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Sample records for central china reveals

  1. Evidence of ancient DNA reveals the first European lineage in Iron Age Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C Z; Li, C X; Cui, Y Q; Zhang, Q C; Fu, Y Q; Zhu, H; Zhou, H

    2007-07-01

    Various studies on ancient DNA have attempted to reconstruct population movement in Asia, with much interest focused on determining the arrival of European lineages in ancient East Asia. Here, we discuss our analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of human remains excavated from the Yu Hong tomb in Taiyuan, China, dated 1400 years ago. The burial style of this tomb is characteristic of Central Asia at that time. Our analysis shows that Yu Hong belonged to the haplogroup U5, one of the oldest western Eurasian-specific haplogroups, while his wife can be classified as haplogroup G, the type prevalent in East Asia. Our findings show that this man with European lineage arrived in Taiyuan approximately 1400 years ago, and most probably married a local woman. Haplogroup U5 was the first west Eurasian-specific lineage to be found in the central part of ancient China, and Taiyuan may be the easternmost location of the discovered remains of European lineage in ancient China.

  2. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2016-06-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  3. Flooding in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  4. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Per Alström; Tianlong Cai1; Paul I Holt; Hung Le Manh; Gang Song; Yang Liu; Yanyun Zhang; Fumin Lei; Canwei Xia; Pamela C Rasmussen; Urban Olsson; Bo Dai; Jian Zhao; Paul J Leader; Geoff J Carey; Lu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background:The Russet Bush Warbler Locustel a (previously Bradypterus) mandel i complex occurs in mountains in the eastern Himalayas, southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The taxonomy has been debated, with one (L. seebohmi) to four (L. seebohmi, L. mandel i, L. montis and L. timorensis) species having been recognised. Methods:We used an integrative approach, incorporating analyses of morphology, vocalizations and a molecular marker, to re-evaluate species limits in the L. mandel i complex. Results:We found that central Chinese L. mandel i differed from those from India through northern Southeast Asia to southeast China in plumage, morphometrics and song. All were easily classified by song, and (wing+culmen)/tail ratio overlapped only marginally. Both groups were reciprocally monophyletic in a mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene tree, with a mean divergence of 1.0 ± 0.2%. They were sympatric and mostly altitudinally segregated in the breeding season in southern Sichuan province. We found that the Mt Victoria (western Myanmar) population differed vocally from other L. mandel i, but no specimens are available. Taiwan Bush Warbler L. alishanensis was sister to the L. mandel i complex, with the most divergent song. Plumage, vocal and cytb evidence supported the distinctness of the south Vietnamese L. mandel i idonea. The Timor Bush Warbler L. timorensis, Javan Bush Warbler L. montis and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi differed distinctly in plumage, but among-population song variation in L. montis exceeded the differences between some populations of these taxa, and mean pairwise cytb divergences were only 0.5–0.9%. We also found that some L. montis populations differed morphologically. Conclusions:We conclude that the central Chinese population of Russet Bush Warbler represents a new species, which we describe herein, breeding at mid elevations in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces. The taxonomic status of the other

  5. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Per; Alstr?m; Canwei; Xia; Pamela; C; Rasmussen; Urban; Olsson; Bo; Dai; Jian; Zhao; Paul; J; Leader; Geoff; J; Carey; Lu; Dong; Tianlong; Cai; Paul; I; Holt; Hung; Le; Manh; Gang; Song; Yang; Liu; Yanyun; Zhang; Fumin; Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Russet Bush Warbler Locustella(previously Bradypterus) mandelli complex occurs in mountains in the eastern Himalayas, southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The taxonomy has been debated,with one(L. seebohmi) to four(L. seebohmi, L. mandelli, L. montis and L. timorensis) species having been recognised.Methods: We used an integrative approach, incorporating analyses of morphology, vocalizations and a molecular marker, to re-evaluate species limits in the L. mandelli complex.Results: We found that central Chinese L. mandelli differed from those from India through northern Southeast Asia to southeast China in plumage, morphometrics and song. All were easily classified by song, and(wing + culmen)/tail ratio overlapped only marginally. Both groups were reciprocally monophyletic in a mitochondrial cytochrome b(cytb) gene tree, with a mean divergence of 1.0 ± 0.2%. They were sympatric and mostly altitudinally segregated in the breeding season in southern Sichuan province. We found that the Mt Victoria(western Myanmar) population differed vocally from other L. mandelli, but no specimens are available. Taiwan Bush Warbler L. alishanensis was sister to the L. mandelli complex, with the most divergent song. Plumage, vocal and cytb evidence supported the distinctness of the south Vietnamese L. mandelli idonea. The Timor Bush Warbler L. timorensis, Javan Bush Warbler L.montis and Benguet Bush Warbler L. seebohmi differed distinctly in plumage, but among-population song variation in L. montis exceeded the differences between some populations of these taxa, and mean pairwise cytb divergences were only 0.5–0.9%. We also found that some L. montis populations differed morphologically.Conclusions: We conclude that the central Chinese population of Russet Bush Warbler represents a new species,which we describe herein, breeding at mid elevations in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan and Guizhou provinces.The taxonomic status of the other allopatric

  6. Hope for Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cities surrounding Changsha and Wuhan in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River will ally to form a new pilot zone to boost regional economic development China’s fourth pilot zone for compre- hensive and coordinated economic reform will soon debut in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,open- ing a new area to attract foreign investment. The application has been submitted to the State Council for approval. The pilot zone will include two clusters of cities in central China:One consists of Wuhan,capital of Hubei Province,and eight surrounding cities in Hubei,and the other is composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,three major cities in Hunan Province.

  7. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Land Subsidence and Uplift (2009–2010) over Wuhan in Central China Revealed by TerraSAR-X InSAR Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bai; Liming Jiang; Hansheng Wang; Qishi Sun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ground deformation pose a significant geo-hazard to the environment and infrastructure in Wuhan, the most populous city in Central China, in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Prior to this study, however, rates and patterns of region-wide ground deformation in Wuhan were little known. Here we employ multi-temporal SAR interferometry to detect and characterize spatiotemporal variations of ground deformation in major metropolitan areas ...

  8. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Land Subsidence and Uplift (2009–2010 over Wuhan in Central China Revealed by TerraSAR-X InSAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ground deformation pose a significant geo-hazard to the environment and infrastructure in Wuhan, the most populous city in Central China, in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Prior to this study, however, rates and patterns of region-wide ground deformation in Wuhan were little known. Here we employ multi-temporal SAR interferometry to detect and characterize spatiotemporal variations of ground deformation in major metropolitan areas in Wuhan. A total of twelve TerraSAR-X images acquired during 2009–2010 are used in the InSAR time series analysis. InSAR-derived results are validated by levelling survey measurements and reveal a distinct subsidence pattern within six zones in major commercial and industrial areas, with a maximum subsidence rate up to −67.3 mm/year. A comparison analysis between subsiding patterns and urban developments as well as geological conditions suggests that land subsidence in Wuhan is mainly attributed to anthropogenic activities, natural compaction of soft soil, and karst dissolution of subsurface carbonate rocks. However, anthropogenic activities related to intensive municipal construction and industrial production have more significant impacts on the measured subsidence than natural factors. Moreover, remarkable signals of secular land uplift are found along both banks of the Yangtze River, especially along the southern bank, with deformation rates ranging mostly from +5 mm/year to +17.5 mm/year. A strong temporal correlation is highlighted between the detected displacement evolutions and the water level records of the Yangtze River, inferring that this previously unknown deformation phenomenon is likely related to seasonal fluctuations in water levels of the Yangtze River.

  9. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

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    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in

  10. New Neanurinae (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ru; Wang, Wen-Bin; Jiang, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, two of Vitronura and one of Lobellina of subfamily Neanurinae (Neanuridae, Collembola) from Central China are described. In addition a key for valid Lobellina species is included. PMID:27470797

  11. China-Central Asia Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The China-Central Asia Friendship Association(CCAFA) held its inaugural meeting in Beijing on December 18,2007. The CCAFA,founded at the initiation of the CPAFFC,is a national non-profit social organization with legal person status.It aims to further expand people-to-people contact between China and the five Central Asian countries,namely Kazakhstan,Kirghizstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan,enhance regional cooperation and deepen good-neighbourly relations so as to consolidate the social foundation for lasting friendship between China and these countries and promote common development.

  12. China-Central Asia Power Cooperation Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo

    2010-01-01

    After analyzing the basic information,distribution of energy resources and condition of power industry in Central Asia, the high feasibility for China to cooperate closely with Central Asia in transnational power interconnection, power investment and technology exchanges, etc. is studied. Furthermore, the forms, mechanisms, existing problems and suggestions for the improvement of current policies related to the power cooperation are proposed.

  13. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level. PMID:26057010

  14. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  15. The August 1975 Flood over Central China

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    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Liu, Maofeng; Baeck, MaryLynn

    2016-04-01

    The August 1975 flood in Central China was one of the most destructive floods in history, resulting in 26 000 fatalities, leaving about 10 million people with insufficient shelter, and producing long-lasting famine and disease. Extreme rainfall responsible for this flood event was associated with typhoon Nina during 5-7 August 1975. Despite the prominence of the August 1975 flood, analyses of the storms producing the flood and the resulting flood are sparse. Even fewer attempts were made from the perspective of numerical simulations. We examine details of extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood based on downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by 20th Century Reanalysis fields. We further placed key hydrometeorological features for the flood event in a climatological context through the analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Results indicate interrelated roles of multiple mesoscale ingredients for deep, moist convection in producing extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood, superimposed over an anomalous synoptic environment. Attribution analyses on the source of water vapor for this flood event will be conducted based on a Lagrangian parcel tracking algorithm LAGRANTO. Analytical framework developed in this study aims to explore utilization of hydrometeorological approach in flood-control engineering designs by providing details on key elements of flood-producing storms.

  16. Discussion on Power Market Mode of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhaocheng; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Central China power system is one of the large regional power grids carrying out power market demonstrative project. Because of lacking power market experience, a lot of problems need to be thoroughly discussed.

  17. Central American Federation of Friendship with China Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The preparatory meeting for the founding of the Central American Federation of Friendship with China (CAFFC) was held in the capital of Nicaragua from March 23 to 24. The meeting was convened to implement

  18. Gendering China studies: peripheral perspectives, central questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Kloet

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between the field of China studies and the field of gender and sexuality studies. It engages with three questions. First, why is it that theoretical, conceptual and methodological cross-fertilization between China studies and cultural studies remains quite scarc

  19. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Pan

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  20. Self-Organized Criticality of Rainfall in Central China

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    Zhiliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall is a complexity dynamics process. In this paper, our objective is to find the evidence of self-organized criticality (SOC for rain datasets in China by employing the theory and method of SOC. For this reason, we analyzed the long-term rain records of five meteorological stations in Henan, a central province of China. Three concepts, that is, rain duration, drought duration, accumulated rain amount, are proposed to characterize these rain events processes. We investigate their dynamics property by using scale invariant and found that the long-term rain processes in central China indeed exhibit the feature of self-organized criticality. The proposed theory and method may be suitable to analyze other datasets from different climate zones in China.

  1. Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajing; Liu, Li; Ball, Terry; Yu, Linjie; Li, Yuanqing; Xing, Fulai

    2016-06-01

    The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later. PMID:27217567

  2. Seismic Zonation of Central-Southern Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Xu Guangyin; Chen Kun; Gao Mengtan

    2007-01-01

    Based on basic data used in compiling the Zonation Map of Earthquake Ground Motion Parameters in China, recent research on seismic safety assessment for engineering sites in central-southern Hunan Province, the new attenuation relationships of moderate earthquakes and the background seismicity data obtained by modern instrumental earthquake records since 1970, a new result of seismic zonation of central-southern Hunan Province is provided. The result shows that the area with PGA = 0.05g has obviously increased in the new map compared with the previous one and is relatively consistent with the seismic disaster characteristics of moderate earthquakes that took place in the central-southern part of Hunan in recent years.This result will benefit the research and compilation of a new-generation seismic zonation map of earthquake ground motion parameters and the seismic hazard assessment in the moderate earthquake active regions in the central and eastern part of China.

  3. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  4. Paleozoic magmatism and metamorphism in the Central Tianshan block revealed by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope studies of detrital zircons from the South Tianshan belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Zhao, Guochun; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Sun, Min; Han, Yigui; Hou, Wenzhu; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo; Liu, Qian; Xu, Bing

    2015-09-01

    As a major Precambrian microcontinent in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), the Central Tianshan block (CTS) in the Chinese Tianshan is essential for understanding the final assembly of the southern CAOB. It experienced multistage Paleozoic magmatism and metamorphism, but the detailed processes are still controversial and far from being completely understood. This paper reports coupled U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data of detrital zircons from late Paleozoic (meta-)sedimentary strata in the South Tianshan belt, which can provide new insight into deciphering the Paleozoic evolution of the eastern segment of the CTS block. Characterized by typical oscillatory zoning and high Th/U ratios (> 0.2), detrital zircons in the Permian sedimentary samples yield dominant age populations at ca. 505-490 Ma, 475-440 Ma, 430-400 Ma and 340-250 Ma, pinpointing the development of four episodes of magmatism in the eastern CTS block. Particularly, Ordovician-Silurian (475-440 Ma) zircons, possessing low negative εHf(t) values, predominate in sedimentary strata in and surrounding the CTS block, indicating that the 475-440 Ma magmatic rocks probably constitute the main body of the CTS block. The origin of this (early Paleozoic) episode of magmatism was most likely related to the southward subduction of the Junggar Ocean beneath the CTS block. Carboniferous-Triassic (340-250 Ma) zircons have dominantly positive εHf(t) values, probably derived from the post-collisional juvenile rocks in the CTS block. Combined with previous studies, our data suggest that the single source terrane for the sampled strata was the CTS block, which had been a topographic high providing substantial detritus to the surrounding areas at least since the Early Permian. In the metasedimentary sample, detrital zircons mostly show partially/fully recrystallized internal textures and low Th/U ratios (isotopes and Ti-in-zircon thermometer of metamorphic zircons in this study, as well as previous

  5. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Rural Area in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qing-zhen; Gao, Geng-he; Shi, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural area in central China is a densely populated area with a lot of agricultural population, relatively developed agriculture and relatively backward non-agriculture. Its development status affects the process of rising strategy in central region, restricts the construction of a well-off society and a harmonious society in the central region and even China. Based on this, major problems in the development of agricultural area of central China are analyzed, such as large population of...

  6. Modeling contaminant concentration distributions in China's centralized source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Qian, Song S; Hao, Fanghua; Cheng, Hongguang; Zhu, Dangsheng; Zhang, Jianyong

    2011-07-15

    Characterizing contaminant occurrences in China's centralized source waters can provide an understanding of source water quality for stakeholders. The single-factor (i.e., worst contaminant) water-quality assessment method, commonly used in Chinese official analysis and publications, provides a qualitative summary of the country's water-quality status but does not specify the extent and degree of specific contaminant occurrences at the national level. Such information is needed for developing scientifically sound management strategies. This article presents a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for estimating contaminant concentration distributions in China's centralized source waters using arsenic and fluoride as examples. The data used are from the most recent national census of centralized source waters in 2006. The article uses three commonly used source water stratification methods to establish alternative hierarchical structures reflecting alternative model assumptions as well as competing management needs in characterizing pollutant occurrences. The results indicate that the probability of arsenic exceeding the standard of 0.05 mg/L is about 0.96-1.68% and the probability of fluoride exceeding 1 mg/L is about 9.56-9.96% nationally, both with strong spatial patterns. The article also discusses the use of the Bayesian approach for establishing a source water-quality information management system as well as other applications of our methods. PMID:21692445

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Central China and Adaptation Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yong-Jian; CUI Jiang-Xue; WAN Su-Qin; LIU Min; CHEN Zheng-Hong; LIAO Yu-Fang; WANG Ji-Jun

    2013-01-01

    In Central China, the obvious climate change has happened along with global warming. Based on the observational analysis, the climate change has significant effects, both positive and negative, in every field within the study area, and with the harmful effects far more prevalent. Under the scenario A1B, it is reported that temperature, precipitation, days of heat waves and extreme precipitation intensity will increase at respective rates of 0.38◦C per decade, 12.6 mm per decade, 6.4 d and 47 mm per decade in the 21st century. It is widely believed that these climate changes in the future will result in some apparent impacts on agro-ecosystems, water resources, wetland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, human health, energy sectors and other sensitive fields in Central China. Due to the limited scientific knowledge and researches, there are still some shortages in the climate change assessment methodologies and many uncertainties in the climate prediction results. Therefore, it is urgent and essential to increase the studies of the regional climate change adaptation, extend the research fields, and enhance the studies in the extreme weather and climate events to reduce the uncertainties of the climate change assessments.

  8. Genotype Distribution and Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Hubei, Central China.

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    Jing Peng

    Full Text Available Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Central China.A total of 570 patients from Hubei Province in central China were enrolled. These patients were tested positive for HCV antibody prior to blood transfusion. Among them, 177 were characterized by partial NS5B and/or Core-E1 sequences and classified into five subtypes: 1b, 83.0% (147/177; 2a, 13.0% (23/177; 3b, 2.3% (4/177; 6a, 1.1% (2/177; 3a, 0.6% (1/177. Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users. Phylogeographic analyses based on the coalescent datasets demonstrated that 1b, 2a, 3b, and 6a were locally epidemic in Hubei Province. Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes. Implementation of mandatory HCV screening before donation has significantly decreased the incidence of transfusion-associated HCV infection since 1997. More attention should be paid to intravenous drug use and unsafe sexual contact, which may have become new risk factors for HCV infection in Hubei Province.

  9. Properties of large-scale TIDs observed in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Qiulin(汤秋林); WAN; Weixing(万卫星); NING; Baiqi(宁百齐); YUAN; Hong(袁洪)

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the large scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) using the observation data of an HF Doppler array located in Central China. The data observed in a high solar activity year (year 1989) are analyzed to obtain the main propagation parameters of LSTIDs such as period, horizontal phase velocity and propagating direction. Results are outlined as follows: Most of the LSTIDs propagate southward; others tend to propagate northward, mostly in summer; dispersion of most LSTIDs is matched with that of Lamb pseudomode, while others have the dispersion of long period gravity wave mode. The horizontal phase velocities of these two modes are about 220 and 450 m/s respectively. The analysis shows that LSTIDs are strongly pertinent to solar activity and space magnetic storms; thus the results presented here are significant for the research of ionospheric weather in mid-low latitude region.

  10. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  11. Species and distribution of mountain bamboos in Shennongjia, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-hua; ZHAOBen-yuan; ZHUZhao-quan

    2003-01-01

    Inventory recorded 4 genera and 11 spacies of mountain bamboss in Shennongjia,Central China.Of these,4 species (Phyllostachys nigra var.henonis,Ph,heteroclada,Ph.nidularia and Ph.Bambuskoides) beiong to the monopodial bamboo,4 species(lndocalamus latifolius,I.longiauritus,l.wilsoni and l.tessellatus)to the amphipodial barnboo,and 3 species(Fargesia spathaces,F.munelae and Yushania contusa)to the sympodial bamboo.Monopoodial bamboos grow on the gentle slopes below 1800m asl,occurring from the subtropical belt to the temperate belt in the vertical climatic spectrum of the mountain;Sympodial bamboos occur in higher elevations,ranging from the warm temperate(1200m),across the mediate temperate and cold temperate,to the mountaintops of the frigid temperate belt(3100m).Amphipodial bamboos occur in all climate types except the frigid temperate belt.three dominant species,F.spathacea,F.murielae and Y.confusa,currently cover 12%,9% and 3% of the mountain ranges in Shannongjia,respectively.

  12. Roaming Earthquakes in North China and Central-Eastern US: How and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Large earthquakes in mid-continents often occur in unexpected places. In North China, large earthquakes roamed between distant fault systems in the past 2000 years such that no large events ruptured the same fault segment twice during this period. In the central-eastern US, although historic earthquake records only go back a few hundred years, increasing paleoseismic evidence reveals large events in places of little seismicity today. Such spatiotemporal patterns of mid-continental earthquakes differ significantly from those at plate boundary zones, where relative plate motion loads the plate boundary faults steadily at relatively high rates, leading to localized seismicity with some arguable quasi-periodicity. In mid-continents, tectonic loading is slow and accommodated collectively by a complex system of interacting faults, each of which can be active for a short period after long dormancy. The mechanics of fault interaction in mid-continents remain to be fully understood. Besides the well studied Coulomb stress perturbations due to dislocation on the fault planes, property changes of fault zones by a large rupture may cause redistribution of regional stress and strain fields in mid-continents. Further studies of fault interaction and the resulting spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in mid-continents are imperative for improving earthquake hazard assessment in North China, central-eastern US, and other highly populated and earthquake-prone mid-continents.

  13. Weathered Mantle Hosted Gold Deposit at Shewushan, Hubei, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A supergene gold deposit is located at Shewushan, south Hubei, Central China. The Au mass fraction of the supergene deposits ranges from 1.0×10-6 to 19.5×10-6, with an average of about 2.2×10-6. Primary gold mineralization is closely associated with the well developed faults and fractures mainly on the crest of the reverse anticline with gold mass fraction rarely exceeding 1.0×10-6 (average 0.6×10-6), the gold occurs as small Ag-bearing particles in association with illite and kaolinite, and partly incorporated within the lattice of pyrite. Fluid inclusion studies on the gold mineralization yield trapping temperatures and pressures from 110 ℃to 290 ℃ and 410×105 to 460×105 Pa, respectively. The salinities of mineralization fluids range from 2.6 % to 8.4 % w(NaCl, equivalent). Calculated δ(18O) values and measured δ(D) data of the hypogene fluids indicate a meteoric origin. These fluids underwent extreme 18O enrichment by reacting with country carbonate rock. Supergene gold mineralization is confined largely to the lower portion at the weathered mantle; the gold occurs as small native gold particles accompanied by clay minerals, kaolinite and illite and Mn and Fe oxides. Geochemical investigation shows that Au, together with As and Sb, decreases progressively from the top of ore body to some 2 kilometers away and define a lateral dispersion halo. It is proposed that the gold is mobilized by surficial leaching and concentrated at the lower portion of the weathering profile, and thio-sulfate may play an active role in gold dissolution and re-precipitation.

  14. Nitrogen Mineralization Potentials of Upland Soils in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJIA-ZHOU; QINHUA-CHANG

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization potentials of 15 soil samples were studied by the methods of soil aerobic incubation,and the correlation between the potentials and the amounts of nitrogen taken up by rye grass(Lolium,multiflorum Lam.) in pot culture was calculated.The soils were collected from Hubei Province in Central China.Soil nitrogen mineralization potentials(No) were calculated and optimized by a quick-BASIC program,No ranged from 60 mg kg-1 to 340mg kg-1,which accounted for 9.1%to 34.6% of the total nitrogen content.Among the examined soils,yellow-brown soil collected from Wuhan had the largest No and brown-red soil from Xianning had the smallest one.The mineralization rate constants(k) ranged from 0.00556d-1 to 0.01280d-1,in average 0.00882 d-1,Chao soil from Wuhan had the greatest k while yellowcinamon soil from Zhaoyang had the smallest one.There were apparent differences between mineralization parameters(NO and k) optimized and non-optimized ones,Optimized No had a better correlation than non-optimized No with the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial parts of rye grass.No,No×k and Nt(accumulated mineralized nitrogen Within time t ) could be used as indexes of soil nitrogen supply,Among them Nt was the best,which was significantly correlated with the amounts of nirogen accumulated in the aerial parts of rye grass harvested at three different times.

  15. PetroChina, Central Asia Oil Company Ltd Signed Oil Development Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ PetroChina and the Central Asia Oil Company Ltd signed a contract of oil development and production for Block 413 in Songliao Basin in Beijing on July 16. This is the first oil development and production contract signed by PetroChina for external cooperation this year.

  16. Mobile LiDAR Measurement for Aerosol Investigation in South-Central Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Yunhui; Wong Man, Sing; Wang, Runfeng; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Wang, Luyao; Bai, Yang; Rao, Lanlan

    2016-04-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China during the last decades, the increasing anthropogenic pollutant emissions have significantly caused serious air pollution problems which are adversely influencing public health. Hebei is one of the most air polluted provinces in China. In January 2013, an extremely severe and persistent haze episode with record-breaking PM2.5 outbreak affecting hundreds of millions of people occurred over eastern and northern China. During that haze episode, 7 of the top 10 most polluted cities in China were located in the Hebei Province according to the report of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. To investigate and the spatial difference and to characterize the vertical distribution of aerosol in different regions of south-central Hebei, mobile measurements were carried out using a mini micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MiniMPL) in March 2014. The mobile LiDAR kit consisting of a MiniMPL, a vibration reduction mount, a power inverter, a Windows surface tablet and a GPS receiver were mounted in a car watching though the sunroof opening. For comparison, a fixed measurement using a traditional micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MPL-4B) was conducted simultaneously in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. The equipped car was driven from downtown Shijiazhuang by way of suburban and rural area to downtown Cangzhou, Handan, and Baoding respectively at almost stable speed around 100Km per hour along different routes which counted in total more than 1000Km. The results can be summarized as: 1) the spatial distribution of total aerosol optical depth along the measurement routes in south-central Hebei was controlled by local terrain and population in general, with high values in downtown and suburban in the plain areas, and low values in rural areas along Taihang mountain to the west and Yan mountain to the north; 2) obviously high AODs were obtained at roads crossing points, inside densely populated area and nearby

  17. Practices, perceptions, and implications of fertilizer use in East-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Fang, Shubo

    2015-11-01

    Face-to-face interviews (n = 553) were conducted in five counties in East-Central China to study farmers' fertilizer application behaviors, decision-making processes, attitudes towards adopting better fertilizer application technologies, and environmental consciousness. The survey results revealed widespread fertilizer misapplication and highly variable application behaviors in the study regions. The lack of scientific knowledge on fertilizers and the absence of guidance from agricultural extension services have forced the farmers to rely on personal judgment and advice from fertilizer dealers and friends to make decisions in fertilizer application. Overall, farmers have been idiosyncratic in fertilizer application with limited adoption of better fertilizer application technologies. There are great potentials for reducing pollutant load from agricultural runoff through promoting scientific fertilizer application in the regions. However, farmers' diverse preferences over agricultural extension programs necessitate an integrated approach emphasizing farmer involvement throughout the development of such programs for promoting better fertilizer application practices.

  18. Trans-boundary aerosol transport during a winter haze episode in China revealed by ground-based Lidar and CALIPSO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wu, Lixin; Wong, Man Sing; Letu, Husi; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Sheng, Shijie; Teng, Jiyao; Xiao, Xin; Yuan, Limei

    2016-09-01

    By employing PM2.5 observation data, ground-based lidar measurements, MODIS and CALIPSO satellite images, meteorological data, and back trajectories analysis, we investigate a trans-boundary transport of aerosols during a large-area haze episode in China during 3-5 January 2015. The ground-based lidar observations indicated similar episodes of external aerosols passing through and mixing into three East China cities. A considerable amount of total AOD below 3 km (46% in average) was contributed by the external aerosol layers during passing over and importing. CALIPSO satellite observations of central and eastern China revealed a high altitude pollutant belt on January 3. Although the severest ground pollution was found in central and south-eastern Hebei, the high altitude pollution transport was greater in south-western Shandong, north-western Jiangsu, and north-western Anhui. These observations along with the analysis of air mass trajectories and wind fields indicates pollutants moving from Hebei, Henan and Hubei probably contributed to the haze pollution in Shandong and Jiangsu. This study reveals haze transports from North China Plain to East China could be a common phenomenon influenced by the winter monsoon in northern China. Hence, effective control of air pollution requires collaboration among different cities and provinces throughout China. The long-term measurements of aerosol vertical properties by ground-based lidar and CALIPSO are extremely valuable in quantifying the contributions of external factors and will be helpful in validating and improving various air quality models.

  19. The potential of alternative rail freight transport corridors between central europe and china

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, D.M.Z.; Zunder, T.H.; Jackson, R.; Nesterova, N.; Burgess, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the potential of three rail corridors: Trans-Sib, Central and TRACECA for freight transport between Central Europe and China. The paper applies a qualitative research method including a review of current literature and interviews. The research examines the technical, operational a

  20. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  1. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies. PMID:26103990

  2. Central and Eastern European NGO Delegation Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正At the invitation of CAFIU, a 15-member delegation composed of representatives from Civil Association "Polish House", "Amicus Europe" (Friends of Europe) Foundation of Poland, "World Bridge" Foundation of Hungary, Czech-China

  3. Developing Rural Central Towns:A Logical Necessity of Urbanization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There are a great number of small towns that distribute widely in China.How to develop a group of medium-and small-sized cities through central town development has turned into a strategic issue in the urbanization process of China.The paper analyzes the development goal of medium-and small-sized cities and the advantages and limitation for current central town development.It is stressed that developing central towns is a necessary process for China’s urbanization.

  4. THE PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN CHINA: EVIDENCE FROM THE CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Luo, Renfu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Although China has experienced rapid economic growth over the past few decades, significant health and nutritional problems remain. Little work has been done to track basic diseases, such as iron-deficiency anemia, so the exact prevalence of these health problems is unknown. The goals of this study were to assess the prevalence of anemia in China and identify individual, household and community-based factors associated with anemia. We used data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), including the measurement of hemoglobin levels among 7,261 individuals from 170 communities and 7 provinces in central and eastern China. The overall prevalence of anemia was 13.4% using the WHO's blood hemoglobin thresholds (1968). This means in China's more developed central and eastern regions up to 180 million people may be anemic. Some vulnerable subgroups were disproportionately affected by anemia. Seniors (aged 60 years and above) were more likely to be anemic than younger age cohorts, and females had higher anemia prevalence among all age groups except among children aged 7 to 14 years. We found a negative correlation between household wealth and the presence of anemia, suggesting anemia prevalence may decline as China's economy grows. However, the prevalence of anemia was greater in migrant households, which should be experiencing an improved economic status.

  5. China's new problems of food security revealed by the Food Equivalent Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong LIN,Ruichao LI,Cangyu JIN,Chong WANG,Maohong WEI,Jizhou REN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available China's food security has a great influence on the world, and has always been the top priority in China. In recent years, as the concept of food security is evolving into one of nutrition security and the importance of food diversity is increasing, research based on nutrition security and broad food systems are increasingly needed in today's China. Thus, not only grain for human consumption, but also animal foods have been integrated into the Food Equivalent, which is used to analyze China's current agriculture system and reveal the water resource distribution. The results indicated that the average animal food consumption has risen by 78.6%, and now China's daily supply of animal food per capita has reached about 50% of that in the USA and 80% of that in the South Korea. So there exist an obvious disparity in animal food supply between China and these two countries. It is impossible for the China's current agricultural system to achieve the level in the USA. Under China's current agricultural system, the consumption proportion of feed grain had surpassed the consumption of food grain, increased sharply from 33% in 1992 to 67% in 2011. However, the growth potential of total grain output is approaching an upper limit, so the continued growth of feed grain demand exerts great pressure on the China's food supply. The discordance of the spatial distribution of water resource and virtual water revealed that China's current agriculture system had a low efficiency in being able to achieve food and nutrition security. China's current "grain farming" cannot meet the demand of increasing nutrition and appropriate resource utilization. The implementation of grassland agriculture appears feasible and necessary for saving feed grain, providing a large number of high-quality animal foods and appropriate water resource utilization.

  6. Genetic structure analysis of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates from central and southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    Full Text Available Sparganosis caused by invasion of the plerocercoid larvae (spargana of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei have increased in recent years in China. However, the population genetic structure regarding this parasite is still unclear. In this study, we used the sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome b (cytb and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1 to analyze genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the S. erinaceieuropaei populations.A total of 88 S. erinaceieuropaei isolates were collected from naturally infected frogs in 14 geographical locations of China. The complete cytb and cox1 genes of each sample was amplified and sequenced. Total 61 haplotypes were found in these 88 concatenated sequences. Each sampled population and the total population have high haplotype diversity (Hd, accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi. Phylogenetic analyses of haplotypes revealed two distinct clades (HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade and GX+HN+GZ-GY clade corresponding two sub-networks yielded by the median-joining network. Pairwise FST values supported great genetic differentiation between S. erinaceieuropaei populations. Both negative Fu's FS value of neutrality tests and unimodal curve of mismatch distribution analyses supported demographic population expansion in the HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade. The BEAST analysis showed that the divergence time between the two clades took place in the early Pleistocene (1.16 Myr, and by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP an expansion occurred after about 0.3 Myr ago.S. erinaceieuropaei from central and southern China has significant phylogeographic structure, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary may affect the demography and diversification of this species.

  7. Making central-local relations work:Comparing America and China environmental governance systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan GUTTMAN; SONG Yaqin

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of making central requirements work at local levels is a common problem for environmental governance throughout the world.Countries can learn from one another's approaches,but must understand the local con text in which they are set.This paper compares the features of the China and US environmental governance systems that need be understood by those working between the systems.Key features include:(1) common values which shape the environmental governance choices in both countries,but which may have different practical meanings in each country;(2) America's common law-based environmental governance system,and China's civil law system,which involves plan(s)as well as law;(3) America's Federal central-local system,and China's unitary central local system.This paper concludes by suggesting areas in which further comparative understanding may be of value,including:(1) better under standing of the role of plan and law in China's governance system;(2) comparing the American Federal-state agreement system for implementation of environmental law with the China central-local system of target responsibility agreements for plan implementation;(3) improving understanding of nongovernmental resources needed to assure compliance with environmental laws and plans;(4) identifying institutions that can coordinate central-local and cross-border environmental governance.

  8. Tectonic Subdivision of Dabie Orogenic Belt, Central China: Evidence from Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Late Mesozoic Basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡少平; 张本仁

    2002-01-01

    It has long been debated that the Dabie orogenic belt belongs to the North China or Yangtze craton. In recent years, eastern China has been suggested, based on the Pb isotopic compositions of Phanerozoic ore and Mesozoic granitoid K-feldspar (revealing the crust Pb) in combination with Meso-Cenozoic basalts (revealing the mantle Pb), being divided into the North China and Yangtze Pb isotopic provinces, where the crust and mantle of the Yangtze craton are characterized by more radiogenic Pb. In this sense, previous researchers suggested that the pro-EW-trending Dabie orogenic belt with less radiogenic Pb in the crust was part of the North China craton. In this paper, however, the Late Cretaceous basalts in the central and southern parts of the Dabie orogenic belt are characterized by some more radiogenic Pb (206pb/204pb = 17. 936 - 18. 349, 207pb/204pb = 15. 500 - 15. 688, 208pb/204pb = 38. 399 - 38. 775 )and a unique U-Th-Pb trace element system similar to those of the Yangtze craton, showing that the Mesozoic mantle is of the Yangtze type. In addition, the decoupled Pb isotopic compositions between crust and mantle were considerably derived from their rheological inhomogeneity, implying a complicated evolution of the Dabie orogenic belt.

  9. Attempt at quantifying human-induced land-cover change during the Holocene in central eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furong; Gaillard, Marie-José; Mazier, Florence; Sugita, Shinya; Xu, Qinghai; Li, Yuecong; Zhou, Zhongze

    2016-04-01

    China is one of the key regions of the world where agricultural civilizations already flourished several millennia ago. However, the role of human activity in vegetation change is not yet fully understood. As a contribution to the PAGES LandCover6k initiative, this study aims to achieve a first attempt at Holocene land-cover reconstructions in the temperate zone of China using the REVEALS model (Sugita, 2007). Pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) are key parameters required for the model and were lacking so far for major taxa characteristic of ancient cultural landscapes in that part of the world. Remains of traditional agricultural structures and practices are still found in the low mountain ranges of the Shandong province located in central-eastern China. The area was chosen for a study of pollen-vegetation relationships and calculation of pollen productivity estimates. Pollen counts and vegetation data from 37 random sites within an area of 200 x 100 km are used for calculation. The vegetation inventory within 100 meters from the pollen sampling site follows the standard methods of Bunting et al. (2013). Vegetation data beyond 100 meters up to 1.5 km from the pollen sampling site is extracted from satellite images. The PPEs are calculated using the three sub-models of the Extended R-value model and compared with existing PPEs from northern China's biomes and temperate Europe. The PPEs' relevance for reconstruction of past human-induced land-cover change in temperate China are evaluated. Key words China, traditional agricultural landscape, ERV model, pollen productivity estimates References Bunting, M. J., et al. (2013). "Palynological perspectives on vegetation survey: a critical step for model-based reconstruction of Quaternary land cover." Quaternary Science Reviews 82: 41-55. Sugita, S. (2007). "Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation I: pollen from large sites REVEALS regional vegetation composition." The Holocene 17(2): 229-241.

  10. Aid and Assistance China for Development Socio-Economical and Cultural To Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Yougboko Fatime1 , Prof. Weihong 2 , Mr Gniko- Bombo Joseph3 , PhD Balekouzou Augustin4 , PhD Katombosola Brown5 , Master’s Koyassambia Landry Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The Central African Republic like the heart World, through the vicissitudes given its geographical position. Its accession in 1960 to the Maoist movement has been consolidated by the ChinaAfrica Forum held in October 2000 in Beijing. It is in this perspective that President François Bozize, September 10, 2009, appealed to his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao to invest in his country especially in the mining and energy sectors. And President Hu Jintao has responded positively to China...

  11. Aid and Assistance China for Development Socio-Economical and Cultural To Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougboko Fatime1 , Prof. Weihong 2 , Mr Gniko- Bombo Joseph3 , PhD Balekouzou Augustin4 , PhD Katombosola Brown5 , Master’s Koyassambia Landry Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Central African Republic like the heart World, through the vicissitudes given its geographical position. Its accession in 1960 to the Maoist movement has been consolidated by the ChinaAfrica Forum held in October 2000 in Beijing. It is in this perspective that President François Bozize, September 10, 2009, appealed to his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao to invest in his country especially in the mining and energy sectors. And President Hu Jintao has responded positively to China's support in the peace process and economic rehabilitation of CAR. Which marks the presence of China at the head of the CAR in these crisis times. But many development projects have been suspended example China National Petroleum Corporation for the seizure of power by the Seleka coalition March 24, 2013. However, CAR continues to rely on the strategic actions of China in the field of new technology for its agro-pastoral development to food self-sufficiency.

  12. Optimization of China's centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having...... a smart, energy efficient and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system. Nevertheless, the development of centralized DHW (CDHW) systems in these two countries differs significantly. This article details the challenges China's CDHW system is currently encountering and proposes to apply the flat...... station concept to improve China's CDHW system. Meanwhile, the technical advantages of the Danish CDHW, which would benefit China, are analyzed. Overall, from a technical point of view, the flat station concept is not only in line with China's current DH conditions but would compensate for some technical...

  13. TECTONICS OF THE DABIE OROGENIC BELT, CENTRAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fu-sheng; XIA Fei; PENG Hua-ming; DU Yang-song

    2002-01-01

    Tectonically the Dabie orogenic belt consists mainly of the Dabieshan Yanshanian uplifted zone and the Beihuaiyang Variscan-Indosinian folding zone. In the north boundary adjoining the North China Block, there are an Early Palaeozoic ophiolitic mixtite belt and the Hefei Mesozoic-Cenozoic faulted basin which overlaps on the suture belt. In the south of Dabie orogen, there is a secondary tectonic unit called Foreland thrust-faulted structural zone which was mainly formed by the intracontinental subductions during Mesozoic era. The study shows that the Dabie Block is a part of mid-late Proterozoic palaeo-island arc at the north margin of Yangtze Block. During Caledonian period, as a submerged uplift at the northen continental margin of Yangtze Block, the Dabie Block collided with the early Palaeozoic palaeo-island arc at the south margin of North China Block, resulting in the convergence of the North and South China Blocks and the disappearance of oceanic crust. Since then,large-scale intracontinental subductions were followed. Dabie Orogenic Belt is the product of overlapping of Yangtze Block, Dabie Block and North China Block under the mechanism of intracontinental subduction. Indosinian period is the period of chief deformation and high pressure dynamic metamorphism for Dabie Block, and Yanshan period is the main orogenic period in which the remelting of crust caused by basement shearing resulted in large scale thermometamorphism. The present tectonic framework of the orogen was finally formed by the rapid uplifting of the Dabieshan mountains and gliding southwards, which result in the developing of thrust belt on south side and the extensional tectonic movement on north side.

  14. The EU's Central Asia policy and its implications for China

    OpenAIRE

    SHAO, Yuqun

    2008-01-01

    "The EU under the German Presidency published its first strategy paper on Central Asia in June 2007. The document addresses a wide array of issues ranging from democracy and human rights to trade, energy cooperation, migration and inter-cultural dialogue. While Central Asia has been largely overlooked by the EU in the past, the new policy signals that the EU is no longer content to be left behind while other global powers become increasingly involved in the region. The EU will undoubtedly be ...

  15. The balancing role of Turkey for the influence of China in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Today, there is a dynamic new ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia engaging multiple players and institutions who compete for influence in Central Asia, such as the Russian-dominated Collective Security Treaty Organization, the U.S.-dominated NATO Partnership for Peace Program, and the Sino-Russian-dominated Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Of all the players, China is clearly one of the most dominant. China’s authoritarian regime, domestic problems, and huge energy demands hold potential threats f...

  16. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Rural Area in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural area in central China is a densely populated area with a lot of agricultural population,relatively developed agriculture and relatively backward non-agriculture. Its development status affects the process of rising strategy in central region,restricts the construction of a well-off society and a harmonious society in the central region and even China. Based on this,major problems in the development of agricultural area of central China are analyzed,such as large population of farmers,great development pressure on agricultural area,serious shortage of agricultural inputs,relatively low education level,backward infrastructure in agricultural area,and relatively backward non-agricultural development. In order to accelerate the rising of central area and to promote the rapid development of central agriculture,corresponding countermeasures are put forward,including increasing the financial support for the construction of agricultural areas,vigorously setting up multi-level rural education,strengthening the infrastructure construction of agricultural areas,consolidating the construction of rural organizations,reinforcing the management function of government,and increasing the research and extension of agricultural science and technology.

  17. Central China Expo Records $ 6.37 Bin Overseas Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 28, the Expo Central China 2009 was successfully concluded in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui province. During the Expo, the number of for-eign capital investment projects reached 127, valued at 6.37 billion dollars. And 356 domestic investment contracts were signed, drawing an invest-ment of 144.9 billion Yuan.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  19. Stability of Spatial Structure of Urban Agglomeration in China Based on Central Place Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper brings forward the concept of stability of the spatial structure of urban agglomeration (UA) based on Central Place Theory by introducing centrality index and fractal theory. Before assessment, K=4 is selected as parameter to calculate centrality index and fractal dimension (K represents the quantitive relationship between city and the counties in Central Place Theory), and then found the number of nodes, the type of spatial structure, the spatial allocation of nodes with different hierarchy affecting the stability of spatial structure. According to spatial contact direction and the level of stability, UAs in China are classified into five types. Finally, it is posed as a further question that how to use hierarchical relation K=6 and K=7 in central place system to coordinate with the assessment of stability of spatial structure is brought forward.

  20. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Fu; Binghui Zheng; Xingru Zhao; Lijing Wang; Changming Liu

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009.The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces,5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated.The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater.The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 t0 2008,while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources.The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions.In river drinking water sources,the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally.The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region,while the lowest value was found in Southwest region.In lake/reservoir drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions.In underground drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions.In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels,there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  1. Seasonal variation of fatty acids from drip water in Heshang Cave, central China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiuli [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Canfa; Huang Junhua [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu Chaoyong [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xie Shucheng, E-mail: xiecug@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A 2-year monitoring to investigate the seasonal variation of fatty acids in cave drip water. {yields} Microbes are the dominant source for fatty acids in drip water. {yields} The relative abundance of mono-unsaturated responds negatively with external air temperature. - Abstract: In order to investigate how lipids in cave water respond to seasonal climate change, drip water samples were collected from 2006 to 2008 in Heshang Cave, central China for fatty acid analysis. These lipids are abundant in the drip water. Their compositions are dominated by lower-molecular-weight nC16:0, nC18:0 and nC14:0 acids, together with mono-unsaturated nC18:1, nC16:1 and nC14:1. Analysis of one water sample revealed marked differences between the dissolved and particulate fractions. The dissolved fraction contains total fatty acids one order of magnitude higher than that of the particulate fraction. The distributional patterns of the fatty acids suggest that microbes living in the overlying soils and/or groundwater system contribute most fatty acids to the drip water. This 2-a monitoring experiment reveals that the abundance of mono-unsaturated fatty acids relative to the saturated homologues (nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0) relate inversely to the changes of synchronous external air temperature. Higher values occur under cold conditions (winter/spring), while lower values appear in warm intervals (summer). Further studies are needed to elucidate the dynamic processes by which the external temperature affects fatty acids in drip water and to confirm the potential application of fatty acid ratios such as nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0 in paleotemperature reconstructions.

  2. Seasonal variation of fatty acids from drip water in Heshang Cave, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → A 2-year monitoring to investigate the seasonal variation of fatty acids in cave drip water. → Microbes are the dominant source for fatty acids in drip water. → The relative abundance of mono-unsaturated responds negatively with external air temperature. - Abstract: In order to investigate how lipids in cave water respond to seasonal climate change, drip water samples were collected from 2006 to 2008 in Heshang Cave, central China for fatty acid analysis. These lipids are abundant in the drip water. Their compositions are dominated by lower-molecular-weight nC16:0, nC18:0 and nC14:0 acids, together with mono-unsaturated nC18:1, nC16:1 and nC14:1. Analysis of one water sample revealed marked differences between the dissolved and particulate fractions. The dissolved fraction contains total fatty acids one order of magnitude higher than that of the particulate fraction. The distributional patterns of the fatty acids suggest that microbes living in the overlying soils and/or groundwater system contribute most fatty acids to the drip water. This 2-a monitoring experiment reveals that the abundance of mono-unsaturated fatty acids relative to the saturated homologues (nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0) relate inversely to the changes of synchronous external air temperature. Higher values occur under cold conditions (winter/spring), while lower values appear in warm intervals (summer). Further studies are needed to elucidate the dynamic processes by which the external temperature affects fatty acids in drip water and to confirm the potential application of fatty acid ratios such as nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0 in paleotemperature reconstructions.

  3. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hang; Wang, Puqing; Zhu, Yueji

    2016-06-01

    Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, "Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China" [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article. PMID:27054157

  4. Central Bank Financial Strength and the Cost of Sterilization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Xiong, Yi; Yutong, Zou

    2013-01-01

    Using a unique monthly data set over the period 2000:1-2008:12, this paper presents empirical findings on China's central bank, the People's Bank of China, from the viewpoint of its financial strength and the cost of monetary policy instruments. The results show that PBoC is constrained...... by the costs of its monetary policy instruments. PBoC tend to use less costly but market-distorting instruments such as the deposit interest rate cap and reserve-ratio requirements, rather than more market-oriented but more costly instruments such as central bank note issuance. These costs remain under control...... today, but may rise in the future as PBoC accumulates more foreign assets. This, in turn, will jeopardize the Chinese monetary authority's capability to maintain price stability....

