single cylinder with magnetodielectric behavior, or on a photonic molecule constituted by a pair of such cylinders. Thus after studying the force produced by a single particle, we address the effects of the spatial coherence on the bonding and anti-bonding states of two particles. The coherence length manifests the critical limitation of the contribution of evanescent modes to the scattered fields, and hence to the nature and strength of the electromagnetic fores, even when electric and/or magnetic partial wave resonances are excited.
Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables
Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.
2006-01-01
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through su...
Electron beam instrumentation techniques using coherent radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Much progress has been made on coherent radiation research since coherent synchrotron radiation was first observed in 1989. The use of coherent radiation as a bunch length diagnostic tool has been studied by several groups. In this paper, brief introductions to coherent radiation and far-infrared measurement are given, the progress and status of their beam diagnostic application are reviewed, different techniques are described, and their advantages and limitations are discussed
Central simple Poisson algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SU; Yucai; XU; Xiaoping
2004-01-01
Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.
Correlation singularities in partially coherent electromagnetic beams
Raghunathan, S.B.; Schouten, H.F.; Visser, T.D.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate that coherence vortices, singularities of the correlation function, generally occur in partially coherent electromagnetic beams. In successive cross sections of Gaussian Schell-model beams, their locus is found to be a closed string. These coherence singularities have implications for
Coherent states for the Legendre oscillator
Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.
2003-01-01
A new oscillator-like system called by the Legendre oscillator is introduced in this note. The two families of coherent states (coherent states as eigenvectors of the annihilation operator and the Klauder-Gazeau temporally stable coherent states) are defined and investigated for this oscillator.
Measuring finite Quantum Geometries via Quasi-Coherent States
Schneiderbauer, Lukas
2016-01-01
We develop a systematic approach to determine and measure numerically the geometry of generic quantum or "fuzzy" geometries realized by a set of finite-dimensional hermitian matrices. The method is designed to recover the semi-classical limit of quantized symplectic spaces embedded in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ including the well-known examples of fuzzy spaces, but it applies much more generally. The central tool is provided by quasi-coherent states, which are defined as ground states of Laplace- or Dirac operators corresponding to localized point branes in target space. The displacement energy of these quasi-coherent states is used to extract the local dimension and tangent space of the semi-classical geometry, and provides a measure for the quality and self-consistency of the semi-classical approximation. The method is discussed and tested with various examples, and implemented in an open-source Mathematica package.
Influence of coherent adiabatic excitation on femtosecond transient signals
Conde, A Peralta; Longarte, A
2016-01-01
The transient signals derived from femtosecond pump-probe experiments are analyzed in terms of the coherent evolution of the energy levels perturbed by the excitation pulse. The model system is treated as the sum of independent two-level subsystems that evolve adiabatically or are permanently excited, depending on the detuning from the central wavelength of the excitation laser. This approach will allow us to explain numerically and analytically the convergence between the coherent and incoherent (rate equations) treatments for complex multi-level systems. It will be also shown that the parameter that determines the validity of the incoherent treatment is the distribution of states outside and inside the laser bandwidth, rather than the density of states as it is commonly accepted.
Baby universes in string theory
R.H. Dijkgraaf; R. Gopakumar; H. Ooguri; C. Vafa
2006-01-01
We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS(2) x S-2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular
Harary, Frank
2015-01-01
Presented in 1962-63 by experts at University College, London, these lectures offer a variety of perspectives on graph theory. Although the opening chapters form a coherent body of graph theoretic concepts, this volume is not a text on the subject but rather an introduction to the extensive literature of graph theory. The seminar's topics are geared toward advanced undergraduate students of mathematics.Lectures by this volume's editor, Frank Harary, include ""Some Theorems and Concepts of Graph Theory,"" ""Topological Concepts in Graph Theory,"" ""Graphical Reconstruction,"" and other introduc
Characterisation of dispersive systems using a coherer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolić Pantelija M.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The possibility of characterization of aluminium powders using a horizontal coherer has been considered. Al powders of known dimension were treated with a high frequency electromagnetic field or with a DC electric field, which were increased until a dielectric breakdown occurred. Using a multifunctional card PC-428 Electronic Design and a suitable interface between the coherer and PC, the activation time of the coherer was measured as a function of powder dimension and the distance between the coherer electrodes. It was also shown that the average dimension of powders of unknown size could be determined using the coherer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valter Alnis Bezerra
2003-06-01
theories in the early 70s. The success of renormalization was such that, from its beginnings as a mere ad hoc theoretical device, it gradually earned the condition of a criterion for the construction and appraisal of theories in field physics. One of the aims of this article is to show that this change in the methodological status of renormalization can be understood in the context of Larry Laudan's reticulational model of rationality. In spite of the extraordinary theoretical and empirical progress achieved, however, there were always polemics regarding the place that renormalization should occupy within the conceptual structure of the discipline. These polemics revolve around the fact that renormalization apparently goes against a cognitive value that is regarded as fundamental, namely, consistency. The second aim of this paper is to show how the reticulational model helps to throw light upon this question as well. We attempt to show in which sense it was rational to accept renormalization in particle and field physics despite the problem of inconsistency. To this end we make use of the theses of the reticulational model, supplemented with theses from Putnam and Quine, and from the coherence theory of justification.
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-10-05
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Effect of Ambient and Oxygen Temperature on Flow Field Characteristics of Coherent Jet
Liu, Fuhai; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Hu, Shaoyan
2016-02-01
The coherent jets are now used widely in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to increase the stirring ability, reaction rates, and energy efficiency. However, there has been limited research on the basic physics of the coherent jets. In the present study, the characteristics of flow field of supersonic coherent jet in hot and cold condition were studied. The total temperature and axial velocity were measured by combustion experiment. Flow field characteristics of supersonic coherent jet were simulated by Fluent software. The detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is presently used for the modeling of reactions. It consists of 53 species, plus Ar and N2, for a total of 325 reversible reactions. The present study showed that the shrouding flame decreases the entrainment of the ambient gas to the central supersonic jet, which results in a low expansion rate for the coherent supersonic jet. The higher ambient temperature can prolong the potential core of coherent jet and conventional jet. However, the potential core of coherent jet reduces with oxygen temperature increasing, which is opposite to conventional jet.
Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence
Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can
2016-05-01
Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to ηCA through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.
Coherent phase argument for inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott Dodelson
2004-03-17
Cosmologists have developed a phenomenally successful picture of structure in the universe based on the idea that the universe expanded exponentially in its earliest moments. There are three pieces of evidence for this exponential expansion--inflation--from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. First, the shape of the primordial spectrum is very similar to that predicted by generic inflation models. Second, the angular scale at which the first acoustic peak appears is consistent with the flat universe predicted by inflation. Here the author describes the third piece of evidence, perhaps the most convincing of all: the phase coherence needed to account for the clear peak/trough structure observed by the WMAP satellite and its predecessors. The author also discusses alternatives to inflation that have been proposed recently and explain how they produce coherent phases.
Wavefront sensing reveals optical coherence
Stoklasa, B; Rehacek, J; Hradil, Z; Sanchez-Soto, L L
2014-01-01
Wavefront sensing is a set of techniques providing efficient means to ascertain the shape of an optical wavefront or its deviation from an ideal reference. Due to its wide dynamical range and high optical efficiency, the Shack-Hartmann is nowadays the most widely used of these sensors. Here, we show that it actually performs a simultaneous measurement of position and angular spectrum of the incident radiation and, therefore, when combined with tomographic techniques previously developed for quantum information processing, the Shack-Hartmann can be instrumental in reconstructing the complete coherence properties of the signal. We confirm these predictions with an experimental characterization of partially coherent vortex beams, a case that cannot be treated with the standard tools. This seems to indicate that classical methods employed hitherto do not fully exploit the potential of the registered data.
Neutrino induced coherent pion production
Hernández, E; Valverde, M; Vicente-Vacas, M J
2009-01-01
We discuss different parameterizations of the $C_5^A(q^2)$ $N\\Delta$ axial form factor, fitted to the old Argonne bubble chamber data for pion production by neutrinos, and we use coherent pion production to test their low $q^2$ behavior. We find moderate effects that will be difficult to observe with the accuracy of present experiments. We also discuss the use of the Rein-Sehgal model for low energy coherent pion production. By comparison to a microscopic calculation, we show the weaknesses of some of the approximations in that model that lead to very large cross sections as well as to the wrong shapes for differential ones. Finally we show that models based on the partial conservation of the axial current hypothesis are not fully reliable for differential cross sections that depend on the angle formed by the pion and the incident neutrino.
Detecting coherent structures using braids
Allshouse, Michael R
2011-01-01
The detection of coherent structures is an important problem in fluid dynamics, particularly in geophysical applications. For instance, knowledge of how regions of fluid are isolated from each other allows prediction of the ultimate fate of oil spills. Existing methods detect Lagrangian coherent structures, which are barriers to transport, by examining the stretching field as given by finite-time Lyapunov exponents. These methods are very effective when the velocity field is well-determined, but in many applications only a small number of flow trajectories are known, for example when dealing with oceanic float data. We introduce a topological method for detecting invariant regions based on a small set of trajectories. In the method we regard the two-dimensional trajectory data as a braid in three dimensions, with time being the third coordinate. Invariant regions then correspond to trajectories that travel together and do not entangle other trajectories. We detect these regions by examining the growth of hypo...
Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence.
Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can
2016-05-01
Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η_{CA}. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to η_{CA} through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.
Remote creation of quantum coherence
Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-10-01
We study remote creation of coherence (RCC) for a quantum system, A, with the help of quantum operations on another system, B, and one-way classical communication. We show that all the nonincoherent quantum states are useful for RCC and all the incoherent-quantum states are not. The necessary and sufficient conditions of RCC for the quantum operations on system B are presented for pure states. The upper bound of average RCC is derived, giving a relation among the entanglement (concurrence), the RCC of the given quantum state, and the RCC of the corresponding maximally entangled state. Moreover, for two-qubit systems we find a simple factorization law for the average remote-created coherence.
Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables
Wilde, M M; Krovi, H; Brun, Todd A.; Krovi, Hari; Wilde, Mark M.
2006-01-01
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical communication and quantum communication. The cobit channel produces coherent versions of the teleportation and superdense coding protocols. We extend the cobit channel to the continuous variables of quantum optics. We provide a general definition of the ``coherent nat'' (conat) channel when only finite-squeezing resources are available. Coherent teleportation provides sufficient conditions and coherent superdense coding provides necessary conditions for a channel to be a finite-squeezing approximation to an ideal conat channel. We illustrate several protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel. Finally, we address the reversibility of coherent teleportation and coherent superdense coding with only finite-squeezing resources.
Quantizations on the circle and coherent states
Chadzitaskos, G; Tolar, J
2012-01-01
We present a possible construction of coherent states on the unit circle as configuration space. Our approach is based on Borel quantizations on S^1 including the Aharonov-Bohm type quantum description. The coherent states are constructed by Perelomov's method as group related coherent states generated by Weyl operators on the quantum phase space Z x S^1. Because of the duality of canonical coordinates and momenta, i.e. the angular variable and the integers, this formulation can also be interpreted as coherent states over an infinite periodic chain. For the construction we use the analogy with our quantization and coherent states over a finite periodic chain where the quantum phase space was Z_M x Z_M. The coherent states constructed in this work are shown to satisfy the resolution of unity. To compare them with canonical coherent states, also some of their further properties are studied demonstrating similarities as well as substantial differences.
Generalized Grassmannian coherent states for pseudo-Hermitian n-level systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The purpose of this paper is to generalize fermionic coherent states for two-level systems described by pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian (Cherbal et al 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 1835) to n-level systems. Central to this task is the expression of the coherent states in terms of generalized Grassmann variables. These kinds of Grassmann coherent states satisfy the bi-overcompleteness condition instead of the overcompleteness one, as it is reasonably expected because of the biorthonormality of the system. Choosing an appropriate Grassmann weight function, the resolution of identity is examined. Moreover Grassmannian coherent and squeezed states of the deformed group SUq(2) for the three-level pseudo-Hermitian system are presented.
Generalized Grassmannian coherent states for pseudo-Hermitian n-level systems
Najarbashi, G.; Fasihi, M. A.; Fakhri, H.
2010-08-01
The purpose of this paper is to generalize fermionic coherent states for two-level systems described by pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian (Cherbal et al 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 1835) to n-level systems. Central to this task is the expression of the coherent states in terms of generalized Grassmann variables. These kinds of Grassmann coherent states satisfy the bi-overcompleteness condition instead of the overcompleteness one, as it is reasonably expected because of the biorthonormality of the system. Choosing an appropriate Grassmann weight function, the resolution of identity is examined. Moreover Grassmannian coherent and squeezed states of the deformed group SUq(2) for the three-level pseudo-Hermitian system are presented.