  5. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1. PMID:26771914

  6. Preferential use of central metabolism in vivo reveals a nutritional basis for polymicrobial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Alteri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human genitourinary tract is a common anatomical niche for polymicrobial infection and a leading site for the development of bacteremia and sepsis. Most uncomplicated, community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI are caused by Escherichia coli, while another bacterium, Proteus mirabilis, is more often associated with complicated UTI. Here, we report that uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis have divergent requirements for specific central pathways in vivo despite colonizing and occupying the same host environment. Using mutants of specific central metabolism enzymes, we determined glycolysis mutants lacking pgi, tpiA, pfkA, or pykA all have fitness defects in vivo for P. mirabilis but do not affect colonization of E. coli during UTI. Similarly, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is required only for P. mirabilis in vivo. In contrast, gluconeogenesis is required only for E. coli fitness in vivo. The remarkable difference in central pathway utilization between E. coli and P. mirabilis during experimental UTI was also observed for TCA cycle mutants in sdhB, fumC, and frdA. The distinct in vivo requirements between these pathogens suggest E. coli and P. mirabilis are not direct competitors within host urinary tract nutritional niche. In support of this, we found that co-infection with E. coli and P. mirabilis wild-type strains enhanced bacterial colonization and persistence of both pathogens during UTI. Our results reveal that complementary utilization of central carbon metabolism facilitates polymicrobial disease and suggests microbial activity in vivo alters the host urinary tract nutritional niche.

  7. Variations in Regional Mean Daily Precipitation Extremes and Related Circulation Anomalies over Central China During Boreal Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯丹; 管兆勇

    2014-01-01

    The variations of regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RMDPE) events in central China and associated circulation anomalies during June, July, and August (JJA) of 1961-2010 are investigated by using daily in-situ precipitation observations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The precipitation data were collected at 239 state-level stations distributed throughout the provinces of Henan, Hubei, and Hunan. During 1961-2010, the 99th percentile threshold for RMDPE is 23.585 mm day-1. The number of RMDPE events varies on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, and increases significantly after the mid 1980s. The RMDPE events happen most frequently between late June and mid July, and are generally associated with anomalous baroclinic tropospheric circulations. The supply of moisture to the southern part of central China comes in a stepping way from the outer-region of an abnormal anticyclone over the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. Fluxes of wave activity generated over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau converge over central China, which favors the genesis and maintenance of wave disturbances over the region. RMDPE events typically occur in tandem with a strong heating gradient formed by net heating in central China and the large-scale net cooling in the surrounding area. The occurrence of RMDPE events over central China is tied to anomalous local cyclonic circulations, topographic forcing over the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and anomalous gradients of diabatic heating between central China and the surrounding areas.

  8. An Investigation of Aerosol Scattering and Absorption Properties in Wuhan, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Gong1*; Miao Zhang; Ge Han; Xin Ma; Zhongmin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol scattering and absorption properties were continuously measured and analyzed at the urban Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing (LIESMARS) site in Wuhan, central China, from 1 December 2009 to 31 March 2014. The mean aerosol scattering coefficient , absorption coefficient , and single scattering albedo (SSA) were 377.54 Mm−1, 119.06 Mm−1, and 0.73, respectively. Both  and  showed obvio...

  9. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Chen; Lan Li; Hongbin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), the cluster analysis (CA) and the discriminant analysis (DA) were used to assess the water pollutio...

  10. Central-European Jesuit Scientists in China, and Their Impact on Chinese Science

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Jože JUŽNIČ

    2015-01-01

    This article describes nine Central European Jesuits from the Austrian province who embarked for China in the 17th and 18th centuries. Their European educational networks provide useful insights into the abilities of the absburg Monarchy to meet Chinese Imperial demands. The focus is on feedback of their adopted Chinese network back to their own homes. The Europeans and Chinese-based Jesuits exchanged instruments, books, artifacts, and letters. The exception was Johannes Grueber, who personal...

  11. Future energy consumption and emissions in East-, Central- and West-China: Insights from soft-linking two global models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Hancheng; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    China's role in the global economy and energy markets is expanding, however many uncertainties with regards to the country's future energy consumption and emissions remain. Large regional disparities between China's provinces exist. Scenario analysis for different sub-regions of China will be...... useful for an improved understanding of China's potential future development and associated global impacts. This study soft-links a global dynamic CGE model and a global technology-rich energy system model. Both models are expanded to include East-, Central-, and West-China. This study shows that soft......-linking affects the China-specific reference scenario results in the CGE model considerably. Energy consumption and emissions are decreasing in China until 2050 while regional differences within China remain high....

  12. Ozone Enhancement in the Lower Troposphere over Central and Eastern China as Observed from the space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ono, A.; Kayaba, S.; Kajino, M.; Deushi, M.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Yamaji, K.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The recent roducts of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) retrieved by Liu et al. (2010) revealed spatial and temporal variations in ozone distributions in multiple tropospheric layers. We compared the OMI-derived ozone over Beijing with the airborne measurements conducted by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. The reliability of the OMI ozone retrievals was verified at the lower troposphere under enhanced ozone conditions (Hayashida et al. 2015). Ozone enhancement was clearly observed over Central and Eastern China (CEC), with Shandong Province as its center and most notably in June in any given year. The seasonality of the ozone enhancement was similar throughout the nine-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013. As introduced by Hayashida et al. (2015), we have defined ΔO3 as the difference between the retrieved ozone and a priori value. To identify the area of significant ozone enhancement in further detail, the areas whose ΔO3 show similar seasonal variation were grouped into a cluster using the statistical tool R. As a result, the area covering the provinces of Shandong, Hebei, and Shanxi presents a clear seasonal variation, with the maximum in June. The time series of ΔO3 at around 115-125°E along 36°N indicate clear seasonal variation with significant enhancement in June or July every year. At the western locations (<110°E), there is only a slight ozone enhancement in summer. In the east of the CEC, the amplitude of ozone enhancement in summer diminishes toward the east, as observed at 130°E, suggesting an outflow of ozone plumes from China. The lower tropospheric ozone distribution maps retrieved using OMI products are generally consistent with the results from the model simulations by MRI-CCM2 of the Meteorological Research Institute Japan as far as emissions due to industrial activities and automobile exhaust are concerned, although there are still a few differences in the ozone mixing

  13. Serological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Zhang, Nian; Wang, Dong; Ma, Jingbo; Liu, Shiguo; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Kuo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176). No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05). The infection rate in rural dogs (18%) was higher (p < 0.05) than in urban dogs (11%). The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p < 0.05) with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs. PMID:27317461

  14. Serological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176. No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05. The infection rate in rural dogs (18% was higher (p < 0.05 than in urban dogs (11%. The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p < 0.05 with age. The results of the present study indicate the high prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs.

  15. Serological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Zhang, Nian; Wang, Dong; Ma, Jingbo; Liu, Shiguo; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Kuo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle as well as reproduction problems and neurological disorders in dogs. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts, shedding oocysts in the environment. To investigate the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs in central China, 1176 serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in Henan province, central China between March 2015 and February 2016 and tested for IgG antibody against N. caninum, using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was nearly 15% (172/1176). No significant difference was observed between this seroprevalence according to sex and breed of dogs (p > 0.05). The infection rate in rural dogs (18%) was higher (p dogs (11%). The prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs increased (p dogs in Henan province, central China. Sanitary conditions and animal health must be improved to prevent the transmission risk of N. caninum by dogs. PMID:27317461

  16. Updated precipitation reconstruction (AD 1482-2012) for Huashan, north-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Ruibo; Wang, Huiqin; Qin, Li; Yuan, Yujiang

    2016-02-01

    We developed a tree-ring width chronology from pine trees ( Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus armandii) stand near the peaks of Huashan, Shaanxi, north-central China. Growth-climate response analyses showed that the radial growth of pine trees is mainly influenced by April-June precipitation. A model to reconstruct precipitation based on tree widths was constructed, accounting for 55 % of the instrumental variance during the period 1953-2012. Spatial correlation analyses between the reconstruction and observed gridded precipitation data shows that the seasonal precipitation reconstruction captures regional climatic variations over north China. Compared with the historical archives and other tree-ring records in north China, many large-scale drought events, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), were found. Many of these events have had profound impacts on the people of north China over the past several centuries. Composite maps of sea surface temperatures and 500 hPa geopotential heights for selected extremely dry and wet years in Huashan show characteristics similar to those related to the ENSO patterns, particularly with regard to ocean and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial and north Pacific. Our 531-year precipitation reconstruction for Huashan provides a long-term perspective on current and 20th century wet and dry events in north China, and is useful to guide expectations of future variability, and helps us to address climate change.

  17. Revealed Comparative Advantage, Intra-industry Trade and the US Manufacturing Trade Deficit with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guobing Shen; Anthony Yanxiang Gu

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses 4-digit SITC data to identify groups of manufactured goods exported from China to the USA that have strong or rising comparative advantages. We find that most of the trades are inter-industry, with only a small portion being vertical intra-industry trades (ⅡT). Our results confirm that Sino-US trade is complementary. We construct an imbalanced index of ⅡT, and identify the goods groups that aggravate and reduce the US trade deficit with China. We suggest an approach for calculating a dynamic ⅡT index that might mitigate the aggregation bias of the existing methodologies. Our improved index reveals that the dynamic imbalances of US-Chinese ⅡT in manufactured goods are worse than their static ⅡT imbalances, which means that it would be difficult to correct the deficit of US trade with China in the following couple of years. Adjusting and improving the structures of industries and products is China's major task for sustainable trade growth.

  18. A historical perspective of the extremely hot 2013 summer in East-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Fu, Congbin; Mao, Huiting

    2016-04-01

    An extreme hot summer occurred over East-central China in 2013. Its duration of continuous, highest temperature anomalies was the longest on record for the time period of 1948-2013. Several modeling studies have attempted to identify the causes and did not obtain conclusive findings, in large part due to their limited scopes of the problem. Here, we conducted a multi-scale and multi-factor analysis of this extreme event using observational data of 600 monitoring stations over China and global reanalysis data for the period of 1981-2013. Our results suggested that the number of heatwave days (NHD) (defined as a day with daily maximum temperature ≥ 35°C) over East-central China experienced an increasing trend of 3.44 days per decade since 1981 and reached the record maximum (34.1 days) in 2013, with significant inter-annual variability superimposed on the trend. It should be noted that this increasing trend in NHD was consistent with that of the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) linked to global warming as suggested in the literature. There were also strong correlations between NHD over East-central China, WPSH, and global mean temperature (GT) on interannual scales. The extremely hot 2013 summer could not be explained by global warming and associated enhanced WPSH alone as GT and WPSH intensity were not record high in that summer. Further analysis suggested that large scale air-sea interaction over the Pacific region could have played a critical role. Specifically, enhanced convection over the Philippine Sea and along Indonesian islands in summer 2013 appeared to be strongest for the study period. This convection could cause a strong local feedback among precipitation, cloud cover, and net radiation, which could further weaken upper- and lower-level circulation via the tropical-extratropical teleconnection and Rossby wave propagation. This feedback was likely the direct cause of the extremely hot 2013 summer.

  19. Characterization of submicron aerosols at a suburban site in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Zhao, Jian; Du, Wei; Ana, Godson; Wang, Zhenzhu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Yuying; Zhang, Fang; Li, Zhanqing; Ye, Xingnan; Sun, Yele

    2016-04-01

    We have characterized the chemical composition and sources of submicron aerosol (PM1) at a suburban site in Xinzhou in central China using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor from July 17 to September 5, 2014. The average (±1σ) PM1 concentration was 35.4 (±20.8) μg/m3 for the entire study period, indicating that Xinzhou was less polluted compared to the megacities in the North China Plain (NCP). The PM1 was mainly composed of organic aerosol and sulfate, on average accounting for 33.1% and 32.4%, respectively, followed by nitrate (14.4%) and ammonium (11.8%). Higher sulfate and lower nitrate contributions than those in megacities in the NCP elucidated an important emission source of coal combustion in central China. Three organic aerosol (OA) factors, i.e., hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA), were identified using positive matrix factorization. Secondary OA (=SV-OOA + LV-OOA) dominated OA, on average accounting for 82%, indicating that OA at the Xinzhou site was overall oxidized. We also observed relatively similar aerosol bulk composition and OA composition at low and high mass loading periods, and also from the different source areas, indicating that aerosol species were homogeneously distributed over a regional scale near the site for most of the time during this study. Slightly higher mass concentrations and sulfate contributions from the southern air masses were likely due to the transport from the polluted cities, such as Taiyuan to the south. In addition, the daily variation of PM1 in Xinzhou resembled that observed in Beijing, indicating that the wide-scale regional haze pollution often influences both the NCP and the central China.

  20. Chronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    We performed zircon U-Pb dating and analyses of major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes for granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China, with the aim of constraining the magma sources and tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). The analyzed zircons show typical fine-scale oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals granitoids of two ages: Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous ( 206Pb/ 238U ages of 160 Ma and 130-110 Ma, respectively). The Late Jurassic rocks (Jingshan intrusion) consist of biotite-syenogranite, whereas the Early Cretaceous rocks (Huaiguang, Xilushan, Nushan, and Caoshan intrusions) are granodiorite, syenogranite, and monzogranite. The Late Jurassic biotite-syenogranites and Early Cretaceous granitoids have the following common geochemical characteristics: SiO 2 = 70.35-74.56 wt.%, K 2O/Na 2O = 0.66-1.27 (mainly Nushan and Xilushan granitoids, suggests that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of the Yangtze Craton (YC) basement. In contrast, the occurrence of Paleoproterozoic and Paleoarchean inherited zircons within the Huaiguang granitoids indicates that their primary magmas mainly originated from partial melting of the NCC basement. The occurrence of YC basement within the lower continental crust of the eastern NCC indicates that the YC was subducted to the northwest beneath the NCC, along the Tan-Lu fault zone, during the early Mesozoic.

  1. Diversification of Schistosoma japonicum in Mainland China revealed by mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma japonicum still causes severe parasitic disease in mainland China, but mainly in areas along the Yangtze River. However, the genetic diversity in populations of S. japonicum has not been well understood across its geographical distribution, and such data may provide insights into the epidemiology and possible control strategies for schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study infected Oncomelania snails were collected from areas in the middle and lower (ML reaches of the Yangtze River, including Hubei, Hunan, Anhui, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, and in the upper reaches of the river, including Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in southwest (SW China. The adult parasites obtained from experimentally infected mice using isolated cercariae were sequenced individually for several fragments of mitochondrial regions, including Cytb-ND4L-ND4, 16S-12S and ND1. Populations in the ML reaches exhibited a relatively high level of diversity in nucleotides and haplotypes, whereas a low level was observed for populations in the SW, using either each single fragment or the combined sequence of the three fragments. Pairwise analyses of F-statistics (Fst revealed a significant genetic difference between populations in the ML reaches and those in the SW, with limited gene flow and no shared haplotypes in between. It is rather obvious that genetic diversity in the populations of S. japonicum was significantly correlated with the geographical distance, and the geographical separation/isolation was considered to be the major factor accounting for the observed difference between populations in the ML reaches and those in the SW in China. CONCLUSIONS: S. japonicum in mainland China exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity, with a similar pattern of genetic diversity as observed in the intermediate host snails in the same region in China.

  2. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  3. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Jian; Ding, Aijun; Cooper, Owen R.; Lin, Meiyun; Xu, Pengju; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xinfeng; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Tianshu; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai - the highest mountain over the North China Plain - during 2003-2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr-1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr-1 for the July-August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3) with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980-2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  4. Prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolated from sheep in Henan Province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Kaifang; Li, Junqiang; Huang, Jianying; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal protozoan that infects sheep. It is a well-known zoonotic pathogen and sheep have been implicated as a source of human infection. However, there have been few studies of its potential threat to public health in China. We used a multilocus analysis of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes to examine the occurrence and genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep in China. In total, 716 fresh faecal specimens, including 89 from pre-weaned lambs (3months old) from nine intensive sheep farms in Henan Province, China, were examined for Giardia cysts with microscopy. Of these specimens, 6.65% (47/716; 99% CI: 6.2%-6.92%) from five farms were positive for G. duodenalis. The infection rate was significantly higher in pre-weaned lambs than in post-weaned sheep (12.36% versus 5.74%, respectively; Pgiardiasis in human and sheep in Henan province, central China. PMID:26861620

  5. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-10

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China's gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  6. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  7. Optimization of China´s centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having...... a smart, energy efficient and environmentally friendly energy-consumption system. Nevertheless, the development of centralized DHW (CDHW) systems in these two countries differs significantly. This article details the challenges China’s CDHW system is currently encountering and proposes to apply the flat...... station concept to improve China’s CDHW system. Meanwhile, the technical advantages of the Danish CDHW, which would benefit China, are analyzed. Overall, from a technical point of view, the flat station concept is not only in line with China’s current DH conditions but would compensate for some technical...

  8. Characteristics and visual outcomes of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in central China: 2006-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; Qi; Feng-Yan; Zhang; Guang-Hua; Peng; Yu; Zhu; Guang-Ming; Wan; Wen-Zhan; Wang; Jing; Ma; Shi-Jie; Ren

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To complete the data of ocular trauma in central China, as a well-known tertiary referral center for ocular trauma, we documented the epidemiological characteristics and visual outcomes of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in this region.METHODS: A retrospective study of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in central China from 2006 to 2011 was performed.· RESULTS: This study included 5964 eyes of 5799 patients. The average age was 35.5 ±21.8y with a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. The most common age was 45-59 y age group. Most patients were farmers and workers(51.9%). The most common injuries were firework related(24.5%), road traffic related(24.2%), and work related(15.0%). Among the most common causative agents were firecrackers(24.5%), followed by metal/knife/scissors(21.4%). Most injuries occurred in January(14.2%),February(27.0%), and August(10.0%). There were 8.5%patients with ocular injuries combined with other injuries.The incidence of open ocular injuries(4585 eyes, 76.9%)was higher than closed ocular injuries(939 eyes, 15.7%).The incidences of chemical and thermal ocular injuries were 1.2% and 0.6%. Ocular trauma score(OTS)predicted final visual acuity at non light perception(NLP), 20/200-20/50 and 20/40 with a sensitivity of 100%,and light perception(LP) /hand motion(HM) and 1/200-19/200 with a specificity of 100%.· CONCLUSION: This study provides recent epidemiological data of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in central China. Some factors influencing the visual outcome include time interval between injury and visit to the clinic, wound location, open or closed globe injury, initial visual acuity, and OTS.

  9. Simultaneous flowering of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae) at its native home in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-hua; Manfred DENICH; Thomas BORSCH

    2006-01-01

    Flowering pattern and seedling establishment of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murieliae (Gamble) Yi) were studied in its native habitat, Mount Shennongjia in Central China. Here in 1996-2000, over 95% of the bamboo plants simultaneously flowered and died, extending from lower elevations to the higher mountains along the altitude and from southwest to northeast along the mountain settings. following the flowering. After a high mortality throughout the first winter, bamboo seedlings remained a stable density in following 2-4 years (1130-1230 seedlings· m-2). Seedling density positively related to the coverage of parent bamboo, but negatively to the herb layers.

  10. STRATEGIC INITIATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram A. Umarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the U.S. strategy “New Silk Road” and the project of China to establish economic belt “Silk Road”, as well as their implementation in Central Asia. However, the unstable situation in Afghanistan, the lack of sources of financing capital-intensive infrastructure projects, the existence of various contradictions between the countries of this region and other reasons prevent the full implementation of the U.S. strategy. At the same time, the Chinese project faces a lack of precision uncertainty of funding.

  11. XMM-Newton reveals matter accreting onto the central supermassive black hole of NGC 2617

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, M.

    2016-06-01

    NGC 2617 (z=0.042) underwent a strong broad-band outburst during 2013/14, concurrently switching from being a Seyfert 1.8 to be a Seyfert 1.0 sometimes during the previous 10 years. Thanks to the combination of the large effective area and the good spectral resolution of the EPIC-pn onboard XMM-Newton, striking insights about the very inner accretion flow of this AGN have been revealed. In particular, persistent Fe K absorption redshifted by ˜ 35,000 km/s was solidly detected in two observations spaced by one month: a highly ionised flow of mass toward the central supermassive black hole of NGC 2617 has started to be traced. So far NGC 2617 is a quasi-unique observational example: what are the perspectives of enlarging these studies in the future? Thanks to current large and prolonged optical surveys like the SDSS/BOSS, many "optically changing-look AGN" like NGC 2617 are being discovered month after month: XMM-Newton has the ideal instruments to perform a proper X-ray study of such objects in the near future. I will assess the impact of XMM-Newton on studying the dynamics of the inner accretion flow in AGN in a systematic way and in synergy with near- and mid-future X-ray instruments such as (ASTRO-H)Hitomi and ATHENA.

  12. Increasing heavy metals in the background atmosphere of central North China since the 1980s: Evidence from a 200-year lake sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Song, Lei; Yang, Jinsong; Jin, Zhangdong; Zhan, Changlin; Mao, Xin; Liu, Dongwei; Shao, Yue

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends of atmospheric compositions are significant for assessing the influence of human activities on the atmosphere and protecting the atmospheric environment. In this study, based on heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios in a well-dated sediment core from a remote alpine lake in central North China, anthropogenic fluxes of As, Cd, Sb, and Pb were reconstructed and heavy metal evolutions in the atmosphere were revealed in the last 200 years. The heavy metals in the atmosphere were generally natural origins before 1980 A.D. Since the 1980s they began to increase gradually, but they increased the most in the 1990s resulting from rapid developments of rough and high energy-consuming industries in North China. After entering the 21st century the industries still developed rapidly, but the atmospheric Pb ceased increase and the As and Sb even decreased in the 2000s due to (1) phasing out of leaded gasoline and (2) implementing stricter industrial emission standards in 2000 A.D. in China. However, in the 2000s the atmospheric heavy metals still kept at a relatively high level and even likely began to increase again in the 2010s. Considering the lake relatively remote and seldom affected by local human activities, the results likely reflect heavy metal evolutions in the regional background atmosphere of central North China at the annual/decadal timescale in the last 200 years.

  13. Morphological and Molecular Phylogenetic Data Reveal a New Species of Primula (Primulaceae) from Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Yu, Xun-Lin; Hu, Chi-Ming; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Primulaceae, Primula undulifolia, is described from the hilly area of Hunan province in south-central China. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is allied to P. kwangtungensis, both adapted to subtropical climate, having contiguous distribution and similar habitat, growing on shady and moist cliffs. Petioles, scapes and pedicels of them are densely covered with rusty multicellular hairs, but the new species can be easily distinguished by its smaller flowers and narrowly oblong leaves with undulate margins. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on four DNA markers (ITS, matK, trnL-F and rps16) confirmed the new species as an independent lineage and constitutes a main clade together with P. kwangtungensis, P. kweichouensis, P. wangii and P. hunanensis of Primula sect. Carolinella. PMID:27579832

  14. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, “Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China” [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  15. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hang; Wang, Puqing; Zhu, Yueji

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, “Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China” [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article. PMID:27054157

  16. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959–2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  17. Comparing centralized and decentralized bio-energy systems in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the dual pressures of an energy crisis and rising greenhouse gas emissions, biomass energy development and utilisation has become part of the national energy strategy in China. The last decade has witnessed a strong promotion of both centralised and decentralised bio-energy systems in rural China. The government seems to have a strong preference for centralised (village-based) bio-energy systems in recent years. However, these government-driven systems have not worked without difficulties, particularly regarding economic and technological viability and maintenance. Studies on the advantages and disadvantages of decentralised and centralised bio-energy systems are rare. This study aims to shed light on the performances of these two systems in terms of social, economic and environmental effects. Through interviewing local officials and village leaders and surveying farmers in 12 villages in Shandong Province, it was found that bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances. The diversity of the local natural, economic and social situations determines the size, place, technology and organisational model of the bio-energy system. - Highlights: • Biomass energy development has become part of the national energy strategy in China. • The dis-/advantages of decentralized and centralized bio-energy systems are evaluated. • Bio-energy systems should be selected based on the local circumstances

  18. Comprehensive Measurement for Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment of City Clusters in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chuanglin; LIU Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Studying the carrying capacity of resources and environment of city clusters in the central China has impor-tant practical guidance significance for promoting the healthy,sustainable and stable development of this region.Ac-cording to their influencing factors and reciprocity mechanism,using system dynamics approaches,this paper built a SD model for measuring the carrying capacity of resources and environment of the city clusters in the central China,and through setting different development models,the comprehensive measurement analysis on the carrying capacity was carried out.The results show that the model of promoting socio-economic development under the protection of resources and environment is the optimal model for promoting the harmony development of resources,environment,society and economy in the city clusters.According to this model,the optimum population scale of the city clusters in2020 is 42.80×106 persons,and the moderate economic development scale is 22.055× 1012 yuan(RMB).In 1996-2020,the carrying capacity of resources and environment in the city clusters took on obvious phase-change characteristics.During the studied period,it is basically at the initial development stage,and will come through the development process from slow development to speedup development.

  19. An epidemiological survey of Theileria infections in small ruminants in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youquan; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Zhijie; Chen, Ze; Yang, Jifei; He, Haining; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2014-02-24

    Here, we conducted an epidemiological study in five regions in central China to assess the impact of theileriosis on small ruminants. PCR analysis and microscopic evaluations of blood smears to detect ovine and caprine theileriosis was conducted, in which 256 blood samples and 250 ticks were collected from sheep and goats, and tested for Theileria uilenbergi, T. luwenshuni, and T. ovis. The 18S rRNA gene sequences were deduced from positive samples and used for phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that T. luwenshuni was found most frequently in the five investigated regions and the prevalence of T. luwenshuni was found to be very high by PCR analysis. In contrast, T. uilenbergi and T. ovis infections were not detected in these regions. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that all of the newly isolated Theileria spp. was in the same clade as T. luwenshuni. Haemaphysalis longicornis, which can transmit T. luwenshuni, was also detected in the sampled sheep and goats in these regions. Our results provide important data to increase the understanding of the epidemiology of ovine and caprine theileriosis, and will aid in the implementation of measures to control theileriosis transmission to small ruminants in central China.

  20. Energy investment and trade opportunities emerging in Central Asia, Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperation in the business of oil and natural gas among governments of Central Asia and Northwest China could help the countries overcome obstacles to development of their vast petroleum resources. The most important obstacle facing these countries is also the one most widely discussed: limited infrastructure for transporting energy. But there are other problems holding back oil and gas development. They include poor communications infrastructure, unstable government structures, political conflict, payments difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. For countries analyzed in a recent Asian Development Bank (ADB) study of economic cooperation in the region--Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Xinjiang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (Xinjiang PRC)--oil and gas are the most abundant and valuable natural resources. While Central Asia is poised to become a major world supplier of energy, especially oil and gas, countries in the region emphasize energy self-sufficiency at the expense of developing new trading linkages. Governments thus tend to ignore the benefits of regional cooperation and remain reluctant to commit to area-wide trade and other forms of cooperation. The paper discusses oil and gas sectors; major energy trends, including restructuring, foreign investment, and energy diversification; opportunities for cooperation; impediments to cooperation; and models of cooperation

  1. Third-molar development in relation to chronologic age in young adults of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuming; Mao, Jing; Zhu, Shengrong; Wei, Wei

    2008-08-01

    The estimation of chronologic age based on the stages of third-molar development was evaluated by using the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian and the third-molar development was compared, in terms of sex and age, with results of previous studies. The samples consisted of 291 orthopantomograms from young Chinese subjects of known chronologic age and sex (including 139 males with a mean age of 14.67+/-3.62 y and 152 females with a mean age of 14.85+/-3.70 y). Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Mann-Whitney U-test and the t-test. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain regression formulas for calculating dental age from the chronologic age. Our results showed statistically significant differences (Pthird-molar development between males and females, at the calcification stages D, E and H. And a strong correlation was found between age and third-molar development in both males (r (2)=0.65) and females (r (2)=0.61). New equations (Age=8.76+1.32 Development stage) for estimating chronologic age were derived. It is concluded that third-molar genesis took place earlier in males than in females. The use of third molars as a developmental marker is appropriate in young adults of Central China. The formula obtained in the present study can be used as a guide for estimation of dental maturity and a standard for age estimation for young adults of Central China.

  2. Evaluation of an HIV-related behavior change project for female sex workers in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ding-feng; HU Jun; ZHANG Zhi-ying; WANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background As female sex workers (FSWs) were becoming the driving force behind the HIV epidemic in Central China,a project to promote condom use by FSWs was implemented from 2004 to 2009.In this study,we discussed the evaluation of the project,the factors associated with condom use among FSWs within the Chinese context,and proposed suggestions for future interventions for FSWs in China.Methods Two surveys using structured questionnaires were conducted in 2004 and 2009.Data collected from the surveys were analyzed and guided by a behavior change framework.We reviewed relevant articles to supplement the information that was not able to be obtained from the surveys.Results In general,the HIV prevalence among FSWs remained low (less than 1%) in the 5 years.With a high coverage of interventions for all FSWs in Central China,the project yielded better outcomes than the national average over the same time period.The awareness about HIV and condom use grew dramatically during the project period.The four factors/determinants that influence the behavior of FSWs using condoms are population characteristics,opportunity,ability,and motivation.Statistical model shows that the significant variables for using a condom are age,availability of services,HIV-related knowledge,and intention.Conclusions With a high coverage of interventions for FSWs,the project achieved its goals.The differences among workplaces of FSWs may serve as a symbol of their socioeconomic status,patterns of condom use,and therefore risks of acquiring HIV.

  3. Humid Little Ice Age in arid central Asia documented by Bosten Lake,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Fahu; HUANG; Xiaozhong; ZHANG; Jiawu; J.A.Holmes; CHEN; Jianhui

    2006-01-01

    Short sediment cores retrieved from Bosten Lake,the largest inland freshwater lake in China,were used to explore humidity and precipitation variations in arid central Asia during the past millennium.The chronology of the cores was established using 137Cs,210Pb and AMS 14C dating results.Multi-proxy high-resolution analysis,including pollen ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C),carbonate content and grain size,indicates that the climate during the past millennium can be divided into three stages: a dry climate between 1000-1500 AD,a humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (c.1500-1900 AD),and a warm dry period after 1900 AD.On centennial timescales,the climate change in northwestern China during the past 1000 years is characterized by oscillations between warm-dry and cold-humid climate conditions.All the proxies changed significantly and indicate increased precipitation during the LIA,including increased pollen A/C ratios and pollen concentrations,decreased carbonate content and increased grain size.The humid period during the LIA recorded by the Bosten Lake sediments is representative of arid central Asia and is supported by numerous records from other sites.During the LIA,the water runoff into the Keriya River and Tarim River in the Tarim Basin increased,while the ice accumulation in the Guliya ice core increased.Additionally,the lake levels of the Aral and Caspian Sea also rose,while tree-ring analysis indicates that precipitation increased.We hypothesize that both the lower temperature within China and the negative anomalies of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during this period may have contributed to the humid climate within this area during LIA.

  4. Re-recognition of the Dajiuhu Wetland in Shennongjia Mountains, Central China%Re-recognition of the Dajiuhu Wetland in Shennongjia Mountains,Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fei; DU Yun; XUE Huaiping; LING Feng; BAN Xuan

    2012-01-01

    The Dajiuhu wetland,a famous sub-alpine wetland located in the the Shennongjia Mountains,north-subtropical region of Central China,has suffered from adverse impacts of unsustainable human practices over the past 60 years.The Dajiuhu wetland reflects the development process that has been accompanied by human activities.Based on field survey data,high resolution remote sensing image and historical records,the present paper provided a review on exploitation and restoration of the wetland.The results showed that the Dajiuhu wetland degraded quickly from 1950 to 2005.During that time,bog shrinkage,lake disappearance,biodiversity decline,sphagnum reduction,and vegetation succession from wetland communities to terrestrial communities in the Dajiuhu wetland,which were the main manifestations of the wetland degradation.Human activities,such as agricultural reclamation and construction of drainage works,have been the main factors resulting in ecological degradation of the wetland since 1986.Poverty and the short-term economic benefits had been the driving forces for wetland drainage and reclamation over the past years.

  5. Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-04-22

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

  6. The Yanshanian Orogeny and Two Kinds of Yanshanides in Eastern-Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Genyao

    2005-01-01

    The Tan-Lu Fault was once a transform fault in the Paleotethys,west of which was the Qinling-Dabie Ocean separating the Yangtze Craton from the North China Craton,and east of which was the Su-Lu Ocean separating the SuWan Block from the Jiao-Liao Craton.The Qinling-Dabie Ocean closed in the Indosinian orogeny,which created the China-Southeast Asia Subcontinent,with the Tan-Lu Fault becoming a marginal shear zone along the newly-formed amalgamated subcontinent.The Su-Lu Ocean subducted partly in the Indosinian.orogeny,but not closed.In the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous,the Su-Wan Block drifted northwards with subduction of the Su-Lu Ocean and moved westwards to converge the subcontinent by sinistral shearing of the ENE-striking fractures.The Su-Lu Ocean finally closed and the SuWan Block collided with the Jiao-Liao Craton in the Early Cretaceous,which constituted a part of the magnificent interplate Yanshanides.The interplate orogeny rejuvenated the fossil sutures and deep fractures,as well as the Indosinian orogen,and the intraplate (intracontinental) Yanshanian orogeny occurred in the subcontinent.The East Asia Yanshanides,consisting of the interplate orogens in the outer side and the intraplate orogens in the inner side,collapsed quickly in the latest Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous.The eastern China area entered a tensile period from the Eogene,and the tectonic differentiation between the central and eastern China areas since the Jurassic was further strengthened.

  7. Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales,Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shenhui; CHONG Zhuo; ZHAO Fengjuan; YAO Jianting; DUAN Delin

    2013-01-01

    Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China.To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development,ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism)markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S.horneri.The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China.The percentage of polymorphic loci P% (ISSR,99.44%; SRAP,100.00%),Nei's genetic diversity H(ISSR,0.107-0.199; SRAP,0.100-0.153),and Shannon's information index I (ISSR,0.157-0.291; SRAP,0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations.Moreover,the high degree of gene differentiation Gst (ISSR,0.654; SRAP,0.718) and low gene flow Nm (ISSR,0.265; SRAP,0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation,possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation.The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices (Fst) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R=0.541 5,0.541 8; P=0.005 0,0.002 0 and R=0.728 6,0.641 2; P=0.001 0,0.001 0,respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception.Overall,the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation.The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S.horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

  8. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contribute to reducing the precipitation in the western-to-central US through atmospheric teleconnections across the Pacific. Our model experiments show some indications that both the SST forcing and the increase in regional sulphate forcing in China play a similar role in modulating the western-to-central US precipitation, especially its long-term variation. This result indicates that regional air quality regulations in China have important implications for hydrological cycles in East Asia, as well as in the US.

  9. TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA AND CENTRAL ASIA IN THE CONTEXT FORMATION OF TRANS-EURASIAN TRANSPORT CORRIDORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In accordance with its economic interests, China advances coherent policy for development of transport infrastructure both on its own territory and in neighbouring countries. Throughout the last two decades it facilitated the widening trade activity and broader economic cooperation between Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Central Asian states. Its further development foresees a network of Trans-Eurasian links, which will connect China not only with all nearby countries, but with European region as well.

  10. Ring-widths of the above tree-line shrub Rhododendron reveal the change of minimum winter temperature over the past 211 years in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yingfeng; Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Jinchao; Li, Zongshan; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Liang, Eryuan; Zhang, Shibao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Xuefei

    2016-08-01

    Changes in minimum winter temperature (MWT) and their potential effects on plant growth and development have been gaining increased scientific attention. To better understand these changes across long temporal scales, the present study used dendroclimatological techniques to assess variations in MWT in Southwestern China. Using data from Rhododendron species distributed in areas above the tree-line, a regional composite chronology was generated for a 341-year period. Based on the significant negative correlation between MWT values and ring-width, the most reliable parts of this chronological data were then used to reconstruct MWT values for the past 211 years. This reconstructed MWT series showed decadal to multi-decadal fluctuations. Three distinct cold periods prevailed during 1823-1858, 1882-1891 and 1922-1965, while four warm intervals occurred in 1800-1822, 1858-1881, 1892-1921 and 1966-2011. Our reconstructed MWT reveals a warming trend over the most recent eight decades, which is in agreement with instrumental observations. However, the MWT values and rate of warming over the past seven decades did not exceed those found in the reconstructed temperature data for the past 211 years. Spatial correlations reveal that the MWT in Southwest China is strongly associated with regional temperatures in the Eastern and Central Himalaya, Northern China, and the Indian Peninsula. Larger scale climate oscillations of the Western Pacific and Northern Indian Ocean as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation probably influenced the region's temperature in the past.

  11. Changes in the timing, length and heating degree days of the heating season in central heating zone of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the demand for energy consumption, especially for heating and cooling buildings. Using daily mean temperature (Tmean) data, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of the starting date for heating (HS), ending date for heating (HE), length (HL) and heating degree day (HDD) of the heating season in central heating zone of China. Over China's central heating zone, regional average HS has become later by 0.97 day per decade and HE has become earlier by 1.49 days per decade during 1960-2011, resulting in a decline of HL (-2.47 days/decade). Regional averaged HDD decreased significantly by 63.22 °C/decade, which implies a decreasing energy demand for heating over the central heating zone of China. Spatially, there are generally larger energy-saving rate in the south, due to low average HDD during the heating season. Over China's central heating zone, Tmean had a greater effect on HL in warm localities and a greater effect on HDD in cold localities. We project that the sensitivity of HL (HDD) to temperature change will increase (decrease) in a warmer climate. These opposite sensitivities should be considered when we want to predict the effects of climate change on heating energy consumption in China in the future. PMID:27651063

  12. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  13. Abrupt change of the mid-summer climate in central east China by the influence of atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun

    Following the great flooding of summer 1998, the mid-lower Yangtze Basin further suffered from another large flooding in summer 1999. Successive droughts through 3 recent summers (1997-1999) appeared in north China in addition, leading to an abnormal summer climate pattern of "north drought with south flooding". Such southward move of the summer monsoon rainy belt in east China started in the late 1970s-early 1980s. Its main cause may not be a purely natural climate change, but the acceleration of industrialization in east China could play a major role by emitting large volumes of SO 2, especially from the rapidly growing rural factories of east China. The annual release of SO 2 in China exceeded 20 Tg during 1992-1998, so dense sulfate aerosols covered the central east China which significantly reduced the sunlight. Although present estimates for the changes of clear sky global solar radiation may include some error, they show that the negative radiative forcing of sulfate aerosols in central east China by far exceeds the effect of greenhouse warming in summer. Hence the mid-summer monsoon rainy belt of east China has a trend moving southward in 21 recent years (1979-1999), showing the very sensitive characteristic of the summer monsoon system to the change in heat equilibrium of the land surface. The occurrence rate of summer climate pattern of "north drought with south flooding" in east China during 21 recent years is the largest since AD 950; such anomalous climate has brought large losses to China. The only possible way to reverse this southward trend of summer monsoon rainy belt is to significantly reduce air pollution by using more clean energy. Recently, the PRC has paid serious attention to this problem by adopting a series of countermeasures.

  14. Emergence and transmission pathways of rapidly evolving evolutionary branch C4a strains of human enterovirus 71 in the Central Plain of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD occurred repeatedly in the Central Plain of China (Shandong, Anhui, and Henan provinces from 2007 until now. These epidemics have increased in size and severity each year and are a major public health concern in mainland China. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree was constructed based on the complete VP1 sequences of HEV71 isolates. These analyses showed that the HFMD epidemic in the Central Plain of China was caused by at least 5 chains of HEV71 transmission and that the virus continued to circulate and evolve over the winter seasons between outbreaks. Between 1998 and 2010, there were 2 stages of HEV71 circulation in mainland China, with a shift from evolutionary branch C4b to C4a in 2003-2004. The evolution rate of C4a HEV71 was 4.99×10(-3 substitutions per site per year, faster than the mean of all HEV71 genotypes. The most recent common ancestor estimates for the Chinese clusters dated to October 1994 and November 1993 for the C4a and C4b evolutionary branches, respectively. Compared with all C4a HEV71 strains, a nucleotide substitution in all C4b HEV71 genome (A to C reversion at nt2503 in the VP1 coding region, which caused amino acid substitution of VP1-10: Gln to His had reverted. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that C4a HEV71 strains introduced into the Central Plain of China are responsible for the recent outbreaks. The relationships among HEV71 isolates determined from the combined sequence and epidemiological data reveal the underlying seasonal dynamics of HEV71 circulation. At least 5 HEV71 lineages circulated in the Central Plain of China from 2007 to 2009, and the Shandong and Anhui lineages were found to have passed through a genetic bottleneck during the low-transmission winter season.

  15. Post-collisional adakitic biotite plagiogranites from Guangtoushan pluton (Mianxian, central China): Petrogenesis and tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiangfeng; LAI Shaocong; LI Yongfei

    2007-01-01

    The post-collisional Guangtoushan pluton intruded into the Mianlue suture, Central China. Geochemi-cally, the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites show many close compositional similarities to high-silica adakites from the supra-subduction zone setting, but tend to have a higher concentration of K2O (3.22%-3.84%). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element pattems are characterized by high ratios of (La/Yb)N, concave-upward shapes of the heavy rare earth element (HREE), and a lack of significant Eu anomalies. In conjunction with high abundances of Ba and Sr, as well as low abundances of Y and HREE, these pattems suggest a feldspar-poor, garnet±amohibole-rich fractionation mineral assemblage. Coupled with previous studies, we suggest that the Guangtoushan biotite plagiogranites were likely to be caused by subducting slab break-off during the late orogenic stage in the West Qinling orogenic belt.

  16. Factors Limiting Centralized Land Circulation in China from the Perspective of Farmers’ Property Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    At present,there are many factors limiting large area centralized,rapid development,and moderately large-scale land operation in China.These factors include(i) the existing land utilization system is still at adaptation stage,and it lacks universal agreement of people on large-scale land operation;(ii) farmers’ dependence on land is great;(iii) it is difficult to transfer surplus labor;(iv) there is no positive connection between promotion of moderately large-scale land operation and realization of increase of farmers’ income;(v) it remains to be proved whether large-scale operation can become a stable rural occupation and whether big farming households can grow to professional farmers;(vi) large-scale land operation in rural areas may lead to waste of resources;(vii) the promotion of large-scale land operation may cause other social contradictions.

  17. Third-Molar Development in Relation to Chronologic Age in Young Adults of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuming BAI; Jing MAO; Shengrong ZHU; Wei WEI

    2008-01-01

    The estimation of chronologic age based on the stages of third-molar development was evaluated by using the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian and the third-molar development was compared, in terms of sex and age, with results of previous studies. The samples consisted of 291orthopantomograms from young Chinese subjects of known chronologic age and sex (including 139males with a mean age of 14.67±3.62 y and 152 females with a mean age of 14.85±3.70 y). Statistical analysis was performed by employing the Mann-Whitney U-test and the t-test. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain regression formulas for calculating dental age from the chronologic age. Our results showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in third-molar development between males and females, at the calcification stages D, E and H. And a strong correlation was found between age and third-molar development in both males (r2=0.65) and females (r2=0.61). New equations (Age=8.76+1.32 Development stage) for estimating chronologic age were derived. It is concluded that third-molar genesis took place earlier in males than in females. The use of third molars as a developmental marker is appropriate in young adults of Central China. The formula obtained in the present study can be used as a guide for estimation of dental maturity and a standard for age estimation for young adults of Central China.

  18. Aircraft measurements of polar organic tracer compounds in tropospheric particles (PM10 over Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected by aircraft at low to middle altitudes (0.8–3.5 km a.g.l. over Central East to West China during summer 2003 and spring 2004. The samples were analyzed for polar organic compounds using a technique of solvent extraction/BSTFA derivatization/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracers from the oxidation of isoprene were found to be more abundant in summer (3.3–138 ng m−3, mean 39 ng m−3 than in spring (3.2–42 ng m−3, 15 ng m−3, while α/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene SOA tracers showed similar abundance between these two seasons. A strong positive correlation (R2=0.83 between levoglucosan and β-caryophyllinic acid was found in the spring samples versus a weak correlation (R2=0.17 in the summer samples, implying substantial contributions from biomass burning to the β-caryophyllinic acid production in spring. Two organic nitrogen species (oxamic acid and carbamide were detected in the aircraft aerosol samples and their concentrations were comparable to those of biogenic SOA tracers. Most of the POA and SOA tracers were less abundant at higher altitudes, suggesting they are of ground surface origin, either being directly emitted from anthropogenic/natural sources on the ground surface, or rapidly formed through photooxidation of their precursors emitted from the ground surface and then diluted during uplifting into the troposphere. This study demonstrates that primary biological aerosols, biogenic SOA, and organic nitrogen species are important components of organic aerosols in the troposphere over Central China.

  19. Mechanisms Contributing to Suppressed Precipitation in Mt. Hua of Central China, Part I: Mountain Valley Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhao, Chun; Li, Zhanqing; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2016-02-15

    Significant reduction in precipitation in the past decades has been documented over many mountain ranges such as those in central and eastern China. Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. Rigorous quantitative investigations on the reasons responsible for the precipitation reduction are lacking. Here in this study, we employed an improved Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with online coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) and conducted simulations at the convection-permitting scale to explore the major mechanisms governing changes in precipitation from orographic clouds in the Mountain (Mt.) Hua area in Central China. We find that anthropogenic pollution contributes to a ~ 40% reduction of precipitation over Mt. Hua during the one-month summer time period. The reduction is mainly associated with precipitation events associated with valleymountain circulation and a mesoscale cold front event. In this Part I paper, we scrutinize the mechanism leading to significant reduction for the cases associated with valley-mountain circulation. We find that the valley breeze is weakened by aerosols due to absorbing aerosol induced warming aloft and cooling near the surface as a result of aerosol-radiation interaction (ARI). The weakened valley breeze along with reduced water vapor in the valley due to reduced evapotranspiration as a result of surface cooling significantly reduce the transport of water vapor from the valley to mountain and the relative humidity over the mountain, thus suppressing convection and precipitation in the mountain.

  20. Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soil in central Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; GOU Xin; WANG Gang; ZHANG Qiang; SU Qiong; XIAO Guoju

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) were measured in arid agricultural and irrigated agricultural soils collected in Daba Village, Shajiawuan Village, Gangou Village and Sifangwu Village, located in central Gansu Province, China. Concentrations except Hg and Pb were lower than the background values in grey calcareous soil in the selected arid agricultural soils. Pb concentration exceeded the threshold of arid agricultural soils in China by 72. 46%. These results showed that there was indeed serious pollution with Pb, a slight pollution problem for other selected metals in the irrigated agricultural soils in Daba Village. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the soil data, applying varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization. The result showed that the irrigated factor, agricultural factor and anthropogenic factor all contributed to the relations between selected chemical properties. The main factor of accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As was lithological factor in arid agricultural areas. There is a striking dissimilarity of origin of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As in agricultural soil between the irrigate agriculture and arid agriculture.