Generalized Grassmannian coherent states for pseudo-Hermitian n-level systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Najarbashi, G [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 179 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fasihi, M A [Research Center for Quantum Computing, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Fakhri, H, E-mail: najarbashi@uma.ac.i, E-mail: fasihi@alice.math.kindai.ac.j, E-mail: hfakhri@tabrizu.ac.i [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Tabriz University, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-08-13
The purpose of this paper is to generalize fermionic coherent states for two-level systems described by pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian (Cherbal et al 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 1835) to n-level systems. Central to this task is the expression of the coherent states in terms of generalized Grassmann variables. These kinds of Grassmann coherent states satisfy the bi-overcompleteness condition instead of the overcompleteness one, as it is reasonably expected because of the biorthonormality of the system. Choosing an appropriate Grassmann weight function, the resolution of identity is examined. Moreover Grassmannian coherent and squeezed states of the deformed group SU{sub q}(2) for the three-level pseudo-Hermitian system are presented.
Supergravity for Effective Theories
Daniel Baumann; Daniel Green(Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, U.S.A.)
2011-01-01
Higher-derivative operators are central elements of any effective field theory. In supersymmetric theories, these operators include terms with derivatives in the K\\"ahler potential. We develop a toolkit for coupling such supersymmetric effective field theories to supergravity. We explain how to write the action for minimal supergravity coupled to chiral superfields with arbitrary numbers of derivatives and curvature couplings. We discuss two examples in detail, showing how the component actio...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rijkhoff, Jan
2010-01-01
This paper argues that grammatical theorizing and linguistic typologizing must go hand in hand and that rare typological features play a central role in the interaction of typology and theory. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses a sampling method that (compared to other sampling...... Functional (Discourse) Grammar and sections 4 and 5 are concerned with the crucial role of rara both in theory driven data collection and in data driven theory building....
Avalanches, Scaling and Coherent Noise
Newman, M. E. J.; Sneppen, Kim
1996-01-01
We present a simple model of a dynamical system driven by externally-imposed coherent noise. Although the system never becomes critical in the sense of possessing spatial correlations of arbitrarily long range, it does organize into a stationary state characterized by avalanches with a power-law size distribution. We explain the behavior of the model within a time-averaged approximation, and discuss its potential connection to the dynamics of earthquakes, the Gutenberg-Richter law, and to rec...
Measurement Induced Quantum Coherence Recovery
Xu, JinShi; Li, Chuanfeng; Gong, Ming; Zou, XuBo; Chen, Lei; Chen, Geng; Tang, JianShun; Guo, Guangcan
2008-01-01
We show that measurement can recover the quantum coherence of a qubit in a non-Markovian environment. The experimental demonstration in an optical system is provided by comparing the visibilities (and fidelities) of the final states with and without measurement. This method can be extended to other two-level quantum systems and entangled states in a non-Markovian evolution environment. It may also be used to implement other quantum information processing.
Spin coherence time analytical estimations
Orlov, Yuri
2015-01-01
Section I presents a variety of analytical estimations related to spin coherence time (SCT) in a purely electric frozen-spin ring. The main result is that, in the case of m > 0 and vertical oscillations only, the kinetic energy equilibrium shift equals zero, that is, SCT does not depend on these oscillations. Section II contains additional information on this case concerning terminology, electric field definition and vertical oscillations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨世琳; 杜改萍; 郝玉华
2013-01-01
目的 对Vogt-小柳-原田病患者黄斑中心凹处频域OCT图像特点进行分析,探讨影响患者视力预后因素.方法 经荧光素眼底血管造影确诊的13例(26眼)Vogt-小柳-原田病患者,皮质激素治疗前和治疗后1周、1个月、3个月、6个月进行频域OCT检查,对黄斑中心凹处OCT图像特点进行分析,并对治疗前后视力、眼底进行观察.结果 糖皮质激素治疗后1周42.3％的患眼视力≥0.4,治疗后3个月、6个月≥0.4者分别为73.1％、80.8％.治疗后1个月,大部分荧光素眼底血管造影正常,仅3眼有轻度视盘渗漏.治疗后3个月、6个月,荧光素眼底血管造影23眼未见异常,3眼出现色素紊乱.在皮质激素治疗前,26眼中有25眼(96.1％)黄斑中心凹处存在浆液性视网膜脱离,高度为(341±123) μm.有10眼(38.5％)视网膜层间有囊样间隙的存在,在囊样间隙的底部可见一连续单一的膜样结构平铺于视网膜色素上皮之上,此膜样结构和周围的IS/OS相连续.治疗l周后,25眼中有24眼(96.0％)浆液性视网膜脱离仍然存在,但是视网膜下液明显吸收,其高度为(118±56) μm,比治疗前平均下降65.4％,治疗前后差异有显著统计学意义(P＜0.01).8眼视网膜层间囊样间隙完全消失.治疗后1个月,26眼浆液性视网膜脱离和视网膜层间囊样间隙全部消失.治疗后3个月及6个月,黄斑中心凹OCT图像基本正常.结论 浆液性视网膜脱离是Vogt-小柳-原田病频域OCT图像的共有特点,部分患者视网膜出现层间囊样间隙,此囊样间隙好发于视网膜内外层之间.通过皮质激素治疗,浆液性视网膜脱离和视网膜层间囊样间隙均可吸收消失,但视网膜层间囊样间隙的消失要快于浆液性视网膜脱离.%Objective To explore factors that could affect prognosis of visual acuity by analyzing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(OCT) image features of central fovea of macula in patients with
Quantum learning of coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Quantum learning of coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sentis, Gael [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Barcelona (Spain); Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Disorder-induced coherent scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides
Patterson, M; Combri'e, S; Tran, N -V -Quynh; De Rossi, A; Gabet, R; Jaouen, Y
2009-01-01
We present light transmission measurements and frequency-delay reflectometry maps for GaAs photonic crystal membranes, which show the transition from propagation with a well defined group velocity to a regime completely dominated by disorder-induced coherent scattering. Employing a self-consistent optical scattering theory, with only statistical functions to describe the structural disorder, we obtain an excellent agreement with the experiments using no fitting parameters. Our experiments and theory together provide clear physical insight into naturally occurring light localization and multiple coherent-scattering phenomena in slow-light waveguides.
Central Limit Theory Based Approach to Analyze the Performance of ATM Buffers%基于中心极限定理的ATM缓存性能分析方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
施建俊; 薛质; 朱康辛
2001-01-01
A new analytical technique to determine the tail of queue length distribution at an ATM multiplexer was developed. The ATM multiplexer was modeled as a fluid queue serving a large number of independent sources. The method is mainly based on the central limit theory, and can avoid the state explosion problem. The approach is quite general, as it has little to do with the types of sources.%提出了一种基于中心极限定理的，并能避免其他分析方法中遇到的状态空间剧增的分析ATM复用器缓存队长发布的方法．其网络流量采用大量独立信源复用后的液体流模型．该分析方法和具体的信源类型无关，具有相当大的适用范围．
The Systems Theory Framework of Career Development
McMahon, Mary
2011-01-01
The Systems Theory Framework (STF; McMahon & Patton, 1995; Patton & McMahon, 2006) of career development was proposed as a metatheoretical framework that accommodates the contribution of all theories and offers an integrative and coherent framework of career influences. In this article, the author provides an overview of the STF, outlines its…
A Framework for Theory Development in Foresight
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piirainen, Kalle
The academic literature has frequently observed that foresight lacks a coherent theoretical basis. The discussion on theory of foresight calls for ‘a theory’, but it rarely expounds what the scope of theorizing is or should be. We propose that ‘theory of foresight’ has three overlapping meanings...
Coherent systems and modular subvarieties of SU_C(r)
Bolognesi, Michele
2011-01-01
Let $C$ be an algebraic smooth complex curve of genus $g>1$. The object of this paper is the study of the birational structure of certain moduli spaces of vector bundles and of coherent systems on $C$ and the comparison of different type of notions of stability arising in moduli theory. Notably we show that in certain cases these moduli spaces are birationally equivalent to fibrations over simple projective varieties, whose fibers are GIT quotients $(\\PP^{r-1})^{rg}//PGL(r)$, where $r$ is the rank of the considered vector bundles. This allows us to compare different definitions of (semi-)stability (slope stability, $\\alpha$-stability, GIT stability) for vector bundles, coherent systems and point sets, and derive relations between them. In certain cases of vector bundles of low rank when $C$ has small genus, our construction produces families of classical modular varieties contained in the Coble hypersurfaces.
The Utility of Affine Variables and Affine Coherent States
Klauder, John R
2011-01-01
Affine coherent states are generated by affine kinematical variables much like canonical coherent states are generated by canonical kinematical variables. Although all classical and quantum formalisms normally entail canonical variables, it is shown that affine variables can serve equally well for many classical and quantum studies. This general purpose analysis provides tools to discuss two major applications: (1) the completely successful quantization of a nonrenormalizable scalar quantum field theory by affine techniques, in complete contrast to canonical techniques which only offer triviality; and (2) a formulation of the kinematical portion of quantum gravity that favors affine kinematical variables over canonical kinematical variables, and which generates a framework in which a favorable analysis of the constrained dynamical issues can take place. All this is possible because of the close connection between the affine and the canonical stories, while the few distinctions can be used to advantage when ap...
Optimal Truncation of Element Beam in a Coherent Fiber Laser Array
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Pu; WANG Xiao-Lin; MA Yan-Xing; MA Hao-Tong; LIU Ze-Jin; XU Xiao-Jun
2009-01-01
@@ The beam quality of a coherent fber laser array often suffers from the low fill factor of the Gaussian laser array. One simple and effective approach to improve the fill factor is to truncate the array element properly. An analytical expression for far-field intensity distribution of a truncated coherent fiber laser array is derived. Optimal truncation of the element beam in different coherent fiber laser arrays is obtained by using energy encircled in the far-fieM central-lobe as the beam quality criterion. By optimal truncation, energy encircled in the central-lobe can be 97% compared with the ideal case. The shift in optimal truncation parameter in the case of phase noise is also analyzed.
Theory of coherent dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neder, Izhar; Rudner, Mark Spencer; Halperin, Bertrand
2014-01-01
We consider the production of dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) in a two-electron double quantum dot, in which the electronic levels are repeatedly swept through a singlet-triplet avoided crossing. Our analysis helps to elucidate the intriguing interplay between electron-nuclear hyperfine c...... the system is held near the singlet-triplet avoided crossing for a time on the order of the nuclear Larmor period. Detailed numerical calculations provide a physical picture for understanding the oscillations observed by Foletti et. al. in arXiv:0801.3613....
A simple optical system for interpreting coherence theory
Kelly, Damien P
2016-01-01
A new theoretical technique for understanding, analyzing and developing optical systems is presented. The approach is statistical in nature, where information about an object under investigation is discovered, by examining deviations from a known reference statistical distribution. A Fourier optics framework and a scalar description of the propagation of monochromatic light is initially assumed. An object (belonging to a known class of objects) is illuminated with a speckle field and the intensity of the resulting scattered optical field is detected at a series of spatial locations by point square law detectors. A new speckle field is generated (with a new diffuser) and the object is again illuminated and the intensities are again measured and noted. By making a large number of these statistical measurements - an ensemble averaging process (which in general can be a temporal or a spatial averaging process) - it is possible to determine the statistical relationship between the intensities detected in different...
Wideband Radar Target Detection Theory in Coherent K Distributed Clutter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiandong Meng
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of neglecting K distributed clutter texture on wideband radar distributed targets detection. At first, the texture and the speckle of K clutter are researched and the Probability Density Function (PDF of K clutter and its texture are derived, then the optimal detector by Neyman-Pearson (NP is proposed, by contrast, another detector-Suboptimum Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT neglecting the clutter texture is given. Next, the estimation of covariance matrix is introduced. Finally, the numerical results are presented by means of Monte Carlo simulation strategy and the simulation results highlight that the performance loss of the 2 detectors in different shaping parameter, the result shows that the performance loss of the detector in K distributed clutter less than 1 db due to the texture is neglected and adaptively estimating the covariance matrix and the K clutter texture can be neglected on wideband radar targets detection.
Strong electronic correlation effects in coherent multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy.
Karadimitriou, M E; Kavousanaki, E G; Dani, K M; Fromer, N A; Perakis, I E
2011-05-12
We discuss a many-body theory of the coherent ultrafast nonlinear optical response of systems with a strongly correlated electronic ground state that responds unadiabatically to photoexcitation. We introduce a truncation of quantum kinetic density matrix equations of motion that does not rely on an expansion in terms of the interactions and thus applies to strongly correlated systems. For this we expand in terms of the optical field, separate out contributions to the time-evolved many-body state due to correlated and uncorrelated multiple optical transitions, and use "Hubbard operator" density matrices to describe the exact dynamics of the individual contributions within a subspace of strongly coupled states, including "pure dephasing". Our purpose is to develop a quantum mechanical tool capable of exploring how, by coherently photoexciting selected modes, one can trigger nonlinear dynamics of strongly coupled degrees of freedom. Such dynamics could lead to photoinduced phase transitions. We apply our theory to the nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field. We coherently photoexcite the two lowest Landau level (LL) excitations using three time-delayed optical pulses. We identify some striking temporal and spectral features due to dynamical coupling of the two LLs facilitated by inter-Landau-level magnetoplasmon and magnetoroton excitations and compare to three-pulse four-wave-mixing (FWM) experiments. We show that these features depend sensitively on the dynamics of four-particle correlations between an electron-hole pair and a magnetoplasmon/magnetoroton, reminiscent of exciton-exciton correlations in undoped semiconductors. Our results shed light into unexplored coherent dynamics and relaxation of the quantum Hall system (QHS) and can provide new insight into non-equilibrium co-operative phenomena in strongly correlated systems.