  1. Pyrosequencing Reveals a Core Community of Anodic Bacterial Biofilms in Bioelectrochemical Systems from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Yue; Wu, Song; Zhang, En-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Ng, I-Son; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are promising technologies for energy and product recovery coupled with wastewater treatment, and the core microbial community in electrochemically active biofilm in BESs remains controversy. In the present study, 7 anodic communities from 6 bioelectrochemical systems in 4 labs in southeast, north and south-central of China are explored by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 251,225 effective sequences are obtained for 7 electrochemically active biofilm samples at 3% cutoff level. While Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria are the most abundant classes (averaging 16.0-17.7%), Bacteroidia and Clostridia are the two sub-dominant and commonly shared classes. Six commonly shared genera i.e., Azospira, Azospirillum, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Pseudomonas, and Rhodopseudomonas dominate the electrochemically active communities and are defined as core genera. A total of 25 OTUs with average relative abundance >0.5% were selected and designated as core OTUs, and some species relating to these OTUs have been reported electrochemically active. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests show that two strains from Acinetobacter guillouiae and Stappia indica, bacteria relate to two core OTUs, are electrochemically active. Using randomly selected bioelectrochemical systems, the study has presented extremely diverse bacterial communities in anodic biofilms, though, we still can suggest some potentially microbes for investigating the electrochemical mechanisms in bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:26733958

  2. Pyrosequencing reveals a core community of anodic bacterial biofilms in bioelectrochemical systems from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eXiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs are promising technologies for energy and product recovery coupled with wastewater treatment, and the core microbial community in electrochemically active biofilm in BESs remains controversy. In the present study, 7 anodic communities from 6 bioelectrochemical systems in 4 labs in southeast, north and south-central of China are explored by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 251,225 effective sequences are obtained for 7 electrochemically active biofilm samples at 3% cutoff level. While Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria are the most abundant classes (averaging 16.0-17.7%, Bacteroidia and Clostridia are the two sub-dominant and commonly shared classes. Six commonly shared genera i.e. Azospira, Azospirillum, Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Rhodopseudomonas dominate the electrochemically active communities and are defined as core genera. A total of 25 OTUs with average relative abundance >0.5% were selected and designated as core OTUs, and some species relating to these OTUs have been reported electrochemically active. Furthermore, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests show that two strains from Acinetobacter guillouiae and Stappia indica, bacteria relate to two core OTUs, are electrochemically active. Using randomly selected bioelectrochemical systems, the study presented extremely diverse bacterial communities in anodic biofilms, though, we still can suggest some potential microbes for investigating the electrochemical mechanisms in bioelectrochemical systems.

  3. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  4. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIN; Hu, Haijing

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics, the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed, and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality, rather than take “household register†measures to solve the problem simply.

  5. Central-north China precipitation as reconstructed from the Qing dynasty: Signal of the Antarctic Atmospheric Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Fan, Ke

    2005-12-01

    Based on the long-term Central-north China precipitation (CNCP) time series reconstructed from the Qing Dynasty Official Document, the relationship between CNCP and the Antarctic Atmospheric Oscillation (AAO) in June-July is examined. The analysis yields a (significant) negative correlation of -0.22. The signal of AAO in CNCP is further studied through analyses of the atmospheric general circulation variability related to AAO. It follows that AAO-related variability of convergence and convection over the tropical western Pacific can exert impact on the circulation condition and precipitation in north China (actually, the precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley as well) through atmospheric teleconnection known as the East Asia-Pacific (or Pacific-Japan) teleconnection wave pattern. There is also an AAO-connected wave train in the vorticity field at high troposphere over Eurasia, providing an anti-cyclonic circulation in central-north China favorable to the decline of precipitation in positive phase of AAO.

  6. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  7. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China

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    Pan Jia-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. Findings The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR, human blood index (HBI, and the parous rates (M. Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site. About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of

  8. THE POTENTIAL OF ALTERNATIVE RAIL FREIGHT TRANSPORT CORRIDORS BETWEEN CENTRAL EUROPE AND CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the potential of three rail corridors: Trans-Sib, Central and TRACECA for freight transport between Central Europe and China. The paper applies a qualitative research method including a review of current literature and interviews. The research examines the technical, operational and bureaucratic conditions of the corridors. The research finds that the unreliable transit time, higher cost and damage and theft of cargo are the most pressing barriers to towards offering an efficient and integrated logistics and supply chain service along the corridors. This is due to, amongst others, problematic, multiple border-crossings and the lack of visible cooperation among the countries. The technical and operational barriers include a change of gauge, differing power supply and signalling systems and non-automated and fragmented information systems. The research also finds that the Trans-Sib is the most attractive corridor currently running and shows promise with the active contribution from the Russian government and relevant direct stakeholders such as Russian Railway (RZD. The TRACECA route is the most problematic option due to, among others, numerous border-crossings, infrastructure and rolling stock constraints and other associated problems.

  9. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in Central East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, C.; Zhuang, G.; Huang, K.; Li, J.; Zhang, R.; Wang, Q.; Liu, T.; Sun, Y.; Guo, Z.; Fu, J. S.; Wang, Z.

    2011-07-01

    PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT) (1534 m a.s.l.) in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, and Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6-287.6 μg m-3 and 17.2-235.7 μg m-3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, PO43-, NO2-, CH3COO-, CH2C2O42-, C2H4C2O42-, HCOO-, MSA, C2O42-, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+), and 19 elements of all samples were measured. SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.50 % and 72.65 % of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006) and 0.49(2007) in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc.) showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most of the pollution species (SO42-, NO3-, K+, NO2-, NH4+, Cl-, organic acids, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr) from local/regional anthropogenic emissions or secondary formation presented higher concentration in summer. The ratio of Ca/Al suggested the impact of Asian dust from the western deserts on the air quality in this region. The high concentration of K+ in PM2.5 (4.41 μg m-3) and its good correlation with black carbon (r = 0.90) and oxalic acid (r = 0.87) suggested the severe pollution from biomass burning, which was proved to be a main source of fine particles over central eastern China in summer. The contribution of biomass

  10. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61-84 months old in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%-93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%-41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. PMID:26433329

  11. The typical large-scale superposed folds in the central South China: Implications for Mesozoic intracontinental deformation of the South China Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Huang, Shiqi

    2015-11-01

    The South China Block has experienced polyphase intensive intracontinental deformation in the Mesozoic time. Large-scale superposed folds in central South China document the Mesozoic tectonic events within the South China Block. Here, we present new structural data related to synfolding deformation, coupling with chronological data, to reconstruct the deformation sequence and tectonic regime during crustal shortening. These data indicate that the superposed folds, dominated by a two-stage tectonic compressive regime, experienced two phases of superposed buckle folding, leading to the orthogonal superposition of NE-SW-trending folds onto WNW-ESE-trending folds between the late Middle Jurassic and the earliest Early Cretaceous. Our structural analysis, together with geochronological data for this area, suggests that the South China Block predominately underwent two phases of intracontinental deformation during the Mesozoic. The early phase of tectonism (D1) is characterized by a late Middle Triassic to earliest Early Jurassic NE-SW compression, causing the occurrence of an orogeny-perpendicular shortening accompanying with evident magmatism. This tectonic event was most likely associated with progressive clockwise collision of the South China Block toward the north in the Indosinian event. Subsequent tectonic activity (D2) between the late Middle Jurassic and the earliest Early Cretaceous contributed to a phase of NW-SE contraction that overprinted the early NE-SW shortening in the interior of the South China Block, generating a large-scale NW-convex fold belt and the typical large-scale superposed folds within the central South China Block. The later tectonism was probably driven by the NW-directed subduction of the paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the eastern part of the Asian continent.

  12. Two Discrete UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts in the Central Orogenic Belt, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhang Li; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2006-01-01

    An attempt is made to confirm the existence of the two discrete UHP and HP metamorphic belts in the central orogenic belt in China. Detailed geological mapping and structural and petrological analyses of the Kanfenggou (看丰沟) and Xiangfanggou ( 香坊沟 ) slices exposed in the eastern Qinling (秦岭) orogen indicate that they experienced ultrahigh pressure and high pressure metamorphism, respectively. The former, situated in northern Qinling, contains a large volume of fine-grained coesite and quartz pseudomorphs after coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses, whereas the latter, located in southern Qinling, preserves the relicts of a high pressure metamorphic mineral assemblage. Based on extensive fieldwork together with compilations at the scale of the orogenic belt, and a comparison of Pb isotopic compositions between the UHP metamorphic rocks from Kanfenggou slice and the Dabie UHP metamorphic belt, we propose that there are at least two discrete ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belts with different ages and tectonic evolution within the central orogenic belt in China. The first is the South Altun-North Qaidam-North Qinling ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belt of Early Paleozoic age (~ 500-400 Ma). The Kanfenggou ultrahigh pressure slab is located at its eastern segment. The second is the well constrained Dabie ( 大别 )-Sulu ( 苏鲁 ) ultrahigh/ high pressure metamorphic belt of Triassic age (~250-220 Ma). The Xiangfanggou high pressure metamorphic slab is a westward extension of the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh/high pressure metamorphic belt. The Pb isotopic compositions of the UHP metamorphic rocks from Kanfenggou UHP fragment in East Qinling are different from those of the UHP rocks in Dabie UHP metamorphic belt, but are consistent with those of the rocks from the Qinling rock group and Erlangping (二郎坪) rock group. The East Qinling UHP metamorphic belt does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt. These two ultrahigh

  13. Implications of East Asian summer and winter monsoons for interannual aerosol variations over central-eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xugeng; Zhao, Tianliang; Gong, Sunling; Xu, Xiangde; Han, Yongxiang; Yin, Yan; Tang, Lili; He, Hongchang; He, Jinhai

    2016-03-01

    Air quality change is generally driven by two factors: pollutant emissions and meteorology, which are difficult to distinguish via observations. To identify the contribution of meteorological factor to air quality change, an aerosol simulation from 1995 to 2004 with the global air quality model GEM-AQ/EC was designed without year-to-year changes in the anthropogenic aerosol (including sulfate and organic and black carbon) emissions over the 10-year span. To assess the impact of interannual variations of East Asian monsoon (EAM) on air quality change in China, this modeling study focused on the region of central-eastern China (CEC), a typical East Asian monsoon (EAM) region with high anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The simulation analysis showed that the interannual variability in surface aerosols over CEC was driven by fluctuation in meteorological factors associated with EAM changes. Large amplitudes of interannual variability in surface aerosol concentrations reaching 20-30% relative to the 10-year averages were found over southern CEC in summer and over northern CEC in winter. The weakened near-surface winds of EAMs in both summer and winter were significantly correlated with aerosol increases over most areas of CEC. The summer and winter monsoon changes enhance the surface aerosol concentrations with increasing trend rates exceeding 30% and 40% over the southern and northern CEC region, respectively, during the 10 years. The composite analyses of aerosol concentrations in weak and strong monsoon years revealed that positive anomalies in surface aerosol concentrations during weak summer monsoon years were centered over the vast CEC region from the North China Plain to the Sichuan Basin, and the anomaly pattern with "northern higher" and "southern lower" surface aerosol levels was distributed over CEC in weak winter monsoon years. Aerosol washout by summer monsoon rainfall exerted an impact on CEC aerosol distribution in summer; aerosol dry depositions in

  14. New climate change scenarios reveal uncertain future for Central Asian glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Lutz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian water resources largely depend on (glacier melt water generated in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges, located in the basins of the Amu and Syr Darya rivers, important life lines in Central Asia and the prominent water source of the Aral Sea. To estimate future water availability in the region, it is thus necessary to project the future glacier extent and volume in the Amu and Syr Darya river basins. The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of uncertainty in climate change projections on the future glacier extent in the Amu and Syr Darya river basins. The latest climate change projections provided by the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 generated for the upcoming fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC are used to model future glacier extent in the Central Asian region for the two large river basins. The outcomes are compared to model results obtained with the climate change projections used for the fourth IPCC assessment (CMIP3. We use a regionalized glacier mass balance model to estimate changes in glacier extent as a function of glacier size and projections of temperature and precipitation. The model is developed for implementation in (large scale hydrological models, when the spatial model resolution does not allow for modelling of individual glaciers and data scarcity is an issue. Both CMIP3 and CMIP5 model simulations point towards a strong decline in glacier extent in Central Asia. However, compared to the CMIP3 projections, the CMIP5 projections of future glacier extent in Central Asia provide a wider range of outcomes, mostly owing to greater variability in precipitation projections among the latest suite of climate models. These findings have great impact on projections of the timing and quantity of water availability in glacier melt dominated rivers in the region. Uncertainty about the size of the decline in glacier extent remains large, making

  15. Genetic diversity and elite gene introgression reveal the japonica rice breeding in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; WANG Jia-yu; WANG Xiao-xue; YANG Xian-li; SUN Jian; CHEN Wen-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abundant genetic diversity and rational population structure of germplasm beneift crop breeding greatly. To investigate genetic variation among geographical y diverse set of japonica germplasm, we analyzed 233 japonica rice cultivars col-lected from Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces of China, which were released from 1970 to 2011 by using 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 8 functional gene tags related to yield. A total of 195 al eles (Na) were detected with an average of 3.61 per locus, indicating a low level of genetic diversity level among al individuals. The genetic diversity of the cultivars from Jilin Province was the highest among the three geographic distribution zones. Moreover, the genetic diversity was increased slightly with the released period of cultivars from 1970 to 2011. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that genetic differentiation was more diverse within the populations than that among the populations. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree indicated that cultivar clusters based on geographic distribution represented three independent groups, among which the cluster of cultivars from Heilongjiang is distinctly different to the cluster of cultivars from Liaoning. For the examined functional genes, two or three al elic variations for each were detected, except for IPA1 and GW2, and most of elite genes had been introgressed in modern japonica rice varieties. These results provide a valuable evaluation for genetic backgrounds of current japonica rice and wil be used directly for japonica rice breeding in future.

  16. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Desi...

  17. Bar-induced central star formation as revealed by integral field spectroscopy from CALIFA

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin; He, Yanqin; Xiao, Ting; Wang, Enci

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the recent star formation history (SFH) in the inner region of 57 nearly face-on spiral galaxies selected from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. For each galaxy we use the integral field spectroscopy from CALIFA to obtain two-dimensional maps and radial profiles of three parameters that are sensitive indicators of the recent SFH: the 4000\\AA\\ break (D$_n$(4000)), and the equivalent width of H$\\delta$ absorption (EW(H$\\delta_A$)) and H$\\alpha$ emission (EW(H$\\alpha$)). We have also performed photometric decomposition of bulge/bar/disk components based on SDSS optical image. We identify a class of 17 "turnover" galaxies whose central region present significant drop in D$_n$(4000), and most of them correspondingly show a central upturn in EW(H$\\delta_A$) and EW(H$\\alpha$). This indicates that the central region of the turnover galaxies has experienced star formation in the past 1-2 Gyr, which makes the bulge younger and more star-forming than surrounding regions. We find a...

  18. Relationships of Aegilops tauschii revealed by DNA fingerprints: The evidence for agriculture exchange between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiting Wei; Jun Li; Zhengsong Peng; Baorong Lu; Zhijun Zhao; Wuyun Yang

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of wild goat grass (Aegilops tauschii Cosson) from Iran and Xinjiang,west China,as well as its weedy type from the Yellow River region of Shaanxi and Henan provinces in China were analyzed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) fingerprints.A high level of genetic diversity in Aegilops tauschii accessions from Iran was observed,and the richness of genetic diversity was followed by accessions from Shaanxi,Henan,and Xinjiang.The weedy type of Aegilops tauschii showed a close genetic relationship with the wild type from different regions in Iran.The results indicated that the weedy Aegilops tauschii found in the Yellow River region was most likely introduced from lran-the diversity center of Aegilops tauschii.The weedy Aegilops tauschii populations found in the Yellow River region may be brought into the central part of China as a weed species together with common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the West during various periods of time in history.This finding has provided strong evidence for the introduction of common wheat from the West into China via the Silk Road,and also demonstrated the important role of the Silk Road in the exchange of agri-culture and other relevant technologies between China and the West.

  19. Pb Isotope Mapping in the Tongbai-Dabie Orogenic Belt, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; ZHONG Zengqiu; WANG Linsen; Zhang Benren

    2008-01-01

    Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt in Central China is a part of the collisional belt between the Yangtze and North China cratons. It represents one of the most extensive ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The Pb isotope mapping in this area is a significant method to constrain the crustal structure and tectonic evolution and to identify the tectonic boundaries within the vertical tectonic stack. Based on the Pb isotope compositions of the Dabie complex (DBC), the Tongbai complex (TBC), UHP and HP metamorphic rocks and associated foliated granites, the lower metamorphosed rocks from North Huaiyang (NHY) tectonic belt, and Cretaceous granites in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt, we determined the Pb isotope geochemical map of the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The Pb isotope map shows that the Pb isotope compositions are similar within each geological body or lithotectonic unit, but the Pb isotope compositions of different lithotectonic units show systematic variations in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The NHY tectonic belt contrasts strongly with the Tongbal-Dabie UHP-HP metamorphic belt in Pb isotope compositions.It is suggested that the line along the Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, the north limit of the Tongbai-Dabie UHP and HP metamorphic rocks, represents an important tectonic boundary. Within the Tongbai-Dabie HP -UHP metamorphic belt, to the south of Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, the vertical variations of Pb isotope compositions in different lithotectonic units and the spatial relationship among different major lithotectonic units have been constrained.

  20. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends during 1961-2010 in Hubei province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranghui; Li, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is an important climatic parameter, and its variability severely affects regional hydrological processes and water resource management. In order to explore the changing spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation-related indices, including precipitation amounts indices, extreme precipitation indices, and precipitation concentration indices, in Hubei province, central China during 1961-2010, several precipitation-related indices series were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test, and inverse distance weighted interpolation method in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) A clear south-north gradient is apparent in the spatial distribution of the majority of precipitation-related indices, while the distribution of other indices (i.e., CDD, PCD, and PCP) is just the opposite. Most part of Hubei province can experience mixed positive and negative trends in precipitation-related indices. (2) The majority of precipitation-related indices exhibit an increasing trend, but most of which are not significant. July has the largest positive trend, with a regional average of 14.76 mm/decade. As for extreme precipitation indices, there exist large variations in Hubei, especially in R95pTOT. Besides, no obvious trends are shown in precipitation concentration indices. (3) With the exception of consecutive dry days (CDD), most of extreme precipitation indices are strongly correlated with annual mean precipitation (AMP) in Hubei. And the extreme precipitation indices are well correlated with each other except CDD and consecutive wet days (CWD). For six precipitation-related indices (i.e., SDII, RX1day, RX5day, R95pTOT R99pTOT, and PCD), there are significant positive relationships with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) but significant negative relationships with Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). Furthermore, the majority of precipitation-related indices have significant negative correlations with East Asian summer monsoon

  1. Altitudinal Pattern of Plant Species Diversity in Shennongjia Mountains, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ming ZHAO; Wei-Lie CHEN; Zi-Qiang TIAN; Zong-Qiang XIE

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and sixty plots, approximately every 100 m above sea level (a.s.l.) along an altitudinal gradient from 470 to 3 080 m a.s.l, at the southern and northern watershed of Mt. Shennongjia,China, were examined to determine the altitudinal pattern of plant species diversity. Mt. Shennongjia was found to have high plant species diversity, with 3 479 higher plants recorded. Partial correlation analysis and detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) based on plant species diversity revealed that altitude was the main factor affecting the spatial pattern of plant species diversity on Mt. Shennongjia and that canopy coverage of the arbor layer also had a considerable effect on plant species diversity. The DCCA based on species data of importance value further revealed that altitude gradient was the primary factor shaping the spatial pattern of plant species. In addition, the rule of the "mid-altitude bulge" was supported on Mt. Shennongjia. Plant species diversity was closely related to vegetation type and the transition zone usually had a higher diversity. Higher plant species diversity appeared in the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest zone (900-1 500 m a.s.l.) and its transition down to evergreen broadleaved forest zone or up to deciduous broadleaved forest zone. The largest plant species diversity in whole communities on Mt. Shennongjia lay at approximately 1 200 m a.s.l. Greatest tree diversity, shrub diversity, and grass diversity was found at approximately 1 500, 1 100, and 1 200 m a.s.l., respectively. The southern watershed showed higher plant species diversity than the northern watershed, with maximum plant species diversity at a higher altitude in the southern watershed than the northern watershed. These results indicate that Mt.Shennongjia shows characteristics of a transition region. The relationship between the altitudinal pattern of plant species diversity and the vegetation type in eastern China are also discussed and a

  2. Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Qin; Liu, Ji-Qi; Xu, Bian-Li; Lv, Shan; Xia, Shang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks can transmit a number of pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Tick borne diseases (TBDs), which may lead to organ failure and death have been recently reported in China. 98.75% of the total cases (>1000) in Henan provinces have been reported in Xinyang city. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the fauna of ticks and detect the potential pathogens in ticks in Xinyang, the region of central China. Methods Ticks were collected from 10 villages of Xinyang f...

  3. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Shewanella spp. Reveals Evolutionary Robustness in Central Carbon Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Martin, Hector Garcia; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Llora, Xavier; Meadows, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19

    Shewanella spp. are a group of facultative anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in marine and fresh-water environments. In this study, we profiled the central metabolic fluxes of eight recently sequenced Shewanella species grown under the same condition in minimal med-ium with [3-13C] lactate. Although the tested Shewanella species had slightly different growth rates (0.23-0.29 h31) and produced different amounts of acetate and pyruvate during early exponential growth (pseudo-steady state), the relative intracellular metabolic flux distributions were remarkably similar. This result indicates that Shewanella species share similar regulation in regard to central carbon metabolic fluxes under steady growth conditions: the maintenance of metabolic robustness is not only evident in a single species under genetic perturbations (Fischer and Sauer, 2005; Nat Genet 37(6):636-640), but also observed through evolutionary related microbial species. This remarkable conservation of relative flux profiles through phylogenetic differences prompts us to introduce the concept of metabotype as an alternative scheme to classify microbial fluxomics. On the other hand, Shewanella spp. display flexibility in the relative flux profiles when switching their metabolism from consuming lactate to consuming pyruvate and acetate.

  4. [Environmental significance of wet deposition composition in the central Qilian Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-jie; Li, Zong-xing; Tian, Qing; Song, Ling-ling; Jia, Bing; Guo, Rui; Song, Yao-xuan; Su, Suo-nan; Han, Chun-tan

    2014-12-01

    A total of 90 precipitation samples were collected from individual precipitation events at the Qilian Alpine Ecology & Hydrology Research Station (Hulugou Station, 30 degrees 47'N, 90 degrees 58'E; 3 260 m a. s. l) located in the central Qilian Mountains from August 2012 to November 2013. All samples were analyzed for major cations (Na, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (Cl- , NO3- and SO4(2-)) and conductivity. Precipitation EC values ranged from 2.26 to 482 μS x cm(-1) with an average value of 41.9 μS x cm(-1). The precipitation was of SO4(2-) -Mg(2+) -Ca2+ type, which contributed > 70% to the total ionic concentration. The same as the precipitation alkalinity, precipitation events occurred around summer showed lower concentrations, while it had higher concentrations in winter and spring with little precipitation and larger wind speed. Enrichment factor (EF), correlation and factor analysis indicated that regional crustal aerosols and species from central Asian and northwestern China arid regions brought by the westerly circulation were the major sources for these ions, some dust from human pollution were the secondary sources, and the contribution of sea salt was the least due to the long distance transport. These characteristics could be also confirmed by the correlation between ionic concentrations and metrological data in the study region. It is also interesting that the precipitation chemistry was different under the different atmospheric circulation: the monsoon precipitation, the interaction precipitation events ( influenced both by monsoon and westerly) and the westerly precipitation.

  5. Wet and dry nitrogen deposition in the central Sichuan Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Fuhong; Liu, Xuejun; Zhu, Bo; Shen, Jianlin; Pan, Yuepeng; Su, Minmin; Goulding, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) plays a key role in the atmospheric environment and its deposition has induced large negative impacts on ecosystem health and services. Five-year continuous in-situ monitoring of N deposition, including wet (total nitrogen (WTN), total dissolved nitrogen (WTDN), dissolved organic nitrogen (WDON), ammonium nitrogen (WAN) and nitrate nitrogen (WNN)) and dry (DNH3, DHNO3, DpNH4+, DpNO3- and DNO2) deposition, had been conducted since August 2008 to December 2013 (wet) and May 2011 to December 2013 (dry) in Yan-ting, China, a typical agricultural area in the central Sichuan Basin. Mean annual total N deposition from 2011 to 2013 was 30.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and speculated that of 2009 and 2010 was averaged 28.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Wet and dry N deposition accounted for 76.3% and 23.7% of annual N deposition, respectively. Reduced N (WAN, DNH3 and DpNH4+) was 1.7 times of oxidized N (WNN, DHNO3, DNO2 and DpNO3-) which accounted for 50.9% and 30.3% of TN, respectively. Maximum loadings of all N forms of wet deposition, gaseous NH3, HNO3 and particulate NH4+ in dry deposition occurred in summer and minimum loadings in winter. Whether monthly, seasonal or annual averaged, dissolved N accounted for more than 70% of the total. N deposition in the central Sichuan Basin increased during the sampling period, especially that of ammonium compounds, and has become a serious threat to local aquatic ecosystems, the surrounding forest and other natural or semi-natural ecosystems in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.

  6. Holocene Climate Change Revealed in a Peat Sequence of Central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M.; Zong, Y.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we aimed at the examination of organic carbon signatures of present vegetation in central Tibet and the application of such technique to the reconstruction of palaeo-climatic history of the Plateau region. Isotopic values were measured from a number of plant samples collected from various altitudes and environments across the study area. Results show that the area is covered by a dominantly C3 sedges, grasses, shrubs and trees, with small amount of C4 sedges recorded. The C4 component here represents dryer and cooler conditions. A 5.8m-long core was obtained from a river valley site at an altitude of 4300 m above sea level. The sediment sequence is consisted of mainly peat. Its chronology is developed based on a series of AMS dates and suggests a 50-year resolution. The organic carbon isotope results suggest a warm climate started from the early Holocene in central Tibet. Throughout the core, the d13C values vary between -27.5 and -25.0 ‰, with four major shifts towards more positive d13C values, which is considered as phases of an increase in C4 matter input, i.e. phases of slightly cooler and dryer climate conditions. These events are dated to around 8200, 6100, 4000 and 2000 cal. years BP, and largely comparable with major cooling events reported for the Northern Hemisphere from Dongge Cave, Greenland ice cores and other locations. Comparisons with other data sets from the region will be made, the details of the climate history of Tibet Plateau will be investigated, and major circulation systems that affect the region's climate will be discussed.

  7. Water Budget Analysis of Red Soils in Central Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-Zhou; HE Yuan-Qiu; CHEN Ming-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The daily soil water budgets in the red soil areas of central Jiangxi Province,southern China,were investigated with a large-scale weighing lysimeter and runoff plots. From 1998 to 2000,peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) were planted in the lysimeter and in 1999,peanuts were planted in the runoff plots. The soil water budget components including rainfall,runoff,percolation and evapotranspiration were measured directly or calculated by Richards' equation and water balance equation. The results showed that most rainfall,including rainstorms,occurred from March to July,and induced the greatest soil water percolation during the year. The evapotranspiration was still large from July to September when rainfall was minimal. Thus,the lack of synchronization in soil water inputs and losses was disadvantageous to crops growing in this region. Among the soil water losses,percolation was the largest,followed by evapotranspiration,and then soil runoff. Runoff was very small on farmland with crops. It was significantly different from the uncultivated uplands where large-scale runoff was usually reported. The soil water storage fluctuated sinusoidally,with a large amplitude in the rainy season and a small amplitude in the dry season.

  8. The origin of spongy texture in minerals of mantle xenoliths from the Western Qinling, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ben-Xun; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Yang, Yue-Heng; Ying, Ji-Feng; Tang, Yan-Jie; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Xiao, Yan; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Mao, Qian; Ma, Yu-Guang

    2011-03-01

    Spongy textures are observed in mantle peridotite xenoliths hosted in Cenozoic kamafugites from the Western Qinling, central China. These textures are mainly developed in clinopyroxenes and spinels, and occur as spongy rims consisting of low-Na clinopyroxene, ilmenite, and bubbles, enclosing nonspongy cores. The ilmenites and bubbles exhibit shapes and sizes that vary with the width of the spongy rims. The spongy-textured minerals preserve primary shapes and well-defined grain boundaries and do not show apparent interaction with contact minerals or observed melts except the subsequent melts forming melt pockets. The xenocrysts display reactive zoning textures with host magmas rather than spongy textures. Compositionally, the spongy rims are enriched in Ca, Ti, and most trace elements, have high Cr#, and are depleted in Na, Al, Fe, AlVI, and AlIV/AlVI compared with the cores. These observations suggest that melts/host magmas did not play any significant role in the formation of the spongy textures. We therefore propose that spongy-textured clinopyroxenes and spinels in Western Qinling peridotite xenoliths developed from a decompression-induced partial melting event prior to formation of melt pockets and xenolith entrainment in host magmas.

  9. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m(-1) to 1.6e-4 m(-1)) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m(-1)sr(-1) and 1.7e-06 m(-1)sr(-1)) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind. PMID:27213414

  10. An Investigation of Aerosol Scattering and Absorption Properties in Wuhan, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol scattering and absorption properties were continuously measured and analyzed at the urban Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing (LIESMARS site in Wuhan, central China, from 1 December 2009 to 31 March 2014. The mean aerosol scattering coefficient , absorption coefficient , and single scattering albedo (SSA were 377.54 Mm−1, 119.06 Mm−1, and 0.73, respectively. Both  and  showed obvious annual variability with large values in winter and small values in summer, principally caused by the annual characteristics of meteorological conditions, especially planetary boundary layer height (PBLH and local emissions. The SSA showed a slight annual variation. High values of SSA were related to formation of secondary aerosols in winter hazes and aerosol hygroscopic growth in humid summer. The large SSA in June can be attributed to the biomass combustion in Hubei and surrounding provinces. Both  and  showed double peak phenomena in diurnal variation resulting from the shallow stable PBLH at night and automobile exhaust emission during morning rush hours. The SSA also exhibited a double peak phenomenon related to the proportional variation of black carbon (BC and light scattering particulates in the day and night. The long-term exploration on quantified aerosol optical properties can help offer scientific basis of introducing timely environmental policies for local government.

  11. [Regional differences of inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in South Central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-yao; Wu, Jin-shui; Zhou, Jiao-gen; Xiao, He-ai; Zhou, Ping

    2015-09-01

    This article analyzed the inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in the cropland of South Central China, i.e., Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Guangxi, and then calculated the budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), based on the data from field investigations and peasant household surveys in the four provinces. The results showed that total amounts of organic matter inputs in the four provinces was ranked as follow: 8993 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 6390 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 5012 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 4630 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong, and average NPK inputs in the four provinces were ranked as follow: 777.5 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 501.6 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 486.4 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 340.4 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong. The N and P input surpluses were greatest in Guangxi (67.2% and 99.0% as for N and P, respectively) , followed by Hunan (33.2% and 50.8%), Hubei (11.8% and 11.0%), and Guangdong (7.8% and 30.0%). However, K input was deficient in Hunan, Hubei, and Guangdong (6.6%, 18.7% and 12.4%), but surplus in Guangxi (19.5%). PMID:26785554

  12. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  13. CFD Based Study of Heterogeneous Microclimate in a Typical Chinese Greenhouse in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-wei; LUO Jin-yao; LI Xiao-ping

    2013-01-01

    Indoor microclimate is important for crop production and quality in greenhouse cultivation. This paper focuses on microclimate study based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a typical plastic greenhouse (with a sector shape vertical cross-section) popularly used in central China. A radiation model is added into the CFD model so as to simulate coupling of convective transfers and radiative exchanges at the cover and the roof, instead of using the usual coupling approach based on energy balance. In addition, a fractal permeability model is innovatively adopted in the modeling of the crop canopy. Compared the numerical results with measured experimental data, the model simulation is proved with success. This model then is used to explore the microclimate variable distributions in the greenhouse. It shows that the airflow pattern, temperature and humidity profiles are different from those in a sawtooth Mediterranean-type greenhouse. The study suggests that this deliberately developed CFD model can be served as a useful tool in macroclimate research and greenhouse design investigating.

  14. Functional diversity of Cercidiphyllum japonicum, communities in the Shennongjia Reserve, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintun Zhang; Bin Zhang; Zhiying Qian

    2015-01-01

    Functional diversity is significant to ecological processes of plant communities. We analyzed the variation of functional diversity of endangered species, Cercidi-phyllum japonicum, communities along an elevational gradient in the Shennongjia Reserve, central China. Sixty plots of 10 × 20 m from 1,350 to 2,050 m were set up and species composition, traits and environmental variables were measured and recorded. These data were analyzed using five functional diversity indices, functional attribute diversity, modified functional attribute diversity, plot based functional diversity, community based functional diversity and Rao’s functional diversity indices (Rao’s index), Functional diversities of C. japonicum communities were rich and varied greatly. Functional diversity declined non-linearly with increasing elevation. Functional diversity was significantly correlated with species richness and hetero-geneity. Elevation was a key environmental variable influencing functional diversity and species diversity. The five functional diversity indices were all effective for measuring functional diversity of communities. Functional diversity can be used as an indicator of conservation effi-ciency of endangered species such as C. japonicum.

  15. Potential pharmaceutical resources of the Qinling Mountain in central China:medicinal fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi SHEN; Wei CHEN; Zhuyun YAN; Zhenfeng XIE

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation on fungal diversity shows that there were rich fungal resources of up to 196 species,belonging to 41 families and 90 genera,in the Qinling Mountainous Range of central China.The dominant families were Polyporaceae,Russulaceae,Tricholomatacea and Lycoperdaceae,which comprised 107 species,54.59% of the total species.The dominant genera were Russula, Lactarius, Trametes, Phellinus, Coprinus,Lycoperdon,Suillu,and Calvatia,which consisted of 59 species,30.09% of the total species.According to the geographical characteristics,the genera were grouped into:cosmopolitan element (74.98%),pantropical element (3.57%),tropical element (1.02%) and north temperate element (21.43%),with the cosmopolitan element constituting the majority.Among these,the cosmopolitan and North Temperate Zone were characteristic of this region.Based on relevant literature review,the primary pharmaceutical action of the medicinal fungi in Qinling Mountain can be classified as follows:anti-cancer,anti-bacteria,anti-inflammation,relief of muscle rigidity and activation of collaterals,hemostasis,immunological regulation,as well as nourishing the stomach and tonification which means enhancing the body system.

  16. Increased precipitation and weathering across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Yang, Shiling; Zhang, Chunxia; Wang, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ˜55.5 million years ago (Ma) was associated with a massive release of carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system, as evidenced by a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and widespread dissolution of marine carbonates. The paleohydrologic response to the PETM warming has been studied worldwide; however, relevant records of environmental perturbation in Asia are lacking so far. Here we extend the record of this event in central China, a subtropical paleosetting, through geochemical and mineralogical analyses of lacustrine sediments. Geochemical indicators of authigenic carbonates—including molar Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios—suggest an overall increased precipitation across the PETM, compatible with the disappearance of authigenic dolomite and the appearance of kaolinite in the strata. The relatively humid conditions persisted long after the carbon-cycle perturbation had stopped, implying that the transient hyper-greenhouse warming might have forced the regional climate system into a new climate state that was not easily reversed. Additionally, a gradual increase in chemical index of alteration (CIA) and the appearance of kaolinite are associated with the PETM, indicating an intensified silicate weathering and pedogenesis in the watershed in response to warmer and more humid climate. Our results corroborate the theory that an accelerated continental chemical weathering served as a negative feedback to sequester carbon and lower the atmospheric greenhouse-gas levels during the PETM.

  17. Seasonal abundance and distribution of pelagic tunicates ( Chordata:Thaliacea) in the central South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao; LIN Rongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A total of 168 macro-zooplankton samples from 42 stations in the central South China Sea (12°~20° N, 111 °~ 118° E, an area of about 64 × 104 km2 ) were collected in September 1983 ( autumn), April 1984 ( spring), August 1984 (summer) and December 1984 (winter). Twenty-three species and subspecies of tunicates were found, of which Thalia democratica complex (including T. d. orientalis and T. d. echinata) and Doliolum denticulatum were the dominant species, and accounted for 95.7% ,90. 0%, 91.8% and 90. 5% of the total tunicates found in autumn, winter, spring and summer, respectively. The highest abundance ( with a mean of 2. 37 ind./m3 ) occurred in autumn. There are strong correlations between the abundances of the tunicates and those of phytoplankton and chlorophyll a concentration. However, tunicates also aggregate in areas with low primary production in the autumn survey, probably due to the water circulation pattern.

  18. Extreme flood events and climate change around 3500 aBP in the Central Plains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhengkai; WANG Zanhong; ZHAO Qingchun

    2004-01-01

    The Xinzhai Period (3550-3400 aBP) belongs to Late Neolithic Culture, which bridges the Longshan Culture and the Xia Culture in the Central Plains of China. By studying the living environment of ancient human beings at the Xinzhai site, Henan Province, this paper presents the discovery of extreme floods which threatened and destroyed the living environment of the ancient human beings during the Xinzhai Period. Pollen analysis and carbon-oxygen isotope measurement suggest that the climate was warm and wet during the Xinzhai Period, in contrast to the warm and arid climate during the Longshan Culture Period. The frequent flood events were the response of abrupt climate change during the Xinzhai Period. The conclusions drawn from this study not only help better understand the environmental change in the Central Plains of China around 3500 aBP, but also provide important clues to the environmental background for the origin of Chinese civilization.

  19. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin. PMID:26483491

  20. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin.

  1. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore-offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  2. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore–offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  3. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.

  4. Lithobius (Monotarsobius monoforaminis sp. n., a new species of lithobiid centipede from central China (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a new species Lithobius (Monotarsobius monoforaminis sp. n. (Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae recently discovered from Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces, Central China. Morphologically it resembles L. (M. minimus Farzalieva, 2006 from Eastern Kazakhstan, but could be well distinguished from the latteronly one pore on the coxae of legs 12–15 and different plectrotaxy, and by lacking a wart on the male tibia 15. A key to the Chinese Lithobius (Monotarsobius species is presented.

  5. Dengue in China: Comprehensive Phylogenetic Evaluation Reveals Evidence of Endemicity and Complex Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rubing; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing threat of dengue outbreaks in China, it is still considered as an imported disease and its introduction and/or circulation patterns remain obscure. On the basis of the most extensive phylogenetic analysis to date, we showed highly complex genetic diversity of dengue viruses (DENVs) in south China with up to 20 different clades/lineages from multiple serotypes co-circulating in the same year. Despite that most of these clades/lineages were resulted from imported cases, evidence of local persistence of DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was observed, indicating its potential endemicity in Guangdong province. This study, therefore, provided an overview of DENV genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics in China, which will be useful for developing policies to prevent and control future dengue outbreaks in China. PMID:26458780

  6. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  7. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in Central East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, and Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–287.6 μg m−3 and 17.2–235.7 μg m−3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of all samples were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.50 % and 72.65 % of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most of the pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  8. Vertical characteristics revealed by biweekly and synoptic variability of upper sea temperature in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yani; ZHOU Faxiu; HUANG Fei

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the sea temperature data that are observed from the three automatic temperature line acquisition sysem mooring buoys deployed in the central South China Sea (SCS) during South China Sea monsoon experiment, vertical features of biweekly and synoptic variability are discussed. There are five vertical modes, that is, subsurface temperature variability is in phase with,out of phase with, leads to, lags the surface temperature variability, and at depths within the subsurface layer the upper and lower temperature variations are out of phase. The formation of these vertical modes is related to the property of low-level atmospheric forcing and to the background in atmosphere and ocean. Wind stress curl is the main driving factor in forming Modes 1 and 3, and wind stresses in forming Modes 2 and 4.

  9. What Developing International Markets for Ecosystem Services Reveal for China's Forestry Sector?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENKINS; Michael; BENNETT; Michael

    2009-01-01

    The market mechanism for forest ecosystem service has already become common knowledge among countries in the international movement to address global climate change.In this paper,international experiences of forest ecosystem market such as better understanding of concept,public participation, sound trading rules and measurement standards are analyzed,and its implication for China is also summarized.Finally,the prospects of forest ecosystem service market in China are discussed.The purpose of this paper i...

  10. Group classification of mixed oils in central Junggar Basin, Northwest China and their migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xulong; SHI Xinpu; CAO Jian; LAN Wenfang; TAO Guoliang; HU Wenxuan; YAO Suping

    2010-01-01

    The produced oils in central Junggar Basin are commonly mixed in origin. In this paper, in order to reveal this complexity and thereby provide valuable clues to the study of oil source and formation mechanism, genetic groups of the mixed oils were classified and their migration/accumulation was investigated. Based on the artificial oil mixing experiments, some representative biomarkers of the mixed oils showed varying tendencies according to mixing ratios of the oils. Hence, these biomarkers are useful for determining the origin of the mixed oils. According to the criteria, oils in the area were divided into four basic groups, i.e., the Lower Permian Fengcheng oil, the Middle Permian Lower Wuerhe oil, the Jurassic source derived oil, and the mixed oil (including the Lower and Middle Permian mixed oil and the Permian and Jurassic mixed oil). Oil migration and accumulation were discussed in combination with the geological background.

  11. A magma-hydrothermal system beneath Hakone volcano, central Japan, revealed by highly resolved velocity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukutake, Yohei; Honda, Ryou; Harada, Masatake; Arai, Ryuta; Matsubara, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution images of subsurface structures are necessary to understand the transport processes of crustal fluids from deep magma sources and their relationship to earthquake swarms in active volcanic regions. Based on a seismic tomography approach, we have developed a new model for the magma-hydrothermal system beneath Hakone volcano, central Japan, where shallow earthquake swarms and crustal deformation associated with inflation of an open-crack source are often observed. By applying travel-time data for local earthquakes to a tomographic inversion, we obtained highly resolved seismic velocity structures that show a region of low P-wave velocity (Vp), low S-wave velocity (Vs), and high Vp/Vs ratios at depths of 10-20 km beneath the volcano, corresponding to the location of the open-crack source. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs ratios represent a deep magma chamber with a high concentration of melt and/or fluids. Deep low-frequency earthquakes, located just beneath this high Vp/Vs zone, may indicate that magmatic fluids are supplied from below. Above the high Vp/Vs zone, a region of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratios exists at depths of 3-10 km, suggesting the presence of crack-filled water or CO2 supplied from the inferred deep magma chamber. Many earthquake swarms occur in this low Vp/Vs zone, indicating that crustal fluids play an important role in generating the swarms. Similar relationships between magma reservoirs, overlying hydrothermal systems, and swarm activity have been reported from other volcanic areas and thus may be a ubiquitous feature beneath active volcanoes.

  12. Carbon and nitrogen allocations in corn grown in Central and Northeast China:different responses to fertilization treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Hui-tian; L Jia-long; XU Ming-gang; ZHANG Wen-ju; HUANG Shao-min; PENG Chang; CHEN Li-ming

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal the impact of various fertilization strategies on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation and al ocation in corn (Zea mays L.), corn was grown in the ifelds where continuous fertilization management had been lasted about 18 years at two sites located in Central and Northeast China (Zhengzhou and Gongzhuling), and biomass C and N contents in different organs of corn at harvest were analyzed. The fertilization treatments included non-fertilizer (control), chemical fertilizers of either nitrogen (N), or nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), or phosphorus and potassium (PK), or nitrogen, phospho-rus and potassium (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), 150%of the NPKM (1.5NPKM), and NPK plus straw (NPKS). The results showed that accumulated C in aboveground ranged from 2 550–5 630 kg ha–1 in the control treatment to 9 300–9 610 kg ha–1 in the NPKM treatment, of which 57–67%and 43–50%were al ocated in the non-grain organs, respectively. Accumulated N in aboveground ranged from 44.8–55.2 kg ha–1 in the control treatment to 211–222 kg ha–1 in the NPKM treatment, of which 35–48% and 33–44% were al ocated in the non-grain parts, respectively. C al ocated to stem and leaf for the PK treatment was 65 and 49%higher than that for the NPKM treatment at the both sites, respectively, while N al ocated to the organs for the PK treatment was 18 and 6%higher than that for the NPKM treatment, respectively. This study demonstrated that responses of C and N al ocation in corn to fertilization strategies were different, and C al ocation was more sensitive to fertilization treatments than N al ocation in the area.

  13. Sedimentary facies of the central part of radial tidal sand ridge system of the eastern China coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YIN; Xinqin ZOU; Dakui ZHU; Jiaxiang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    A unique radial tidal sand ridge system (RTSRS) has developed under a complex tidal current field on the eastern China coast between the Yangtze River delta to the south and the abandoned Yellow River (Huanghe) delta to the north. The present study examines the sedimentary evolution of a ridge-channel pair in the central RTSRS. Three cores, with two on the ridges and one in the channel, were drilled to reveal the late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits of the system. Five sedimentary facies were distinguished, i.e. ridge-shallow subtidal facies, ridge-deep subtidal facies, near-surface channel bottom facies, middle tidal flat facies and low tidal flat facies. The ridge-shallow subtidal facies consists of sandy strata with ripple cross bed-dings, horizontal lamina, and massive beddings. Bioturbation seldom occurs. The ridge-deep subtidal facies is primarily characterized by sandy and muddy interlayers with common flaser and lenticular bedding structures. Bioturbation appears abundantly. Massive and graded sediment sequences of storm origin are pre-sent as characterized by rich shell fragments. The near-surface channel bottom facies consists of loose, soft, clayey silt deposits with deformed sedimentary layers. This facies occurs in the deeper part of the active chan-nels. The middle tidal flat and lower tidal flat facies composed of silt-clay couplets prevailed primarily in the tidal flats. Incomplete sedimentary successions show that coastal plain deposits dominate in the study area during 12-13 ka B.P. The sandy ridge and channel facies became dominant during 4 6 ka B.P. when the sea level receded temporarily. Tidal ridge and channel in the study area became active during the last four decades. Sediment reworking due to typhoon and sandy ridge migration plays a key role in shaping the present radial ridge system.

  14. Variations in diatom communities at genus and species levels in peatlands (central China) linked to microhabitats and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Bu, Zhaojun; Stevenson, Mark A; Cao, Yanmin; Zeng, Linghan; Qin, Bo

    2016-10-15

    Peatlands are a specialized type of organic wetlands, fulfilling essential roles as global carbon sinks, headwaters of rivers and biodiversity hotspots. Despite their importance, peatlands are being lost at an alarming rate due to human disturbance and climatic variability. Both the scientific and regulatory communities have focused considerable attention on developing tools for assessing environmental changes in peatlands. Diatoms are widely used in biomonitoring studies of lakes, rivers and streams as they have high abundance, specific ecological preferences and can respond rapidly to environmental change. However, diatom-based assessment studies in peatlands remain limited. The aims of this study were to identify indicator species and genus for three types of habitats (hummocks, hollows and ditch edges) in peatlands (central China), to examine the effects of physiochemical factors on diatom composition at genus and species levels, and to compare the efficiency of species- and genus-level identification in environmental assessment. Our results revealed that hummocks were characterized by drought-tolerant diatoms, while hollows were dominated by species and genus preferring wet conditions. Ditch edges were characterized by diatoms with different life strategies. Depth to water table, redox potential, conductivity and calcium were significant predictors of both genus- and species-level composition. According to ordination analyses, pH was not correlated with species composition while it was a significant factor associated with genus-level composition. Genus-level composition outperformed species composition in describing the response of diatoms to environmental variables. Our results indicate that diatoms can be useful environmental indicators of peatlands, and show that genus-level taxonomic analysis can be a potential tool for assessing environmental change in peatlands. PMID:27289395

  15. Detailed budget analysis of HONO in central London reveals a missing daytime source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of HONO were carried out at an urban background site near central London as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo project in summer 2012. Data was collected from 22 July–18 August 2014, with peak values of up to 1.8 ppbV at night and non-zero values of between 0.2 and 0.6 ppbV seen during the day. A wide range of other gas phase, aerosol, radiation and meteorological measurements were made concurrently at the same site, allowing a detailed analysis of the chemistry to be carried out. The peak HONO/NOx ratio of 0.04 is seen at ~ 02:00 UTC, with the presence of a second, daytime peak in HONO/NOx of similar magnitude to the night-time peak suggesting a significant secondary daytime HONO source. A photostationary state calculation of HONO involving formation from the reaction of OH and NO and loss from photolysis, reaction with OH and dry deposition shows a significant underestimation during the day, with calculated values being close to zero, compared to the measurement average of 0.4 ppbV at midday. The addition of further HONO sources, including postulated formation from the reaction of HO2 with NO2 and photolysis of HNO3, increases the daytime modelled HONO to 0.1 ppbV, still leaving a significant extra daytime source. The missing HONO is plotted against a series of parameters including NO2 and OH reactivity, with little correlation seen. Much better correlation is observed with the product of these species with j(NO2, in particular NO2 and the product of NO2 with OH reactivity. This suggests the missing HONO source is in some way related to NO2 and also requires sunlight. The effect of the missing HONO to OH radical production is also investigated and it is shown that the model needs to be constrained to measured HONO in order to accurately reproduce the OH radical measurements.

  16. Central nervous system PET-CT imaging reveals regional impairments in pediatric patients with Wolfram syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zmyslowska

    Full Text Available Wolfram syndrome (WFS is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease with main clinical features of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus and deafness. However, various neurological defects may also be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate aspects of brain structure and function using PET-CT (positron emission tomography and computed tomography and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric patients with WFS. Regional changes in brain glucose metabolism were measured using standardized uptake values (SUVs based on images of (18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake in 7 WFS patients aged 10.1-16.0 years (mean 12.9±2.4 and in 20 healthy children aged 3-17.9 years (mean 12.8±4.1. In all patients the diagnosis of WFS was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the WFS1 gene. Hierarchical clustering showed remarkable similarities of glucose uptake patterns among WFS patients and their differences from the control group. SUV data were subsequently standardized for age groups 13 years old to account for developmental differences. Reduced SUVs in WFS patients as compared to the control group for the bilateral brain regions such as occipital lobe (-1.24±1.20 vs. -0.13±1.05; p = 0.028 and cerebellum (-1.11±0.69 vs. -0.204±1.00; p = 0.036 were observed and the same tendency for cingulate (-1.13±1.05 vs. -0.15±1.12; p = 0.056, temporal lobe (-1.10±0.98 vs. -0.15±1.10; p = 0.057, parietal lobe (-1.06±1.20 vs. -0.08±1.08; p = 0.058, central region (-1.01±1.04 vs. -0.09±1.06; p = 0.060, basal ganglia (-1.05±0.74 vs. -0.20±1.07; p = 0.066 and mesial temporal lobe (-1.06±0.82 vs. -0.26±1.08; p = 0.087 was also noticed. After adjusting for multiple hypothesis testing, the differences in glucose uptake were non-significant. For the first time, regional differences in brain glucose metabolism among patients with WFS were shown using PET-CT imaging.

  17. Novel early flood warning in the Huaihe River basin in east-central China using the TIGGE database

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; Cloke, H.; Li, Z.; Wetterhall, F.; Pappenberger, F.

    2009-04-01

    Flooding is a wide spread and devastating natural disaster worldwide. Floods that took place in the last decade in China were ranked the worst amongst recorded floods worldwide in terms of the number of human fatalities and economic losses (Munich Re-Insurance). Rapid economic development and population expansion into low lying flood plains has worsened the situation. The last decade has seen an increase in flood preparedness across all levels of society in China. Current conventional flood prediction systems in China are neither suited to the perceptible climate variability nor the rapid pace of urbanization sweeping the country. Flood prediction systems from short-term (a few hours) to medium-term (a few days) need to be revisited and adapted to changing socio-economic and hydro-climatic realities. The latest technology requires implementation of multiple numerical weather prediction systems. The availability of a number of global ensemble weather prediction systems through the ‘THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble' (TIGGE) offers a good opportunity for an effective state-of-the-art early forecasting system. A prototype of a Novel Flood Early Warning System (NEWS) using the TIGGE database is tested in the Huai River basin located in east-central China. It is the first early flood warning system in China that uses the massive TIGGE database cascaded with river catchment models, the Xinanjiang model and a 1-D hydraulic model, to predict river discharge and flood inundation. Results from selected flood events will be presented.

  18. Sulphur Isotope Compositions of Shibaqinghao Gold Deposit in Central Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongying; Liu Xiang

    2001-01-01

    Shibaqinghao gold deposit is situated in the western part of the northern margin of the North China Craton. It is controlled by an E - W trending tectonic zone that is located in the middle unit of Dongwufenzi group which consists of a sequence of greenschist - facies metamorphic rocks in an Archean greenstone belt.In Shibaqinghao gold deposit there are two types of gold ore, a mylonite ore and a quartz vein ore. Mylonite ore bodies were formed during ductile shearing stage in the Early Proterozoic, whereas quartz vein ore bodies might have been formed in the Mesozoic time.Pyrite accompanied with native gold in the mylonite ore has sulpfur of which δ34S values range from - 5.8 to + 0.8 per mil, similar to the values of mantle- derived sulphur. These data suggest that gold in the mylonite ore be derived from the country rocks which originated directly in the upper mantle.Pyrite in quartz vein ore has the δ34 S values between + 3.0 and + 11.0 per mil, similar to the values of some granitic rocks. These facts indicate that the gold in the quartz vein ore is related to some granitic magma generated in the crust.This study revealed that two different mineralization occurred at different geological times and in different environments but in the same place, resuling in the Shibaqinghao gold deposit.

  19. Detection and Genetic Analysis of Porcine Bocavirus in Different Swine Herds in North Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Bocavirus (PBoV has been reported to be associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and pneumonia in pigs. In this study, a survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of PBoV in slaughter pigs, sick pigs, asymptomatic pigs and classical swine fever virus (CSFV eradication plan herds in five provinces of China (Henan, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei and Tianjin by means of PCR targeting NS1 gene of PBoV. Among the total of 403 tissue samples, 11.41% were positive for PBoV. The positive rates of spleen (20.75% and inguinal lymph node (27.18% are higher than those of other organs. PCR products of twenty PBoV positive samples from slaughter pigs were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The result revealed that PBoV could be divided into 6 groups (PBoV-a~PBoV-f. All PBoV sequenced in this study belong to PBoV-a–PBoV-d with 90.1% to 99% nucleotide identities. Our results exhibited significant genetic diversity of PBoV and suggested a complex prevalence of PBoV in Chinese swine herds. Whether this diversity of PBoV has a significance to pig production or even public health remains to be further studied.

  20. Reservoir Potential of Silurian Carbonate Mud Mounds in the Southern Sichuan Basin, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; YANG Xiaoping; Steve KERSHAW; ZHANG Baomin

    2006-01-01

    Lower Silurian mud mounds of the Shinuilan Formation, located in the southern Sichuan Basin, China, have developed in open shelf settings in deeper water than shallow-water reef-bearing limestones that occur in the region. An integration of the outcrop, drill data and seismic profiles show that contemporaneous faults have controlled the boundary and distribution of the sedimentary facies of Lower Silurian rocks in the southern Sichuan Basin. Mounds appear to have developed in the topographic lows formed by synsedimentary faulting, on the shelf of the Yangtze Platform. Average mound thickness is 20 m, maximum 35 m. Mounds are composed mainly of micrite, possibly microbially bound, and are overlain by shales. Mound tops are preferentially dolomitized, with the Mg2+ source probably from the clay content of the mound-top carbonate. Microfacies analysis and reconstruction of the diagenetic history reveal that the mound tops have higher porosity, and are gas targets; in contrast, mound cores and limbs show pores filled by three generations of calcite cement, and therefore have a low gas potential.

  1. Early Paleozoic magmatic history of central Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Southeast Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Liu, Changfeng; Zhu, Yan; Zhou, Zhiguang; Jiang, Tian; Liu, Wencan; Li, Hongying; Wu, Chu; Ye, Baoying

    2016-07-01

    To provide insights into the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the southern portion of the long-lived Central Asian Orogenic Belt, we have conducted major and trace element analyses and zircon U-Pb dating of granitoid samples from central Inner Mongolia. Our study area covers three pre-Mesozoic tectonic units from north to south: the Wenduermiao subduction-accretionary complex, the Bainaimiao magmatic belt, and the northern margin of the North China craton. Our new geochronological and geochemical data show the temporal and genetic relationships between the three tectonic units. Accordingly, we suggest that the Wenduermiao subduction-accretionary complex developed in the Middle Cambrian-Late Silurian (509-421 Ma), comprising of coeval oceanic crust, arc magmatism, and forearc deposits. The Bainaimiao continental arc was developed during the Late Cambrian to Early Silurian (501-437 Ma), which superposed on the basement with the affinity of the North China craton. The back-arc basin opened prior to Early Silurian and lasted to the Late Silurian, which is slightly younger than Bainaimiao island arc. The Wenduermiao Ocean, between the Wenduermiao subduction-accretionary complex and the Bainaimiao continental arc, existed in Early Paleozoic.

  2. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in the middle of central east China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2010-09-01

    +, NO2, NH4+, Cl, organic acids, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from local/regional anthropogenic emissions and secondary formation presented higher concentration in summer. The ratio of Ca/Al and back trajectories of air mass suggested the impact of Asian dust from Gobi and deserts on the air quality in this region. The high concentration of K+ in aerosols (4.56 μg/m3 and its good correlation with black carbon (r = 0.90, oxalic acid (r = 0.87, and Cl (r = 0.71 were due to the severe pollution from biomass burning, which was proved to be a main source of fine particles over central eastern China in summer. Biomass burning contributed 36.71% of PM2.5 in mass in summer. As and Pb were two of the most enriched elements, especially in spring both for TSP and PM2.5, which revealed that the long-range transport of aerosols spread the heavy pollution from coal burning everywhere over China. Anthropogenic aerosols at MT were evidently rather severe at MT, though it has been declared by UNESCO to be a World Heritage site.

  3. Revealing the Secret of Paleoclimatic Change Harbored by Loess Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan; Zhao Baohua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Is this planet growing warmer and warmer? What climatic change will occur in the future? To answer these big questions, however, the scientific community has to know first what happened in the geological history of the Earth, namely, the paleoclimatic change. With his half-centurylong research on loess deposition in China, Prof. Liu Dongsheng from the CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics has unveiled an imposing paleoclimatic scenario happening in the Quaternary period; and more importantly, the work conducted by him and his colleagues and students has presented loess sediments in China as a complete and reliable databank of paleoclimatic change.

  4. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  5. Study on the quality of urban human settlement environment in central and western regions of China%我国中西部城市人居环境质量评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 张文新

    2012-01-01

      This paper chooses 18 index of human settlement environment of 185 Chinese cities in central and western regions of China, uses factor analysis, Studies on the current situation of urban human settlement environment,reveals the recent level of living environment and regional differences in central and western regions of China. The situation of urban human settlement environ-ment as a whole is low, big cities are better than small ones, cities in Central China are better than those in Western China. The main factors for affecting the urban human settlement environ-ment of central and western regions of China are The level of urban infrastructure and quality of living conditions.%  通过选择18项反映人居环境建设水平的相关指标,运用因子分析法,对我国中西部地区185个地级以上城市的人居环境综合水平进行了评价,揭示了我国中西部地区人居环境建设现状水平及其地区差异。中西部地区城市人居环境总体水平较低,大城市人居环境整体优于小城市,中部地区城市人居环境整体优于西部地区城市。影响中西部地区城市人居环境的主要因素是城市基础设施建设水平和居民居住条件质量等。

  6. Distinct genetic diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China as revealed by ITS sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2-6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. CONCLUSIONS: O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more

  7. Offset of Latest Pleistocene Shoreface Reveals Slip Rate on the Hosgri Strike-Slip Fault, Offshore Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Hartwell, S. R.; Dartnell, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Hosgri fault is the southern part of the regional Hosgri-San Gregorio dextral strike-slip fault system, which extends primarily in the offshore region for about 400 km in central California. Between Morro Bay and San Simeon, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry reveals that the eastern strand of the Hosgri fault is crossed by a ~265-m-wide slope interpreted as the shoreface of a relict sand spit that formed during a period of relatively slower sea-level rise (Younger Dryas stadial) in the latest Pleistocene. This sand spit crossed an embayment and connected a western fault-bounded bedrock peninsula and an eastern bedrock highland, a paleogeography similar to modern geomorphology along coastal segments of the San Andreas fault. Detailed analysis of the relict shoreface with slope profiles and slope maps indicates a lateral slip rate of 2.6 ± 0.9 mm/yr. Because the Hosgri fault locally includes an active western strand, and regionally converges with several other faults, this slip rate should be considered a minimum for the Hosgri fault in central California and should not be applied for the entire Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system. This slip rate indicates that the Hosgri system takes up the largest share of the strike-slip fault budget and is the most active strike-slip fault west of the San Andreas fault in central California. This result further demonstrates the value and potential of high-resolution bathymetry in earthquake-hazard characterization of active offshore faults.

  8. Offset of latest pleistocene shoreface reveals slip rate on the Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dartnell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Hosgri fault is the southern part of the regional Hosgri–San Gregorio dextral strike‐slip fault system, which extends primarily in the offshore for about 400 km in central California. Between Morro Bay and San Simeon, high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry reveals that the eastern strand of the Hosgri fault is crossed by an ∼265  m wide slope interpreted as the shoreface of a latest Pleistocene sand spit. This sand spit crossed an embayment and connected a western fault‐bounded bedrock peninsula and an eastern bedrock highland, a paleogeography resembling modern coastal geomorphology along the San Andreas fault. Detailed analysis of the relict shoreface with slope profiles and slope maps indicates a lateral slip rate of 2.6±0.9  mm/yr, considered a minimum rate for the Hosgri given the presence of an active western strand. This slip rate indicates that the Hosgri system takes up the largest share of the strike‐slip fault budget and is the most active strike‐slip fault west of the San Andreas fault in central California. This result further demonstrates the value and potential of high‐resolution bathymetry in characterization of active offshore faults.

  9. Persistent inelastic deformation in central Japan revealed by GPS observation before and after the Tohoku-oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Gutierrez, Angela; Sagiya, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    We analyze strain rate distribution in central-northeastern Japan based on continuous GPS data before and after the occurrence of the Great Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) on March 11th, 2011, focusing on the far-field response in the Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ), an E-W contraction region along the Japan seacoast of central Japan. Wavelength decomposition of the strain rate on the E-W direction, calculated from GPS data, indicates that the long-wavelength pattern changed from preseismic E-W contraction to postseismic E-W extension, representing elastic response to plate interaction at the Japan Trench. However, the short wavelength patterns reveal a persistent localized contraction zone around northern NKTZ before and after the Tohoku-oki earthquake. The persistent localized deformation pattern can be reproduced by an aseismic slip on a fault cutting the lower crust and a part of the upper crust. These results demonstrate that an inelastic process plays an essential role in the deformation of the Japan island arc.

  10. Chemical characteristics and causes of airborne particulate pollution in warm seasons in Wuhan, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiaopu; Chen, Nan; Guo, Hai; Zeng, Lewei; Zhang, Weihao; Shen, Fan; Quan, Jihong; Wang, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Continuous measurements of airborne particles and their chemical compositions were conducted in May, June, October, and November 2014 at an urban site in Wuhan, central China. The results indicate that particle concentrations remained at a relatively high level in Wuhan, with averages of 135.1 ± 4.4 (mean ± 95 % confidence interval) and 118.9 ± 3.7 µg m-3 for PM10 and 81.2 ± 2.6 and 85.3 ± 2.6 µg m-3 for PM2.5 in summer and autumn, respectively. Moreover, PM2.5 levels frequently exceeded the National Standard Level II (i.e., daily average of 75 µg m-3), and six PM2.5 episodes (i.e., daily PM2.5 averages above 75 µg m-3 for 3 or more consecutive days) were captured during the sampling campaign. Potassium was the most abundant element in PM2.5, with an average concentration of 2060.7 ± 82.3 ng m-3; this finding indicates intensive biomass burning in and around Wuhan during the study period, because almost no correlation was found between potassium and mineral elements (iron and calcium). The source apportionment results confirm that biomass burning was the main cause of episodes 1, 3, and 4, with contributions to PM2.5 of 46.6 % ± 3.0 %, 50.8 % ± 1.2 %, and 44.8 % ± 2.6%, respectively, whereas fugitive dust was the leading factor in episode 2. Episodes 5 and 6 resulted mainly from increases in vehicular emissions and secondary inorganic aerosols, and the mass and proportion of NO3- both peaked during episode 6. The high levels of NOx and NH3 and the low temperature during episode 6 were responsible for the increase of NO3-. Moreover, the formation of secondary organic carbon was found to be dominated by aromatics and isoprene in autumn, and the contribution of aromatics to secondary organic carbon increased during the episodes.

  11. Tectonics of the Qinling (Central China): Tectonostratigraphy, geochronology, and deformation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratschbacher, L.; Hacker, B.R.; Calvert, A.; Webb, L.E.; Grimmer, J.C.; McWilliams, M.O.; Ireland, T.; Dong, S.; Hu, Jiawen

    2003-01-01

    The Qinling orogen preserves a record of late mid-Proterozoic to Cenozoic tectonism in central China. High-pressure metamorphism and ophiolite emplacement (Songshugou ophiolite) assembled the Yangtze craton, including the lower Qinling unit, into Rodinia during the ???1.0 Ga Grenvillian orogeny. The lower Qinling unit then rifted from the Yangtze craton at ???0.7 Ga. Subsequent intra-oceanic arc formation at ???470-490 Ma was followed by accretion of the lower Qinling unit first to the intra-oceanic arc and then to the Sino-Korea craton. Subduction then imprinted a ???400 Ma Andean-type magmatic arc onto all units north of the northern Liuling unit. Oblique subduction created Silurian-Devonian WNW-trending, sinistral transpressive wrench zones (e.g., Lo-Nan, Shang-Dan), and Late Permian-Early Triassic subduction reactivated them in dextral transpression (Lo-Nan, Shang-Xiang, Shang-Dan) and subducted the northern edge of the Yangtze craton. Exhumation of the cratonal edge formed the Wudang metamorphic core complex during dominantly pure shear crustal extension at ???230-235 Ma. Post-collisional south-directed shortening continued through the Early Jurassic. Cretaceous reactivation of the Qinling orogen started with NW-SE sinistral transtension, coeval with large-scale Early Cretaceous crustal extension and sinistral transtension in the northern Dabie Shan; it presumably resulted from the combined effects of the Siberia-Mongolia-Sino-Korean and Lhasa-West Burma-Qiangtang-Indochina collisions and Pacific subduction. Regional dextral wrenching was active within a NE-SW extensional regime between ???60 and 100 Ma. An Early Cretaceous Andean-type continental magmatic arc, with widespread Early Cretaceous magmatism and back-arc extension, was overprinted by shortening related to the collision of Yangtze-Indochina Block with the West Philippines Block. Strike-slip and normal faults associated with Eocene half-graben basins record Paleogene NNE-SSW contraction and WNW

  12. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the “Li” aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Methods: Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Results: Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35, 1b (n=31, 3b (n=16, 2a (n=8, 3a (n=6, and 1a (n=4. By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Conclusions: Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention.

  13. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the dongting lake area of hunan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Balen; Zhao-Chun Liu; McManus, Donald P.; Giovanna Raso; Jürg Utzinger; Shui-Yuan Xiao; Dong-Bao Yu; Zheng-Yuan Zhao; Yue-Sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitab...

  14. Characteristics of U-pattern distribution of high-concentration 210Pb in surface air at central Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Guojiang; YANG Wei; WANG Shilu; WAN Enyuan; WU Fengchang; S.N.LEE; WANG Changsheng; HUANG Ronggui

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the variation of 210Pb concentrations in the surface air is the key to trace lake sedimentation and catchment erosion, to establish and validate the global diffusion model of contaminants, and to assess the impact of natural radiation on the ecological system. Basing on the study progresses of the sedimentation, the atmospheric model and the unique environmental background in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, and starting from December 20, 2001, we made use of a 500 NE Type aerosol sampler to collect filter samples, once a week in the past consecutive two years, in the surface air at Mt. Guanfeng, Guiyang City, China. Synchronous detailed γ-energy spectrometric observations of 210Pb concentrations at both Chinese and U.S. laboratories have shown that the average monthly 210Pb concentration displays a regular U-patterns distribution of annual variations, with high values appearing in winter and low values in late spring and summer. The average annual 210Pb concentrations are estimated to be 2.77±0.63 mBq/m3, about 4 times the average maximum concentrations reported from quite a number of monitoring stations throughout the world. The possible factors affecting the sources of 210Pb in the surface air in the central part of Guizhou Province are: Release of 222Rn from the U-Ra series enriched in the soils; chemical weathering of carbonate rocks; the exploitation, processing and utilization of coal and phosphorous resources. The principal factor controlling the high 210Pb concentrations in the surface air in the central Guizhou and their annual U-pattern distribution is the release of 222Rn. The average monthly 210Pb concentrations show a good negative power- function relationship with increasing precipitation and also show a good negative linear-function relationship with the rise of air temperature in month grouping. Group No.1 (June to November) reflects a relatively low release of 222Rn from soils in relatively high temperature seasons; Group No

  15. Depression among Congestive Heart Failure Patients: Results of a Survey from Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPMS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabish Hussain, Li Yu Shu, Xiang Cheng, Tumenjavkhlan Sosorburam, A.Seid Adji, Sara Tajammul, Aamra Sartaj (Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, China (pages 38-42

  16. Co-circulation and genomic recombination of coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 during a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyong Liu

    Full Text Available A total of 1844 patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, most of them were children of age 1-3-year-old, in Central China were hospitalized from 2011 to 2012. Among them, 422 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16, 334 were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71, 38 were co-infected with EV71 and CVA16, and 35 were infected with other enteroviruses. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that EV71 and CVA16 were detected year-round, but EV71 circulated mainly in July and CVA16 circulated predominantly in November, and incidence of HFMD was reduced in January and February and increased in March. Clinical data showed that hyperglycemia and neurologic complications were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients, while upper respiratory tract infection and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in CVA16-associated patients. 124 EV71 and 80 CVA16 strains were isolated, among them 56 and 68 EV71 strains were C4a and C4b, while 25 and 55 CVA16 strains were B1a and B1b, respectively. Similarity plots and bootscan analyses based on entire genomic sequences revealed that the three C4a sub-genotype EV71 strains were recombinant with C4b sub-genotype EV71 in 2B-2C region, and the three CVA16 strains were recombinant with EV71 in 2A-2B region. Thus, CVA16 and EV71 were the major causative agents in a large HFMD outbreak in Central China. HFMD incidence was high for children among household contact and was detected year-round, but outbreak was seasonal dependent. CVA16 B1b and EV71 C4b reemerged and caused a large epidemic in China after a quiet period of many years. Moreover, EV71 and CVA16 were co-circulated during the outbreak, which may have contributed to the genomic recombination between the pathogens. It should gain more attention as there may be an upward trend in co-circulation of the two pathogens globally and the new role recombination plays in the emergence of new enterovirus variants.

  17. Geochemistry of khondalites from the central portion of North China craton (NCC): implications for the continental cratonization in the Neoarchean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Within the high-grade metamorphic basement, the central portion of North China Craton (NCC), a group of Neoarchean khondalites (KS) is identified. They are characterized by large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment, lower abundances of Zr, Hf and Sr. Their rare earth element (REE) distribution has significant LREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The protoliths of KS are interpreted as feldspathic quartzite, shale or pelite and carbonite, deposited in a shallow sea upon cratonic shelf distant from the land. KS's source region might be dominated by granitic rocks, with a minor amount of TTG, underwent comparatively severe chemical weathering. Considering relevent tectonic constraints, we suggest that khondalites from central portion of NCC, an important metamophosed sedimentary cover, are the most significant exogenetic marker of Neoarchean continental cratonization for NCC.

  18. China's great game in Central Asia implications to U.S. policy in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    y the United States is spearheading a war on terrorism, focusing on countries close to Central Asia such as Afghanistan and Iraq. If the United States plans on staying in the region, it must take into account the forces shaping Chinese foreign policy in Central Asia. Possibilities exist for cooperation, but if the situation is misinterpreted or handled incorrectly, there is also a possibility for conflict. This thesis examines Chinese interests in Central Asia, comparing and contrasting them ...

  19. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness in Guangxi Maonan and Han adolescent students of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Liang; Hui-Yi; Zuo; Jin-Mao; Chen; Jie; Cai; Yu-Zhua; Qin; Yu-Ping; Huang; Ying-Ying; Chen; Dong-Yong; Tang; Shao-Jian; Tan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness in the Guangxi Maonan and Han adolescent students of China.METHODS: Noncontact specular microscope(Topcon SP3000 P, Tokyo, Japan) was performed in 133 adolescent students of Maonan nationality(M:F 54:79)and 105 adolescent students of Han nationality(M:F 50:55),5 to 20 y of age, who were randomly selected from 3schools in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China.Parameters studied included endothelial cell density,mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size,percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness. RESULTS: Endothelial cell density, mean cell area,coefficient of variation in cell size, percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness in the study population were(2969.50 ±253.93) cells/mm2,(339.23 ±29.44) μm2,(29.96 ±4.07) %,(64.58 ±9.41) % and(523.71 ±32.82) μm in Maonan and(2998.26 ±262.65) cells/mm2,(336.11±30.07) μm2,(29.89±5.03) %,(64.91±11.64) % and(524.39 ±33.15) μm in Han, respectively. No significant differences were observed in endothelial cell density,mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size,percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness between Maonan and Han(P =0.615, 0.659, 0.528, 0.551,0.999). In Maonan and Han, we found age was negatively correlated with endothelial cell density and percentagehexagonality and positively correlated with mean cell area and coefficient of variation in cell size. Negative correlation was also found between central corneal thickness and age in Han, whereas no correlation was found in Maonan. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between Maonan and Han in corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness. In these two nationalities, there were statistically significant decrease in endothelial cell density and percentage hexagonality with increasing age and statistically significant increase in

  20. Centrality of Event across Cultures. Emotionally Positive and Negative Events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...... negative events increased as participants grew older....

  1. Molecular variation of Sporisorium scitamineum in Mainland China revealed by internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Y; Huang, N; Xiao, X H; Huang, L; Liu, F; Su, W H; Que, Y X

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane smut caused by the fungus Sporisorium scitamineum is a worldwide disease and also one of the most prevalent diseases in sugarcane production in mainland China. To study molecular variation in S. scitamineum, 23 S. scitamineum isolates from the 6 primary sugar-cane production areas in mainland, China (Guangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, and Jiangxi Provinces), were assessed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) methods. The results of ITS sequence analysis showed that the organisms can be defined at the genus level, including Ustilago and Sporisorium, and can also differentiate between closely related species. This method was not suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis of different S. scitamineum isolates and could not provide support regarding their race ascription at the molecular level. The results of the present study will be useful for studies examining the molecular diversity of S. scitamineum and for establishing a genetic foundation for their pathogenicity differentiation and new race detection. In addition, our results can provide useful information for the pathogen selection principle in sugarcane smut resistance breeding and variety distribution. PMID:26214470

  2. Deep crustal structures of eastern China and adjacent seas revealed by magnetic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Through reduction to the North Pole and upward continuation of the total field magnetic anomalies, we analyze magnetic patterns and spatial distributions of different tectonic blocks and crustal faults in eastern China and adjacent seas. Depths to the Curie isotherms are further estimated from radially averaged amplitude spectra of magnetic data reduced to the pole. Data reductions effectively enhance boundaries of regional tectonic belts, such as the Dabie ultra-high metamorphic belt, the Tanlu Fault, and the Diaoyudao Uplift. Curie depths are estimated at between 19.6 and 48.9 km, with a mean of 31.7 km. The Subei Basin and the south Yellow Sea Basin in the lower Yangtze block show relatively deep Curie isotherms, up to about 35 km in depth, whereas in the surrounding areas Curie depths are averaged at about 25 km. This implies that the lower Yangtze Block has experienced a unique tectonic evolution and/or has unique basement lithology and structures. From a regional perspective, sedimentary basins, such as the Subei Basin, the south Yellow Sea Basin, and the East China Sea Basin, normally show deeper Curie isotherms than surrounding uplifts such as the Diaoyudao Uplift and the Zhemin Uplifts. Curie isotherms also upwell significantly in volcanically active areas such as the Ryukyu Arc and the Cheju Island, confirming strong magmatic and geothermal activities at depth.

  3. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  4. China's energy statistics in a global context: A methodology to develop regional energy balances for East, Central and West China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, timely and accurate economic and energy data are critical to carry out analysis of energy system changes. An energy balance, characterizing fuels/commodities used in energy supply, transformation and sectoral end uses is an essential tool to calibrate energy system models used for......’s national statistical system continuous to be debated and criticised in terms of data quality, comparability and reliability, an overview of the milestones, status and main issues of China’s energy statistics is given. In a next step, the energy balance format of the International Energy Agency is used as...... an international benchmark to analyze China’s national energy statistics in detail and identify indicators to establish regional energy balances inside China. Although this methodology includes a range of data uncertainties, it is intended to stimulate the discussion about current and future regional...

  5. Heat flow and its coalbed gas effects in the central-south area of the Huaibei coalfield, eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the present geo-temperature field and the thermal conductivity (K) of 62 samples from the central-south area of the Huaibei coalfield in eastern China, we calculated the heat flow and plotted its distribution map. The results show that the average heat flow in the research area is about 60 mW/m2. It is different from other major energy basins in the North China Plate, but has close relationship with the regional geology and the deep geological setting. The heat flow is comparatively higher in the southeastern, central, and northwestern areas than in the northeastern and southwestern areas. The geo-temperature distribution map of the bottom interface of the Permian coal measure was drawn by calculating its embedding depth and geo-temperature gradients. Finally, the present gas generation condition of the Permian coal measure is discussed by associating with the temperature condition, the vitrinite reflectance (Ro), the metamorphism of coal and tectonic-burial evolution. The study indicates all present characters of the Permian coal measure, such as lower present temperature, higher Ro value, middle-high rank coals, and uplift and extension events after the coal measure sediment, are favorable for the generation of secondary biogenic gas, but not thermogenic gas or primary biogenic gas.

  6. Evaluation of Productivity and Light Quality in Two High Density Dwarf Rootstock Apple Orchards in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengtao GAO; Jingnan GUO; Zhifeng WEI; Qingjin FAN; Chaoxuan YANG

    2012-01-01

    [Ohjective] The aim of the study is to investigate the productivity and light quality in two high density M26 dwarf rootstock apple orchards in central China so as to provide some management guidance for close planting of dwarf rootstock apples.[Method] The technical parameters of individual trees and group parameters as shoot number and composition and canopy coverage were determined, and the light quality in the canopy, fruit production and quality were investigated. [Result] Slender spindle (SS) orchard has 54 thousands shoots per 667 m^2. Coverage rate is 76%. Leaf area index is 1.9. The ratio of long, medium and spur shoots is 1:1:8. Fruit yield is 3 263 kg/667 m^2 with 85% first grade fruit. Light interception in the canopy is 58% while the ratio of canopy with good light is 65%. Modified slender spindle (MSS) orchard has 93 thousands shoots per 667 m^2 and the coverage is 77%. Leaf area index is 3.3. The ratio cf long, medium and spur shoots is 1:2:7. Fruit yield is 3 931 kg/667 m^2 with 85% first grade fruit. The light interception in the canopy is 73% while the ratio of canopy with good light is 35%. [Conclusion] Apple orchard with M26 dwarf rootstock trained as SS and MSS tree form in medium planting density may be useful to the management of the similar orchards in Central China.

  7. The Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders among Sonographers in Central China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qingmin; Liu, Shenglin; Yang, Lei; Xie, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies from industrialized countries show that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) occur commonly in sonographers. However, little is known about sonographers in China, where the awareness of ergonomics and MSD, workload, and available equipment/facilities may differ. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of MSD and associated risk factors in sonographers in central China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 381 sonographers from 14 randomly selected tertiary hospitals in Hubei province, central China. Musculoskeletal symptoms (using the Nordic Questionnaire) and risk factors (mostly derived from the Health Benefit Trust survey instrument and the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify associations between risk factors and MSD. Results The 12-month period prevalence of MSD was 98.3%, being highest in the neck (93.5%) and shoulder (92.2%), followed by the lower back (83.2%), wrist/hand, upper back, and elbow. Factors contributing to neck pain were psychological fatigue, shoulder abduction and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable tables and chairs were protective factors. Shoulder pain was associated with female sex, health status, mental stress, shoulder abduction, and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable chairs and the awareness of adjusting the workstation before scanning were protective factors. Elbow pain was associated with health status and height-adjustable tables. Wrist/hand pain was associated with female sex, bending the wrist, and working with obese patients. Upper back pain was associated with shoulder abduction, height-adjustable chairs, and device location. Lower back pain was associated with the number of scans performed per day, awkward postures, bending the trunk, twisting or bending the neck forward, and using a footrest. Conclusions This study suggests a high prevalence of MSD in sonographers in central China. Hence, it is necessary to

  8. Adaptation of potato production to climate change by optimizing sowing date in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-ling; SHEN Shuang-he; ZHANG Shu-yu; LI Qiao-zhen; YAO Yu-bi

    2015-01-01

    Potato grows in most part of China, it achieves higher yield and better quality in Gansu Province than in others. With global warming, its growth duration has been prolonged and sowing date become earlier than before. Therefore, to regulate its sowing date and growing period is of great signiifcance for better harvest. In this study, experiments were conducted with six sowing-date treatments of potato in Dingxi, which is in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu Province in Northwest China in 2010. The growth period, morphological index and change in yield and their relationships with temperature, precipitation, and other climatic factors were investigated for each treatment. Results show that the crop with different sowing dates experienced different climate conditions, leading to distinct growth duration, plant height, and leaf area index. The growth duration was shortened due to a delay in sowing date. For each 15-day delay in sowing, the growth duration was reduced by 12 days on average. A signiifcant linear relationship was found between numbers of days either from seeding to emergence or from lfowering to harvest and mean temperature over the corresponding period. Dry matter accumulation, tuber fresh weight, and ifnal yield were al decreased because of insufifcient cumulative temperature over the shorter growing periods. Marked differences in tuber yield were discovered among the six treatments of sowing date, the potato planted on May 27 giving the highest yield. The potato planted either earlier or later would produce invariably lower yield than the treatment of May 27. Late May therefore can be taken as the optimum sowing time of potato in this region because the crop can ful y utilize thermal resource. We conclude that to postpone sowing time is a good practice for potato production to adapt to climate warming in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China.

  9. Prevalence and related risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in Wuhan, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; DU Fan; MAO Hong; WANG Hong-xiang; ZHAO Shi

    2011-01-01

    Bsckground The investigations of prevalence and risk factors of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in type 2 diabetic patients have been carried out in many countries and regions,except for Central China.In this study,we determined the prevalence of PAD in type 2 diabetic patients and the related factors that gave rise to increasing of the risk of PAD development in Wuhan,China.Methods The study enrolled 2010 patients aged 60 years and older who were regularly visiting the Central Hospital of Wuhan that is a public hospital from 2005 to 2010,where all residents of the city were offered the medical services.PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index <0.90 in either leg.To evaluate the role of various risk factors in PAD development,uniformed interviews,clinical examinations and laboratory investigation of all of participants were performed in this study.The correlation between potential risk factors and PAD was analyzed.Results In Wuhan,the prevalence rate of PAD was 24.1% in elderly diabetic patients.Totally,291 patients with PAD had at least one weak but not absent dorsalis pedis pulse in both feet,while 541 patients without PAD showed this way.At least one absent dorsalis pedis pulse was found in 192 patients with PAD as well as 10 patients without PAD.The results of multivariate regression analysis suggested that the age,smoking history,hypertension,diabetic neuropathy and macroangiopathy gave rise to significant increase of PAD development in type 2 diabetic diseases.Conclusions The prevalence of PAD in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes in Wuhan was close to the prevalence that was reported in other regions of China and other Asian countries.Control of the related risk factors and early diagnosis of PAD may play a role in PAD prevention and improving prognosis.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and morphology reveal a new species of Amyloporia (Basidiomycota) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bao-Kai; Dai, Yu-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Amyloporia pinea sp. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of collections from southern China. Morphology and phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences support this new species. Morphologically, it is characterized by resupinate, annual basidiocarps, cream to yellowish buff pore surface when fresh, which becomes yellowish brown to clay-buff upon drying, a dimitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae and inamyloid skeletal hyphae, fusoid cystidioles, and cylindrical basidiospores; moreover, it causes a brown rot. Molecular phylogeny inferred from ITS sequence data suggested a close relationship between A. pinea and Amyloporia crassa sensu lato. Antrodia subxantha has amyloid skeletal hyphae, and grouped within the Amyloporia clade, hence, it is transferred to Amyloporia, and a new combination Amyloporia subxantha is proposed. PMID:23912447

  11. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the central roles of two African countries in the evolution and worldwide spread of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Shi, Junming; Wang, Jun; Tang, Shuang; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Deng, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Oceania's islands and the Americas were characterized by high numbers of cases and the spread of the virus to new areas. To better understand the origin of ZIKV, its epidemic history was reviewed. Although the available records and information are limited, two major genetic lineages of ZIKV were identified in previous studies. However, in this study, three lineages were identified based on a phylogenetic analysis of all virus sequences from GenBank, including those of the envelope protein (E) and non-structural protein 5 (NS5) coding regions. The spatial and temporal distributions of the three identified ZIKV lineages and the recombination events and mechanisms underlying their divergence and evolution were further elaborated. The potential migration pathway of ZIKV was also characterized. Our findings revealed the central roles of two African countries, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire, in ZIKV evolution and genotypic divergence. Furthermore, our results suggested that the outbreaks in Asia and the Pacific islands originated from Africa. The results provide insights into the geographic origins of ZIKV outbreaks and the spread of the virus, and also contribute to a better understanding of ZIKV evolution, which is important for the prevention and control of ZIKV infections.

  12. Dust storms come to central and southwestern China, too: implications from a major dust event in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms from major Asian sources are usually carried by northwesterly or westerly winds over northern and southeastern China to the Pacific Ocean. These pathways leave central and southwestern China nearly free of incursions. But a strong dust event on 5–6 May 2005 was captured in a 15-month series of weekly filter samples of PM2.5 at three sites in Chongqing. It illustrated that desert dust can be transported to this region, and sometimes strongly. Annual PM2.5 and dust were similar at the three sites, but higher than in simultaneous samples in Beijing. High correlations of dust concentration were found between the cites during spring, indicating that Asian dust affects a broader swath of China than is often realized. During the event, the concentrations of mineral dust were high at all sites (20–30 μg m−3; 15%–20% of PM2.5 in Chongqing, and 15 μg m−3; 20%–30% of PM2.5 in Beijing, and were part of a broader spring maximum. The proportions of crustal elements and pollution-derived components such as Pb, SO42−, and organic carbon indicated that the sources for this dust differed from Beijing. The dust was considerably enriched in Ca and Mg, characteristic of western deserts, whereas Beijing's dust had the lower Ca and Mg of eastern deserts. This observation agrees with synoptic patterns and back-trajectories. Driven by a cold air outbreak from the northwest, dust from the western Gobi Desert was transported at lower altitudes (<2 km above ground level, while dust from the Takla Makan Desert was transported to Chongqing at higher altitudes. Desert dust can also be important to wide areas of China during the cold season, since almost all the weekly dust peaks in the two cities coincided with extensive dust emissions in source regions. These findings collectively suggest that the amount of Asian-dust in China has been underestimated both

  13. Dust storms come to Central and Southwestern China, too: implications from a major dust event in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms from major Asian sources are usually carried by northwesterly or westerly winds over Northern and Southeastern China to the Pacific Ocean. These pathways leave Central and Southwestern China nearly free of incursions. But a strong dust event on 5–6 May 2005 was captured in a 15-month series of weekly filter samples of PM2.5 at three sites in Chongqing. It illustrated that desert dust can be transported to this region, and sometimes strongly. Annual PM2.5 and dust were similar at the three sites, but higher than in simultaneous samples in Beijing. High correlations of dust concentrations were found between the cities during spring, indicating that Asian dust affects a broader swath of China than is often realized. During the event, the concentrations of mineral dust were high at all sites (20–30 μg m−3; 15%–20% of PM2.5 in Chongqing, and 15 μg m−3; 20%–30% of PM2.5 in Beijing, and were part of a broader spring maximum. The proportions of crustal elements and pollution-derived components such as Pb, SO42−, and organic carbon indicated that the sources for this dust differed from Beijing. The dust was considerably enriched in Ca and Mg, characteristic of western deserts, whereas Beijing's dust had the lower Ca and Mg of eastern deserts. This observation agrees with synoptic patterns and back-trajectories. Driven by a cold air outbreak from the northwest, dust from the western Gobi Desert was transported at lower altitudes (<2 km above ground level, while dust from the Takla Makan Desert was transported to Chongqing at higher altitudes. Desert dust can also be important to wide areas of China during the cold season, since almost all the weekly dust peaks in the two cities coincided with extensive dust emissions in source regions. These findings collectively suggest that the amount Asian-dust in China has been underestimated both

  14. The paleomagnetism and geological significance of Meso- proterozoic dyke swarms in the central North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Guiting

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ma Xinghua, Zhang Zhengkun, Paleomagnetism and its application to plate tectonics, in The Basic Problems of Plate Tectonics (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismology Press, 1985, 119-142.[2]Zhang Wenzhi, Li Pu, The paleomagnetic characteristics of Sub-Sinian Erathem in Jixian of China, Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Branch Bulletin of Geological Institute of Tianjin, 1980, 1(1): 111[3]Halls, H. C., Paleomagnetism, structure and longitudinal correlation of middle Precambrian dykes from northwestern Ontario and Minnesota, Can. J. Earth Sci., 1985, 23: 142.[4]Qian Xianglin, Chen Yaping, Late Precambrian mafic swarms of the north China Craton, in Mafic Dyke Swarms, Geological Association of Canada (eds. Halls, H. C., Fahrig, W. F.), 1987, Special Paper, 34: 385.[5]Chen Yaping, Qian Xianglin, The paleomagnetism study of Late Precambrian mafic dyke swarms in Lüliang inlier of Shanxi, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis (in Chinese), 1987, 2: 87.[6]Ernst, R. E., Head, J. W., Parfitt, E. et al, Giant radiating dyke swarms on Earth and Venus, Earth-Science Reviews, 1995, 4: 229[7]Radhakrishns, T., Joseph. M., Proterozoic palaeomagnetism of the mafic dyke swarms is the high-grade region of southern India, Precambrian Research, 1996, 76: 31.[8]Li Jianghai, Qian Xianglin, Zhai Mingguo, The tectonic classification of granulite facies of North China and its Early Precambrian tectonic evolution, Scientia Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997, 32: 254.[9]Hou Guiting, Zhang Chen, Qian Xianglin, The formation mechanism and tectonic stress field of Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms in the North China Craton, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1998, 44(3): 309.[10]Li Jianghai, He Wenyuan, Qian Xianglin, Genetic mechanism and tectonic setting of Proterozoic mafic dyke swarm: its implication for paleoplate reconstruction, Geological Journal of China University (in Chinese), 1997, 3(3): 272.[11]Hou Guiting, Mu

  15. The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building more inclusive, democratic pol...

  16. Variability of Indian summer monsoon over the past 252 kyr revealed by stalagmite record in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Fung, I. Y.; Edwards, R.; An, Z.; Cheng, H.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple proxies obtained from Arabian Sea sediments have revealed the variability of Indian summer Monsoon (ISM) on time scale of 100-105 years. These proxies mainly capture summertime winds over the Arabian Sea and our understanding of Indian summer monsoon precipitation variability; and the relationship between paleo-ISM and paleo East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) lacks precise articulation, however, due to the scarcity of high-resolution precipitation records spanning a glacial-interglacial cycle. Here, we present an absolutely-dated oxygen isotope record from stalagmites in Xiaobailong (XBL) cave, southwestern China, that documents the variability in local precipitation and the ISM for the past 252,000 years. This record is dominated by 23-kyr precessional cycles punctuated by prominent millennial-scale oscillations that are synchronous with Heinrich events in the North Atlantic. It also shows clear glacial-interglacial variations that are consistent with marine and other terrestrial proxies. The distinct glacial-interglacial range in XBL δ18O is larger than that of speleothem records from eastern China. Corroborated with results from an isotope-enabled global climate model, we hypothesize that these dissimilarities may reflect the different responses of ISM and EASM to changes in global circulation and moisture source, in particular those caused by glacial-interglacial sea-land configuration changes as manifested by notable coastline shifts in the Western Pacific and Maritime Continent.

  17. Sediment provenance in the Shudu Lake basin, northwest Yunnan Province, China, as revealed by composite fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite fingerprinting represents an effective method of reconstructing sediment-source changes in remote areas where long-term hydrological and sediment accretion records do not exist. A ca. 50-year record of sediment deposition was determined for a small catchment at Shudu, situated in northwest Yunnan Province, China. Woodland, pasture, shrubland and channel bank material are identified as the most likely sediment sources and this was confirmed using a composite sediment fingerprinting approach. Based on the findings of the fingerprinting technique, variations in the geochemical signature associated with lacustrine sediment deposits indicate that 49.2 % of the total catchment sediment yield over an approximate 50-year period originated from channel banks. In contrast, 19.2 % originated from pasture, 18.6 % originated from shrubland, and 13 % from woodland. The relative contributions of eroded sediment from both woodland and shrubland have generally remained stable over the period investigated, whereas the contribution of material from pasture has increased over recent decades. This is tentatively attributed to increased grazing pressure, which is probably due to increased stocking densities which have gradually exceeded the carrying capacity and regenerative capabilities of the available grassland.