Coherent Radiation from Relativistic Electron Beams.
Chen, Kuan-Ren
Two new laser concepts, the Ion-Ripple Laser (IRL) and the Ion-Channel Laser (ICL), are proposed. A unified theory for coherent radiation from relativistic electron beams devices is developed; the theory not only links the physics of Cyclotron Masers (CMs) and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) but covers the physics of the IRLs and the ICLs. We have also invented a new numerical method, the Neo-Finite -Difference (NFD) method, for electromagnetic plasma simulations and applied it to studies of these lasers. The unified amplification theory compares the growth mechanisms. Two bunching mechanisms (both axial and azimuthal) exist, not only for the noncollective single electron resonance regime, but also in the collective gain regime. Competition or reinforcement between the two bunching mechanisms is determined by the q value (a parameter that determines how the electron oscillation frequency depends on energy), the electron axial velocity, and the wave phase velocity. The unified theory concludes that, for wave amplification, the sign of the electron mismatch frequency is required to be the same as the sign of a bunching parameter that is determined by the total bunching. In an IRL, a relativistic electron beam propagates obliquely through an ion ripple in a plasma. The radiation frequency depends on the beam energy, the ripple wave number, and the angle: omega ~ 2gamma ^{2}k_{ir}ccos theta. By proper choice of device parameters, sources of microwaves, optical, and perhaps even X-rays can be made. The dispersion relation for wave coupling is derived and used to calculate the radiation frequency and linear growth rate. The nonlinear saturation mechanism is explored. Computer simulation is used to verify the ideas, scaling laws and nonlinear mechanisms. In an ICL, the ion focusing force causes the electrons to oscillate about the channel axis and plays a similar role to the magnetic field in a CM. This electron motion is nonlinear and is studied. Simulations were performed
Total quantum coherence and its applications
Yu, Chang-shui; Yang, Si-ren; Guo, Bao-qing
2016-06-01
Quantum coherence is the most fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. The usual understanding of it depends on the choice of the basis, that is, the coherence of the same quantum state is different within different reference framework. To reveal all the potential coherence, we present the total quantum coherence measures in terms of two different methods. One is optimizing maximal basis-dependent coherence with all potential bases considered and the other is quantifying the distance between the state and the incoherent state set. Interestingly, the coherence measures based on relative entropy and l_2 norm have the same form in the two different methods. In particular, we show that the measures based on the non-contractive l_2 norm are also a good measure different from the basis-dependent coherence. In addition, we show that all the measures are analytically calculable and have all the good properties. The experimental schemes for the detection of these coherence measures are also proposed by multiple copies of quantum states instead of reconstructing the full density matrix. By studying one type of quantum probing schemes, we find that both the normalized trace in the scheme of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit and the overlap of two states in quantum overlap measurement schemes can be well described by the change of total coherence of the probing qubit. Hence the nontrivial probing always leads to the change of the total coherence.
Total quantum coherence and its applications
Yu, Chang-shui; Yang, Si-ren; Guo, Bao-qing
2016-09-01
Quantum coherence is the most fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. The usual understanding of it depends on the choice of the basis, that is, the coherence of the same quantum state is different within different reference framework. To reveal all the potential coherence, we present the total quantum coherence measures in terms of two different methods. One is optimizing maximal basis-dependent coherence with all potential bases considered and the other is quantifying the distance between the state and the incoherent state set. Interestingly, the coherence measures based on relative entropy and l_2 norm have the same form in the two different methods. In particular, we show that the measures based on the non-contractive l_2 norm are also a good measure different from the basis-dependent coherence. In addition, we show that all the measures are analytically calculable and have all the good properties. The experimental schemes for the detection of these coherence measures are also proposed by multiple copies of quantum states instead of reconstructing the full density matrix. By studying one type of quantum probing schemes, we find that both the normalized trace in the scheme of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit and the overlap of two states in quantum overlap measurement schemes can be well described by the change of total coherence of the probing qubit. Hence the nontrivial probing always leads to the change of the total coherence.
Go With the Flow, on Jupiter and Snow. Coherence From Video Data without Trajectories
AlMomani, Abd AlRahman
2016-01-01
Viewing a data set such as the clouds of Jupiter, coherence is readily apparent to human observers, especially the Great Red Spot, but also other great storms and persistent structures. There are now many different definitions and perspectives mathematically describing coherent structures, but we will take an image processing perspective here. We describe an image processing perspective inference of coherent sets from a fluidic system directly from image data, without attempting to first model underlying flow fields, related to a concept in image processing called motion tracking. In contrast to standard spectral methods for image processing which are generally related to a symmetric affinity matrix, leading to standard spectral graph theory, we need a not symmetric affinity which arises naturally from the underlying arrow of time. We develop an anisotropic, directed diffusion operator corresponding to flow on a directed graph, from a directed affinity matrix developed with coherence in mind, and correspondin...
Dissipative inertial transport patterns near coherent Lagrangian eddies in the ocean
Beron-Vera, F J; Haller, G; Farazmand, M; Trinanes, J; Wang, Y
2014-01-01
Recent developments in dynamical systems theory have revealed long-lived and coherent Lagrangian (i.e., material) eddies in incompressible, satellite-derived surface ocean velocity fields. Paradoxically, observed drifting buoys and floating matter tend to create dissipative-looking patterns near oceanic eddies, which appear to be inconsistent with the conservative fluid particle patterns created by coherent Lagrangian eddies. Here we show that inclusion of inertial effects (i.e., those produced by the buoyancy and size finiteness of an object) in a rotating two-dimensional incompressible flow context resolves this paradox. Specifically, we obtain that anticyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) negatively (positively) buoyant finite-size particles, while cyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) positively (negatively) buoyant finite-size particles. We show how these results explain dissipative-looking satellite-tracked surface drifter and subsurface float trajectories, as well as satell...
Long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes at physiological temperature
Panitchayangkoon, Gitt; Fransted, Kelly A; Caram, Justin R; Harel, Elad; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E; Engel, Gregory S
2010-01-01
Photosynthetic antenna complexes capture and concentrate solar radiation by transferring the excitation to the reaction center which stores energy from the photon in chemical bonds. This process occurs with near-perfect quantum efficiency. Recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures have revealed that coherent energy transfer - a wavelike transfer mechanism - occurs in many photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes (1-4). Using the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna complex (FMO) as a model system, theoretical studies incorporating both incoherent and coherent transfer as well as thermal dephasing predict that environmentally assisted quantum transfer efficiency peaks near physiological temperature; these studies further show that this process is equivalent to a quantum random walk algorithm (5-8). This theory requires long-lived quantum coherence at room temperature, which never has been observed in FMO. Here we present the first evidence that quantum coherence survives in FMO at physiological temperature for at l...