  18. A giant spider from the Jurassic of China reveals greater diversity of the orbicularian stem group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A.; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2013-12-01

    A large female spider, Nephila jurassica, was described from Middle Jurassic strata of north-east China and placed in the modern genus Nephila (family Nephilidae) on the basis of many morphological similarities, but, as with many ancient fossils, the single specimen lacked synapomorphies of the family (Selden et al. 2011). In order to test the placement within the nephilid phylogenetic tree, Kuntner et al. (2013) calibrated the molecular phylogeny using N. jurassica in three different scenarios based on inferred mitochondrial substitution rates. They concluded that N. jurassica fitted better as a stem orbicularian than a nephilid. Now, a giant male spider has been discovered at the same locality that yielded N. jurassica. The two sexes are considered conspecific based on their similar morphological features, size, and provenance. The male cannot be accommodated in Nephilidae because of its pedipalp morphology, so the new genus Mongolarachne and family Mongolarachnidae are erected for the species. Comparison with possibly related families show that Mongolarachnidae is most likely on the orbicularian stem, close to other cribellate orbicularians (e.g., Deinopoidea), which suggests a greater diversity of cribellate orbicularians during the Middle Jurassic.

  19. Study on the Characteristics of Urban Air Pollution Based on Correspondence Analysis--A Case Study of Six Provincial Capitals in Central-south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the characteristics of urban air pollution on the basis of correspondence analysis.[Method] By using the correlated data from China Statistical Yearbook in 2010,a correspondence analysis on the air pollution indicators(like respirable particles,SO2 and NO2) of six provincial capitals in central-south China was carried out by means of SPSS software,and the characteristics of air pollution in the cities of China during different industrialization stages were summarized further...

  20. The Interactive Association of General Obesity and Central Obesity with Prevalent Hypertension in Rural Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhong; Wan, Liping; Wang, Zengwu; Wang, Xin; Di, Zhaoxin; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the interactive association between obesity with different anthropometry indices and prevalence of hypertension in rural Lanzhou. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Lanzhou from April to July in 2013. The available information of 1275 rural residents aged more than 35 years was collected with a unified questionnaire and their blood pressure and anthropometry indices were measured in the field. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.1. A generalized estimate equation (GEE) linear model was used to determine the association between obesity with different indexes and hypertension. Results There was a moderate prevalence of general obesity (~11%) and very high prevalence of central obesity (53.2~67%) among the adults of rural Lanzhou. The prevalence of hypertension approximated 28%. GEE linear models showed that obesity with any one of anthropometry indices was associated significantly with the increased prevalence of hypertension among both males and females. In females, general obesity increased the prevalence of hypertension by 37% (0.37, 95%CI: 0.27,0.47) but in males by 23% (0.23, 95%CI: 0.12,0.35). The hypertensive effect of all central obesity was much lower than that of general obesity but approximately comparable to that of overweight. In addition, the interactions of the classified body mass index (BMI) and central obesity showed that when general obesity or overweight coexisted with any one of central obesity, the prevalence of hypertension was increased significantly, and this effect was a little higher than the corresponding main effect of general obesity or overweight in females but was much higher in males. In addition, general obesity or overweight which did not coexist with central obesity was not significantly associated with the increased prevalence of hypertension, nor were the other situations of central obesity in the normal weight or underweight except for the situation of central obesity with waist

  1. Relationship between salt diapirism and faulting in the central structural belt of the Dongying sag, Bohai Gulf basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianguo; LI Sanzhong; WANG Jinduo; TIMOTHY M Kusky; WANG Xinhong; LU Shengqiang

    2005-01-01

    Many growth faults developed in the Dongying sag of the Jiyang depression of the Bohai Gulf basin, China. These normal growth faults consist of flower-like grabens in the hanging walls of the major faults, accompanied by reverse dragging. The central structural belt is an important structural unit in the Dongying sag, and is divided into a series of small blocks by these faults. These internal blocks can be classified into five structural classes, including parallel blocks, arc-shape blocks, plume-like blocks, ring-radial blocks,and splay blocks. It is shown that these complicated block classes and the "negative flower-like" fault associations in the central structural belt resulted from regional NNW-SSE extension accompanying local salt diapirism and related reverse dragging, rather than strike-slip faulting. On the basis of the diapirism strength, diapers in the central structural belt can be divided into lower salt ridges and pillows, and blind piercing structures. Diapirs are mainly composed of some salts with a little soft mudstone and gypsum. These structures began forming during deposition of the Sha 3 member and terminated during deposition of the Guangtao formation.

  2. Central-European Jesuit Scientists in China, and Their Impact on Chinese Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jože JUŽNIČ

    2015-12-01

    The Jesuits acted as intermediate in the exchange of know-how between Europe and China. In modern Chinese eyes they were also somewhat viewed as spies, who helped European military and economic victories in the mid-19th century. Modern China is now as strong as it was in the times of Old Jesuit Society, therefore the Europocentric history of science must be rewritten from the standpoint of today’s winning Chinese economy. What kind of science will Western Civilization import from the future Chinese literati? The Jesuits’ transfer of European Sciences to the Far-Easterners caused the reverse impact from seemingly less developed centers of Far East that was felt in Jesuits’ times, but much more is to follow in the near future. We could expect the fundamental future Chinese achievements in cosmology, especially in Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

  3. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each s...

  4. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling reveals two distinct outcomes in central Nervous system infections of rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiting eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies remains a major public health concern in many developing countries. The precise neuropathogenesis of rabies is unknown, though it is hypothesized to be due to neuronal death or dysfunction. Mice that received intranasal inoculation of an attenuated rabies virus (RABV strain HEP-Flury exhibited subtle clinical signs, and eventually recovered, which is different from the fatal encephalitis caused by the virulent RABV strain CVS-11. To understand the neuropathogenesis of rabies and the mechanisms of viral clearance, we applied RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq to compare the brain transcriptomes of normal mice versus HEP-Flury or CVS-11 intranasally inoculated mice. Our results revealed that both RABV strains altered positively and negatively the expression levels of many host genes, including genes associated with innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation and cell death. It is found that HEP-Flury infection can activate the innate immunity earlier through the RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, and the innate immunity pre-activated by HEP-Flury or Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection can effectively prevent the CVS-11 to invade central nervous system (CNS, but fails to clear the CVS-11 after its entry into the CNS. In addition, following CVS-11 infection, genes implicated in cell adhesion, blood vessel morphogenesis and coagulation were mainly up-regulated, while the genes involved in synaptic transmission and ion transport were significantly down-regulated. On the other hand, several genes involved in the MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation pathway were activated to a greater extent after the HEP-Flury infection as compared with the CVS-11 infection suggesting that the collaboration of CD4+ T cells and MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation is critical for the clearance of attenuated RABV from the CNS. The differentially regulated genes reported here are likely to include potential therapeutic targets for expanding the postexposure treatment window

  5. 10Be dating reveals early-middle Holocene age of the Drygalski Moraines in central West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, Sandra L.; Briner, Jason P.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin on the Nuussuaq Peninsula in central West Greenland through the Holocene using lake sediment analysis and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of the prominent Drygalski Moraines. Erratics perched on bedrock outboard of the Drygalski Moraines constrain local deglaciation to ∼9.9 ± 0.6 ka (n = 2). Three Drygalski Moraine crests yield mean 10Be ages of 8.6 ± 0.4 ka (n = 2), 8.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 7.6 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the inner two moraines average 7.8 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) and are consistent with the moraine ages. Sediments from a proglacial lake with a catchment area extending an estimated 2 km beneath (inland of) the present ice sheet terminus constrain an ice sheet minimum extent from 5.4 ka to 0.6 ka. The moraine chronology paired with the lake sediment stratigraphy reveals that the ice margin likely remained within ∼2 km of its present position from ∼9.9 to 5.4 ka. This unexpected early Holocene stability, preceded by rapid ice retreat and followed by minimum ice extent between ∼5.4 and 0.6 ka, contrasts with many records of early Holocene warmth and the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum. We suggest ice margin stability may instead be tied to adjacent ocean temperatures, which reached an optimum in the middle Holocene.

  6. Environ centrality reveals the tendency of indirect effects to homogenize the functional importance of species in ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Fann, Sarah L.; Borrett, Stuart R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists and conservation biologists need to identify the relative importance of species to make sound management decisions and effectively allocate scarce resources. We introduce a new method, termed environ centrality, to determine the relative importance of a species in an ecosystem network with respect to ecosystem energy--matter exchange. We demonstrate the uniqueness of environ centrality by comparing it to other common centrality metrics and then show its ecological significance. Spe...

  7. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  8. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  9. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften

    2014-07-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  10. FORMATION MECHANISM AND SPATIAL PATTERN OF URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN CENTRAL JILIN OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Gan; ZHANG Ping-yu; JIAO Bin

    2006-01-01

    Urban agglomeration is made up of cities with different sizes to be linked by traffic network in a given area, and it is an inevitable result when urbanization reaches a certain level. Taking urban agglomerationin central Jilin(UACJ) as an example, this article analyzes the formation mechanism and spatial pattern of urban agglomeration in the less-developed area. First, the dynamics of UACJ has been analyzed from the aspects of geographical condition, economic foundation, policy background, and traffic condition. Then the development process is divided into three stages-single city, city group and city cluster. Secondly, the central cities are identified from the aspects of city centrality, and the development axes are classified based on economic communication capacity. Finally, the urban agglomeration is divided into five urban economic regions in order to establish the reasonable distribution of industries.

  11. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI XiYuan

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China.The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration.The characteristics of potential source rocks end reservoir sandstones,and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied.Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich,oil-prone algal organic matter,and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor,higher-plant derived organic matter.These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation,suggesting good to excellent exploration potential,both for crude oils and for natural gases.The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability.However,sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability,suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones.Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin.The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time,low sandstone permeability,increased organic matter maturity,and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents.Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system.Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best-to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks.Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system,or migrate vertically through faults/hydraulic fractures into the overlying,normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps.Therefore,commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured system,and in the normally

  12. Overpressure development and oil charging in the central Junggar Basin,Northwest China:Implication for petroleum exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Junggar Basin is one of the largest and most petroliferous superimposed petroleum basins in China. The central depression area has become the frontier field for petroleum exploration. The characteristics of potential source rocks and reservoir sandstones, and the pressure regime in the central Junggar Basin were studied. Permian shales are dominated by hydrogen-rich, oil-prone algal organic matter, and Jurassic mudstones are dominated by hydrogen-poor, higher-plant derived organic matter. These source rocks are widespread and have been mature for hydrocarbon generation, suggesting good to excellent exploration potential, both for crude oils and for natural gases. The deeply buried Jurassic sandstones usually have low porosity and permeability. However, sandstones beneath the Jurassic/Cretaceous unconformity display relatively high porosity and permeability, suggesting that meteoric water leaching had improved the quality of the sandstones. Overpressure developed over much of the central Junggar Basin. The overpressured rocks are characterized by slightly increased interval transit time, low sandstone permeability, increased organic matter maturity, and high relative hydrocarbon-gas contents. Mudstones in the overpressured system have quite the same clay mineral compositions as mudstones in the lower part of the normally pressured system. Overpressure generation in the central Junggar Basin is best to be explained as the result of hydrocarbon generation and fluid retention in low-permeability rocks. Petroleum generated from Permian and Jurassic source rocks could migrate laterally through preferential petroleum migration pathways and accumulated in structural traps or lithological traps in the overpressured system, or migrate vertically through faults/ hydraulic fractures into the overlying, normally pressured system and accumulate in structural or lithological traps. Therefore, commercial petroleum reservoirs could be potentially found in both the overpressured

  13. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentai Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in the inland arid area of Central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang has recently received heightened concerns over soil water erosion, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Data from the national soil erosion survey of China (1985–2011 and Xinjiang statistical yearbook (2000–2010 was used to analyze the trend, intensity, and serious soil water erosion regions. Results showed that the water erosion area in Xinjiang was 87.6×103 km2 in 2011, mainly distributed in the Ili river valley and the northern and southern Tian Mountain. Soil erosion gradient was generally slight and the average erosion modulus was 2184 t/(km2 a. During the last 26 years, the water erosion area in Xinjiang decreased by 23.2%, whereas the intensity was still increasing. The driving factors from large to small impact included: population boom and human activities>vegetation degradation>rainfall and climate change>topography and soil erodibility>tectonics movement. Soil water erosion resulted in eco-environmental and socioeconomic losses, such as destroying farmland and grassland, triggering floods, sedimentation of reservoirs, damaging transportation and irrigation facilities, and aggravating poverty. A landscape ecological design approach is suggested for integrated control of soil erosion. Currently, an average of 2.07×103 km2 of formerly eroded area is conserved each year. This study highlighted the importance and longevity of soil and water conservation efforts in Xinjiang, and offered some suggestions on ecological restoration and combating desertification in arid regions of Central Asia.

  14. Late Neoproterozoic magmatism in South Qinling, Central China: Geochemistry, zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopes and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruirui; Xu, Zhiqin; Santosh, M.; Yao, Yuan; Gao, Li'e.; Liu, Chunhua

    2016-06-01

    The Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Yangtze Block in South China remains debated. In this study, we present results from LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology on a suite of intermediate-felsic rocks in South Qinling, Central China which show a mean age of ca. 630 Ma. The zircon εHf(t) values of these rocks mostly range from + 0.44 to + 14.78. Geochemically, the granites and syenite show high total alkali contents, with enrichment in LREE, LILE (Rb, Ba, and K), and HFSE (Th, U, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf), and depletion in Sr, P, and Ti, similar to the features of A-type granites. The meta-diorite shows high Na2O, with depletion in Eu, Ti, and LILE (Sr, Rb, Ba, and K), and enrichment in HFSE (Th, U, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf). The geochemical features are consistent with formation of the intermediate-felsic suite through fractionation from underplated basaltic magma that originated from sub-continental lithospheric mantle metasomatized by asthenosphere-derived oceanic-island-basalt-like (OIB-like) melts, coupled with minor crustal contamination. We correlate the ca. 630 Ma magmatism with a back-arc rift setting that probably developed in relation to slab tearing during continued slab rollback.

  15. An infection of Gyrodactylus kobayashii Hukuda, 1940 (Monogenea) associated with the mortality of goldfish (Carassius auratus) from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao; Ling, Fei; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-02-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, widely distributed across Eurasia, is one of the earliest fish domesticated for ornamental purposes. A series of diseases break out due to high-density culture of goldfish, causing significant economic losses. Here, we report for the first time an infection of Gyrodactylus kobayashii associated with the high mortality of goldfish from a fish farm in Anziying township of Henan province, China, following their transfer to several aquariums. In the first 2 weeks after goldfish (n = 4200, weight 10.24 ± 1.45 g) transfer to aquariums, a total of 3335 goldfish were lost, representing 79.4 % of the initial stocked biomass. The examination showed that no other pathogens were found in this batch of fishes, except for G. kobayashii. The high burdens of G. kobayashii/fish (264.7, range 100-450) were the primary reason for the high mortality, although this was not the sole cause. In addition, the isolate of G. kobayashii from goldfish (C. auratus) in Henan province of central China was described. The morphological characterization was performed using morphometric measurements and drawings of opisthaptoral hard parts of the parasites. The molecular description was performed based on phylogenetic analysis of a reference DNA sequence spanning 5.8S and ITS-2. Importantly, the present study provides for the first time a full 25 point-to-point morphometric measurements and high-resolution images of attachment organ of G. kobayashii. PMID:25471903

  16. Vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the central South China Sea estimated from 234Th-238U disequilibria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; ZENG Zhi; HE Jianhua; CHEN Liqi; YIN Mingduan; ZENG Shi; ZENG Wenyi

    2008-01-01

    234Th-238u disequilibria were applied to examine the particle dynamics in the euphotic zone of the central South China Sea during the spring 2002 cruise. The particulate organic carbon (POC), 234Th (including both dissolved and particulate) and 238U in the water column at three stations were determined. The profiles of 234Th/238U activity ratio at the three stations all showed consistent 234Th deficit as compared to 238U in the upper 100 m water column. Based on the profiles of the dissolved and particulate 234Th and a steady state box model, the dissolved 234Th scavenging rates, the particulate 234Th removal rates and their resident times were quantified. It was found that the POC downward export fluxes out of the upper 100 m euphotic zone ranged from 9.40 to 14.78 mmol.m-2.d-1. The results from this study provide new information for our understanding of carbon biogeochemical cycle in the South China Sea.

  17. The Paleoproterozoic Singo granite in south-central Uganda revealed as a nested igneous ring complex using geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Katumwehe, Andrew B.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Le Pera, Alan K.; Achang, Mercy

    2016-04-01

    We used high-resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data and satellite gravity data to investigate the form of occurrence of the Paleoproterozoic Singo granite in west-central Uganda. This granitic body covers an area of ∼700 km2, intrudes Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks and overlain by Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks, both of which belong to the Rwenzori terrane, and it is host to hydrothermally-formed economic minerals such as gold and tungsten. Our analysis provided unprecedented geometrical details of the granitic body and revealed the following: (1) the margins of the Singo granite are characterized by a higher magnetic signature compared to the interior of the granitic body as well as the surroundings. These anomalies are apparent in both the total magnetic field and horizontal derivative images and define eight overlapping ring features. (2) the depth continuation of these magnetic anomalies define outward but steeply-dipping features as indicated by the tilt images extracted from the airborne magnetic data. This is further supported by forward modeling of the magnetic and gravity data. (3) the Singo granite is characterized by relatively high and evenly-distributed equivalent concentration of Uranium (eU) and Thorium (eTh) compared to the surroundings and this is apparent in the Potassium (K)-eTh-eU radiometric ternary image. (4) the granitic body is defined by a gravity low anomaly that persisted to a depth of three km as shown by the Bouguer anomaly image and its five km upward continuation. We used these observations to identify this granitic body as a nested igneous ring complex and we refer to it as the Singo Igneous Ring Complex (SIRC). We further interpreted the eight ring structures as individual igneous ring complexes aligned in an E-W and NE-SW direction and these were developed due to repeated calderas collapse. Additionally, we interpreted the ring-shaped magnetic anomalies as due to hydrothermally-altered margins

  18. Holocene evolution of the River Nile drainage system as revealed from the Lake Dendi sediment record, central Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wennrich, V.; Junginger, A.; Kolvenbach, A.; Rethemeyer, J.; Schaebitz, F.; Schmiedl, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    A 12 m long sediment sequence from Dendi Crater lakes, located on the central Ethiopian Plateau, was analysed with sedimentological and geochemical methods to reconstruct the regional environmental history. Bulk organic carbon samples from 23 horizons throughout the sequence were used for AMS radiocarbon dating and indicate that the sediment sequence spans the last ca. 12 cal kyr BP. Microscope analyses and sedimentological data reveal three tephra layers, of which the most prominent layer with a thickness of ~2 m was deposited at 10.2 cal kyr BP and probably originates from an eruption of the Wenchi crater 12 km to the west of the Dendi lakes. Sedimentological data of the pelagic deposits indicate shifts in erosion and rainfall throughout the record. A decrease in Ca and Sr at 11.6 cal kyr BP is related to the shift of less humid condition during the Younger Dryas (YD) to the return to full humid conditions of the African Humid Period (AHP). Single thin horizons with high carbonate content or high Ti and K imply that short spells of dry conditions and significantly increased rainfall superimpose the generally more humid conditions during the AHP. The end of the AHP is gradual. Relatively stable and less humid conditions characterised the Dendi Crater lakes until around 3.9 cal kyr BP. A highly variable increase in clastic matter over the last 1500 years indicates higher erosion due to short-term variations in precipitation within the Dendi catchment. Overall, the sediment record suggests moderate change of precipitation during the Holocene, which is probably due to their exposed location in the Ethiopian highlands. The data from the Dendi Crater lakes show, in concert with other records from the Nile catchment and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS), that the Blue Nile provided the main freshwater source for maintaining EMS stratification and sapropel S1 formation between ca. 10.0 and 8.7 cal kyr BP. Subsequent aridification is recorded from equatorial East Africa

  19. Environmental and cultural change in the Yiluo basin, east-central China

    OpenAIRE

    Arlene Rosen

    2001-01-01

    New archaeological discoveries in Henan Province south of the Huanghe (Yellow) River are revealing the beginnings of Chinese civilization. The Institute's recently appointed geoarchaeologist here describes her involvement in this major interdisciplinary research project.

  20. Environmental and cultural change in the Yiluo basin, east-central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Rosen

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available New archaeological discoveries in Henan Province south of the Huanghe (Yellow River are revealing the beginnings of Chinese civilization. The Institute's recently appointed geoarchaeologist here describes her involvement in this major interdisciplinary research project.

  1. Dust Propagation and Radiation In the Presence of a Low-level Jet in Central China on March 17, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, B. K.; Chen, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Suspended dust in the air can directly change the energy budget in the atmosphere and at the surface through scattering and absorption of radiation. Thus, dust can potentially modify the development of weather systems. To explore the dust-radiation effects on weather systems, a dust model was developed based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The calculations of dust processes in the WRF dust model include emission, advection, boundary layer mixing, cumulus mixing, dust-radiation interaction, wet scavenging, and sedimentation. Due to a high vertical spatial resolution near the surface a time splitting method was applied to the calculation of dust sedimentation to relax the numerical time step. The "Hexi Corridor" is the historical name given to a string of oases along the northern slope of the Tibetan Plateau that formed a relatively easy transportation route between eastern China and central Asia. As trade developed over the centuries, this route became known as the Silk Road. This corridor also marks the transition from the relatively flat Gobi desert area in northern China to the elevated mountains of the Tibetan Plateau. These mountains present a southern barrier to the paths of dust storms that develop during spring outbreaks of the Mongolian Cyclone. In March of 2010, a series of dust storms developed in the Gobi Desert north of the Hexi Corridor that transported massive amounts of dust eastward to central and northeastern China, Korea and Japan. On March 17 during this event, a low-level jet developed along the northern perimeter of the Plateau, in alignment with upper level winds and the Hexi Corridor. Over the course of the day, a well-defined short-duration dust plume was emitted in the southern Gobi desert area and was transported over 1300 km in a southeast direction, over the Loess Plateau and into the Gansu Province. In this study, the interactions of synoptic conditions with regional topography that led to the development of the low

  2. 中国中部地区外商投资促进规划(2009-2014)%Central China Foreign Investment Promotion Plan (2009-14)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Preface With the accelerating economic globalization and regional economic integration,the fourth global gradient transfer of industries and swifter capital flow from coastline to west,China's central region is now witnessing brand new challenges and opportunities in introducing foreign capitals.

  3. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  4. Isotopic dating of the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon in Central Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Twenty black shale samples, which are free from the influence of weathering, were collected from the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon, central Yunnan Province, yielding a Pb-Pb isochron age of 534±60 Ma. Although this age is younger than both the Rb-Sr isochron age and 40Ar-39Ar age, it should represent the lower isotopic age limit of the Chengjiang Fauna.

  5. Distribution, migration and derivation of Mesozoic-Cenozoic regional fault systems in the central continental margin of eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaomeng; HAO Fujiang; BIAN Weihua; GAO Yi; BAO Yafan

    2007-01-01

    Deep-large faults in the central continental margin of eastern China are well developed. Based on the regularity of spatial and temporal distribution of the faults,four fault systems were divided: the Yanshan orogenic belt fault system, the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt fault system, the Tanlu fault system and the East China Sea shelfbasin-Okinawa trough fault system. The four fault systems exhibit different migration behaviors. The Yanshan orogenic belt fault system deflected from an EW to a NE direction,then to a NNE direction during the Indo-Chinese epoch-Yanshanian epoch. The thrust-nappe strength of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belt fault system showed the tendency that the strength was greater in the south and east, but weaker in the north and west. This fault system faulted in the east and folded in the west from the Indo-Chinese epoch to the early Yanshanian epoch. At the same time, the faults also had a diachronous migration from east to west from the Indo-Chinese epoch to the early Yanshanian epoch. On the con-trary, the thrust-nappe strength was greater in the north and west, weaker in the south and east during the late Yanshanian epoch-early Himalayan epoch. The Tanlu fault system caused the basin to migrate from west to east and south to north. The migration regularity of the East China Sea shelf basin-Okinawa trough fault system shows that the for mation age became younger in the west. The four fault systems and their migration regularities were respectively the results of four different geodynamic backgrounds. The Yanshan orogenicbelt fault system derived from the intracontinental orogeny.The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt fault system derived from the collision of plates and intracontinental subduction.The Tanlu fault system derived from the strike-slip movement and the East China Sea shelf basin-Okinawa trough fault system derived from plate subduction and retreat of the subduction belt.

  6. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  7. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G- compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  8. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G(+)/G(-)). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G(+)/G(-) compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems. PMID:27611023

  9. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0–5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G−). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G− compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems. PMID:27611023

  10. Geochronological and Geochemical evidence of amphibolite from the Hualong Group, northwest China: Implication for the early Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the Central Qilian belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Zongqi; Yan, Zhen; Ma, Zhenhui; He, Shengfei; Fu, Changlei; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    The Hualong Group, located in the Central Qilian belt, northwest China, consists mainly of schist, amphibolite, quartzite, and marble, ranging from greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism. On the basis of the medium-grade metamorphism, the group has been considered to comprise Proterozoic basement rocks. In this study, geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic, and zircon U-Pb geochronological analyses were performed on lentoid amphibolites from the Hualong Group, to characterize their age, petrogensis, and tectonic setting. Uranium-lead zircon dating of amphibolite revealed a formation age of 456 ± 2 Ma and a metamorphic age of 440 ± 1 Ma. Major, trace, and rare earth element data indicate that the amphibolites are predominantly basaltic-andesitic to andesitic rocks, with island arc affinities. The trace element patterns show enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements and depletion in high field strength elements relative to the N-MORB which confirm their island arc signatures. Obviously enriched light REEs ((La/Yb)N = 2.5-16.9) to chondrite normalized REE patterns further support this interpretation. The εNd(t) values for the amphibolites range from 4.6 to + 2.1, indicating subducted sediments as a larger endmember in the source. Geochemical data for these rocks suggest an island arc setting, and the rocks were derived from the depleted mantle that was enriched by melts of subducted sediments in an active continental margin setting at ca. 456 Ma. Together with regional evidence it suggests that the Hualong Group is an accretionary complex that was incorporated into the Central Qilian belt during the 440-400 Ma orogenic event.

  11. Ancient and recent clay formation on Mars as revealed from a global survey of hydrous minerals in crater central peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Vivian Z.; Milliken, Ralph E.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals on Mars have commonly been interpreted as the remnants of pervasive water-rock interaction during the Noachian period (>3.7 Ga). This history has been partly inferred by observations of clays in central peaks of impact craters, which often are presumed uplifted from depth. However, combined mineralogical and morphological analyses of individual craters have shown that some central peak clays may represent post-impact, possibly authigenic processes. Here we present a global survey of 633 central peaks to assess their hydrous minerals and the prevalence of uplifted, detrital, and authigenic clays. Central peak regions are examined using high-resolution Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment data to identify hydrous minerals and place their detections in a stratigraphic and geologic context. We find that many occurrences of Fe/Mg clays and hydrated silica are associated with potential impact melt deposits. Over 35% of central peak clays are not associated with uplifted rocks; thus, caution must be used when inferring deeper crustal compositions from surface mineralogy of central peaks. Uplifted clay-bearing rocks suggest the Martian crust hosts clays to depths of at least 7 km. We also observe evidence for increasing chloritization with depth, implying the presence of fluids in the upper portions of the crust. Our observations are consistent with widespread Noachian/Early Hesperian clay formation, but a number of central peak clays are also suggestive of clay formation during the Amazonian. These results broadly support current paradigms of Mars' aqueous history while adding insight to global crustal and diagenetic processes associated with clay mineral formation and stability.

  12. Characteristics of HCV co-infection among HIV infected individuals from an area with high risk of blood-borne infections in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection has been proved to be a growing public health concern. The prevalence and genotypic pattern vary with geographic locations. Limited information is available to date with regard to HCV genotype and its clinical implications among those former commercial blood donor communities. The aims of this study were to genetically define the HCV genotype and associated clinical characteristics of HIV/HCV co-infected patients from a region with commercial blood donation history in central China. METHODS: A cross sectional study, including 164 HIV infected subjects, was conducted in Shanxi province central China. Serum samples were collected and HCV antibody testing, AST and ALT testing were performed. Seropositive samples were further subjected to RT-PCR followed by direct sequence coupled with phylogenetic analysis of Core-E1 and NS5B regions performed in comparison with known reference genotypes. FINDINGS: A total of 139 subjects were HCV antibody positive. Genotype could be determined for 88 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the predominant circulating subtype was HCV 1b (65.9%, followed by HCV 2a (34.1%. The HCV viral load in the subjects infected with HIV1b was significantly higher than those infected with HCV 2a (P = 0.006. No significant difference for HCV RNA level was detected between ART status, CD4+ cell count level and HIV RNA level. Serum AST and ALT level were likely to increase with HCV RNA level, although no significance was observed. Those who had conducted commercial donation later than 1991 (OR 3.43, 95% CI: 1.12-10.48 and had a short duration of donation (OR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96 were more likely to be infected with HCV 1b. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that HCV subtype 1b predominates in this population, and the impact of HIV status and ART on HCV disease progression is not significantly correlated.

  13. Paleoseismology of the Xorxol Segment of the Central Altyn Tagh Fault, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Qiao

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF is thought to play a key role in accommodating India-Eurasian convergence, little is known about its earthquake history. Studies of this strike-slip fault are important for interpretation of the role of faulting versus distributed deformation in the accommodation of the India- Eurasia collision. In addition, the > 1200 km long fault represents one of the most important and exemplary intracontinental strike-slip faults in the world. We mapped fault trace geometry and interpreted paleoseismic trench exposures to characterize the seismogenic behavior of the ATF. We identified 2 geometric segment boundaries in a 270 km long reach of the central ATF. These boundaries define the westernmost Wuzhunxiao, the Central Pingding, and the easternmost Xorxol (also written as Suekuli or Suo erkuli segments. In this paper, we present the results from the Camel paleoseismic site along the Xorxol Segment at 91.759°E, 38.919°N. There evidence for the last two earthquakes is clear and 14C dates from layers exposed in the excavation bracket their ages. The most recent earthquake occurred between 1456 and 1775 cal A.D. and the penultimate event was between 60 and 980 cal A.D. Combining the Camel interpretations with our published results for the central ATF, we conclude that multiple earthquakes with shorter rupture lengths (?? 50 km rather than complete rupture of the Xorxol Segment better explain the paleoseismic data. We found 2-3 earthquakes in the last 2-3 kyr. When coupled with typical amounts of slip per event (5-10 m, the recurrence times are tentatively consistent with 1-2 cm/yr slip rates. This result favors models that consider the broader distribution of collisional deformation, rather than those with northward motion of India into Asia absorbed along a few faults bounding rigid blocks.

  14. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder

    2001-12-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogroups, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.

  15. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter

    2016-04-01

    In the Sicily Channel, (Central Mediterranean), two geodynamic processes overlap each other, the Maghrebides-Apennines accretionary prism and the Sicily Channel rift. Moreover, the northwestern sector (Banks sector) is characterised by an irregular seafloor morphology linked to the recent volcanic and tectonic activity.In order to discriminate the role exerted by both the processes in the morphostructural setting of the area we used a dataset of both high and very high resolution single-channel and multi-channel profiles, acquired in the frame of the RITMARE project respectively with CHIRP and sparker, and airgun sources, and high resolution (5 m cell) morpho-bathymetric data. The data allowed us to identify and characterise two areas where different geological features (sedimentary and volcanic) are prevailing. They present fluid escaping evidence, which often appears to be active and generating different types of morphologies (both positive and negative). In the western sector we recognised pockmarks at water depths of 195 to 317 m, with diameters from 25 to 580 m, depths from 1.3 to 15 m, and slope up to 23°. They show sub-circular shape in plan-view and reflectors with upward concavity in cross section, and are oriented along a NW-SE trend.The CHIRP and multichannel profiles highlight fluids that affect the Plio-Quaternary succession, especially in areas where the top surface of the Messinian succession is shallower. Conversely, wipe-out acoustic facies were recognised in proximity of: i) extensional faults of Mesozoic age with NW-SE trend; ii) dip/strike slip faults of Cenozoic age with NW-SE, N-S and about NNE-SSW trends, and iii) extensional neo-tectonic faults with NW-SE and NNW-SSE trends. We cannot exclude that they could feed the shallower reservoir producing a mixing between the two. In the eastern sector we recognised a cluster of volcanoes composed of seven cone-shaped structures (SCV1-7), pertaining to a wide area known as Graham Bank. A detailed

  16. Perinatal and background risk factors for childhood autism in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guiqin; Yao, Meiling; Ma, Yating; Zhang, Wenjing

    2014-12-15

    Perinatal and background risk factors for autism were identified in a cohort of autistic children in Zhengzhou, China, to formulate preventative and treatment strategies for high-risk families. In this case-control study, children were screened for suspected autism using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). We collected perinatal histories and clinical data of 286 confirmed autistic children treated at the Third Affiliated Hospital Children׳s Psychological Clinic of Zhengzhou University from 2011 to 2013. The control group consisted of 286 healthy children from area kindergartens. Maternal age>30 years, parental introversion as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, low level of parental education, smoking, abortion threat, pregnancy complications, maternal illness during pregnancy, maternal mental health, family history of mental illness, neonatal jaundice, birth asphyxia, premature rupture of the fetal membrane, and gestational ageautism group. These factors were significantly correlated with behavioral symptoms as measured by ABC scores (Kendall rank correlation). Birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice, maternal age, parental introversion, family history of mental illness, abortion threat, premature delivery, and smoking were identified as independent risk factors by multivariate logistic regression.

  17. Seasonal variations and chemical characteristics of PM(2.5) in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Zu-wu; Cheng, Hai-rong; Lv, Xiao-pu; Gong, Wei; Wang, Xin-ming; Zhang, Gan

    2015-06-15

    PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site (WD) and a suburban site (TH) in Wuhan from August 2012 to July 2013. The mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous species and elements of PM2.5 were measured. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 were 106.5 μg/m(3) and 114.9 μg/m(3) at WD and TH, respectively. The chemical compositions of PM2.5 at WD were similar to those at TH and the fractions of the major components of PM2.5 in Wuhan were in the following order of trace elementssandstorm from north carrying abundant soil dusts in spring in China. Ten trace elements (Cu, Ga, Ag, Tl, Ca, As, Zn, Pb, Se and Cd) were enriched in PM2.5 and the higher EF for Ag, Pb, Se and Cd in PM2.5 indicated that the air pollution from vehicle exhaust emission and coal burning in Wuhan was serious and noteworthy. PMID:25747369

  18. Mesozoic metamorphism and its tectonic implication along the Solonker suture zone in central Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Wei, Chunjing; Chu, Hang; Chen, Yaping

    2016-09-01

    The Xing'an-Inner Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XIMOB) exposed in the eastern section of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is generally thought to have resulted from closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. However, disputations still exist on the age and detailed tectonic processes involved in its final amalgamation. The Solonker suture zone in the central Inner Mongolia, once recognized as the major paleo-plate boundary recording the terminal collision of the XIMOB, is characterized by extensive regional low-temperature metamorphism of greenschist to epidote-amphibolite facies with local presence of blueschists, which lacks systematic study. Four metabasite and garnet-mica schist samples were studied for determination of metamorphic P-T evolution using pseudosection and conventional thermobarometry. The two metabasite samples from Wulangou and Daqing Pasture contain actinolite, albite, epidote, chlorite and hornblende (in Daqing Pasture) and are estimated to have peak P-T conditions of 5.2-5.9 kbar/415-450 °C in Wulangou and 7.0-7.9 kbar/470-475 °C in Daqing Pasture. Two garnet-mica schist samples from Shuangjing (or Shuangjing schist) contain garnet porphyroblasts, muscovite, quartz, plagioclase, chlorite with or without potassium feldspar, biotite, and calcite, and are modeled to record prograde P-T vectors respectively of 3.0 kbar/482 °C-3.3 kbar/495 °C and 4.2 kbar/478 °C-4.8 kbar/483 °C, followed by near-isothermal decompression. The zircon U-Pb dating analyses suggest that the metamorphism probably occurred soon afterwards in the Early Mesozoic. The peak P-T conditions for the metabasite and garnet-mica schist samples yield thermal gradients respectively of 18-22 °C/km and 26-33 °C/km, being intermediate and low P/T series, and the metamorphic evolution in these rocks characteristic of clockwise P-T paths may correspond to tectonic thickening and thinning processes. The extensive low-temperature metamorphism of intermediate to low P/T types along the

  19. An elaborate high resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants for the Central Plain Urban Agglomeration of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peipei; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Kaiyun; Gao, Jiajia; Zhou, Junrui

    2014-04-01

    A high resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants was developed based on the detailed collected activity data and the latest source-specific emission factors for the year 2010 in the Central Plain Urban Agglomeration (CPUA) region of China. The total emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, CO, VOCs, and NH3 were estimated to be about 863.7 kt, 1058.2 kt, 1180.4 kt, 753.2 kt, 2854.3 kt, 466.1 kt, and 496.0 kt, respectively. Therein, power plants were demonstrated to be the largest sources for NOx, contributing about 36.1% of total emissions; industrial processes and biomass burning sources were proved to be the two major contributors of PM10, PM2.5 and VOCs emissions, together accounting for about 71.1%, 79.2% and 56.9% of the total emissions respectively. Besides, 18.4% of VOCs emissions can be explained by VOCs product-related sources. Other stationary combustion sources accounted for 57.7% of SO2 and 30.3% of CO emissions, respectively. Livestock and N-fertilizer application sources contributed about 81.0% of NH3 emissions together. Further, the emissions were spatially distributed into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km, by using spatial allocation surrogates such as high resolution gridded population density and regional GDP. This inventory will benefit for policymakers and researchers to better understand the current situation of complex air pollution in the CPUA region of China and supply important necessary input for regional air quality modeling and policymaking.

  20. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  1. February-May temperature reconstruction based on tree-ring widths of Abies fargesii from the Shennongjia area in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonghong; Shao, Xuemei; Lu, Fei; Li, Yan

    2016-08-01

    February-May temperature strongly affects ecological processes and socio-economics in central China, yet its long-term variability has not been thoroughly assessed due to the shortness of instrumental records. In order to improve the understanding of the regularities of temperature variability in central China, in this study, we present a new tree-ring chronology from the Shengnongjia Mountains in central China which provides a valuable 245-year record of temperature variability. The reconstructed temperature correlated strongly with February-May mean temperature records of the Fangxian meteorological station from AD 1958 to AD 2011, and the derived reconstruction explained 44.5 % of the instrumental temperature variation during this period. The study shows that this region experienced three warm periods and two cool periods, i.e., the major warm periods occurred in AD 1783-1806, AD 1879-1909, and AD 1975 to the present, whereas the cool intervals occurred in AD 1807-1878 and AD 1910-1974. This reconstruction could aid in the evaluation of regional climate variability in subtropical China.

  2. On Willingness of Rural Land Circulation and Securitization in Central Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin; LU; Yuwei; SU

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey in 54 natural villages of 22 cities( counties) in 6 central region provinces,this paper analyzed the willingness of rural land circulation and securitization and influencing factors with the aid of Logistic model and Multinomial Logit model.The study indicates that factors influencing willingness of rural land circulation and securitization mainly include land contract method,land circulation information and approaches,rights and interests of farmers infringed or not,policies of benefiting farmers,and non-agricultural skills. Finally,it came up with following pertinent policy recommendations:( 1) reforming and improving land contract methods;( 2)strengthening disclosure of land circulation information;( 3) reforming and improving land circulation approaches;( 4) strengthening protection of farmers’ rights and interests in the process of land circulation;( 5) reinforcing and implementing policies benefiting farmers;( 6) cultivating and developing farmers’ non-agricultural skills.

  3. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  4. Sulfur isotopic composition and source identification of atmospheric environment in central Zhejiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere are significant factors leading to acidification of the atmospheric environment and worsening the pollution of acid deposition. Because of the "fingerprint" characteristics of the stable sulfur isotopic composition, sulfur isotope has been widely adopted in environmental researches concerning sulfur cycle and source identification. In this study, the atmospheric environment of Jinhua City, central Zhejiang Province, was continuously monitored, and the sulfur isotopic composition of SO2 and sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere was analyzed. The results indicate that the variation of δ34S values for SO2 ranges from 1.0‰ to 7.5‰, and annual average is 4.7‰±2.3‰, whereas that of sulfate aerosols ranges from 6.4‰ to 9.8‰,and annual average is 8.1‰±1.0‰. The δ 34S values for SO2 have significant seasonal variations, which are 7.0‰ in winter and 3.3‰ in summer. These variations cannot be attributed to a single factor, and we suggest a temperature-dependent isotope equilibrium fractionation and elevated biogenic sulfur emissions of isotopically light S in summer may be the main controlling mechanisms. Furthermore, we also discuss the δ 34S model of atmospheric SO2 oxidation to form sulfate, and suggest that heterogeneous oxidation dominates in the oxidation reactions of atmospheric SO2 in the central Zhejiang Province. We further suggest that the relative humidity in the atmosphere plays an important role in the oxidation mechanism of atmospheric SO2.

  5. Characterization, identification of road dust PAHs in central Shanghai areas, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Cheng, S.B.; Ou, D.N.; Hou, L.J.; Gao, L.; Wang, L.L.; Xie, Y.S.; Yang, Y.; Xu, S.Y. [East China Normal University, Shanghai (China)

    2007-12-15

    Road dust samples were collected from central Shanghai in winter (January) and summer (August), respectively. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority-controlled list were determined by GC/MS. Total PAH (t-PAH) concentrations in winter samples ranged from 9176 to 32,573 ng g{sup -1} with a mean value of 20,648 ng g{sup -1}, while they varied from 6875 to 27,766 ng g{sup -1} in summer with an average of 14,098 ng g{sup -1}. Spatial variation showed that city park (CP) samples had the lowest t-PAH concentration, while industrial area (113) and traffic area (TR) and commercial area (CO) were the most polluted, in both seasons. PAH homologues concentrations were getting higher with the more rings and higher molecular weight (HMW) in all areas. The study of effective factors showed that grain size was only a minor factor influencing the accumulation of PAHs, whereas total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be closely correlated with t-PAH concentration. Prevailing winds could directly affect on the spatial distribution of PAHs. Chemical source apportionment studies took the form of principal component analysis (PCA), followed by compositional analysis. It was demonstrated that road dust PAHs in central Shanghai mainly came from the mixing of traffic and coal combustion. The contribution percentages of pyrogenic and petrogenic sources were respectively 71.0% and 11.4% in winter, while they were, 64.9% and 14.1% in summer, respectively. Road dust PAHs in Shanghai city mostly came from local sources.

  6. Characterization, identification of road dust PAHs in central Shanghai areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Cheng, S. B.; Ou, D. N.; Hou, L. J.; Gao, L.; Wang, L. L.; Xie, Y. S.; Yang, Y.; Xu, S. Y.

    Road dust samples were collected from central Shanghai in winter (January) and summer (August), respectively. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority-controlled list were determined by GC/MS. Total PAH (t-PAH) concentrations in winter samples ranged from 9176 to 32,573 ng g -1 with a mean value of 20,648 ng g -1, while they varied from 6875 to 27,766 ng g -1 in summer with an average of 14,098 ng g -1. Spatial variation showed that city park (CP) samples had the lowest t-PAH concentration, while industrial area (ID) and traffic area (TR) and commercial area (CO) were the most polluted, in both seasons. PAH homologues concentrations were getting higher with the more rings and higher molecular weight (HMW) in all areas. The study of effective factors showed that grain size was only a minor factor influencing the accumulation of PAHs, whereas total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be closely correlated with t-PAH concentration. Prevailing winds could directly affect on the spatial distribution of PAHs. Chemical source apportionment studies took the form of principal component analysis (PCA), followed by compositional analysis. It was demonstrated that road dust PAHs in central Shanghai mainly came from the mixing of traffic and coal combustion. The contribution percentages of pyrogenic and petrogenic sources were respectively 71.0% and 11.4% in winter, while they were, 64.9% and 14.1% in summer, respectively. Road dust PAHs in Shanghai city mostly came from local sources.

  7. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  8. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  9. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting; Fu; Yin-Wei; Song; Zhi-Qi; Chen; Jun-Wen; He; Kun; Qiao; Xu-Fang; Sun; Hong; Zhang; Jun-Ming; Wang

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China.·METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length(AL), anterior chamber depth(ACD), radius of corneal curvature(K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white(WTW)distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens(IOL)-Master].·RESULTS: Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0 ±8.7y were analyzed at last.The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius(MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75 ±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77 ±0.87,22.76 ±1.06, 22.89 ±1.41, 22.92 ±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10 ±0.32,2.98 ±0.34, 2.86 ±0.36, 2.77 ±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58 ±0.25,7.54 ±0.26, 7.55 ±0.26, 7.49 ±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79 ±0.38,11.75 ±0.40, 11.72 ±0.41, 11.67 ±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD,MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight.·CONCLUSION: Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care.

  10. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Gao, J.; Wang, T.; Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l.), located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo), a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research), an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory) and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific). High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88) were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5) concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5) derived from the ECOC analyzer). While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C) tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were recorded when the NOx/NOy ratio was low, implying

  11. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations made using the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. While this range is significant, it is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from Central East China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP and the PSAP equipped with a heated inlet 400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two explanations. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC were

  12. Environmental Assessments of Trace Metals in Sediments from Dongting Lake, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To examine the degree of contamination in the Dongting Lake (洞庭湖) area, surface sediments samples were collected and investigated in this study.This lake lies in the south of the middle Yangtze River, and it is the second largest fresh-water lake in China.These samples were analyzed for the concentrations of the following 6 elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) collected from 46 locations.The index of geo-accumulation was used to assess the degree of contamination of the total trace elements and the assessments showed that the contamination of Cd reached strong to very strong pollution.The speciation of metal in sediments was analyzed using the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction technology and the water column-contamination risk was evaluated by the calculated contamination factors.The results of the speciation of metal indicated that more easily mobilized forms(exchangeable, water soluble, and acid soluble) were predominant for Cd, especially in the samples from East Dongting Lake.In contrast, the largest amount of lead was associated with the iron and manganese oxide fractions, and Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni analyzed were mainly distributed in residual phase at an average percentage higher than 60 % of the total metals.The potential risk to the lake's water contamination was the highest in East Dongting Lake based on the calculated contamination factors.The assessment results using geo-accumulation index were compared with the information obtained by trace metal speciation and both results were consistent.

  13. Anomalous enrichment of molybdenum and associated metals in Lower Jurassic (Lias Group) black shales of central England, as revealed by systematic geochemical surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Breward, N.; Kemp, S.J.; Ambrose, K.; Powell, J. H.; Morigi, A.; Wagner, D.

    2015-01-01

    Systematic multi-media geochemical surveying by the British Geological Survey's Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project has revealed significant anomalous patterns of enrichment for a suite of elements – copper (Cu) and uranium (U) – with exceptionally high levels of molybdenum (Mo), in soils and stream sediments in central England. Enrichment of these elements is most often associated with organic-rich, sulphidic ‘black shale’ lithofacies, typical of oxygen-deficient,...

  14. The Bilateral and Multilateral Relationship between Central Asia and Japan, and the Enlightenment on China%中亚-日本双边、多边关系及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉素甫·阿布来提

    2014-01-01

    Since the Middle Asian countries established diplomatic relations with Japan, the bilateral partnership began to develop steadily with the increasing ofifcial contacts. In 1997 the“Silk Road”Diplomacy concept revealed Japan’s policy toward Central Asia. In the beginning of 21st century, new partners were mainly welcomed in the region. During the two decades the partnership between Central Asian nations and Japan began to increase steadily, including cooperation in education, economic development of the region, political reforms, as well as energy resources. Japan's effort in creating the“Central Asia plus Japan”dialogue is part of its multilateral diplomacy. Building the conception of“Silk Road Economic Belt”demonstrates the importance the Chinese leaders attach on Central Asia policy, relfecting China’s strategy in Central Asia. Japan’s Central Asian policy may cause some negative inlfuence to China. Therefore, the policy should be positively handled, but not be regarded as a policy to restrain China. There might be some enlightenment to China.%中亚各国与日本建立外交关系以来,随着官方交往水平的提高,其伙伴关系稳步发展。1997年,“新丝路外交”这一概念总结了日本的中亚政策。21世纪伊始,新的地区伙伴开始受到中亚的欢迎。20多年间,日本与中亚的合作突出了几个特别的领域,即教育、区域经济发展、政治改革以及能源资源,其多边外交关系提升到了建立“中亚+日本”的对话机制。构建“丝绸之路经济带”的构想,反映了中国领导人对中亚政策的重要体现,反映了中国的中亚战略。日本的中亚政策,会在一定程度上给中国与中亚国家合作关系的发展造成一些影响,但是不能看作遏制中国与中亚国家合作关系的政策,应从中获得一定的启示。

  15. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  16. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  17. Apatite-fission-track geochronology and its tectonic correlation in the Dabieshan orogen, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Changhai; ZHOU; Zuyi; P.; Van; Den; Haute; R.; A.; Donel

    2005-01-01

    AFT ages particularly in coincidence with the time of opening and closing of the South China Sea.

  18. Elementary Flux Mode Analysis Revealed Cyclization Pathway as a Powerful Way for NADPH Regeneration of Central Carbon Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Rui

    Full Text Available NADPH regeneration capacity is attracting growing research attention due to its important role in resisting oxidative stress. Besides, NADPH availability has been regarded as a limiting factor in production of industrially valuable compounds. The central carbon metabolism carries the carbon skeleton flux supporting the operation of NADPH-regenerating enzyme and offers flexibility in coping with NADPH demand for varied intracellular environment. To acquire an insightful understanding of its NADPH regeneration capacity, the elementary mode method was employed to compute all elementary flux modes (EFMs of a network representative of central carbon metabolism. Based on the metabolic flux distributions of these modes, a cluster analysis of EFMs with high NADPH regeneration rate was conducted using the self-organizing map clustering algorithm. The clustering results were used to study the relationship between the flux of total NADPH regeneration and the flux in each NADPH producing enzyme. The results identified several reaction combinations supporting high NADPH regeneration, which are proven to be feasible in cells via thermodynamic analysis and coincident with a great deal of previous experimental report. Meanwhile, the reaction combinations showed some common characteristics: there were one or two decarboxylation oxidation reactions in the combinations that produced NADPH and the combination constitution included certain gluconeogenesis pathways. These findings suggested cyclization pathways as a powerful way for NADPH regeneration capacity of bacterial central carbon metabolism.

  19. Origin of Silurian gabbros and I-type granites in central Fujian, SE China: Implications for the evolution of the early Paleozoic orogen of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Wang, Guo-Chang; Liu, Zheng; Ni, Chun-Yu; Qing, Long

    2015-02-01

    The early Paleozoic orogen of South China is possibly one of the few examples of intraplate orogeny in the world. It is characterized by an angular unconformity between post-Silurian cover and pre-Devonian strata and by the intensive and extensive early Paleozoic granitic plutonism. However, synchronous mafic-ultramafic rocks have not been well-studied, but they are crucial for understanding the nature and evolution of the orogen. In this paper, we present the first detailed LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating, major and trace element geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for a Silurian gabbroic pluton (Dakang) and a coeval granitic pluton (Guiyang), that have recently been identified in central Fujian, in the southeastern part of the orogen. We assess the origin of these mafic and granitic rocks and their relationship to the evolution of the early Paleozoic orogen in South China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Dakang and Guiyang plutons were emplaced at 441-438 Ma and 431 Ma, respectively. The Dakang pluton consists of gabbros and minor intermediate rocks (diorite, monzodiorite and monzonite). These rocks are all metaluminous and potassic, and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSE). They have initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7066-0.7098, εNd (T) of - 7.0 to - 3.3 and εHf (T) (in-situ zircon) of - 5.2 to - 4.4. Geochemical data suggest that the Dakang gabbroic magmas were derived by partial melting of previously subduction-modified lithospheric mantle in the spinel-garnet transition zone at a high temperature (~ 1300 °C). These primary magmas underwent fractionation crystallization of clinopyroxene and amphibole, forming the evolved gabbros and intermediate rocks. The Guiyang pluton consists of weakly peraluminous granites, which show low Ga/Al ratios (10,000*Ga/Al < 2.6) and so can be classed as I-type granites. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7095-0.7113, εNd (T) of - 6.7 to - 5.9 and εHf (T

  20. Subjective evaluation of indoor environmental quality of underground shopping malls in central district of Chongqing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊敏; 张科; 蒲清平; 张英

    2009-01-01

    Good indoor environmental quality enhances occupant health,comfort and productivity. In order to know the status of indoor environmental quality of underground shopping malls,five large underground shopping malls in five central districts of Chongqing,China,were surveyed. 2 411 questionnaires were distributed,and 98.5% of them were returned. From the results of questionnaire survey,the following conclusions were obtained:(1) in the five underground shopping malls surveyed,only shopping mall D in Nan’an district accords with the ASHRAE standard for good indoor air quality; (2) odors and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms are widespread in the underground shopping malls. The SBS occurrence rates for women and salespersons are higher than those of men and customers,respectively; (3) in the evaluation of the indoor environment,the indoor air quality dissatisfaction rate is the highest,followed by the thermal environment; and (4) women and salespersons generally have higher rates of dissatisfaction with the indoor environmental quality of underground shopping malls than men and customers,respectively.

  1. Soil microbial community and its interaction with soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics following afforestation in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Cheng, Xiaoli; Hui, Dafeng; Zhang, Qian; Li, Ming; Zhang, Quanfa

    2016-01-15

    Afforestation may alter soil microbial community structure and function, and further affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Here we investigated soil microbial carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN) and microbial community [e.g. bacteria (B), fungi (F)] derived from phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis in afforested (implementing woodland and shrubland plantations) and adjacent croplands in central China. Relationships of microbial properties with biotic factors [litter, fine root, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and inorganic N], abiotic factors (soil temperature, moisture and pH), and major biological processes [basal microbial respiration, microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2), net N mineralization and nitrification] were developed. Afforested soils had higher mean MBC, MBN and MBN:TN ratios than the croplands due to an increase in litter input, but had lower MBC:SOC ratio resulting from low-quality (higher C:N ratio) litter. Afforested soils also had higher F:B ratio, which was probably attributed to higher C:N ratios in litter and soil, and shifts of soil inorganic N forms, water, pH and disturbance. Alterations in soil microbial biomass and community structure following afforestation were associated with declines in basal microbial respiration, qCO2, net N mineralization and nitrification, which likely maintained higher soil carbon and nitrogen storage and stability.

  2. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  3. Rare—Earth Element Geochemistry of Elogites from the Ultra—High Pressure Metamorphic Belt in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智龙; 刘丛强; 等

    2000-01-01

    Based on their REE contents and REE patterns,eclogites from the ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt in central China may be roughly divided into xis types including LREE-rich.LREE-rich+positive Eu anomaly,LREE-rich+negative Eu anomaly,REE pattern-smooth,MREE-rich and HREE-rich.The LREE_rich,LREE-rich+positive Eu anomaly and LREE-rich+negative Eu anomaly types of eclogites are dominant .REE types of eclogites in different areas can be compared and the REE feactures of the same REE type of eclogites in different areas are similar.The results of reconstruction of the primary rocks show that the primary rocks of eclogites possibly are dominated by continental tholeiites which are the product of partial melting of relatively fertile mantle and the rocks of tholeiite crystallization-differentiation.There is perfect evolution relationship among the primary rocks of the LREE-rich, LREE-rich+positive Eu anomaly and LREE-rich+negative Eu anomaly types of eclogites and among those of the REE pattern smooth and MREE-rich types of eclogites,the former three types were deried from continental settings and the latter two from nearly oceanic settings.Meanwhile,it is concluded that the mantle sources of primary rocks of the eclogites are inhomogeneous and the primary rocks of eclogites in this area appear to have undergone varying degree of crustal contamination.

  4. Formation mechanism of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Carbonate cemented zones are normally adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the central Junggar Basin,NW China.Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and petrological investigations of carbonate cements in the carbonate cemented zones indicate that:(1) carbonate cements are composed dominantly of ferrocalcite,ferroan dolomite,and ankerite;(2) carbonate cements are formed under a high temperature circumstance in the subsurface,and organic fluid migration has an important effect on the formation of them;and(3) carbon and oxygen ions in the carbonate cements migrate from the underlying overpressured system.This suggests that the occurrence of carbonate cemented zones in this region results from multiple phases of organic fluid expulsion out of the overpressure compartment through geological time.This study provides a plausible mechanism of the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to the top overpressured surface in the clastic sedimentary basins,and has an important implication for understanding the internal correlation between the formation of carbonate cemented zones adjacent to top overpressured surface and geofluids expulsion out of overpressured system.

  5. Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: Seismic hazard and risk assessment for Himalayas, Lake Baikal, and Central China regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Parvez, Imtiyaz; Tao, Xiaxin

    2015-04-01

    The Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), that generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation, has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory that is used for investigation, averaging, and extrapolation into the future. Therefore, the hazard may differ dramatically when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. territory occupied by a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. In fact, given the observed patterns of distributed seismic activity the results of multi-scale analysis embedded in USLE approach demonstrate that traditional estimations of seismic hazard and risks for cities and urban agglomerations are usually underestimated. Moreover, the USLE approach provides a significant improvement when compared to the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, e.g. the maps resulted from the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). We apply the USLE approach to evaluating seismic hazard and risks to population of the three territories of different size representing a sub-continental and two different regional scales of analysis, i.e. the Himalayas and surroundings, Lake Baikal, and Central China regions.

  6. Vegetation and Climate Variations at Taibai, Qinling Mountains in Central China for the Last 3 500 cal BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qiang LI; John DODSON; Jie ZHOU; Su-Min WANG; Qian-Li SUN

    2005-01-01

    Pollen records of two swamp sections, located at Taibai Mountain, the highest peak in the Qinling Mountains of central China, show variations of vegetation and climate for the last 3 500 cal BP. The pollen assemblage at the Foyechi and Sanqingchi sections and the surface soil pollen allowed us to reconstruct a high-altitude vegetation history at Taibai Mountain for the first time. The data indicated that there was a cold-dry climate interval between 3 500 and 3 080 cal BP and a relatively warm and wet period compared with the present from 3 080 to 1 860 cal BP. The warmest period in the late Holocene on Taibai Mountain was from 1 430 to 730 cal BP, with an approximate 2℃ increase in mean annual temperature compared with today.There was a relatively cool-dry climate interval from 730 to 310 cal BP. After 310 cal BP, a mountain tundra vegetation developed again and the position of the modern tree line was established.

  7. Efficient GIS-based model-driven method for flood risk management and its application in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zhou, J.; Song, L.; Zou, Q.; Guo, J.; Wang, Y.

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, an important development in flood management has been the focal shift from flood protection towards flood risk management. This change greatly promoted the progress of flood control research in a multidisciplinary way. Moreover, given the growing complexity and uncertainty in many decision situations of flood risk management, traditional methods, e.g., tight-coupling integration of one or more quantitative models, are not enough to provide decision support for managers. Within this context, this paper presents a beneficial methodological framework to enhance the effectiveness of decision support systems, through the dynamic adaptation of support regarding the needs of the decision-maker. In addition, we illustrate a loose-coupling technical prototype for integrating heterogeneous elements, such as multi-source data, multidisciplinary models, GIS tools and existing systems. The main innovation is the application of model-driven concepts, which put the system in a state of continuous iterative optimization. We define the new system as a model-driven decision support system (MDSS ). Two characteristics that differentiate the MDSS are as follows: (1) it is made accessible to non-technical specialists; and (2) it has a higher level of adaptability and compatibility. Furthermore, the MDSS was employed to manage the flood risk in the Jingjiang flood diversion area, located in central China near the Yangtze River. Compared with traditional solutions, we believe that this model-driven method is efficient, adaptable and flexible, and thus has bright prospects of application for comprehensive flood risk management.

  8. Variability of Aquatic Chemistry in Central Guizhou Karst Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占国; 万国江

    1998-01-01

    It is necessary to understand the aquatic chemical characterstics of natural surface fresh water for water quality assessment.The chemical data from different kinds of water in the central Guizhou karst area showd that spring water from carbonate rock cracks(crack-water)is of neutrality or meta-alkalinity and [C] Ca II type.The amounts of all ions and the concentrations of HCO3- and Ca2+ were higher in the autumn than in the spring,The crack-water was influenced by the infiltration of surface water in the process of erosion and /or trans-portation with decreasing HCO3 and increasing pH,SO42-,Cl-,K+ and Na+ during running in a certain distance on the land surface .In particular,the chemical compositions of the waters at Tianxingqiao(upper-stream),Shuiliandong(mid-waterfall)and Luoshuitan(down-pool)near the Huangguoshu Waterfall were much different from those of the crack-water.The concentration of SO42-,Na+,Fe3+ and NO3- varied closely with seasons.The CaCO3 deposited violently with CO2 release in the spring ,In Lake Hongfeng the HCO3-/SO42- equivalent ratios were only 2.1-2.4 ,but Ca2+/Mg2+ up to 2.4-4.2.The Cl- concentration increased by a factor of 1 and Na+ by order of magnitude relative to the spring water.These indicated the increase in artificial pollutant discharge in the Lake Hongfeng watershed.In addition,Proewater in the soils covering carbonate rocks belongs to strongly mineralized water,The obvious differences in water quality were controlled by carbonate deposition,sulphate mineralization and nitrogen fixation as well as ammonification.It is indicated thaty the chemical compositions in the waters from the karst region were unstable and changeable.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene sequences of waterfowl parvoviruses from the Mainland of China revealed genetic diversity and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Chen, Shi-Long; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Huang, Mei-Qing; Zheng, Min

    2016-03-01

    To determine the origin and evolution of goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in the Mainland of China, phylogenetic and recombination analyses in the present study were performed on 32 complete VP1 gene sequences from China and other countries. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, GPV strains studied here from Mainland China (PRC) could be divided into three genotypes, namely PRC-I, PRC-II and PRC-III. Genotype PRC-I is indigenous to Mainland China. Only one GPV strain from Northeast China was of Genotype PRC-II and was thought to be imported from Europe. Genotype PRC-III, which was the most isolated genotype during 1999-2012, is related to GPVs in Taiwan and has been the predominant pathogen responsible for recent Derzy's disease outbreaks in Mainland China. Current vaccine strains used in Mainland China belong to Genotype PRC-I that is evolutionary distant from Genotypes PRC-II and PRC-III. In comparison, MDPV strains herein from Mainland China are clustered in a single group which is closely related to Taiwanese MDPV strains, and the full-length sequences of the VP1 gene of China MDPVs are phylogenetic closely related to the VP1 sequence of a Hungarian MDPV strain. Moreover, We also found that homologous recombination within VP1 gene plays a role in generating genetic diversity in GPV evolution. The GPV GDFSh from Guangdong Province appears to be the evolutionary product of a recombination event between parental GPV strains GD and B, while the major parent B proved to be a reference strain for virulent European GPVs. Our findings provide valuable information on waterfowl parvoviral evolution in Mainland China.

  10. The relationship between the age and depth of the oceanic crust in the central South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Jui; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Chiao, Ling-Yun

    2016-04-01

    South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal basin in the western Pacific. The onset of seafloor spreading in the central part of the SCS was suggested at 32 Ma. After a ridge jump around 25 Ma, the southwestern sub-basin started to open. The spreading of the entire basin ended at ~16 Ma, then a phase of post-magmatic seamount formation occurred (eg., Taylor and Hayes, 1983; Briais et al.,1993; Barckhausen et al., 2014). In this study, we want to find the relationship between the age and depth of the oceanic crust in the central SCS. We will also study a fracture zone trending NW-SE near to Manila trench and to understand how did the fracture zone affect the development of the SCS. We have analyzed five reflection seismic profiles collected by R/V Ocean Researcher 1 during the cruise ORI-1115. We have correlated the age of seismic strata in the central SCS by comparing to the seismic phase of profile MCS1115-7 that has crossed the IODP drilling site U1431. To understand the characteristics of the fracture zone, we have also applied the analytic signal and Euler deconvolution methods to the gravity and magnetic anomalies related to the fracture zone. We suggest that the fraction zone was formed in order to accommodate the spreading in the east sub-basin. However, this fracture zone is somewhat curved concave southwestward. According to the collision-extrusion model of Tapponnier et al. (1982), the formation of Indochina is followed with the constitution of Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. We suppose that the formation of the fracture zone in this study is similar to the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. The fan-shaped crustal fabric is distinct in the younger portions of the oceanic basin. Both Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone and the fracture zone in northeastern SCS may share the same rotation pole. Furthermore, we have tried to find a relationship between oceanic crust depth and age in this area. The preliminary result shows that the relationship between depth and

  11. EMCCD photometry reveals two new variable stars in the crowded central region of the globular cluster NGC 6981

    CERN Document Server

    Skottfelt, Jesper; Jaimes, R Figuera; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Harpsoe, K B W; Liebig, C; Penny, M T; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Novati, S Calchi; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Dominik, M; Elyiv, A; Giannini, E; Hessman, F; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Martin, R; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Southworth, G Scarpetta J; Snodgrass, C; Street, R A; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Vilela, C; Williams, A

    2013-01-01

    Two previously unknown variable stars in the crowded central region of the globular cluster NGC 6981 are presented. The observations were made using the Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera at the Danish 1.54m Telescope at La Silla, Chile.The two variables were not previously detected by conventional CCD imaging because of their proximity to a bright star. This discovery demonstrates that EMCCDs are a powerful tool for performing high-precision time-series photometry in crowded fields and near bright stars, especially when combined with difference image analysis (DIA).

  12. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong

    2006-12-15

    High mountains may serve as condenser for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the vegetation in remote areas has been used as a means to characterized atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Himalayan spruce needle samples from Zhangmu-Nyalam region (central-Himalayas) were analyzed and the altitudinal gradient of these pollutants was investigated. Total HCHs and DDTs concentration in needles were in the range of 1.3-2.9 ng g(-1) dry weight and 1.7-11 ng g(-1) dry weight, which were lower than concentrations reported in spruce needles from Alps, however higher than concentrations in conifer needles from mountain areas of Alberta. Total Himalayan spruce needle PAHs was below 600 ng g(-1) and fluorene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene were abundant individual compounds measured. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH in pine needles were similar with the usual values for technical HCH, implying technical HCHs might be used in this region. The high ratios of o-p'-DDT/p-p'-DDT and no p-p'-DDE measured in this study led to the suspicion that a new source of o-p'-DDT and/or p-p'-DDT existed in this region. In addition, higher ratios of low molecular weight-/high molecular weight-PAHs in this region indicated that petroleum combustion, vehicle emission and low-temperature combustion might be the major contributions of PAH source. To examine the POPs distillation, the analyte concentrations were correlated with altitude. The more volatile OCPs, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, aldrin and alpha-endosulfan positively correlated with altitude, however, less volatile OCPs (DDT and DDD) inversely related with elevation. Almost all PAHs detected in this area showed positive correlations with altitude. It is worthy to note that heavy PAHs (Benzo[k] fluoranthene and Benzo[a]anthracene) displayed positive correlation, which implied the sources of PAHs were near the sampling sites. The

  13. Revealing the significance and polyphase tectonothermal evolution of a major metamorphic unit in an orogen: the central Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, Zagros Mts., Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerardakani, Farzaneh; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Liu, Xiaoming; Dong, Yunpeng; Monfaredi, Behzad; Benroider, Manfred; Finger, Fritz; Waitzinger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Dorud-Azna region in the central Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt plays a key role in promoting the tectonic evolution of Zagros orogen, within the frame of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. From footwall to hangingwall, structural data combined with the U-Pb zircon and extensive 40Ar-39Ar mineral dating survey demonstrate three metamorphosed tectonic units, which include: (1) The Triassic June complex is metamorphosed within greenschist facies conditions, overlain by (2) the amphibolite-grade metamorphic Galeh-Doz orthogneiss, which is intruded by mafic dykes, and (3) the Amphibolite-Metagabbro unit. To the east, these units were intruded by the Jurassic Darijune gabbro. We present U-Pb detrital zircon ages of a garnet-micaschist from the Amphibolite-Metagabbro unit, which yield six distinctive age groups, including a previously unrecognized Late Grenvillian age population at ~0.93 to 0.99 Ga. We speculate that this unique Late Grenvillian group coupled with biogeographic evidence suggests either relationship with the South China craton or to the "Gondwana superfan". The laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages of 608 ± 18 Ma and 588 ± 41 Ma of the granitic Galeh-Doz orthogneiss reveals a Panafrican basement same as known from the Yazd block of Central Iran. Geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes of alkaline and subalkaline mafic dykes within the Galeh-Doz orthogneiss show OIB-type to MORB-type and indicate involvement of both depleted and enriched sources for its genesis. The new 40Ar-39Ar amphibole age of ca. 322.2 ± 3.9 Ma from the alkaline mafic dyke implies Carboniferous cooling age after intrusion. The metagabbros (including the Dare-Hedavand metagabbro with a 206Pb/238U age of 314.6 ± 3.7 Ma) and amphibolites with E-MORB geochemical signature of the Amphibolite-Metagabbro unit represent an Upper Paleozoic rift. The geochemical composition of the Triassic greenschist facies metamorphosed June complex, implying formation in a same, but younger tectonic

  14. Detection of borna disease virus p24 RNA from human brain tissue in patients with central nervous system tumors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao; XIE Peng; XU Ping; PENG Dan; ZHU Dan; ZENG Zhi-lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective:It intended to examine whether there is BDV infection in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China and investigate the correlation between BDV infection and tumom of central nervous system.Methods:Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(nRT-PCR)and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR)was used to detect the BDV p24 fragments in 60 samples of human tumor tissues of central nervous system and 14 normal brain tissues.Results:The study indicated the positive rate of the BDV p24 fragment in human tumor tissues of the central nervous system (6.67%)was higher than that in normal brain tissues(0),but no statistical significance(P>0.05).Concluswn:It suggests that the BDV infection is present in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China.while the sample size wa.sn't large enough and we could not certify the possible correlation between BDV infection and cenfral nervous system tumors.

  15. 中国-中亚电力丝绸之路的探索%The Exploration of China-Central Asia Electric Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段秀芳; 张新

    2015-01-01

    The complementarity of China-Central Asia electric supply and demand provides favorable market conditions for Chi-na-Central Asia electric cooperation, which is one of important contents of establishing China-Central Asia electric silk road. From the analysis of current conditions of China-Central Asia electric development and concrete practical analysis of Chinese companies’ electric cooperation with Central Asia countries, this paper explores the problems of electric technique, talent and the lacking of funding of Central Asia countries, which restricts their economy development.And this paper puts forward this vision of China-Central Asia electric networking and suggests the government making policies, investing money, cultivating talents and establishing platform to support the electric development in Central Asia countries.%中国与中亚国家电力供求的互补性为中国与中亚国家开展电力合作提供了优越的市场条件,也使建设中国与中亚国家电力丝绸之路成为共建丝绸之路经济带的重要内容。本文分析了中国和中亚各国电力发展的现状以及以特变电工股份有限公司为代表的中国电力企业与中亚国家开展电力合作的实践,发现中亚国家电网建设中存在电力技术落后、人才短缺和资金匮乏等问题。为此,本文在对中国—中亚电力联网进行构想的基础上,从政策、资金、人才培养、合作平台建设等方面提出建设中国—中亚电力丝绸之路的建议。

  16. Central Nervous System Proteomics in Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis Revealed Down-Regulation of Mithochondrial Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Detection of central nervous system (CNS molecular defects in an animal modelof multiple sclerosis.Materials and Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was inducedby a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. Protein expression profiles in the central nervoussystem between healthy clinical scores 1 and 3 of EAE were studied using a two dimensionalelectrophoresis based proteomics approach coupled with MALDI TOF/TOF massspectrometry.Results: We identified 8 mitochondrial proteins that were differentially expressed in CNS, allof them down-regulated in scores 1 and/or 3. Of these, 5 proteins belong to the mitochondrialrespiratory chain including: NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone Fe-S protein 8, cytochromec oxidase Va, cytochrome c oxidase Vb, ATP5B, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone flavoprotein2. We also observed down-regulation of three other mitochondrial proteins including:glutaredoxin 5, estradiol 17 beta-dehydrogenase 8 and isocitrate dehydrogenase.Conclusion: Down-regulation of mitochondrial proteins supported the hypothesis thathypoxia-like tissue injury in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions may be due to mitochondrialimpairment.

  17. Characterization of homeobox genes reveals sophisticated regionalization of the central nervous system in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

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    Laura Focareta

    Full Text Available Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28 embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx. All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain.

  18. Unexperienced mechanical effects of muscular fatigue can be predicted by the Central Nervous System as revealed by anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Muscular fatigue effects have been shown to be compensated by the implementation of adaptive compensatory neuromuscular strategies, resulting in modifications of the initial motion coordination. However, no studies have focused on the efficiency of the feedforward motor commands when muscular fatigue occurs for the first time during a particular movement. This study included 18 healthy subjects who had to perform arm-raising movements in a standing posture at a maximal velocity before and after a fatiguing procedure involving focal muscles. The arm-raising task implies the generation of predictive processes of control, namely Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs), whose temporal and quantitative features have been shown to be dependent on the kinematics of the upcoming arm-raising movement. By altering significantly the kinematic profile of the focal movement with a fatiguing procedure, we sought to find out whether APAs scaled to the lower mechanical disturbance. APAs were measured using surface electromyography. Following the fatiguing procedure, acceleration peaks of the arm movement decreased by ~27%. APAs scaled to this lower fatigue-related disturbance during the very first trial post-fatigue, suggesting that the Central Nervous System can predict unexperienced mechanical effects of muscle fatigue. It is suggested that these results are accounted for by prediction processes in which the central integration of the groups III and IV afferents leads to an update of the internal model by remapping the relationship between focal motor command magnitude and the actual mechanical output.

  19. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in urban soils in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chutian; Yang, Yong; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Zhang, Ruoxi; Mei, Yang; Liao, Xiangsen; Liu, Yingying

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil samples from 467 sample sites were collected in urban area of Wuhan City in 2013, and total concentrations of five trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) were measured. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses showed that concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu are higher along Yangtze River in the northern area of Wuhan, gradually decrease from city center to suburbs, and are mainly controlled by anthropogenic activities, while those of Cr and Cd are relatively spatially homogenous and mainly controlled by soil parent materials. Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have generally higher concentrations in roadsides, industrial areas, and residential areas than in school areas, greenbelts, and agricultural areas. Areas with higher road and population densities and longer urban construction history usually have higher trace metal concentrations. According to estimated results of the potential ecological risk index and Nemero synthesis pollution index, almost the whole urban area of Wuhan is facing considerable potential ecological risk caused by soil trace metals. These results reveal obvious trends of trace metal pollution, and an important impact of anthropogenic activities on the accumulation of trace metals in soil in Wuhan. Vehicular emission, industrial activities, and household wastes may be the three main sources for trace metal accumulation. Increasing vegetation cover may reduce this threat. It should be pointed out that Cd, which is strongly accumulated in soil, could be the largest soil pollution factor in Wuhan. Effective measures should be taken as soon as possible to deal with Cd enrichment, and other trace metals in soil should also be reduced, so as to protect human health in this important large city.

  20. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  1. Mass concentrations of black carbon measured by four instruments in the middle of Central East China in June 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass concentrations of black carbon (BC were determined in June 2006 at the top of Mount Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m a.s.l., located in the middle of Central East China, using four different instruments: a multi-angle absorption photometer (5012 MAAP, Thermo, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP, Radiance Research, an ECOC semi-continuous analyzer (Sunset Laboratory and an Aethalometer (AE-21, Magee Scientific. High correlation coefficients (R2>0.88 were obtained between the measurements of the BC mass concentrations by the different instruments. From the range of the slopes of the linear least-square fittings, we concluded that the BC concentrations regionally-representative of the area were measured in a range with a maximum-to-minimum ratio of 1.5 (an exception was that the BC (PM2.5 concentrations derived from MAAP were ~2 times higher than the optical measurements (PM2.5 derived from the ECOC analyzer. This range is significant, but is still sufficiently narrow to better constrain the large and highly uncertain emission rate of BC from China. In detail, two optical instruments (the MAAP instrument and the PSAP instrument equipped with a heated inlet (400°C tended to give higher concentrations than the thermal EC concentrations observed by the ECOC analyzer. The ratios of optical BC to thermal EC showed a positive correlation with the OC/EC ratio reported by the ECOC analyzer, suggesting two possibilities. One is that the optical instruments overestimated BC concentrations in spite of careful cancellation of the scattering effect in the MAAP instrument and the expected evaporation of volatile species by heating the inlet of the PSAP instrument. The other is that the determined split points between OC and EC were too late when a large amount of OC underwent charring during the analysis, resulting in an underestimation of EC by the ECOC analyzer. High ratios of optical BC to thermal EC

  2. Persistent Aseismic Deformation in Central Japan Revealed by GPS Observation Before and After the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses Gutierrez, A. D. V.; Sagiya, T.

    2015-12-01

    On March 11th, 2011 the occurrence of the Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Mw 9.0) considerably changed the observed crustal deformation pattern in Central -Eastern Japan, providing the opportunity to study the mechanical properties in the area, since elastic and inelastic mediums would have different response to the coseismic instantaneous displacement as well as transient postseismic displacement. In the near field of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, it is difficult to extract a pure deformation response since direct effects from the postseismic deformation source are mixed. In order to focus on the response at the far field, we analyzed postseismic crustal deformation in Central Japan. Before the quake, we observe general East-West contraction with localize deformation in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, known as the Niigata Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ) (Sagiya, 2000), whereas the coseismic response, which corresponds to the instantaneous elastic strain release, do not indicate highly concentrated strain feature, as expected if the deformation could be explain only by an elastic behavior. This implies that the interseismic and coseismic strains are not balanced and there is significant amount of contribution of inelastic processes. In the Earth's crust, inelastic processes are expected to take a form of aseismic faulting, and should be distinguished from elastic behavior by its spatial wavelength. Also, the inelastic behavior can be persistent before and after the quake since the coseismic stress change in the far field is considered to be too small to change the regional stress that drives the inelastic process. Thus we review temporal variation of crustal deformation pattern in Central Japan based on daily coordinates of 837 GPS sites from GEONET, before and after the Tohoku-oki earthquake in order to distinguish elastic and inelastic behavior within the NKTZ. We found that the deformation in the area can be explained as a combination of two processes: an elastic

  3. The interdecadal trend and shift of dry/wet over the central part of North China and their relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZhuGuo

    2007-01-01

    Based on monthly precipitation and monthly mean surface air temperature (SAT), the dry/wet trends and shift of the central part of North China and their relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) from 1951 to 2005 have been analyzed through calculating surface wetness index (SWI). The results indicate that there was a prominent drying trend and an abrupt change in the analysis period. A persistent warming period with less precipitation from the mid and late 1970s to present was found, and a shift process exists from the wet to the dry in the central part of North China during 1951-2005. The transition is located in the mid to late 1970s, which should be related to the shift variation of large-scale climate background. The correlation analysis has brought about a finding of significant correlativity between PDO index (PDOI) and SAT, precipitation and SWI in this region. The correlation exhibits that the positive phase of PDOI (warm PDO phase) matches warming, less precipitation and the drought period, and the negative PDOI phase corresponds to low SAT, more precipitation and the wet period. The duration of various phases is more than 25 years. The decadal variation of sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Pacific Ocean is one of the possible causes in forming the decadal dry/wet trend and shift of the central part of North China.

  4. 中南地区的“新三反”运动%On the"New Movement against Three Evils"in South Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌玉梅

    2013-01-01

    At the beginning of 1953, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China started the"New Movement against Three Evils". Its content is fighting against bureaucracy, commandism, and violations of laws and disciplines. South Central China is an important area. In all, the movement was carried out in order. This paper summerizes South Central China's "New Movement against Three Evils"from the aspects of arrangements, progress and problems.%1953年初,中共中央发动了一场以反对官僚主义、命令主义和违法乱纪为主要内容的“新三反”运动,中南地区的“新三反”运动是其重要组成部分。总的来说,中南地区的“新三反”运动基本上是按照中央精神有序开展起来的。本文拟从运动的部署、开展情况及暴露出来的问题等方面,对中南地区“新三反”运动作一简要概述。

  5. A credibility-based chance-constrained optimization model for integrated agricultural and water resources management: A case study in South Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Du, Peng; Chen, Yizhong; He, Li

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a credibility-based chance-constrained optimization model for integrated agricultural irrigation and water resources management. The model not only deals with parameter uncertainty represented as fuzzy sets, but also provides a credibility level which indicates the confidence level of the generated optimal management strategies. The model is used on a real-world case study in South Central China. Results from the case study reveal that: (1) a reduction in credibility level would result in an increasing planting area of watermelon, but impaired the planting acreage of high-quality rice and silk; (2) groundwater allocation would be prioritized for reducing surface water utilization cost; (3) the actual phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reached their limit values in most of the zones over the planning horizon (i.e., phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reaching 969 tonnes and 3814 tonnes under λ = 1.00, respectively; phosphorus and nitrogen emissions reaching 972 tonnes and 3891 tonnes under λ = 0.70, respectively). When the credibility level reduces from 1.00 to 0.70, system benefit would rise by 32.60% and groundwater consumption would be reduced by 79.51%. However, the pollutant discharge would not increase as expected, which would be reduced by 40.14% on the contrary. If system benefit is not of major concern, an aggressive strategy is suggested by selecting a rather low credibility level (say, 0.70). This strategy is suggested for guaranteeing protection of local groundwater resources and mitigation of local environmental deterioration by sacrificing part of system benefit.

  6. Early last glacial maximum in the Southern Central Andes reveals northward shift of the westerlies at ~39 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zech

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal position of the southern westerlies has been suggested to be a key parameter for the climate on Earth. According to the general notion, the southern westerlies were shifted equatorward during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: ~24–18 ka, resulting in reduced deep ocean ventilation, accumulation of "old dissolved carbon", and low atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to test this notion, we applied surface exposure dating on moraines in the Southern Central Andes, where glacial mass balances are particularly sensitive to changes in precipitation, i.e. to the latitudinal position of the westerlies. Our results provide robust evidence that the maximum glaciation occurred already at ~39 ka, significantly predating the global LGM. This questions the role of the westerlies for atmospheric CO2, and it highlights our limited understanding of the forcings of atmospheric circulation.

  7. Early last glacial maximum in the southern Central Andes reveals northward shift of the westerlies at ~39 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zech

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal position of the southern westerlies has been suggested to be a key parameter for the climate on Earth. According to the general notion, the southern westerlies were shifted equatorward during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: ~24–18 ka, resulting in reduced deep ocean ventilation, accumulation of old dissolved carbon, and low atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to test this notion, we applied surface exposure dating on moraines in the southern Central Andes, where glacial mass balances are particularly sensitive to changes in precipitation, i.e. to the latitudinal position of the westerlies. Our results provide robust evidence that the maximum glaciation occurred already at ~39 ka, significantly predating the global LGM. This questions the role of the westerlies for atmospheric CO2, and it highlights our limited understanding of the forcings of atmospheric circulation.

  8. Neuropeptide Y knockout mice reveal a central role of NPY in the coordination of bone mass to body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Baldock

    Full Text Available Changes in whole body energy levels are closely linked to alterations in body weight and bone mass. Here, we show that hypothalamic signals contribute to the regulation of bone mass in a manner consistent with the central perception of energy status. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y (NPY, a well-known orexigenic factor whose hypothalamic expression is increased in fasting, have significantly increased bone mass in association with enhanced osteoblast activity and elevated expression of bone osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, wild type and NPY knockout (NPY (-/- mice in which NPY is specifically over expressed in the hypothalamus (AAV-NPY+ show a significant reduction in bone mass despite developing an obese phenotype. The AAV-NPY+ induced loss of bone mass is consistent with models known to mimic the central effects of fasting, which also show increased hypothalamic NPY levels. Thus these data indicate that, in addition to well characterized responses to body mass, skeletal tissue also responds to the perception of nutritional status by the hypothalamus independently of body weight. In addition, the reduction in bone mass by AAV NPY+ administration does not completely correct the high bone mass phenotype of NPY (-/- mice, indicating the possibility that peripheral NPY may also be an important regulator of bone mass. Indeed, we demonstrate the expression of NPY specifically in osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identifies NPY as a critical integrator of bone homeostatic signals; increasing bone mass during times of obesity when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are low and reducing bone formation to conserve energy under 'starving' conditions, when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are high.

  9. A statistical approach for determining the envi-ronment impact of surface sediments from the Dongting Lake area, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhigang; BAO Zhengyu; ZHOU Lifa; GAO Pu

    2009-01-01

    The Dongting Lake, the second biggest freshwater lake in China, consists of three wetlands of national importance, namely the East Dongting Lake, the South Dongting Lake, and the West Dongting Lake. Surface sedi-ments were sampled from 57 locations across the lake. Nutrient concentrations [total organic carbon (TOC), total N (TN) and total P (TP)] and 16 element concentrations (Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, K, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) in the sediments were measured to investigate the impact of industrialization along the lake's coastline and sev-eral tributaries on the profiles of nutrients and heavy metals in the lake's surface sediments. R-mode cluster analysis (CA) was used to integrate geochemical data. The result showed that euthophication of the Dongting Lake resulted mainly from TN and TOC. The main polluting trace metals are Hg, As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn, which are largely ad-sorbed on clay minerals or Fe/Mn oxides, or deposited as carbonates. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the source of micropollutants. The worst affected district by heavy metals is the East Dongting Lake, the pollution sources may originate mainly from the Xiangjiang drainage area. The results demonstrated that multivariate methods are the potentially great tools for the interpretation of the environmental data on lake sediments.

  10. Crustal Rheology and Rifted Margin Architecture: Comparing Iberia-Newfoundland, Central South Atlantic, and South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Crustal rheology controls the style of rifting and ultimately the architecture of rifted margins: Hot, weak, or thick continental crust is dominated by ductile deformation and extends symmetrically into a wide rift system. Extension in cold, strong, or thin crust is accommodated by brittle faults and ductile shear zones that facilitate narrow rifts with asymmetric fault geometries. This recipe provides the standard framework to understand 2D rift geometry, however, a variety of processes exert significant control on subsequent rift evolution and ultimately on the architecture of rifted margins: inherited structures, melting and volcanism, 3D effects, extension rate, and weakening mechanisms. Numerical forward modelling studies have the opportunity to evaluate the influence of these processes on rift evolution in order to understand the complex interaction between rheology and tectonic history of specific margins. Here I compare the formation of three different magma-poor margin pairs, Iberia-Newfoundland, the Central South Atlantic Rift Segment, and the South China Sea margins within a numerical forward modelling framework. I apply a 2D version of the finite element code SLIM3D, which includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology and is able to reproduces a wide range of rift-related deformation processes such as flexure, lower crustal flow, and faulting. The Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margins are marked by moderate crustal asymmetry, with ~70 km of hyper-extended crust (less than 10 km thick) on the Iberian side and a very narrow margin on the Newfoundland counterpart. Similar to the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugates, the Central South Atlantic margins are predominantly asymmetric, however involve a much stronger degree of asymmetry with more than 200 km of hyper-extended crust offshore Angola, but only few tens of km at the Brazilian side. Kinematic and numerical modelling suggests that the asymmetry is caused by lateral

  11. Climate and environmental changes during the past millennium in central western Guizhou, China as recorded by Stalagmite ZJD-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tz-Shing; Liu, Zi-Qi; Li, Hong-Chun; Wan, Nai-Jung; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ku, Teh-Lung

    2011-04-01

    Stalagmite ZJD-21 (12.3-cm long) was collected from Zhijin Cave in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China. Its 210Pb profile and seven 230Th/ 234U dates indicate that the stalagmite has grown continuously for the past 1100 years. The δ18O record of ZJD-21 indicates that δ18O in the stalagmite was mainly influenced by rainfall amount and/or summer/winter rain ratio, with lighter values corresponding to wetter climatic conditions and/or more summer monsoonal rains. The ZJD-21 δ18O record suggests: (1) dry/warm climates during AD 950-1100 (overlapping with most of the Medieval Warm Period, MWP, in Europe); (2) strengthening of the summer monsoon from the MWP toward the beginning of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at AD 1250; (3) relatively wet/cold conditions occurred between AD 1250 and 1500, shown by relatively light δ18O values; (4) the summer monsoon intensity strongly declined referred by the increase δ18O trend from AD 1500 to AD 1600, perhaps resulting in dry/cold conditions; and (5) a strongly enhancement of the summer monsoon intensity appeared from AD 1700 to 1950, reflecting wet/cold conditions during the late period of the LIA. On decadal scales the monsoonal climate of central western Guizhou can be either warm/wet and cold/dry, or warm/dry and cold/wet. The δ13C variations in ZJD-21 on decadal-to-centennial scales respond mainly to vegetation changes with heavier values reflecting lesser amount of forest coverage. Prior to AD 1700, the δ13C generally co-varied with δ18O reflecting the expected more extensive vegetation growth (lighter δ13C) under wetter climate (lighter δ18O). However, during the past 300 years the δ13C increased sharply showing an opposite trend to that of δ18O. This observation strongly suggests that a decline of surface vegetation due to an artificial deforestation might have occurred - an occurrence coincident with the large-scale immigration into central western Guizhou in connection with copper-mining activities during the reign of

  12. Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ►A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ► The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ►A correlation considering deq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (Mfrv3)/(Ψdeq2) =((Ta)/(Tw) )0.1((vτ)/(deq) )0.7(l/(deq) )1.378Xa1.228. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube deq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

  13. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards assessment of bone-coal from a vanadium mine in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Chen, Chao-Feng; Huang, Yi-Chao; Yue, Qi-Jian; Zhong, Chun-Ming; Tan, Cheng-Jun

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive utilization project of bone-coal in a vanadium mine was proposing in recent years in central China. Based on the analysis of 31 representative bone-coal samples from 9 boreholes at various depth drilled in planning initial minery, the average activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in the range of 196.4-653.3 Bq/kg, 200.2-564.4 Bq/kg, 9.4-64.6 Bq/kg and 71.5-345.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The major natural radionuclides were identified as U-series nuclides with the activity concentrations obviously higher than common coal. The estimated absorbed dose rates in the air varied between 107.1 and 310.5 nGy/h. The averaged external annual effective dose due to the radioactivity in the bone-coal was predicted as 0.37 mSv/a, and the main contribution is 87.5% for U-series. The radium equivalent activity, the external and internal indices of most of the samples were shown with high values of an unacceptable level, which indicated the bone-coal would carry a considerable radiation hazard to the workers and the local individuals. The hazard of radon inhalation should be focused during mining and following processes. Further radiological assessment should be carried out as the natural radioactivity in the bone-coal would be technically enriched during the combustion process of the bone-coal and utilization of the byproducts.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and Isotopic Evidence for Flow Paths of Karst Waters Collected in the Heshang Cave, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Long; Ziyong Sun; Aiguo Zhou; Deliang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of hydrological processes in caves is important to help us interpret paleo-climate records from speleothems. In this study, we integrated hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical properties to characterize the hydraulic behavior of karst waters in the Heshang Cave, Central China. Using geological and topographical analyses, we identified regional watershed boundaries and hydro-geological connections that were controlled by anticlinal geometry and faults. Water samples were col-lected from the Heshang Cave and potential recharge sites. Geochemical data of c(Sr2+)/c(Ca2+) and c(Mg2+)/c(Ca2+) ratios suggest that the drainage system in Heshang Cave consists of two flow paths. For vadose waters, including drip water and rimstone pool water, c(Sr2+)/c(Ca2+) ratio ranges from 0.000 6 to 0.001 1, and c(Mg2+)/c(Ca2+) ratio ranges from 0.97 to 1.1, indicating that recharge was mainly from rainfall infiltration through the overlying Cambrian dolomite stratum. In contrast, slope current and underground river waters have higher c(Sr2+)/c(Ca2+) ratios (values from 0.002 2 to 0.002 8), and lower c(Mg2+)/c(Ca2+) ratios (values from 0.50 to 0.64). These waters show homogeneous isotopic composition (δ18O:-7.15‰–-6.95‰;δD:-52.73‰–-51.31‰), implying recharge of allogeneic water from the Xiaoer River via karst conduits that pass through Ordovician limestone and Cambrian dolomite stratum.

  15. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards assessment of bone-coal from a vanadium mine in central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive utilization project of bone-coal in a vanadium mine was proposing in recent years in central China. Based on the analysis of 31 representative bone-coal samples from 9 boreholes at various depth drilled in planning initial minery, the average activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in the range of 196.4–653.3 Bq/kg, 200.2–564.4 Bq/kg, 9.4–64.6 Bq/kg and 71.5–345.4 Bq/kg, respectively. The major natural radionuclides were identified as U-series nuclides with the activity concentrations obviously higher than common coal. The estimated absorbed dose rates in the air varied between 107.1 and 310.5 nGy/h. The averaged external annual effective dose due to the radioactivity in the bone-coal was predicted as 0.37 mSv/a, and the main contribution is 87.5% for U-series. The radium equivalent activity, the external and internal indices of most of the samples were shown with high values of an unacceptable level, which indicated the bone-coal would carry a considerable radiation hazard to the workers and the local individuals. The hazard of radon inhalation should be focused during mining and following processes. Further radiological assessment should be carried out as the natural radioactivity in the bone-coal would be technically enriched during the combustion process of the bone-coal and utilization of the byproducts. - Highlights: • High natural radioactivity in bone coal from a vanadium mine has been determined. • The 238U and 226Ra were the main contributors to the high radioactivity. • The radiological hazard index was shown higher than an unacceptable level. • The hazard of radon inhalation should arouse attention

  16. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.