Dissipative inertial transport patterns near coherent Lagrangian eddies in the ocean.
Beron-Vera, Francisco J; Olascoaga, María J; Haller, George; Farazmand, Mohammad; Triñanes, Joaquín; Wang, Yan
2015-08-01
Recent developments in dynamical systems theory have revealed long-lived and coherent Lagrangian (i.e., material) eddies in incompressible, satellite-derived surface ocean velocity fields. Paradoxically, observed drifting buoys and floating matter tend to create dissipative-looking patterns near oceanic eddies, which appear to be inconsistent with the conservative fluid particle patterns created by coherent Lagrangian eddies. Here, we show that inclusion of inertial effects (i.e., those produced by the buoyancy and size finiteness of an object) in a rotating two-dimensional incompressible flow context resolves this paradox. Specifically, we obtain that anticyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) negatively (positively) buoyant finite-size particles, while cyclonic coherent Lagrangian eddies attract (repel) positively (negatively) buoyant finite-size particles. We show how these results explain dissipative-looking satellite-tracked surface drifter and subsurface float trajectories, as well as satellite-derived Sargassum distributions. PMID:26328583
Ai, Qing; Jin, Bih-Yaw; Cheng, Yuan-Chung
2013-01-01
Elucidating quantum coherence effects and geometrical factors for efficient energy transfer in photosynthesis has the potential to uncover non-classical design principles for advanced organic materials. We study energy transfer in a linear light-harvesting model to reveal that dimerized geometries with strong electronic coherences within donor and acceptor pairs exhibit significantly improved efficiency, which is in marked contrast to predictions of the classical F\\"orster theory. We reveal that energy tuning due to coherent delocalization of photoexcitations is mainly responsible for the efficiency optimization. This coherence-assisted energy-tuning mechanism also explains the energetics and chlorophyll arrangements in the widely-studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. We argue that a clustered network with rapid energy relaxation among donors and resonant energy transfer from donor to acceptor states provides a basic formula for constructing efficient light-harvesting systems, and the general principles revea...
Visibility in differential phase-contrast imaging with partial coherence source
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Xin; Guo Jin-Chuan; Peng Xiang; Niu Han-Ben
2007-01-01
This paper gives theoretical analysis of visibility of fringes, which is influenced by distances, temporal and spatial coherence of source, in hard x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging with microfocus x-ray source. According to the character of longitudinal periodicity of the interferogram, the setup is insensitive to mechanical drift and vibrations. The effect of temporal coherence of x-ray source is investigated and its related bandwidth is derived. Based on the theory of partially coherent light, it shows that the requirement for the spatial coherence of x-ray source is not strict and can be met by the general microfocus x-ray tube for x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging.
Nicolo, Massimo; Rosa, Raffaella; Musetti, Donatella; Musolino, Maria; Traverso, Carlo Enrico
2016-02-01
Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM) is a rare disorder presenting in young people with an acute onset of unilateral central visual loss often associated with a prodromal flu-like illness. The authors present the early anatomical findings of a 35-year-old man clinically diagnosed with UAIM using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and SS-OCT angiography.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Prince, Kamau; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil;
2011-01-01
We propose a passive optical network architecture based on coherent detection for converged delivery of broadcast services from a dedicated remote broadcast server and user-specific services from a local central office. We experimentally demonstrate this architecture with mixed traffic types...
The coherence of life: A new physiology challenging (neo)Darwinism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaeken, Laurent [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Karel de Grote-Hogeschool University College, Salesianenlaan 30, B-2660 Hoboken (Belgium)], E-mail: laurent.jaeken@Kdg.be
2009-10-15
Schroedinger argued that coherent behaviour is one of the most remarkable properties of life. Despite this, it is one of the most neglected properties, studied only by a few groups of rather independent scientists in the domains of physiology but also of fundamental physics. In contrast, classical cell physiology, built on membrane theory, does not take coherent behaviour into account. Recently several independent approaches to the problem of coherence have been unified yielding a new paradigm for cell physiology, which can be derived from a non-linear Schroedinger equation. The new paradigm replaces outdated membrane theory. Similarly (neo)Darwinism is not firmly grounded on fundamental physics. However, during the eighties (neo)Darwinism was taken up in a broader theory of evolution, based on the non-linear equations of fundamental physics. It is argued here that life's coherent behaviour and the new physiology built on these coherent properties is directly compatible with the modern view on evolution, since both are based on the same principles of non-linearity.
Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I;
1989-01-01
The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...
Cohering and decohering power of quantum channels
Mani, Azam; Karimipour, Vahid
2015-09-01
We introduce the concepts of cohering and decohering power of quantum channels. Using the axiomatic definition of the coherence measure, we show that the optimization required for calculations of these measures can be restricted to pure input states and hence greatly simplified. We then use two examples of this measure, one based on the skew information and the other based on the l1 norm; we find the cohering and decohering measures of a number of one-, two-, and n -qubit channels. Contrary to the view at first glance, it is seen that quantum channels can have cohering power. It is also shown that a specific property of a qubit unitary map is that it has equal cohering and decohering power in any basis. Finally, we derive simple relations between cohering and decohering powers of unitary qubit gates and their tensor products, results which have physically interesting implications.
Does coherence enhance transport in photosynthesis?
Kassal, Ivan; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh
2012-01-01
Recent observations of coherence in photosynthetic complexes have led to the question of whether quantum effects can occur in vivo, not under femtosecond laser pulses but in incoherent sunlight and at steady state, and, if so, whether the coherence explains the high exciton transfer efficiency. We distinguish several types of coherence and show that although some photosynthetic pathways are partially coherent processes, photosynthesis in nature proceeds through stationary states. This distinction allows us to rule out several mechanisms of transport enhancement in sunlight. In particular, although they are crucial for understanding exciton transport, neither wavelike motion nor microscopic coherence, on their own, enhance the efficiency. By contrast, two partially coherent mechanisms---ENAQT and supertransfer---can enhance transport even in sunlight and thus constitute motifs for the optimisation of artificial sunlight harvesting. Finally, we clarify the importance of ultrafast spectroscopy in understanding i...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Xiao Qiang; Pryds, Anders; Carlsen, Jørn;
2015-01-01
with clinical examination, enhanced depth optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and fundus photography. RESULTS: At presentation, atypical central serous chorioretinopathy with multiple retinal pigment epithelial detachments, a thick subfoveal choroid, and dilated...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN ZhanJiang; ZHANG Jiadun; ZHOU TianShou
2008-01-01
Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example, we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability. We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch, and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch, but also can amplify a weak input signal. In addition, we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example,we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability.We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch,and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch,but also can amplify a weak input signal.In addition,we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.