  17. Genetic analysis in Factor XI deficient patients from central China: identification of one novel and seven recurrent mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Hua-Fang; Tang, Liang; Yang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Ying-Ying; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Guo, Tao; Hu, Yu

    2015-04-25

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with a range of manifestations from asymptomatic to trauma related bleeding. To identify mutations in FXI-deficient patients and characterize the phenotype-genotype relationship, we studied six patients and their 18 family members in central China. Five patients were identified by presurgical or routine laboratory screening but had no bleeding symptoms. Only one patient exhibited excessive injury- and surgical-related bleeding. Eight mutations were detected, including five nonsense mutations (p.Tyr369*, p.Arg72*, p.Gln281*, p.Trp519*, and p.Trp246*), two missense mutations (p.Thr40Ile and p.Ala430Thr), and a 4-bp deletion in a splice site (c.1136-4delGTTG); one mutation was novel (p.Thr40Ile). In vitro, the p.Thr40Ile mutant protein exhibited impaired secretion and function. Five of the patients were homozygous or compound heterozygous, but only one nonsense mutation was found in Patient 2. In these patients, bleeding tendency was not correlated with FXI levels or with a single heterozygous mutation. Thrombin generation tests could not distinguish the bleeder from non-bleeders. In conclusion, we reported 8 mutations in the FXI gene (F11) leading to FXI deficiency. Moreover, the functional consequences of a novel mutation leading to FXI deficiency have been elucidated. More cases are needed to find any signature of founder effect in the Chinese population and its potential relationship with other Asian population. PMID:25681615

  18. The influence of Asian dust outflow on particle microphysical and optical properties at Mt. Tai in central east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, T. T.; Wang, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Fan, R. X.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, D. Z.

    2016-10-01

    An in-situ measurement of the particle number size distribution and optical properties (scattering and absorption coefficients) of PM2.5 was conducted at Mt. Tai, a mountain top station in central east China in the spring of 2011. It was found that the particle size distribution, mass concentration, as well as the optical properties have been modified during the dust periods. The mean mass concentration of PM2.5 during the dust periods was nearly twice of that during the non-dust period. The number and volume size distribution showed a higher concentration in the size range of 0.5-2.5 μm during the dust period, which were identified as dust particles. The absorption coefficient increased by ∼40%, while the scattering coefficient did not show much difference. The single scattering albedo of 0.85 during dust period was also comparable with the value of 0.89 during non-dust period. The Mie model was applied to simulate the aerosol optical properties and validated through a closure study for an intensive dust event. This study quantitatively demonstrated that dust particles contributed to nearly 63% of the scattering coefficient, while the remainder was mainly due to anthropogenic particles on dust days. The dust particles took a lower portion to the absorption, about 40%, indicating the anthropogenic particles still played a more dominant role in absorbing. This study also indicated that although there were only a few tens of dust particles during dust period, they could influence in particle optical properties significantly.

  19. Isotopic Ages of the Carbonatitic Volcanic Rocks in the Kunyang Rift Zone in Central Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongbei; WANG Guilan; NIE Jianfeng; ZHAO Chongshun; XU Chengyan; QIU Jiaxiang; Wang Hao

    2003-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kunyang rift, which is located on the western margin of the Yangtze platform and the southern section of the Kangdian axis, is a rare massive Precambrian iron-copper polymetallic mineralization zone in China. The Mesoproterozoic Wulu (Wuding(Lufeng) basin in the middle of the rift is an elliptic basin controlled by a ring fracture system. Moreover, volcanic activities in the basin display zonation of an outer ring, a middle ring and an inner ring with carbonatitic volcanic rocks and sub-volcanic dykes discovered in the outer and middle rings. The Sm-Nd isochron ages have been determined for the outer-ring carbonatitic lavas (1685 Ma) and basaltic porphyrite of the radiating dyke swarm (1645 Ma) and the Rb-Sr isochron ages for the out-ring carbonatitic lavas (893 Ma) and the middle-ring dykes (1048 Ma). In combination of the U-Pb concordant ages of zircon (1743 Ma) in trachy-andesite of the corresponding period and stratum (1569 Ma) of the Etouchang Formation, as well as the Rb-Sr isochron age (1024 Ma) and K-Ar age (1186 Ma) of the dykes in the middle ring, the age of carbonatites in the basin is preliminarily determined. It is ensured that all of these carbonatites were formed in the Mesoproterozoic period, whereby two stages could be identified as follows: in the first stage, carbonatitic volcanic groups, such as lavas, pyroclastic rocks and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, were formed in the outer ring; in the second stage, carbonatitic breccias and dykes appeared in the middle ring. The metamorphic age of the carbonatitic lavas in the outer ring was determined to be concurrent with the end of the first stage of the Neoproterozoic period, corresponding to the Jinning movement in central Yunnan.

  20. Petrogenesis of Early-Permian sanukitoids from West Junggar, Northwest China: Implications for Late Paleozoic crustal growth in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiyuan; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Tang, Gongjian; Yu, Shun; Long, Xiaoping; Cai, Keda; Geng, Hongyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-11-01

    Sanukitoids and their equivalents are rare subduction-related rock types that have been found in modern arc settings and in Late Archean sequences. The investigation of sanukitoids is of particular importance to a better understanding of crust-forming processes and continental growth. In this paper we report zircon U-Pb and Ar-Ar ages and major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Bieluagaxi dioritic pluton and dikes from the southern part of the West Junggar, NW China. These rocks formed in the Early Permian and show a remarkable geochemical affinity with Cenozoic sanukitoids of the Setouchi Volcanic Belt of SW Japan with high Mg# (48-73) values, Cr (54-539 ppm), Ni (21-197 ppm) contents and Th/La (0.15-0.37) ratios and low Sr/Y ratios (16-27) and Sr (263-442 ppm) contents. They may be generated by the partial melting of subducting sediments, and subsequent melt-mantle interaction. Additionally, the sanukitoids are also widespread in the Karamay-Baogutu area of West Junggar accompanied by high Sr (average 713 ppm) contents and Sr/Y (50-130) ratios, and low Y (6.9-12.6 ppm) contents. The difference in petrochemical characteristics between the Baogutu-Karamay and Bieluagaxi sanukitoids can be explained by the difference in depth of initial melting, origin composition and fractional crystallization. The Baogutu-Karamay sanukitoids were probably formed under eclogitic conditions, while the Bieluagaxi sanukitoids were at a shallower depth. Moreover, the compositional similarity between continental-crust forming rocks and the Bieluagaxi sanukitoids suggests that the sanukitoids genesis could be closely related to the process of continental crust formation. The Late Carboniferous-Early Permian sanukitoids in the West Junggar may be an indicator of anomalous thermal activity. Ridge subduction may play a crucial role in the evolution and growth of the continental crust in Central Asia.

  1. Seasonal and annual variations of marine sinking particulate flux during 1993~1996 in the central South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ronghua; WIESNER M G; ZHENG Yulong; CHENG Xinrong; JIN Haiyan; ZHAO Qingying; ZHENG Lianfu

    2007-01-01

    A total of 67 samples from the upper and lower sediment traps in the central South China Sea were analyzed, which were collected during 1993~1996. It is indicated that the distribution of stable isotope values, surface primary productivity, fluxes of total particulate matter, carbonate, biogenic opal, organic carbon, planktonic foraminiferal species and their total amount exhibit obviously seasonal and annual fluctuations. High values of the fluxes occurred in the prevailing periods of the northeastern and southwestern monsoons, and the low values occurred during the periods between the two monsoons. The fluxes of some planktonic foraminiferal species (Globigerinoides sacculifer, G. ruber, Globigerinita glutinata, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei) and their percentages also exhibit two prominent peaks during the prevailing periods of the northeastern and southwestern monsoons respectively, while those of Globigerina bulloides, Globorotalia menardii and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata only exhibit one peak in the prevailing periods of the northeastern monsoon. In addition, fluxes and percentages of Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globorotalia menardii as well as the fluxes of carbonate and total amount of planktonic foraminifera decrease gradually from 1993 to 1996, and those of Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and biogenic opal increase gradually from 1993 to 1996. The fluxes of carbonate and organic carbon in the upper trap are higher than those in the lower one. The study indicates that the seasonal and annual variations of the sediment fluxes and planktonic foraminiferal species are mainly controlled by the changes of surface primary productivity and hydrological conditions related to the East Asian monsoon. The lower carbonate and organic carbon fluxes in the lower trap are related to the dissolution.

  2. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits.

  3. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).

  4. Exhaustive Analysis of a Genotype Space Comprising 10(15 Central Carbon Metabolisms Reveals an Organization Conducive to Metabolic Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Rzgar Hosseini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All biological evolution takes place in a space of possible genotypes and their phenotypes. The structure of this space defines the evolutionary potential and limitations of an evolving system. Metabolism is one of the most ancient and fundamental evolving systems, sustaining life by extracting energy from extracellular nutrients. Here we study metabolism's potential for innovation by analyzing an exhaustive genotype-phenotype map for a space of 10(15 metabolisms that encodes all possible subsets of 51 reactions in central carbon metabolism. Using flux balance analysis, we predict the viability of these metabolisms on 10 different carbon sources which give rise to 1024 potential metabolic phenotypes. Although viable metabolisms with any one phenotype comprise a tiny fraction of genotype space, their absolute numbers exceed 10(9 for some phenotypes. Metabolisms with any one phenotype typically form a single network of genotypes that extends far or all the way through metabolic genotype space, where any two genotypes can be reached from each other through a series of single reaction changes. The minimal distance of genotype networks associated with different phenotypes is small, such that one can reach metabolisms with novel phenotypes--viable on new carbon sources--through one or few genotypic changes. Exceptions to these principles exist for those metabolisms whose complexity (number of reactions is close to the minimum needed for viability. Increasing metabolic complexity enhances the potential for both evolutionary conservation and evolutionary innovation.

  5. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. PMID:23786499

  6. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  7. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  8. Studies on Compulsory Education Investment Sinking in Central China%中部地区义务教育投入塌陷问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷万鹏; 钱佳; 马红梅

    2014-01-01

    运用省级统计数据,本文探讨了中部地区义务教育投入塌陷问题。研究发现:(1)中部地区在办学条件、经费投入、师资配备、教师收入等方面相对均衡,但义务教育投入的生均指标显著落后于东部和西部地区部分省份,中部地区义务教育投入存在“水平塌陷”与“低水平均衡”现象;(2)计量分析表明,东、中、西区域内部存在“俱乐部收敛”,中部地区义务教育投入存在“增长塌陷”并有可能长期陷入“低水平陷阱”。从区域教育均衡发展战略看,加大中央对中部地区教育转移支付力度,强化中部地区省级政府教育统筹力度是扭转中部地区“教育塌陷”的必由选择。%Using provincial statistics, the paper discusses the sinking of compulsory education investment in central China. The study found that:(1) the central region is relatively balanced in school conditions, funding, allocation of teaching staff, teachers' income and other aspects, but significantly lower than that of the eastern and some western provinces in compulsory education investment average indicators, thus there is 'investment-level sinking' and 'low-level equilibrium' phenomenon in central region; (2) econometric analysis shows that there exists the 'club convergence' in the three regions, and the 'growth-ability sinking' in the education investment of central region, which is likely to fall into the long-term 'low-level trap'. In the perspective of the balance development of regional education, in order to reverse 'education sinking' in central China, increasing educational transform payment from central government to central region and strengthening the coordination efforts of provincial government in central China in compulsory education are inevitable choices.

  9. Medulloblastoma in China: clinicopathologic analyses of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups reveal different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT or chemotherapy (CHT is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT and chemotherapy (CHT were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT was found significantly improving the survival of children (p<0.001 while it was not a significant prognostic factor for adult patients. Moreover, patients in WNT subtype had better OS (p = 0.028 than others (SHH and Non-SHH/WNT subtypes given postoperative adjuvant therapies. Postoperative primary RT was found to be a strong prognostic factor influencing the survival in all histological and molecular subgroups (p<0.001. Postoperative primary CHT was found significantly to influence the survival of classic medulloblastoma (CMB (OS p<0.001, EFS p<0.001, SHH subgroup (OS p = 0.020, EFS p = 0.049 and WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.003, EFS p = 0.016 but not in desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DMB (OS p = 0.361, EFS p = 0.834 and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.127, EFS p = 0.055. Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the

  10. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD). PMID:26840951

  11. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  12. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions and contributing factors (Pav. Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Japanese encephalitis virus genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Hongming; Chai, Chunxia; He, Bo; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wen, Xintian; Yan, Qiguai; Ma, Xiaoping; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-06-01

    The genome of JEV strain SC201301, which was isolated from an aborted fetal piglet in 2013 in Sichuan province in China, was completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Sequence alignments showed that the SC201301 strain shared 97-100% sequence identity with other genotype III strains but showed less similarity to genotype I representative JEVs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SC201301 strain belonged to genotype III and was most closely related to representative strains such as SA14-14-2, HW and SH0601. Our findings suggest that JEV genotype III is still prevalent in swine herds in Sichuan province in China, and thus, there is an urgent need to monitor the infection status of JEV among swine herds in China. PMID:26976139

  14. Severe Drought Events as Revealed in the Climate Records of China and Their Temperature Situations over the Last 1000 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De'er

    2005-01-01

    The total 15 severe droughts are discovered with the aid of the "Retrieval System of Chinese Historical Climate Records" for the last 1000 years. The droughts are extensive to envelope more than 4 provinces and persistent to cover 3 yr or more, and their severity is equivalent to or in excess of that in the 1930s in China.According to the documentary records and restorations it can be inferred that most droughts are more severe than those in the last 50 years. The 15 droughts may either occur warm or in a cold climate background,with 11 of the 15 cases in the cold phase. This indicates the difference in climate correspondence between China and northern America, showing the severity of the events in China to be in a cold instead of a warm climate situation. That is likely to relate to the monsoon climate in eastern Asia.

  15. Integrating Kinetic Model of E. coli with Genome Scale Metabolic Fluxes Overcomes Its Open System Problem and Reveals Bistability in Central Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A Mannan

    Full Text Available An understanding of the dynamics of the metabolic profile of a bacterial cell is sought from a dynamical systems analysis of kinetic models. This modelling formalism relies on a deterministic mathematical description of enzyme kinetics and their metabolite regulation. However, it is severely impeded by the lack of available kinetic information, limiting the size of the system that can be modelled. Furthermore, the subsystem of the metabolic network whose dynamics can be modelled is faced with three problems: how to parameterize the model with mostly incomplete steady state data, how to close what is now an inherently open system, and how to account for the impact on growth. In this study we address these challenges of kinetic modelling by capitalizing on multi-'omics' steady state data and a genome-scale metabolic network model. We use these to generate parameters that integrate knowledge embedded in the genome-scale metabolic network model, into the most comprehensive kinetic model of the central carbon metabolism of E. coli realized to date. As an application, we performed a dynamical systems analysis of the resulting enriched model. This revealed bistability of the central carbon metabolism and thus its potential to express two distinct metabolic states. Furthermore, since our model-informing technique ensures both stable states are constrained by the same thermodynamically feasible steady state growth rate, the ensuing bistability represents a temporal coexistence of the two states, and by extension, reveals the emergence of a phenotypically heterogeneous population.

  16. Intra-host diversity and emergence of unique GBV-C viral lineages in HIV infected subjects in central China.

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    Haoming Wu

    Full Text Available GB virus C (GBV-C, which is highly prevalent among HIV/AIDS, seemed to slow the HIV disease progression. The HIV/GBV-C co-infected individuals may represent an interesting model for the investigation of the role played by HIV infection and/or the immune system in driving the evolution of the GBV-C viral populations. The present study investigated the prevalence and population dynamics of GB virus C in HIV infected individuals representing 13 geographic regions of Hubei Province of China. Approximately 37% of HIV-1 infected individuals were infected with GBV-C and genotype 3 is appeared to be predominant. Utilizing the 196 complete E2 nucleotide sequence data from 10 HIV/GBV-C infected individuals and employing coalescence based phylogenetic approaches; the present study has investigated the intra-host dynamics of GBV-C. The results revealed patient-specific unique GBV-C viral lineages and each viral lineage showed the evidence of rapid population expansion in respective HIV-1 infected patients, thus suggesting HIV-1 was unlikely to have been inhibiting effect on the GBV-C viral replication. GBV-C in all patients has experienced intense purifying selection, suggesting the GBV-C viral invasion and subsequent expansion within the HIV-1 infected hosts without any modification of the functional epitopes at their membrane protein. The finding of within host GBV-C recombinant sequences indicated recombination was one of the significant forces in the evolution and divergence of GBV-C.

  17. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N combined with conventional dietary approaches reveal plasticity in central-place foraging behaviour of little penguins (Eudyptula minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre eChiaradia

    2016-01-01

    reveal an otherwise intractable ecological issue of different constrains of being a central-place forager, such as the little penguin, which could be applied to other marine species.

  18. Delayed Impacts of the E1 Nino Episodes in the Central Pacific on the Summertime Climate Anomalies of Eastern China in 2003 and 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Ming; HAN Rongqing

    2009-01-01

    In the summers of 2003 and 2007, eastern China suffered similar climate disasters with severe flooding in the Huaihe River valley and heat waves in the southern Yangtze River delta and South China. Using SST data and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data from NOAA along with reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR, the 2002/03 and 2006/07 El Ni(n)o episodes in the central Pacific and their delayed impacts on the following early summertime climate anomalies of eastern China were analyzed. The possible physical progresses behaved as follows: Both of the moderate E1 Ni(n)o episodes matured in the central equatorial Pacific during the early winter. The zonal wind anomalies near the sea surface of the west-central equatorial Pacific excited equatorial Kelvin waves propagating eastward and affected the evolution of the E1 Ni(n)o episodes. From spring to early summer, the concurring anomalous easterly winds in the central equatorial Pacific and the end of upwelling Kelvin waves propagating eastward in the western equatorial Pacific, favored the equatorial warm water both of the SST and the subsurface temperature in the western Pacific. These conditions favored the warm state of the western equatorial Pacific in the early summer for both cases of 2003 and 2007. Due to the active convection in the western equatorial Pacific in the early summer and the weak warm SST anomalies in the tropical western Pacific from spring to early summer, the convective activities in the western Pacific warm pool showed the pattern in which the anomalous strong convection only appeared over the southern regions of the tropical western Pacific warm pool, which effects the meridional shift of the western Pacific subtropical high in the summer. The physical progress of the delayed impacts of the E1 Nifio episodes in the central equatorial Pacific and their decaying evolution on the climate anomalies in eastern China were interpreted through the key role of special pattern for the heat convection in the

  19. New insights into Phanerozoic tectonics of south China: Part 1, polyphase deformation in the Jiuling and Lianyunshan domains of the central Jiangnan Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhao, Guochun; Johnston, Stephen T.; Cui, Jianjun; Xin, Yujia

    2016-04-01

    The central Jiangnan Orogen, genetically formed by the Proterozoic Yangtze-Cathaysia collision, presents as a composite structural feature in the Phanerozoic with multiple ductile and brittle fabrics whose geometries, kinematics, and ages are crucial to decipher the tectonic evolution of south China. New structural observations coupled with thermochronological and geochronological studies of these fabrics document four main stages of deformation. The earliest stage in early Paleozoic time (460-420 Ma) corresponds to combined E-trending dextral and northwest directed thrust shearing that was variably partitioned in anastomosing high-strain zones under greenschist-facies conditions (~400-500°C), related to the continued Yangtze-Cathaysia convergence externally driven by the suturing of south China with Australia. This event was heterogeneously overprinted by the second stage characterized by ~E-oriented folding in middle Triassic time, geodynamically resulting from the continental collision of south China with Indochina and North China. The third stage was locally developed by northwest and southeast vergent thrusts that truncated ~E-oriented folds in the Late Jurassic, due to northwestward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The latest stage involved normal faulting and tectonic unroofing in Cretaceous time, which resulted in basin opening and reset footwall 40Ar/39Ar ages in proximity to the Hengshan detachment fault, associated with roll-back of the subducting Paleo-Pacific plate.

  20. Miocene Bahean stratigraphy in the Longzhong Basin,northern central China and its implications in environmental change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jijun; ZHANG; Jun; SONG; Chunhui; ZHAO; Zhijun; ZHANG; Yong; WANG; Xiuxi; ZHANG; Jianming; CUI; Qiaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Fossil mammal-riched Neogene strata are widely distributed in the southeast corner of the huge Longzhong Basin at Tianshui,Gansu Province,northern central China.Hipparion weihoense,a typical member of late Middle Miocene Bahean stage,was recently excavated at Yaodian along a well-exposed outcrop.Owing to the importance of the Bahean stage in the mammalian evolution and its potential for environmental change,we suggested a name of Yaodian Formation for the stratigraphy,which is correlated to the Bahe Formation at Lantian,Shaanxi.High resolution paleomagnetic dating of the section shows that the Yaodian Formation covers the period between 11.67 Ma and 7.43 Ma,with the site bearing Hipparion weihoense being estimated at about 10.54-10.30 Ma,providing first magnetostratigraphic chronology for the Bahean Stage.The Yaodian Formation consists of fluvial channel deposits (11.67-10.40 Ma) at the bottom,floodplain deposits in the middle (10.40-9.23 Ma) and shallow lake sediments at the top (9.23-7.43 Ma).This upward fining sequence suggests that the relief in nearby mountain ranges such as West Qinling to the south and Huajia Ling to the north was greatly reduced after long-term denudation,fluvial transport capacity was low,and finally the drainage system was disintegrated,replaced with broad-shallow lakes in which only fine sediments like mud and marlite were deposited,indicating an old stage of development of a planation surface.A remarkable shift in ecology and climatic environment was found at 7.4-7.7 Ma when paleoclimate changed from early warm humid to late dry as indicated by sedimentary facies changed from early shallow lake sequence to late eolian red clays and a former coniferous-deciduous mixed forest was replaced by grassland,leading to great growth of Hipparion Fauna of Baodean stage in the region.Therefore,it is estimated that the present high relief of Qinling and drainage pattern did not come into being until Late Pliocene in response to intensive

  1. Screening for amblyopia among grade-1 students in primary school with uncorrected vision and stereopsis test in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shi-ming; LI Jin-ling; LI Si-yuan; LIU Luo-ru; WANG Yang; LI He

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for amblyopia at earliest is important for early treatment and better prognosis.This study aimed to evaluate the validity of uncorrected distant and near visual acuity (VA) and stereoacuity for screening amblyopia in grade-1 students in primary school in central China.Methods By stratified cluster sampling,3112 grade-1 students from 11 Anyang primary schools were selected for the study.All the participants underwent uncorrected distant and near VA,stereopsis test,cycloplegic refraction,best corrected VA (BCVA),cover test,and ocular movement examination.VA was measured with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (IogMAR) chart.Stereoacuity was measured with the Lang Ⅱ stereo card and TNO test.Amblyopia was defined as the BCVA less than or equal to 0.1 IogMAR units of any eye in the absence of significant pathological abnormalities.The sensitivity,specificity,and positive and negative predictive value of uncorrected VA and stereoacuity for amblyopia were analyzed.Results Out of the 3112 eligible students,2893 (92.96%) completed the examinations.The average age of the students was (7.10±0.41) years.Screened by distant VA with low cutoff (IogMAR 0.1),high cutoff (IogMAR 0.0),and near VA (IogMAR 0.0),31.64%,73.18%,and 50.23% students were abnormal,respectively.Screened by stereopsis test,only 4.69% students were abnormal.Diagnosed by a senior pediatric ophthalmologist,61 students had amblyopia.The sensitivities of distant VA with low/high cutoff and near VA were 92.31%,100%,and 80.77%,respectively,whereas that of stereoacuity by TNO test was 15.38%.Simultaneous testing of either two of the three tests improved the sensitivity.Conclusions Distant VA test of high cutoff alone displays a high sensitivity but a low specificity.Simultaneous testing of distant VA of low cutoff and stereoacuity is a better choice to balance between sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Late-Stage Ductile Deformation in Xiongdian-Suhe HP Metamorphic Unit, North-Western Dabie Shan, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2004-01-01

    New structural and petrological data unveil a very complicated ductile deformation history of the Xiongdian-Suhe HP metamorphic unit, north-western Dabie Shan, central China. The fine-grained symplectic amphibolite-facies assemblage and coronal structure enveloping eclogite-facies garnet, omphacite and phengite etc., representing strain-free decompression and retrogressive metamorphism, are considered as the main criteria to distinguish between the early-stage deformation under HP metamorphic conditions related to the continental deep subduction and collision, and the late-stage deformation under amphibolite to greenschist-facies conditions occurred in the post-eclogite exhumation processes. Two late-stages of widely developed, sequential ductile deformations D3 and D4, are recognized on the basis of penetrative fabrics and mineral aggregates in the Xiongdian-Suhe HP metamorphic unit, which shows clear, regionally, consistent overprinting relationships. D3 fabrics are best preserved in the Suhe tract of low post-D3 deformation intensity and characterized by steeply dipping layered mylonitic amphibolites associated with doubly vergent folds. They are attributed to a phase of tectonism linked to the initial exhumation of the HP rocks and involved crustal shortening with the development of upright structures and the widespread emplacement of garnet-bearing granites and felsic dikes. D4 structures are attributed to the main episode of ductile extension (D14) with a gently dipping foliation to the north and common intrafolial, recumbent folds in the Xiongdian tract, followed by normal sense top-to-the north ductile shearing (D24) along an important tectonic boundary, the so-called Majiawa-Hexiwan fault (MHF), the westward continuation of the Balifan-Mozitan-Xiaotian fault (BMXF) of the northern Dabie Shan. It is indicated that the two stages of ductile deformation observed in the Xiongdian-Suhe HP metamorphic unit, reflecting the post-eclogite compressional or extrusion

  3. Distribution of Aluminum and Fluoride in Tea Plant and Soil of Tea Garden in Central and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of Al and F contents and the relationship between Al and F in tea plants and soils of 12 tea gardens in Central and Southwest China were investigated from October 31 to November 14, 2006. The results show that there were differences in pH, CEC, the contents of organic matter (OM), Al and F in the different soils of the tea gardens. The Al content ranged from 1196 to 7976mg/kg for old leaf, 370 to 2681mg/kg for young leaf and 285 to 525mg/kg for stem, whereas the content of F ranged from 221 to 1504mg/kg for old leaf, 49 to 602mg/kg for young leaf and 13.5 to 77.5mg/kg for stem. The concentrations of labile Al varied obviously in the different soils, but the distribution law of labile Al content for the same garden was Alexchangeable≈AlFe-Mn oxide>Alorganic>Alwater-soluble. The contents of different labile F fractions varied slightly in the different soils and the different soil layers, though the exchangeable F content was lowest among the labile F in the soils. The concentrations of Al and F in tea plants increased with increasing amount of water-soluble Al or F, especially the amount of water-soluble fractions in the soil layer of 0-20cm.The correlation between Al content and F content in the tea leaf was more significant than that in the tea stem. Furthermore, the correlation between Al content and F content in whole tea plant was strongly significant (r=0.8763,p<0.01, n=36). There were evident tendency that Al concentration increased with the increase of F concentration in different soil layers. The correlation of water-soluble Al with water-soluble F in all soils was also strongly significant (r=0.7029, p<0.01, n=34). The results may provide a proof that Al and F are jointly taken up by tea plants to some extent in natural tea gardens.

  4. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002. The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  5. Detrital zircon provenance from three turbidite depocenters of the Middle-Upper Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex, central China: Record of collisional tectonics, erosional exhumation, and sediment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    To test the idea that the voluminous upper Middle to Upper Triassic turbidite strata in the Songpan-Ganzi complex of central China archive a detrital record of Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane unroofing, we report 2080 single detrital U-Pb zircon ages by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis from 29 eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex sandstone samples. Low (block and Yidun arc complex, likely recording nascent uplift of the Longmenshan deformation belt due to impingement of the Yidun arc complex upon the western margin of the South China block. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  6. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI QiuFang; LIU Yu; SONG HuiMing; SUN JunYan

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002.The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  7. Elimination of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in central part of the People’s Republic of China: analysis and prediction based on modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Five provinces in central People’s Republic of China (P.R. China have successfully reduced the burden of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in the last 7 years. The results of the Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (APCME that com- menced in 2010 are analysed against the background of the progress reached by the national malaria control programme (NMEP that was launched in 2006. We examined the epidemiological changes in the number of autochthonous cases over time and discuss the feasibility of achieving the goal of malaria elimination by 2020. There was a total decline of 34,320 malaria cases between 2006 and 2012 arriving at an average annual incidence of 0.04 per 10,000 people by 2012. At the same time, the number of counties reporting autochthonous cases declined from 290 to 19. Spatial autocorrelation and Bayesian modelling were used to evaluate the datasets and predict the spatio-temporal pattern in the near future. The former approach showed that spatial clusters of P. vivax malaria existed in the study region during the study period, while the risk prediction map generated by the Bayesian model indicates that only sporadic malaria cases will appear during in the future. The results suggest that the initial NMEP approach and the follow-up APCME strategy have played a key role in reducing the threat of malaria in central P.R. China. However, to achieve the goal of malaria elimination by the end of the current decade, interven- tion plans must be adjusted with attention paid to those endemic counties still at risk according to the prediction map.

  8. Fine particles (PM2.5) at a CAWNET background site in Central China: Chemical compositions, seasonal variations and regional pollution events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Hai-rong; Wang, Zu-wu; Lv, Xiao-pu; Zhu, Zhong-min; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Xin-ming

    2014-04-01

    Fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected at Jinsha (JSH), a regional background China Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) site in Central China from March 2012 to March 2013. The mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were measured. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 48.7 ± 26.9 μg m-3, exceeding the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (35 μg m-3), implying that PM2.5 is a pollutant of regional concern in Central China. The average concentrations of total WSIIs, OC and EC were 26.1 ± 18.8, 7.5 ± 3.5 and 0.7 ± 0.5 μg m-3, accounting for 53.5%, 15.1% and 1.5% of the PM2.5 concentrations at JSH, respectively. Clear seasonal variations in PM2.5 and the levels of its main chemical species were observed in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer. Backward air trajectory analysis and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis implied that the areas north and northeast of JSH contributed significantly to the levels of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and OC, while sandstorms originating from Mongolia and traveling across Northwest China may have contributed significantly to the levels of Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in PM2.5 at JSH. Two pollution events, related to regional biomass burning and haze, respectively, were recorded at JSH during the sampling campaign.

  9. Relationship between acne and psychological burden evaluated by ASLEC and HADS surveys in high school and college students from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Jiang, Guangbin; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lai, Ruiping; Wen, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Previously, acne and its effects on psychological well-being have mostly been studied unilaterally in the western population. This study was aimed to investigate bidirectional relationship between acne and stress using Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check (ASLEC) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) surveys from inhabitants of central China. An on-line survey of 2,284 high school and college students from central China was conducted using three questionnaires posted on Chinese professional survey website, the Questionnaire Web. The prevalence and severity of acne were determined using the Pillsbury grading, whereas, the role of stress in acne formation was ascertained by the ASLEC scale. The HADS was employed to assess the psychological well-being. A total of 50.61 % of high school and college students in central China were found to be suffering from acne for more than 6 months, and 19.72 % of them were graded as having severe acne. Negative life events were found to accelerate the occurrence and exacerbation of the condition. Acne-affected groups showed significantly higher HADS-A (HADS-anxiety) and HADS-D (HADS-depression) scores than the controls (7.31 and 7.28 vs. 4.37 and 3.85, respectively; p college students, a close bidirectional relationship was found to exist between stress and acne. It is incumbent on the healthcare professional to introduce school-based educational programs to help students with knowledge and management of acne and prevent the consequent psychological disorders. PMID:25331674

  10. Prevalence of mutations in HBV DNA polymerase gene associated with nucleos(tide resistance in treatment-naive patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyun Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective There are a lot of disagreements in the studies on hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA polymerase mutation rate associated with nucleos(tide analogues (NAs in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. This is the first study aimed to investigate the prevalence of spontaneous HBV resistance mutations in Central China. Methods This study included treatment-naive patients with CHB from June 2012 to May 2015 receiving care at the Institute of Liver Disease in Central China. All patients completed a questionnaire covering different aspects, such as family medical history, course of liver disease, medication history, alcohol use, among others. Mutations in HBV DNA polymerase associated with NAs resistance were detected using INNO-LiPA assay. Results 269 patients were infected with HBV genotype B (81.4%, C (17.9%, and both B and C (0.7%. Mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were detected in 24 patients (8.9% including rtM204I/V (n = 6, rtN236T (n = 5, rtM250V (n = 2, rtL180M (n = 2, rtT184G (n = 1, rtM207I (n = 1, rtS202I (n = 1, rtM204V/I & rtL180M (n = 5, and rtM204I & rtM250V (n = 1. Conclusion Spontaneous HBV resistance mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were found in treatment-naive patients with CHB in Central China. These findings suggest that we should analyze HBV DNA polymerase resistance mutation associated with NAs before giving antiviral therapy such as lamivudine (LAM, adefovir (ADV, and telbivudine (LdT.

  11. Optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in the urban area of Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Chen, R; Zhang, Q H; Li, K

    2008-01-01

    In an arid and water deficient urban area, such as Xi'an in the northwest region of China, gardening and forestation often use large amounts of tap water. Therefore, there is a need for treated wastewater reuse for such purpose to mitigate urban water shortage, especially in the newly developed housing area, where a high green coverage is often required for both commercial value and living condition improvement. Supply of the treated wastewater through a centralized system which has been planned and partially constructed is one measure to meet such need, but it may require an extension of the distribution system for a full coverage of the whole city area. A supplementary measure is to construct decentralized wastewater treatment and reuse (DESAR) systems in areas that are distant from the planned centralized system. In order to optimize the plan of wastewater reuse for housing development in the urban area, the authors analyzed the existing plan of centralized wastewater reuse and the envisaged plan of housing development in Xi'an urban area. A method was proposed for selection of a feasible way of reclaimed water reuse from two options, namely centralized and decentralized ones, by introducing a critical distance L0 which depends on the relationship between the cost for DESAR system installation and that for water delivery pipeline construction. If the distance from the project site to the nearest access point of the centralized system L is shorter than L0 then using reclaim water from the centralized system becomes more feasible, and otherwise DESAR system installation becomes more feasible. A distribution map was thus obtained to show an optimized plan of centralized and decentralized wastewater reuse systems for housing development in Xi'an city. An example was also given to show the advantage of a DESAR system installed. PMID:18824793

  12. Seasonal characteristics of oxalic acid and related SOA in the free troposphere of Mt. Hua, central China: implications for sources and formation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingjing; Wang, Gehui; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Ren, Yanqin; Huang, Yao; Cheng, Yuting; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Ting

    2014-09-15

    PM10 aerosols from the summit of Mt. Hua (2060 m a.s.l) in central China during the winter and summer of 2009 were analyzed for dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls. Molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11) in the free tropospheric aerosols reveals that oxalic acid (C2, 399 ± 261 ng m(-3) in winter and 522 ± 261 ng m(-3) in summer) is the most abundant species in both seasons, followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids, being consistent with that on ground levels. Most of the diacids are more abundant in summer than in winter, but adipic (C6) and phthalic (Ph) acids are twice lower in summer, suggesting more significant impact of anthropogenic pollution on the wintertime alpine atmosphere. Moreover, glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (mGly) are also lower in summer (12 ± 6.1 ng m(-3)) than in winter (22 ± 13 ng m(-3)). As both dicarbonyls are a major precursor of C2, their seasonal variation patterns, which are opposite to those of the diacids, indicate that the mountain troposphere is more oxidative in summer. C2 showed strong linear correlations with levoglucosan in winter and oxidation products of isoprene and monoterpene in summer. PCA analysis further suggested that the wintertime C2 and related SOA in the Mt. Hua troposphere mostly originate from photochemical oxidations of anthropogenic pollutants emitted from biofuel and coal combustion in lowland regions. On contrast, the summertime C2 and related SOA mostly originate from further oxidation of the mountainous isoprene and monoterpene oxidation products. The AIM model calculation results showed that oxalic acid concentration well correlated with particle acidity (R(2)=0.60) but not correlated with particle liquid water content, indicating that particle acidity favors the organic acid formation because aqueous-phase C2 production is the primary mechanism of C2 formation in ambient aerosols and is driven by acid-catalyzed oxidation. PMID:24925591

  13. North Qinling Paleozoic granite associations and their variation in space and time:Implications for orosenic processes in the orosens of central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; WANG XiaoXia; TIAN Wei; ZHANG ChengLi; LI WuPing; LI Shan

    2009-01-01

    Integrated zircon U-Pb dating and whole rock geochemical analyses have been carried out for two typical S-and Ⅰ-type granitoids in the north Qinling.Zircon dating by SIMS of the Piaochi S-type granitoids yields an emplacement age of 495±6 Ma.The granitoids show whole-rock εNd(t)=-8.2--8.8,zircon εHf(t)-6--39.The Huichizi Ⅰ-type granitoids have emplacement ages of 421±27 Ma and 434±7 Ma established by LA-ICP-MS and SIMS methods,respectively.Their whole-rock εNd(t)=-0.9-0.9 and zircon εHf(t)=-11-8.4.Combined with statistical analyses of 28 zircon ages of granitoid plutons collected from the literature,Paleozoic magmatism in the north Qinling can be divided into three stages.The first-stage magmatism (~505-470 Ma) mainly occurred in the east part of the north Qinling and has features of an Ⅰ-type arc,associated with which are S-type granitoids such as Piaochi pluton.The early granitoids (~505-490 Ma) have close spatio-temporal relations to ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks,and thus are interpreted as an oceanic subduction system along a continental margin.The second-stage magmatism (~450-422 Ma) occured through the whole north Qinling,and is characterized by Ⅰ-type granitoids represented by the Huichizi pluton.The magma is interpreted as partial melting of lower crust mixed by mantle-derived magma in a collisional setting with the uplift of terranes.The third-stage magmatism (~415-400 Ma) is dominated by Ⅰ-type granitoids and only took place in the middle part of the north Qinling,and is regarded as a late-stage collision.The spatial and temporal variations of the Qinling Paleozoic magmatism reveal protracted subduction/collision.The subduction was initiated from the east part of the north Qinling,earlier than that in the Qilian-northern Qaidam,Kunlun,and northern Dabie regions.This demonstrates variations in time of subduction,accretion and collision of separate blocks or terranes in the orogenic systems in central China.

  14. North Qinling Paleozoic granite associations and their variation in space and time: Implications for orogenic processes in the orogens of central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Integrated zircon U-Pb dating and whole rock geochemical analyses have been carried out for two typical S-and I-type granitoids in the north Qinling. Zircon dating by SIMS of the Piaochi S-type grani- toids yields an emplacement age of 495±6 Ma. The granitoids show whole-rock εNd(t)=-8.2--8.8, zircon εHf(t)=-6―-39. The Huichizi I-type granitoids have emplacement ages of 421±27 Ma and 434±7 Ma es- tablished by LA-ICP-MS and SIMS methods, respectively. Their whole-rock εNd(t)=-0.9-0.9 and zircon εHf(t)=-11-8.4. Combined with statistical analyses of 28 zircon ages of granitoid plutons collected from the literature, Paleozoic magmatism in the north Qinling can be divided into three stages. The first-stage magmatism (~505-470 Ma) mainly occurred in the east part of the north Qinling and has features of an I-type arc, associated with which are S-type granitoids such as Piaochi pluton. The early granitoids (~505-490 Ma) have close spatio-temporal relations to ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks, and thus are interpreted as an oceanic subduction system along a continental margin. The second-stage magmatism (~450-422 Ma) occured through the whole north Qinling, and is characterized by I-type granitoids represented by the Huichizi pluton. The magma is interpreted as partial melting of lower crust mixed by mantle-derived magma in a collisional setting with the uplift of terranes. The third-stage magmatism (~415-400 Ma) is dominated by I-type granitoids and only took place in the middle part of the north Qinling, and is regarded as a late-stage collision. The spatial and temporal variations of the Qinling Paleozoic magmatism reveal protracted subduction/collision. The subduction was initiated from the east part of the north Qinling, earlier than that in the Qilian-northern Qaidam, Kunlun, and northern Dabie regions. This demonstrates variations in time of subduction, accretion and collision of separate blocks or terranes in the orogenic systems in central China.

  15. Revealing Water Stress by the Thermal Power Industry in China Based on a High Spatial Resolution Water Withdrawal and Consumption Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Wang, Jiao; Wu, Zhixuan

    2016-02-16

    This study reveals the spatial distribution of water withdrawal and consumption by thermal power generation and the associated water stress at catchment level in China based on a high-resolution geodatabase of electric generating units and power plants. We identified three groups of regions where the baseline water stress exerted by thermal power generation is comparatively significant: (1) the Hai River Basin/East Yellow River Basin in the north; (2) some arid catchments in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwest; and (3) the coastal city clusters in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearly River Delta, and Zhejiang Province. Groundwater stress is also detected singularly in a few aquifers mainly in the Hai River Basin and the lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. As China accelerates its pace of coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the arid northwest regions, the energy/water priorities in catchments under high water stress are noteworthy. We conclude that promotion of advanced water-efficient technologies in the energy industry and more systematic analysis of the water stress of thermal power capacity expansion in water scarce regions in inland China are needed. More comprehensive and transparent data monitoring and reporting are essential to facilitate such water stress assessment. PMID:26789286

  16. Geochemistry of khondalites from the central portion of North China craton (NCC):implications for the continental cratonization in the Neoarchean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江海; 钱祥麟; 刘树文

    2000-01-01

    Within the high-grade metamorphic basement, the central portion of North China Craton (NCC), a group of Neoarchean khondalites (KS) is identified. They are characterized by large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment, lower abundances of Zr, Hf and Sr. Their rare earth element (REE) distribution has significant LREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The protoliths of KS are interpreted as feldspathic quartzite, shale or petite and carbonite, deposited in a shallow sea upon cratonic shelf distant from the land. KS’s source region might be dominated by granitic rocks, with a minor amount of TTG, underwent comparatively severe chemical weathering. Considering relevent tectonic constraints, we suggest that khondalites from central portion of NCC, an important metamophosed sedimentary cover, are the most significant exogenetic marker of Neoarchean continental cratonization for NCC.

  17. Stratigraphic architecture of the Neoproterozoic glacial rocks in the "Xiang-Qian-Gui" region of the central Yangtze Block, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qirui; CHU Xuelei; Heinrich BAHLBURG; FENG Lianjun; Nicole DOBRZINSKI; ZHANG Tonggang

    2003-01-01

    The Yangtze Block in South China is one of the important regions where Neoproterozoic glacial rocks are well developed and studied. However, the classification and correlation of the Neoproterozoic glacial sequences in the central Yangtze Block still remain controversial among Chinese geologists. The original Sinian sections around the Yangtze Gorges Region became an official standard for classification and correlation since the 1950s. Subsequent regional geologic studies, however, resulted in different classification and correlation, because of its incompleteness. We select one of the complete sections in the bordering areas of Xiang (Hunan), Qian (Guizhou) and Gui (Guangxi), as a standard of classification and correlation. The temporal and spatial distribution, i.e. the stratigraphic architecture, of the glacial rocks in the central Yangtze Block is suggested. Our results indicate that the glacial sequence on the Yangtze Block was deposited during the Nantuo Ice-age, the Datangpo Interglacial-age and Jiangkou Ice-age, in descending order.

  18. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  19. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosimere Xavier Amaral

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA. Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97 within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Rosimere Xavier; Albrecht, Marc; McKinley, Alan Shane; de Carvalho, Adriana Márcia Ferreira; de Sousa Junior, Severino Cavalcante; Diniz, Fabio Mendonça

    2015-08-19

    The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA). Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97) within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  2. Epidemiological investigation reveals genetic diversity and high co-infection rate of canine bocavirus strains circulating in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donghua; Wang, Zhihui; Yao, Shuang; Li, Chunqiu; Geng, Yufei; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Su, Mingjun; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; Feng, Li; Chang, Yung-Fu; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-06-01

    To trace evolution of CBoV in Northeast China, 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs collected from May 2014 to April 2015 were investigated using PCR targeting partial NS1 gene (440bp). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the identified CBoV strains was conducted using nucleotide sequences of the partial NS1 gene. The results indicated that 15 of 201 fecal samples (7.5%) were positive for CBoV; the partial NS1 genes of the 15 CBoV strains exhibited 83.1%-100% nucleotide identity, and 75.8%-100% amino acid identity; the entire VP2 gene of five selected CBoV strains exhibited 82.9%-96.8% nucleotide identity, and 90.4%-99.1% amino acid identity. The 15 CBoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with CPV-2 (40%), CCoV (20%), and CaKV (26.67%). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial NS1 gene revealed that the 15 CBoV strains were divided into different subgroups of CBoV-2 when compared with CBoV-2 strains from South Korea, USA, Germany, and Hong Kong in China. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene indicated that five selected CBoV strains were divided into three different genetic groups of CBoV-2, involving in CBoV-2HK group, CBoV-2C group, and CBoV-2B group. The recombination analysis using the entire VP2 gene revealed three potential recombination events that occurred among five selected strains in our study. These data demonstrated that the CBoV strains circulating in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China showed genetic diversities, potential recombination events, and high co-infection rate. Further studies will be required to address the potential pathogenic role of these diverse CBoV strains. PMID:27234529

  3. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng-Fang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon (C sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT] and the application of nitrogen (N fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1 on fluxes of CH(4 and CO(2, and soil organic C (SOC sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4 emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2 emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4 and CO(2 emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4 emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2 emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  4. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  5. Substantial Underestimation of Post-Harvest Burning Emissions in the North China Plain Revealed by Multi-Species Space Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T; Müller, J-F; Bauwens, M; De Smedt, I; Lerot, C; Van Roozendael, M; Coheur, P-F; Clerbaux, C; Boersma, K F; van der A, R; Song, Y

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale burning of crop residues in the North China Plain (NCP), one of the most densely populated world regions, was recently recognized to cause severe air pollution and harmful health effects. A reliable quantification of the magnitude of these fires is needed to assess regional air quality. Here, we use an eight-year record (2005-2012) of formaldehyde measurements from space to constrain the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in this region. Using inverse modelling, we derive that satellite-based post-harvest burning fluxes are, on average, at least a factor of 2 higher than state-of-the-art bottom-up statistical estimates, although with significant interannual variability. Crop burning is calculated to cause important increases in surface ozone (+7%) and fine aerosol concentrations (+18%) in the North China Plain in June. The impact of crop fires is also found in satellite observations of other species, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide and methanol, and we show that those measurements validate the magnitude of the top-down fluxes. Our study indicates that the top-down crop burning fluxes of VOCs in June exceed by almost a factor of 2 the combined emissions from other anthropogenic activities in this region, underscoring the need for targeted actions towards changes in agricultural management practices. PMID:27577535

  6. Genomic and Phenotypic Analyses Reveal the Emergence of an Atypical Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Variant in China

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2016-05-25

    Human infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Senftenberg are often associated with exposure to poultry flocks, farm environments, or contaminated food. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates has raised public health concerns. In this study, comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis were used to characterize 14 Salmonella Senftenberg clinical isolates recovered from multiple outbreaks in Shenzhen and Shanghai, China, between 2002 and 2011. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses identified two phylogenetically distinct clades of S. Senftenberg, designated SC1 and SC2, harboring variations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 and exhibiting distinct biochemical and phenotypic signatures. Although the two variants shared the same serotype, the SC2 isolates of sequence type 14 (ST14) harbored intact SPI-1 and -2 and hence were characterized by possessing efficient invasion capabilities. In contrast, the SC1 isolates had structural deletion patterns in both SPI-1 and -2 that correlated with an impaired capacity to invade cultured human cells and also the year of their isolation. These atypical SC1 isolates also lacked the capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide. These findings highlight the emergence of atypical Salmonella Senftenberg variants in China and provide genetic validation that variants lacking SPI-1 and regions of SPI-2, which leads to impaired invasion capacity, can still cause clinical disease. These data have identified an emerging public health concern and highlight the need to strengthen surveillance to detect the prevalence and transmission of nontyphoidal Salmonella species.