SO(10)-GUT coherent baryogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbrecht, Bjoern [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: b.garbrecht@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de; Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: t.prokopec@phys.uu.nl; Schmidt, Michael G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: m.g.schmidt@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de
2006-02-20
A model for GUT baryogenesis, coherent baryogenesis within the framework of supersymmetric SO(10), is considered. In particular, we discuss the Barr-Raby model, where at the end of hybrid inflation charge asymmetries can be created through the time-dependent higgsino-gaugino mixing mass matrix. These asymmetries are processed to Standard Model matter through decays via nonrenormalizable (B-L)-violating operators. We find that a baryon asymmetry in accordance with observation can be generated. An appendix is devoted to provide useful formulas and concrete examples for calculations within SO(10)
Neutral current coherent pion production
Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J Vicente
2007-01-01
We investigate the neutrino induced coherent pion production reaction at low and intermediate energies. The model includes pion, nucleon and Delta(1232) resonance as the relevant hadronic degrees of freedom. Nuclear medium effects on the production mechanisms and pion distortion are taken into account. We obtain that the dominance of the Delta excitation holds due to large cancellations among the background contributions. We consider two sets of vector and axial-vector N-Delta transition form-factors, evidencing the strong sensitivity of the results to the axial coupling C5A(0). The differences between neutrino and antineutrino cross sections, emerging from interference terms, are also discussed.
Metonymic Mind and Discourse Coherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冷晓峰; 范振强
2007-01-01
Based on human bodily experience and the interaction with the objective world,a lot of universal schemata are formed in our brain. Also armed with metonymic mind which is based on Gestalt psychology and neural spreading activation,speakers obtain omissions when coding by making semantic leaps. This is done by selecting and coding part of the schema as reference points and let the addressees to infer the whole schemata or the other parts unsaid. This mechanism explains why discourses are coherent at some deeper level.
Spatial coherence of random laser emission.
Redding, Brandon; Choma, Michael A; Cao, Hui
2011-09-01
We experimentally studied the spatial coherence of random laser emission from dye solutions containing nanoparticles. The spatial coherence, measured in a double slit experiment, varied significantly with the density of scatterers and the size and shape of the excitation volume. A qualitative explanation is provided, illustrating the dramatic difference from the spatial coherence of a conventional laser. This work demonstrates that random lasers can be controlled to provide intense, spatially incoherent emission for applications in which spatial cross talk or speckle limit performance.
Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer
Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.
1993-06-29
The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.
Orbital angular momentum of partially coherent beams
Serna Galán, Julio; Movilla Serrano, Jesús María
2001-01-01
The definition of the orbital angular momentum established for coherent beams is extended to partially coherent beams, expressed in terms of two elements of the beam matrix. This extension is justified by use of the Mercer expansion of partially coherent fields. General Gauss-Schell-model fields are considered, and the relation between the twist; parameter and the orbital angular momentum is analyzed. © 2001 Optical Society of America.
Electronic coherence and the kinetics of inter-complex energy transfer in light-harvesting systems.
Huo, Pengfei; Miller, Thomas F
2015-12-14
We apply real-time path-integral dynamics simulations to characterize the role of electronic coherence in inter-complex excitation energy transfer (EET) processes. The analysis is performed using a system-bath model that exhibits the essential features of light-harvesting networks, including strong intra-complex electronic coupling and weak inter-complex coupling. Strong intra-complex coupling is known to generate both static and dynamic electron coherences, which delocalize the exciton over multiple chromophores and potentially influence the inter-complex EET dynamics. With numerical results from partial linearized density matrix (PLDM) real-time path-integral calculations, it is found that both static and dynamic coherence are correlated with the rate of inter-complex EET. To distinguish the impact of these two types of intra-complex coherence on the rate of inter-complex EET, we use Multi-Chromophore Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (MC-FRET) theory to map the original parameterization of the system-bath model to an alternative parameterization for which the effects of static coherence are preserved while the effects of dynamic coherence are largely eliminated. It is then shown that both parameterizations of the model (i.e., the original that supports dynamic coherence and the alternative that eliminates it), exhibit nearly identical EET kinetics and population dynamics over a wide range of parameters. These observations are found to hold for cases in which either the EET donor or acceptor is a dimeric complex and for cases in which the dimeric complex is either symmetric or asymmetric. The results from this study suggest that dynamic coherence plays only a minor role in the actual kinetics of inter-complex EET, whereas static coherence largely governs the kinetics of incoherent inter-complex EET in light-harvesting networks. PMID:26073739
Computational invariant theory
Derksen, Harm
2015-01-01
This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...
Goetz, Evan
2015-01-01
We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments. For misaligned detectors, however, thi...
Coherent LQG Control, Free-Carrier Oscillations, Optical Ising Machines and Pulsed OPO Dynamics
Hamerly, Ryan
2016-01-01
Broadly speaking, this thesis is about nonlinear optics, quantum mechanics, and computing. More specifically, it covers four main topics: Coherent LQG Control, Free-Carrier Oscillations, Optical Ising Machines and Pulsed OPO Dynamics. Tying them all together is a theory of open quantum systems called the SLH model, which I introduce in Chapters 1-2. The SLH model is a general framework for open quantum systems that interact through bosonic fields, and is the basis for the quantum circuit theory developed in the text. Coherent LQG control is discussed in Chapters 3-4, where I demonstrate that coherent feedback outperforms measurement-based feedback for certain linear quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problems, and explain the discrepancy by the former's simultaneous utilization of both light quadratures. Semiclassical truncated-Wigner techniques for quantum-optical networks are discussed in Chapter 5, leading to a thorough discussion of quantum noise in systems with free-carrier nonlinearities (Chapter 6), comparison t...
Coherent spaces, Boolean rings and quantum gates
Vourdas, A.
2016-10-01
Coherent spaces spanned by a finite number of coherent states, are introduced. Their coherence properties are studied, using the Dirac contour representation. It is shown that the corresponding projectors resolve the identity, and that they transform into projectors of the same type, under displacement transformations, and also under time evolution. The set of these spaces, with the logical OR and AND operations is a distributive lattice, and with the logical XOR and AND operations is a Boolean ring (Stone's formalism). Applications of this Boolean ring into classical CNOT gates with n-ary variables, and also quantum CNOT gates with coherent states, are discussed.
Quantum teleportation of spin coherent states
Pyrkov, Alexey
2013-01-01
We introduce a quantum teleportation scheme that can transfer a macroscopic spin coherent state between two locations. In the scheme a large number of copies of a qubit, such as realized in a coherent two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, is teleported onto a distant macroscopic spin coherent state using only elementary operations and measurements. We analyze the error of the protocol with the number of particles N in the spin coherent state under decoherence and find that it scales favorably with N.
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping
2016-05-18
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Coherent perfect absorption in photonic structures
Baldacci, Lorenzo; Tredicucci, Alessandro
2016-01-01
The ability to drive a system with an external input is a fundamental aspect of light-matter interaction. The coherent perfect absorption (CPA) phenomenon extends to the general multibeam interference phenomenology the well known critical coupling concepts. This interferometric control of absorption can be employed to reach full delivery of optical energy to nanoscale systems such as plasmonic nanoparticles, and multi-port interference can be used to enhance the absorption of a nanoscale device when it is embedded in a strongly scattering system, with potential applications to nanoscale sensing. Here we review the two-port CPA in reference to photonic structures which can resonantly couple to the external fields. A revised two-port theory of CPA is illustrated, which relies on the Scattering Matrix formalism and is valid for all linear two-port systems with reciprocity. Through a semiclassical approach, treating two-port critical coupling conditions in a non-perturbative regime, it is demonstrated that the st...
Mandl, Franz
2010-01-01
Following on from the successful first (1984) and revised (1993) editions, this extended and revised text is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for final year physics students and for postgraduate students beginning research in theoretical and experimental particle physics. The three main objectives of the book are to: Explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory To make the reader proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams To introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play a central role in elementary particle physic
Liu, Lai; Cheng, Tonglei; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Tong, Hoang Tuan; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake
2016-02-01
We report the coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in an all-solid chalcogenide microstructured fiber with all-normal dispersion. The chalcogenide microstructured fiber is four-hole structure with core material of AsSe2 and air holes are replaced by As2S5 glass rods. Coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum light is generated in a 2-cm-long chalcogenide microstructured fiber pumped by a 2.7 μm laser. The simulated and experimental results have a good match and the coherence property of supercontinuum light in the chalcogenide microstructured fiber has been studied by using the complex degree of coherence theory. Coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum generation is extended to 3.3 μm in this work.
Wu, Kenan; Huai, Ying; Jia, Shuqin; Jin, Yuqi
2011-12-19
Coupled simulation based on intracavity partially coherent light model and 3D CFD model is firstly achieved in this paper. The dynamic equation of partially coherent intracavity field is derived based on partially coherent light theory. A numerical scheme for the coupled simulation as well as a method for computing the intracavity partially coherent field is given. The presented model explains the formation of the sugar scooping phenomenon, and enables studies on the dependence of the spatial mode spectrum on physical parameters of laser cavity and gain medium. Computational results show that as the flow rate of iodine increases, higher order mode components dominate in the partially coherent field. Results obtained by the proposed model are in good agreement with experimental results. PMID:22274214
Liu, Shi-you; Huang, Jie-Hui; Hu, Li-Yun; Duan, Zheng-lu; Xu, Xue-xiang; JI, YING-HUA
2014-01-01
A new entangled quantum state is introduced by applying local coherent superposition (ra^+ +ta) of photon subtraction and addition to each mode of even entangled coherent state (EECS) and the properties of entanglement are investigated. It is found that the Shchukin-Vogel inseparability, the degree of entanglement and the average fidelity of quantum teleportation of the EECS can be improved due to the coherent superposition operation. The effects of improvement by coherent superposition opera...
Summability theory and its applications
Feyzi, Basar
2012-01-01
The theory of summability has many uses throughout analysis and applied mathematics. Engineers and physicists working with Fourier series or analytic continuation will also find the concepts of summability theory valuable to their research. The concepts of summability have been extended to the sequences of fuzzy numbers and also to the theorems of ergodic theory. This e-book explains various aspects of summability and demonstrates applications in a coherent manner. The content can readily serve as a useful series of lecture notes on the subject. This e-book comprises of 8 chapters starting
Identification of the sensory/motor area and pathologic regions using ECoG coherence.
Towle, V L; Syed, I; Berger, C; Grzesczcuk, R; Milton, J; Erickson, R K; Cogen, P; Berkson, E; Spire, J P
1998-01-01
An electrophysiologic mapping technique which enables identification of the central sulcus and pathologic cortical regions is described. Electrocorticographic recordings of 1 min duration were recorded from 25 patients who were undergoing resection of tumors in the sensory-motor region or being evaluated for temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Analysis of the patterns of subdural inter-electrode coherence revealed low coherence across the central sulcus for 11/12 cases where its location could be verified with direct cortical stimulation and/or somatosensory evoked potential mapping. Regions of high coherence identified the location of tumors in the sensory-motor region for 10/10 cases. Over the temporal lobe, localized areas of high coherence were evident in 8/9 epilepsy patients, but were not indicative of the location of mesial temporal lobe tumors or inter-ictal spiking, when present. We conclude that analysis of cortical coherence patterns may be helpful for revealing the location of pathologic processes relative to critical cortical areas.
Optical coherence domain reflectometry guidewire
Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis
2001-01-01
A guidewire with optical sensing capabilities is based on a multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometer (OCDR), which allows it to sense location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions as it travels through the body during minimally invasive medical procedures. This information will be used both to direct the guidewire through the body by detecting vascular junctions and to evaluate the nearby tissue. The guidewire contains multiple optical fibers which couple light from the proximal to distal end. Light from the fibers at the distal end of the guidewire is directed onto interior cavity walls via small diameter optics such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes. Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers, which are multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The guidewire can also be used in nonmedical applications.
Discourse Coherence in Pronoun Resolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clare Patterson
2013-07-01
Full Text Available According to “Centering Theory”, an entity that links to the prior discourse could receive a boost in the current prominence ranking. Such a boost will affect pronoun processing because pronouns tend to seek out the most prominent entity for reference. The current paper presents a reanalysis of data from a study that investigated how pronoun processing was affected by the prior discourse. In an eye-movement monitoring experiment, English speakers were presented with texts that manipulated (1 the pronoun’s gender match with possible antecedents and (2 the appearance of the antecedents in prior discourse. The results showed that prior discourse affected eye-movement measures from the pronoun region onwards, but the antecedents were differently affected by this manipulation. The results can be accounted for if the overall discourse coherence is taken into account, especially the number of switches in attention that a reader/hearer has to make. More attention switches in a relatively short discourse may have created uncertainty about the local discourse topic, making pronoun processing more problematic. This study shows that the prior discourse can influence the processing of pronouns, but processing is also affected by coherence.