  7. Substantial Underestimation of Post-Harvest Burning Emissions in the North China Plain Revealed by Multi-Species Space Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; de Smedt, I.; Lerot, C.; van Roozendael, M.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Boersma, K. F.; van der A, R.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The large-scale burning of crop residues in the North China Plain (NCP), one of the most densely populated world regions, was recently recognized to cause severe air pollution and harmful health effects. A reliable quantification of the magnitude of these fires is needed to assess regional air quality. Here, we use an eight-year record (2005-2012) of formaldehyde measurements from space to constrain the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in this region. Using inverse modelling, we derive that satellite-based post-harvest burning fluxes are, on average, at least a factor of 2 higher than state-of-the-art bottom-up statistical estimates, although with significant interannual variability. Crop burning is calculated to cause important increases in surface ozone (+7%) and fine aerosol concentrations (+18%) in the North China Plain in June. The impact of crop fires is also found in satellite observations of other species, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide and methanol, and we show that those measurements validate the magnitude of the top-down fluxes. Our study indicates that the top-down crop burning fluxes of VOCs in June exceed by almost a factor of 2 the combined emissions from other anthropogenic activities in this region, underscoring the need for targeted actions towards changes in agricultural management practices.

  8. The Development and Thinking of Drug Centralized Procurement Policy in China%中国药品集中采购政策发展与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹武捷; 张婧媛; 管晓东; 史录文

    2016-01-01

    中国药品采购政策发展始于建国初期的统购统销模式,目前以省为单位进行集中采购。根据交易成本、规模经济等经济学理论以及国际发达国家和地区的相关经验,药品集中采购模式是中国药品采购政策发展的必然选择。我们建议中国药品集中采购应当回归药品采购本质,保障药品供应,降低采购成本。同时充分遵循市场规律,信守契约精神,让市场机制起到资源配置的关键作用。%The development of drug procurement policy in China started from the state monopoly over drug purchase and marketing during the initial stage of new China to the now drug centralized procurement policy at provincial scale. According to several economic theories such as transaction costs and Economies of scale, following the relevant experience of developed countries, drug centralized procurement is a necessary choice for the development of drug procurement policy in China. We recommend that at the present stage, policy making should return to the ultimate goal of drug procurement in order to better grantee drug supply and reduce purchasing costs. In addition, it is also important to follow the market law, participate with contract spirit and maintain the commercialconfidentiality.

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from the central region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they are the only definitive hosts that excrete environmentally resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Little is known of feline toxoplasmosis in China and most of the literature is in Chinese. Here we summarized all published reports on ...

  10. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia. PMID:23870460

  11. Airborne particulate organics at the summit (2060 m, a.s.l.) of Mt. Hua in central China during winter: Implications for biofuel and coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Gehui; Zhou, Bianhong; Cheng, Chunlei; Cao, Junji; Shen, Zhenxing; An, Zhisheng

    2012-03-01

    Sugars, n-alkanes and PAHs in PM 10 and size-segregated samples collected from the summit (2060 m, altitude) of Mt. Hua in Guanzhong Plain, central China during the winter of 2009 were characterized using a GC/MS technique. Concentrations of sugars, n-alkanes and PAHs in PM 10 are 107 ± 52, 121 ± 63, 7.3 ± 3.4 ng m - 3 , respectively. Levoglucosan and fossil fuel derived n-alkanes are more abundant in the air masses transported from southern China than in those from northern China with no spatial difference found for PAHs, suggesting that emissions from biomass burning and vehicle exhausts are more significant in southern part of the country. Dehydrated sugars, fossil fuel derived n-alkanes and PAHs presented a unimode size distribution, peaking at the size of 0.7-1.1 μm, whereas non-dehydrated sugars and plant wax derived n-alkanes showed a bimodal pattern, peaking at 0.7-2.1 and 5.8-9.0 μm, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that biofuel combustion plus plant emission is the most important source in Mt. Hua, being different from the cases in Chinese urban areas where fossil fuel combustion is the major source. By comparison with previous mountain and lowland observations and aircraft measurements we found that wintertime PAHs in China are still characterized by coal burning emissions especially in the inland regions, although in the country increasing rate of SO 2 emission from coal combustion has decreased and emissions of vehicle exhaust has sharply increased.

  12. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade. PMID:26920274

  13. Research of the Economic Development Effect on Industrial Water Consumption--Based on Cmpirical Test of Panel Data in Eastern China, Central China and Western China%经济发展对工业用水量的影响研究——基于我国东中西部面板数据的实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璇

    2012-01-01

    Through on the analysis of 1997 -2010 GDP per capita and industrial water consumption per capita in Eastern China, Central China and Western China. Inspect the relationship between GDP per capita and industrial water consumption per capita, Environmental Kuznets Curve has been established for determining the relationship of GDP per capita and industrial water consumption per capita in Eastern China, Central China and Western China. The result based curve model show that the relation of GDP per capita and industrial water consumption per capita do not accord ~ith the commonly rule of Environmental Kuznets Curve. The result show that the relationship of GDP per capita and industrial water consumption per capita is inverted U + U pattern, the industrial water consumption per capital decline not obvious in inverted U Central China and Western Chi- na. The per capita GDP threshold of industrial water consumption per capita turning down is 22222 RMB/person in Eastern China; the per capita GDP threshold of industrial water consumption per capita turning down is 9343 RMB/person in Central China; the per capita GDP threshold of in- dustrial water consumption per capita turning down is 10980 RMB/person in Western China. It provides a theory for industrial water consumption and economic growth in Eastern China, Central China and Western China.%选取我国东中西部1997—2010年的工业用水量和经济发展数据,检验人均工业用水量与人均GDP之间的关系,探索我国东中西部工业用水量与经济发展之间是否存在环境库茨涅茨曲线(EKC)关系,剖析我国东中西部经济发展与工业用水量之间的演变规律,建立曲线模型,通过模型计量分析结果表明:我国东中西地区经济增长与用水量之间不符合一般的环境库茨涅茨曲线特征,人均工业用水量随着人均GDP的变化曲线为"倒U+U"型,而中西部地区的"倒U"部分人均工业用水量下降不是很明显。东部

  14. Fashion NGO Redress Reveals Positive Prospects for China's Sustainable Fashion Industry-- The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 winners announced on Shanghai Fashion Week%Fashion NGO Redress Reveals Positive Prospects for China's Sustainable Fashion Industry-- The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 winners announced on Shanghai Fashion Week

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    On October 22nd, in the city of Shanghai, China witnessed a new era of sustainable fashion design during The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 Grand Final, organized by fashion NGO Redress, which saw ten competition finalists compete in Mainland China's inaugural mainstream sustainable fashion design competition.

  15. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China)

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yongxiang; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Kang, Jin; Zhang, Shijiao

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in two mountain valleys separated by Mount Taibai – the highest peak of northern China and one of its biodiversity hotspots, each adjacent to species-rich temperate forest vegetation. Methods Seventy two free lists were collected among the inhabitants of two mountain valleys (36 in each). All the studied households are within walking distance of primary forest vegetation, however the valleys differed in a...

  16. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  17. Geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining in the Fushun area, northeast China revealed by multitemporal satellite remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Y.F.; Fu, B.H.; Ninomiya, Y. [China Earthquake Administration, Beijing (China). Inst. of Earthquake Science

    2009-07-01

    Fushun is a famous coal-mining city in northeastern China with more than 100 years of history. Long-term underground coal mining has caused serious surface subsidence in the eastern part of the city. In this study, multitemporal and multi-source satellite remote sensing data were used to detect subsidence and geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining over a 10-year period (1996-2006). A digital elevation model (DEM) was generated through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry processing using data from a pair of European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) SAR images acquired in 1996. In addition, a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM obtained from data in 2000 and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM from 2006 were used for this study. The multitemporal DEMs indicated that the maximum vertical displacement due to subsidence was around 13 m from 1996 to 2006. Multitemporal ASTER images showed that the flooded water area associated with subsidence had increased by 1.73 km{sup 2} over the same time period. Field investigations and ground level measurements confirmed that the results obtained from the multitemporal remote sensing data agreed well with ground truth data. This study demonstrates that DEMs derived from multisource satellite remote sensing data can provide a powerful tool to map geomorphological changes associated with underground mining activities.

  18. Seasonal Trophic Shift of Littoral Consumers in Eutrophic Lake Taihu (China Revealed by a Two-Source Mixing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the seasonal variation in the contributions of planktonic and benthic resources to 11 littoral predators in eutrophic Lake Taihu (China from 2004 to 2005. Seasonal fluctuations in consumer σ13C and σ15N were attributed to the combined impacts of temporal variation in isotopic signatures of basal resources and the diet shift of fishes. Based on a two-end-member mixing model, all target consumers relied on energy sources from coupled benthic and planktonic pathways, but the predominant energy source for most species was highly variable across seasons, showing seasonal trophic shift of littoral consumers. Seasonality in energy mobilization of consumers focused on two aspects: (1 the species number of consumers that relied mainly on planktonic carbon showed the lowest values in the fall and the highest during spring/summer, and (2 most consumer species showed seasonal variation in the percentages of planktonic reliance. We concluded that seasonal trophic shifts of fishes and invertebrates were driven by phytoplankton production, but benthic resources were also important seasonally in supporting littoral consumers in Meiliang Bay. Energy mobilization of carnivorous fishes was more subject to the impact of resource availability than omnivorous species.

  19. The presence of six cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex in China as revealed by crossing experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Di-Bing Sun; Bao-Li Qiu; Shu-Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I(mtCOI)sequences of Bemisia tabaci worldwide indicates that the whitefly comprises at least 24 morphologically indistinguishable but genetically distinct cryptic species.While evidence of reproductive isolation has been reported for some of the putative species,more extensive crossing experiments are required to clarify the systematics of this species complex.In this study,we established laboratory cultures for six putative species of B.tabaci collected in China.We conducted 22 inter-species crosses among the six putative species.The data and those reported previously were collated,and the combined dataset covered all the 30 possible inter-species crosses among the six putative species.Intra-species controls always produced female and male progeny and the proportions of females in the first generation(F1)ranged from 56% to 70%.However,in inter-species crosses female progeny were rarely produced,and the few F1 females produced in four of the 30 inter-species crosses were either sterile or significantly weaker in viability.These results demonstrate a pattern of complete reproductive isolation among the six putative species and show that they are six cryptic species in the B.tabaci complex.

  20. Holocene environment changes around the Sara Us River, northern China, revealed by optical dating of lacustrine-aeolian sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Sheng, Yongwei; Li, Bo; Fan, Yuxin

    2016-04-01

    The Sara Us River is located along the boundary of the Mu Us Desert and the Chinese Loess Plateau in northern China. The river has cut down through Quaternary sediments creating 70-80 m deep valleys with thick lacustrine/aeolian sequences exposed. We applied optical stimulated luminescence on sediments from a Holocene section of aeolian sand/lacustrine deposits in the top of the river valley. The dating results show that a humid period existed from 7.1 to 2.0 ka ago as evidenced by two layers of peat and lacustrine sediments. However, compared to other published Holocene sections in the Sara Us River valleys close to the section under studying, the local environment experienced very complicated changes during the Holocene. All of the sections recorded a period with drought and/or cold before the Holocene at around 13 ka, and an episode of aridity after about 2 ka ago as evidenced by the layers of aeolian sand. However, the ages of the lacustrine and peat layers in these sections are substantially different. Geomorphological analysis by digital elevation models does not support the existence of a mega lake covering the study area at 2 ka. The intricate environmental changes may have been caused by the meandering of the Sara Us River. Environmental changes also strongly affected human migration in this area, which is documented by Chinese historical records.

  1. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution.

  2. 3D seismic interpretation of subsurface eruptive centers in a Permian large igneous province, Tazhong Uplift, central Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiangfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Guan, Da; Zhu, Beibei; Yuan, Liansheng; Xiang, Xuemei; Su, Jinbao; He, Jingwen; Wu, Xinhui

    2015-12-01

    A 1445-km2 high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset is used to analyze the Permian large igneous province in the subsurface of the Tazhong area in the central Tarim Basin in northwestern China. Constrained by the synthetic seismograms of four wells, the top and base of the igneous rocks were identified in the seismic data. Seven large volcanic craters, each >10 km2 in area, have been discovered via the application of coherency and amplitude attributes. The thickness and volume of the igneous rocks were obtained by time-depth transformation. In the study area, all of the igneous rocks, with thicknesses from 120 to 1133 m, were formed by eruptions in the Early Permian. These events produced huge erupted volumes (178 km3) and multiple closely spaced volcanic edifices (eruptive center of the Permian igneous rocks in the Tarim Basin.

  3. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease. PMID:25877652

  4. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  5. Structure of the crust and uppermost mantle from broadband seismic array in the western Dabie Mountains, east central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; WANG LiangShu; LI Cheng; LIU FuTian; HU DeZhao; YU DaYong

    2009-01-01

    A broadband seismic array of 7 stations was set up in the western Dabie Mountains (31°20′-31°50′N, 114°30′-115°E). Teleseismic events from May 2001 to November 2001 were collected and analyzed by radial receiver function to determine the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. The crustal thickness is 32-38 km beneath the array. The crust-mantle boundary appears as a gently north-dipping velocity discontinuity, but turns to be a velocity gradient beneath a station near the Qiliping shear zone in the south of the array. In the north of the array, a large offset of 4-6 km exists in the Moho along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, suggesting a suture zone formed by the northward subduction of the Yangtze plate beneath the North China plate. Along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, a north-dipping, EW-striking low-velocity zone was observed in the upper mantle, which may be related to the collision boundary between the Yangtze and the North China plates in the Triassic. Therefore the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone is the southern boundary of suture zone between the Yangtze and the North China plates. In the south of the array, a high-velocity body in the lower crust near the Qiliping shear zone probably results from the underpiate of mafic magma into the lower crust, which is generally associated with large-scale extension triggered by delamination of the thickened crust.

  6. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusheng Wan; Runlong Fan; Huiyi Sun; Xianzheng Zhao; Zejiu Wang; Dunyi Liu; Alfred Kröner; Chunyan Dong; Hangqian Xie; Yuansheng Geng; Yuhai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The Central Hebei Basin (CHB) is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeastesouthwest direction with an area of>350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedi-mentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1) and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1) have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41e2.51 and w2.5 Ga, respec-tively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher SREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Yb)n values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5) mainly contain w2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins haveεHf (2.5 Ga) values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, w2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  7. Molybdenite Re-Os and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Xihuashan tungsten deposit, central Nanling district, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui-Zhong; Wei, Wen-Feng; Bi, Xian-Wu; Peng, Jian-Tang; Qi, You-Qiang; Wu, Li-Yan; Chen, You-Wei

    2012-10-01

    The Xihuashan tungsten deposit in the central Nanling region, South China, is an important vein-type ore deposit hosted in Cambrian strata and Mesozoic granitic intrusions. Wolframite and molybdenite are the principal ore minerals. The gangue minerals are mainly quartz and muscovite. Wolframite and molybdenite are products of the first stage hydrothermal activity, whereas muscovite formed dominantly at the second stage. Molybdenite Re-Os and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar dating have been carried out to investigate the age of mineralization. Re-Os isotopic dating for molybdenite associated with wolframite yield a precise, well-constrained isochron age of 157.8 ± 0.9 Ma (MSWD = 1.5). Ar-Ar isotopic analyses of muscovite yield a plateau age of 152.8 ± 1.6 Ma, in agreement with an inverse isochron age of 152.8 ± 1.6 Ma, which is ~ 5 mys younger than the Re-Os age. The molybdenite Re-Os age is interpreted as the age of tungsten mineralization. This age coincides well with the zircon U-Pb age of the host granitic intrusion reported previously. The ~ 5 mys difference between molybdenite Re-Os and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages probably represents the duration of hydrothermal activity. The results show that the Xihuashan tungsten deposit is one of many important tungsten-tin deposits formed during 150 to 160 Ma associated with large-scale lithospheric extension in South China.

  8. GLOBALIZATION AND RESPONSE OF LARGE STATED OWNED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL RELATED INDUS TRIES: COMPANY CASE STUDIES FROM CENTRAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiao-jian

    2001-01-01

    [1]AMIN A, THRIFT N, 1994. Globalization, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe [M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[2]CHEN A, 1998. Inertia in reforming China′s state-owned enterprises: the case of Chongqing [J]. World Development, 26(3): 479-495.[3]CFTGC (China First Tractor Group Co. Ltd. ), 2000. A Report of the Impact of China′s Entry to WTO on CFTGC [R] . CFFGC.[4]DICKEN P, 1998. Global Shift: Transforming the World Economy [M]. 3rd ed. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd.[5]DONG Fu-reng, TANG Zong-kun, DU Hai-yan eds., 1995. Institutional Reform of China′ s Stated Owned Enterprises [M].Beijing: People′s Press. (in Chinese)[6]HARLAND C M, 1995. Networks and Globalization: A Review of Research [M]. Warwick Business School, University of Warwick.[7]HIRSCHMAN A O, 1958. The Strategy of Economic Development [M]. Yale University Press, New Haven.[8]LI Shan-tong, ZAI Fan, XU Lin, 2000. Impact on China′s economy after membership of WTO [J]. World Economy 2:3-14.[9]LI Wen-yan, LU Da-dao (eds.), 1995. Industrial Geography of China [M]. Beijing and New York: Science Press.[10]LI Xiao-jian, 1998: Enterprise reform and its impact on regional development: the ease of Henan Province [J]. Economic Geography 18(3): 1-6. (in Chinese)[11]LI Xiao-jian, 1999. Foreign direct investment and its impact on economic development of Coastal China [J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 54(5): 420-430. (in Chinese)[12]LI Xiao-jian, 2000. Institutional reform of state-owned enterprises. In: LU Da-dao et al. (ed.). China Regional Development Report 1999 [C]. Beijing: Commercial Press. (in Chinese)[13]LI Xiao-jian, YEUNG Y M, 1998. Transnational corporations and theirimpact onregional economi cdevelopment: evidence from China [J]. Third World Planning Reviem 20(4): 351-373.[14]LI Xiao-jian, YEUNG Y M, 1999. Inter-firm linkages and regional impact of transnational corporations: company case studies from Shanghai, China [J

  9. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  10. Multi-stage metasomatism revealed by trace element and Li isotope distributions in minerals of peridotite xenoliths from Allègre volcano (French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; Deloule, Etienne; France, Lydéric; Ingrin, Jannick

    2016-11-01

    The modal, chemical, and isotopic compositions of mantle peridotite are largely modified by metasomatic processes, which may affect them repeatedly. Xenoliths are commonly used to characterize those metasomatic processes along with the structure, and chemical and isotopic compositions of mantle domains. Nevertheless, the original mantle signatures born by mantle xenoliths are potentially obscured by the interactions occurring between the host magma and the xenolith itself. Here we attempt to identify to which degree the original Li content and isotopic composition, as well as other trace element contents of mantle xenoliths, can be modified by interaction with the host magma. Peridotite xenoliths that have suffered extensive exchange with the entraining magma were sampled in the solidified lava lake of Allègre, Southern French Massif Central, in order to decipher the signature related to peridotite-melt interaction, and to further unravel the evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. In-situ trace element analyses of clinopyroxene (Cpx) were performed via LA-ICP-MS, and the Li content and isotopic composition of pyroxene and olivine (Ol) via SIMS. Negative HFSE anomalies (Ti/Eu ratios as low as 437) and markedly high LREE/HREE ratios ((La/Yb)N as high as 79) are characteristic of mantle metasomatism at depth. Lithium isotope systematics indicates that at least two different metasomatic events affected the peridotite. Exceptionally high Li contents in Cpx (up to 50 ppm) and slight Li enrichment of Ol rims are ascribed to diffusive Li influx with a positive δ7Li value (+ 3.2‰) from the host magma after entrainment. Conversely, Ol cores preserve extremely light Li isotopic compositions (δ7Li as low as - 25‰) with high Li contents (up to 4.4 ppm) compared to normal mantle, indicating a metasomatic event that occurred before xenolith entrainment. The negative δ7Li signature of this early metasomatism may be related to subduction-related fluids

  11. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  12. The North Maladeta Fault (Spanish Central Pyrenees) as the Vielha 1923 earthquake seismic source: Recent activity revealed by geomorphological and geophysical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, M.; Queralt, P.; Martí, A.; Ledo, J.; Masana, E.; Perea, H.; Santanach, P.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Central Pyrenees have been the scenario of at least two damaging earthquakes in the last 800 years. Analysis of macroseismic data of the most recent one, the Vielha earthquake (19 November 1923), has led to the identification of the North Maladeta Fault (NMF) as the seismic source of the event. This E-W trending fault defines the northern boundary of the Maladeta Batholith and corresponds to a segment of the Alpine Gavarnie thrust fault. Our study shows that the NMF offsets a reference Neogene peneplain. The maximum observed vertical displacement is ˜ 730 m, with the northern downthrown sector slightly tilting towards the South. This offset provides evidence of normal faulting and together with the presence of tectonic faceted spurs allowed us to geomorphically identify a fault trace of 17.5 km. This length suggests that a maximum earthquake of Mw = 6.5 ± 0.66 could occur in the area. The geomorphological study was improved with a resistivity model obtained at Prüedo, where a unique detritic Late Miocene sequence crops out adjacent to the NMF. The section is made up of 13 audiomagnetotelluric soundings along a 1.5 km transect perpendicular to the fault trace at Prüedo and reveals the structure in depth, allowing us to interpret the Late Miocene deposits as tectonically trapped basin deposits associated with normal faulting of the NMF. The indirect age of these deposits has been constrained between 11.1 and 8.7 Ma, which represents a minimum age for the elevated Pyrenean peneplain in this part of the Pyrenees. Therefore, we propose the maximum vertical dip-slip rate for the NMF to be between 0.06 and 0.08 mm/a. Normal faulting in this area is attributed to the vertical lithospheric stress associated with the thickened Pyrenean crust.

  13. 中国中心城市武汉出台系列政策扩大开放%Central China city issues policies on further opening to outside world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Wuhan,capital city of Central China's Hubei Province, will adopt strong measures with a view to opening to the outside world ,Ruan Chengfa, mayor of the city announced. According to the policy, foreign-invested enterprises can gain as high as RMB600,00 in bonus from the Chinese Government for making additional investment and expanding production in Wuhan.

  14. Magma Mixing for the Origin of the Granites. Geochemistry, Sr-Nd Isotopic, Zircon U-Pb Dating and Hf Isotopic Evidences from the Triassic Mishuling Monzonitic Granite and Its Enclaves, Qinling Orogen (Central China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiang-feng; LAI Shao-cong; DIWU Chun-rong; JU Yin-juan; LI Yong-fei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Major and trace element, whole rock Sr-Nd isotope, mineral chemistry, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope compositions are reported for a suite of I-type monzogranite and its marie microgranular enclaves from the Triassic (210±2 Ma) Mishuling pluton, Qinling orogen, central China, with the aim of investigating the sources and petrogenesis of I-type granites.

  15. Geochemical evidence for origin of magma mixing for the Triassic monzonitic granite and its enclaves at Mishuling in the Qinling orogen (central China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiangfeng; Lai, Shaocong; Grapes, Rodney; Diwu, Chunrong; Ju, Yinjuan; Li, Yongfei

    2009-10-01

    Whole-rock major-trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes, mineral chemistry, and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope compositions are reported for I-type monzogranite and its mafic microgranular enclaves from the Triassic Mishuling granite in the Qinling orogen, central China. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an age of 212 ± 5 Ma for the mafic enclaves and 213 ± 3 Ma for the host monzogranite. Whole-rock major-trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopes and zircon Hf isotopes preclude simple crystal fractionation or restite unmixing for a genetic link between the enclaves and the monzogranite. Mixing between mafic and felsic magmas is compatible with the geochemical data. The monzogranite displays an enriched LILE and LREE pattern, high ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i ratios of 0.7068 to 0.7071 and low ɛNd( t) values of - 9.2 to - 5.7, suggesting a crustal origin. Its high Mg# (47.6 to 50.7), Cr and Ni contents clearly indicate its derivation from mafic refractory lower crust. Most of the zircons in the monzogranite have negative ɛHf( t) values of - 12.5 to - 0.1 and two-stage Hf model ages of 1049 to 1683 Ma, and some zircons in the host monzogranite have positive ɛHf( t) values of 0.3 to 4.8 and single-stage Hf model ages of 665 to 845 Ma. This indicates that the monzogranite is most likely to be formed by partial melting of a Proterozoic lower continental crust. The mafic enclaves have fine-grained igneous textures and contain abundant acicular apatite that indicates rapid cooling. They also have a high ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i ratio of 0.7071 and a low ɛNd( t) value of - 6.5, suggesting a derivation from ancient subcontinental lithosphere mantle (SCLM). Zircons in the mafic microgranular enclaves have ɛHf( t) values of - 1.6 to 5.1 and single-stage Hf model ages of 700 to 910 Ma, suggesting a possible origin from partial melting of the Neoproterozoic SCLM that may form in association with contemporaneously supercontinental rifting in the South China Block. Therefore, the Mishuling I-type granite may form by

  16. Precise molybdenite Re-Os and mica Ar-Ar dating of the Mesozoic Yaogangxian tungsten deposit, central Nanling district, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiantang; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Hu, Ruizhong; Shen, Nengping; Yuan, Shunda; Bi, Xianwu; Du, Andao; Qu, Wenjun

    2006-10-01

    The Yaogangxian deposit in the central Nanling region, South China consists of vein-type ore bodies hosted in Cambrian to Jurassic strata and Mesozoic granitic intrusions. Wolframite and molybdenite are the dominant ore minerals intergrown with gangue minerals of quartz, feldspar, phlogopite, and muscovite. We have carried out molybdenite Re-Os and phlogopite and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar dating to better understand the timing and genesis of mineralization. Re-Os dating of eight molybdenite samples yielded model ages ranging from 152.0±3.5 to 161.1±4.5 Ma, with an average of 156.0 Ma. The Re-Os analyses give a well-defined 187Re/187Os isochron with an age of 154.9±2.6 Ma (MSWD=2.4). Hydrothermal phlogopite and muscovite display extremely flat 40Ar/39Ar age spectra. Phlogopite yields a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 153.0±1.1 Ma, whereas muscovite yields a plateau age of 155.1±1.1 Ma. Both 40Ar/39Ar ages are in good agreement with the Re-Os ages, placing the timing of tungsten mineralization at about 154 Ma. This age is consistent with the field relationships. Our new data, when combined with published geochronological results from other major deposits in this region, suggest that large scale W-Sn mineralization occurred throughout the central Nanling region in the Late Jurassic.

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  18. Analysis on Sports Traveling's SWOT of the Central China City Group in the Period of Central China Economic Zone Constru%中原经济区建设时期中原城市群体育旅游的SWOT分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟方; 岳贤锋

    2011-01-01

    This paper used the method of SWOT to make analysis on the sport traveling development of central China city group.It points out that central China city group has advantages in aspect of position,resource and environment and disadvantages in aspect of mar%运用SWOT法对中原城市群体育旅游发展进行了分析,指出中原城市群在区位、资源、环境方面具有优势,在市场规模、开发深度和竞争力方面具有劣势,政府的重视和武术旅游热为其提供了发展机遇,而对手的强大和自身品牌的不成熟是其面临的巨大挑战。在此基础上,寻求中原城市群体育旅游资源整合、开发的策略,以促进中原城市群体育旅游业的健康、良性发展。

  19. Energy consumption and environmental changes in rural China. Case studies from three counties in Central China (Pingyi), in Inner Mongolia (Zhenglanqi) and in Tibet (Taktse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to broaden the model-theoretic and empirical knowledge on energetic geographic development processes. Therefore household surveys collected in three rural and penalized regions of China. The main focus of this survey is on the energy ladder model, postulating a higher degree of energetic sustainability when the income of population is rising. This survey tries to verify the model or rather point out parameters which cause regular deviations from the model. The model must consider regional, cultural and political characteristics coevally. The core of this survey is a data collection in 180 households. Besides demographic and microeconomic information the data collection particularly provides data on energy consumption (energy mix, energy efficiency, future energy-preferences etc.). Last but not least the environmental impacts of energetic use are determined by the appraisals of the concerned households. The descriptive and correlative data analysis provides insightful data for the following four explored sectors (1) ''socio-economic situation'', (2) ''energy use'', (3) ''environmental awareness'' and (4) ''demanded support''. The analysis allows conclusions on three different levels: a. A highly sophisticated picture of the selected regions emerges, that is presented by a multiple analogy among each other. b. The overall data afford an overview of interactions between the essential parameters of the study: Those are energy use, energy efficiency, access to energy, environmental behavior, health and education. c. On the basis of those two levels the following modification of the model is devised: The peripheral location, the cultural situation and the interventions from government as well as from civil society are parameters that significantly codetermine the choice for energy sources in rural areas. The analysis of demanded support in the energy sector as well as the conclusions of the families on environmental awareness establishes the basis for a

  20. Simulating experiments for the deformation and microstructures of granite in the central part of the Jiangnan Belt, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒良树; 孙岩

    1996-01-01

    The simulating experiments of deformation for fresh granite samples from central part of the Jiangnan Belt under a Three Axes Stress Experimental Machine are reported, by which plenty of deformed microstructures from brittle to ductile corresponding to different temperatures and pressures have been obtained. Experiments suggest that additives of fluid (NaCl saturated solution) and setting shear plane for a sample before experiment can lower the temperature and wall pressure and shorten the experimental time from undeformation to mylonitizition. The experimental results provide some important evidence for origin mechanism and formation conditions of natural mylonitic granite.

  1. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  2. Late Carboniferous N-MORB-type basalts in central Inner Mongolia, China: Products of hydrous melting in an intraplate setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Feng, Yue-Xing; Wang, Yan-Yang; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liao, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Petrogenesis of the ca. 310 Ma Benbatu basalts in central Inner Mongolia is crucial for constraining the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The Benbatu basalts have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7042-0.7048), positive εNd(t) (+ 8.99 to + 9.24) and εHf(t) values (+ 15.38 to + 15.65), and are characterized by relatively flat rare earth element patterns and enrichment of Rb, U, Pb, Zr and Hf, but depletion of Nb, Ta, Sr and Ti, resembling those of the normal Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt (N-MORB). Variations of trace element ratios (e.g., Sm/Yb and La/Sm) suggest that the basalts were derived from spinel peridotites, with a melting depth of importance of the deep-Earth recycling water in the generation of the Late Carboniferous magmatism in this region.

  3. Energy performance assessment on central air-conditioning system of commercial building:A case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周璇; 练斯甄; 闫军威; 康英姿

    2015-01-01

    Energy performance assessment on central air-conditioning system is essential to optimize operating, reduce operating costs, improve indoor environmental quality, and determine whether the retrofitting of the equipment is necessary. But it is difficult to evaluate it reasonably and comprehensively due to its complexity.A “holistic” approach was discussed to evaluate the energy performance of central air-conditioning system for an extra-large commercial building in a subtropical city. All procedures were described in detail, including field investigation method, field measurement instruments, data processing and data analyzing. The main factors affecting energy consumption of air-conditioning system were analyzed and the annual cooling-energy use intensity of this building was calculated and also compared with other shopping malls and other types of buildings in Guangzhou. And COP (coefficient of performance) of chiller, water transfer factor of chilled water system and cooling water system were taken into consideration. At last, the thermal comfort and indoor air quality issues were addressed. The results show that the chilled water pumps are over-sized and the indoor environmental quality should be improved. The purpose of this work is to provide reference for energy performance assessment method for air-conditioning system.

  4. Disparity in reimbursement for tuberculosis care among different health insurance schemes: evidence from three counties in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Pan; Shanquan Chen; Manli Chen; Pei Zhang; Qian Long; Li Xiang; Henry Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Background:Health inequity is an important issue all around the world.The Chinese basic medical security system comprises three major insurance schemes,namely the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI),the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI),and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS).Little research has been conducted to look into the disparity in payments among the health insurance schemes in China.In this study,we aimed to evaluate the disparity in reimbursements for tuberculosis (TB) care among the abovementioned health insurance schemes.Methods:This study uses a World Health Organization (WHO) framework to analyze the disparities and equity relating to the three dimensions of health insurance:population coverage,the range of services covered,and the extent to which costs are covered.Each of the health insurance scheme's policies were categorized and analyzed.An analysis of the claims database of all hospitalizations reimbursed from 2010 to 2012 in three counties of Yichang city (YC),which included 1506 discharges,was conducted to identify the differences in reimbursement rates and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses among the health insurance schemes.Results:Tuberculosis patients had various inpatient expenses depending on which scheme they were covered by (TB patients covered by the NCMS have less inpatient expenses than those who were covered by the URBMI,who have less inpatient expenses than those covered by the UEBMI).We found a significant horizontal inequity of healthcare utilization among the lower socioeconomic groups.In terms of financial inequity,TB patients who earned less paid more.The NCMS provides modest financial protection,based on income.Overall,TB patients from lower socioeconomic groups were the most vulnerable.Conclusion:There are large disparities in reimbursement for TB care among the three health insurance schemes and this,in turn,hampers TB control.Reducing the gap in health outcomes between the three health insurance

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of shallow groundwater quality in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Excessive agriculture-sourced N leaching into shallow groundwater has deteriorated the domestic water quality in rural China. To effectively prevent the above environmental contamination issue, it is an essential prerequisite of exploring the spatio-temporal variability (stV) of the groundwater quality. In this study, a large observation program was deployed to observe ammonium-N (NH4N), nitrate-N (NO3N) and total N (TN) concentrations in 194 groundwater observation wells (1.5 m deep from soil surface) from April 2010 to November 2012 in the Jinjing river catchment in Hunan Province of China. A logit function was applied to transform NH4N, NO3N and TN data for normality; the resultant variables were thus named as NH4Nt, NO3Nt and TNt, respectively. A spatio-temporal semivariogram model in a sum-metric form was used to quantify the stV of NH4Nt, NO3Nt and TNt. The results indicated that the 33-month means ± standard deviations of the NH4N, NO3N and TN concentrations were 0.75±0.10, 1.60±0.19 and 2.99±0.29 mg N L-1, respectively. NH4Nt and NO3Nt exhibited a strong spatio-temporal dependence, while TNt only presented a strong temporal structure. Spatio-temporal ordinary kriging (stOK) was applied to predict the spatio-temporal distributions of NH4N, NO3N and TN over the catchment. The cross-validation results indicated that the stOK predictions for NH4N (r=0.48, RMSE=1.11 mg N L-1), NO3N (r=0.46, RMSE=1.21 mg N L-1) outperformed that for TN (r=0.29, RMSE=2.11 mg N L-1). Referenced to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93), the proportions of areas contaminated by NH4N, NO3N and TN in the catchment over a 33-month period were 20.5%, 1.46%, and 5.07%, respectively. Our findings suggested that the Jinjing groundwater was mainly polluted by NH4N, which is probably attributed to the intensive rice agriculture featured with high urea fertilizer applications in the catchment.

  6. A Clinical Analysis of Tooth Size Discrepancy (Bolton Index) among Orthodontic Patients in Wuhan of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philipos Tadesse; Handong ZHANG; Xiaosi LONG; Lili CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the total Bolton index (TBI) and anterior Bolton index (ABI), evaluate the clinical significance of tooth size discrepancies and the influence of gender variation of mesiodistal tooth width on Bolton Index and estimate which tooth has the greatest influence on Bolton Index. A total of 110 pairs of pretreatment dental study casts (41 male and 69female) were selected from patients treated in Department of Orthodontics of Union Hospital in Wuhan, China. A sliding dental Vernier caliper was used for the measurement of the mesiodistal tooth width. Descriptive statistical mean values, standard deviation, standard error of the mean values, coefficient of variance and the t-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. The study found that TBI, ABI and the total sum of teeth width had no significant difference between male and female.Male group indicated that Bolton Index (BI) was mostly influenced by the width of lower right second premolar, whereas female group showed that BI was mostly influenced by the width of both the right and left maxillary lateral incisor.

  7. Preliminary assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments from Honghu Lake,East Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying HU; Shihua QI; Chenxi WU; Yanping KE; Jing CHEN; Wei CHEN; Xiangyi GONG

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface water and sediments collected from Honghu Lake in Hubei Province,China were analyzed,and ecological risks were evaluated according to the sediment quality guidelines.The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were ranked as:As > Zn >Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg.In comparison with results reported in other rivers and the background values,The Honghu Lake was polluted by As,Cr,Pb,Cu and Ni.Most of metals might be mainly from fertilizers,industrial effluent and domestic wastewater around the lake.Heavy metals concentrations were relatively higher in the inlet area than in other areas.Negative correlations were observed between most heavy metals and pH,while a significant positive correlation was present between Zn,Cd and Pb.In the sediment core,Cu,Zn,Cr and Ni showed a decreasing trend while Cd present an increasing trend.The decrease of As,Cu,Zn,Cr and Ni in the 1990s might due to the flood event in 1998.The analysis of ecological risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines suggested that heavy metals in most sediments from the Honghu Lake had moderate toxicity,with Cr being the highest priority pollutant.

  8. Tectonic Affinity, T-t Path and Uplift Trajectory of Eclogites from Northern Dabie Mountains, Central-Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Petrologic geochemistry and isotopic chronology of the eclogites suggest that most of the eclogites in northern Dabie Mountains produced from the Triassic Yangtze subducted continental crust (lower crust and formed during the deep subduction) and the metamorphosed mafic-untramafic belt with eclogite, marble and meta-peridotite blocks around the Mozitan-Xiaotian fault zone may represent the meta-tectonic melange produced during the active subduction of an ancient oceanic slab and subsequent collision between the Yangtze and North China continental plates. The cooling history of the eclogites from ~900 ℃ to 300 ℃ can be subdivided into three stages: one isothermal stage and two rapid cooling stages. The initial stage between (230±6) and 210 Ma was a near-isothermal or temperature rise process corresponding to the retrograded metamorphism of granulite-facies with a rapid uplift of 4 nun/a, then two fast cooling stages occurred with cooling rate of ~10 ℃/Ma during 210 Ma to (172±3) Ma and ~4 ℃/Ma during (172±3) Ma to 130 Ma. After the peak metamorphism of eclogite-facies, their initial isothermal stage with slower uplift rate and cooling rate and high-T overprinting of granulite-facies metamorphism is the major difference between the eciogites in northern Dabie Mountains from those in southern Dabie Mountains. This may be one of the most important reasons to preserve few evidences of earlier ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism.

  9. Preliminary assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments from Honghu Lake, East Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Wu, Chenxi; Ke, Yanping; Chen, Jing; Chen, Wei; Gong, Xiangyi

    2012-03-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface water and sediments collected from Honghu Lake in Hubei Province, China were analyzed, and ecological risks were evaluated according to the sediment quality guidelines. The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were ranked as: As>Zn> Cu>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cd>Hg. In comparison with results reported in other rivers and the background values, The Honghu Lake was polluted by As, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni. Most of metals might be mainly from fertilizers, industrial effluent and domestic wastewater around the lake. Heavy metals concentrations were relatively higher in the inlet area than in other areas. Negative correlations were observed between most heavy metals and pH, while a significant positive correlation was present between Zn, Cd and Pb. In the sediment core, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni showed a decreasing trend while Cd present an increasing trend. The decrease of As, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni in the 1990s might due to the flood event in 1998. The analysis of ecological risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines suggested that heavy metals in most sediments from the Honghu Lake had moderate toxicity, with Cr being the highest priority pollutant.

  10. Deceit pollination and the effect of deforestation on reproduction in dioecious Schisandra sphenanthera (Schisandraceae) in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei DU; Lan-Jie HUANG; Xiao-Fan WANG

    2012-01-01

    The fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera (dioecious) are used to produce ‘Nan-Wuweizi',an important Chinese medicine.However,long-term exploitation and habitat destruction have threatened these plants in nature.Knowledge of the reproductive biology ofS.sphenanthera is essential to help formulate a conservation strategy for these plants.Field studies were conducted at Jigong Mountain (JGM) and Jinji Valley (JJV) in Henan and Hubei Provinces,China.The reproductive biology of S.sphenanthera was analyzed at these sites,including population structure,pollination,floral morphology,and natural fruit set.The 11 populations at two sites were male biased.The primary floral visitors were gall midges (Resseliella sp.,Cecidomyiidae; Diptera) and thrips (Thripsflavidulus;Thysanoptera).Floral visitor exclusion experiments and pollen load analysis indicate that gall midges are the primary pollinators.Pollen was the only floral reward for the gall midges.Female flowers attracted pollinators using deceit.The natural fruit set ratio in the cut forest site (JJV) was significantly lower than that at the JGM site,where habitats of S.sphenanthera were well preserved.This indicates that the life cycles of S.sphenanthera and the pollinating insects are vulnerable in disturbed (or cut) habitats.

  11. Ichnofabrics and Their Environmental Interpretation from the Fluvial Deposits of the Middle Triassic Youfangzhuang Formation in Western Henan, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Yongan Qi; Da Li; Mingyue Dai; Yuguang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial deposits from the Middle Triassic Youfangzhuang Formation in Henan Province, China contain a low-diversity trace fossils. Vertical dwelling burrows of opportunists dominate in active channel, whereas horizontal deposit-feeding, grazing, and vertical dwelling burrows occur in overbank deposits. Seven recurrent ichnofabrics were distingushed. The Palaeophycus tubularis ichnofabric pre-serves below scour interface between two fluvial cycles. The Skolithos linearis ichnofabric forms in middle to high-energy, soft substrates in the middle and upper parts of active channel deposits under semi-arid climate. The Skolithos linearis-Planolites montanus ichnofabric occurs in the sediments just a little above the Skolithos linearis ichnofabric and is formed in middle-energy, soft substrates in the up-per part of active channel deposits. The Planolites montanus ichnofabric is mostly preserved in associa-tion with medium- to thick-bedded brown-red silty mudstones or siltstones in low-energy, perennial muddy bottom ponds in overbank settings. The Taenidium barretti ichnofabric is interpreted as peri-odically exposed ephemeral ponds or low-energy distal floodplain. The Skolithos isp. ichnofabric com-monly occurs in middle to high-energy firm ground of proximal foodplain or crevasse-splay deposits. The root trace ichnofabric occurs in the crevasse splay deposits. The presence of thin palaeosols and the abundance of calcretization in mudstones indicate a seasonal climate ranging from humid to semi-arid, with high temperature, rainfall, and well-defined dry and wet seasons.

  12. Effects of Conservation Tillage on Topsoil Microbial Metabolic Characteristics and Organic Carbon within Aggregates under a Rice (Oryza sativa L.-Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cropping System in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jin Guo

    Full Text Available Investigating microbial metabolic characteristics and soil organic carbon (SOC within aggregates and their relationships under conservation tillage may be useful in revealing the mechanism of SOC sequestration in conservation tillage systems. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregate fractions under conservation tillage. We hypothesized that close relationships can exist between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregates under conservation tillage. In this study, a field experiment was conducted from June 2011 to June 2013 following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT and no tillage (NT] as main plots and straw returning methods [preceding crop residue returning (S, 2100-2500 kg C ha-1 and removal (NS, 0 kg C ha(-1] as subplots with three replications. The objective of this study was to reveal the effects of tillage practices and residue-returning methods on topsoil microbial metabolic characteristics and organic carbon (SOC fractions within aggregates and their relationships under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Microbial metabolic characteristics investigated using the Biolog system was examined within two aggregate fractions (>0.25 and 0.25 aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate (11.3%, and 0.25 mm aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate, and 0.25 and 0.25 mm aggregate in the upper (0-5 cm soil layer under conservation tillage systems, as well as directly and indirectly by promoting DOC and MBC in <0.25 mm aggregate. Our results suggested that conservation tillage increased SOC in aggregates in the topsoil by improving microbial metabolic activities.

  13. Reducing False Alarms of Annual Forecast in the Central China North-South Seismic Belt by Reverse Tracing of Precursors (RTP) Using the Pattern Informatics (PI) `Hotspots'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfeng; Wu, Zhongliang; Jiang, Changsheng

    2016-05-01

    The annual consultation on the likelihood of earthquakes in the next year, the `Annual Consultation Meeting', has been one of the most important forward forecast experiments organized by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) since the 1970s, in which annual alarm regions are identified by an expert panel considering multi-disciplinary `anomalies'. In such annual forecasts, one of the problems in need of further technical solution is its false alarms. To tackle this problem, the concept of `reverse tracing of precursors (RTP)' is used to the annual consultation, as a temporal continuation and spatial extension of the work of Zuc(hao) et al. (Pure Appl Geophys 167:783-800, 2010). The central China north-south seismic belt (in connection to the CSEP testing region) is selected as the testing region of such an approach. Applying the concept of RTP, for an annual alarm region delineated by the Annual Consultation Meeting, the distribution of `hotspots' of the pattern informatics (PI), which targets the 5-year-scale seismic hazard, is considered. The `hit', or successful forecast, of the annual seismic hazard is shown to be related to the sufficient coverage of the `hotspots' within the annual alarm region. The ratio of the areas of the `hotspots' over the whole area of the annual alarm region is thus used to identify the false alarms which have few `hotspots'. The results of the years 2004-2012 show that using a threshold of 17 % can reduce 34 % (13 among 38) of the false alarms without losing the successful hit (being 6 in that period).

  14. The First paleomagnetic study from Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia, China and its implication for the evolution of Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block (NCB) and Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue and geodynamical models remain speculative. As an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on Paleozoic formations in Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia (China). Despite the indigent outcrop conditions to collect reliable samples over a three-year period, we present the first paleomagnetic data for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanoclastic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. AMS measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for IMB at: λ=46.8°N, φ=349.1°E, dp=14.6°, dm=27.3° with N=3 and λ=49.5°N, φ=0.0°E, dp=6.2°, dm=11.0° with N=5, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB and Siberia indicates that (1) paleolatitude of IMB, NCB and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity; (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  15. Nebela jiuhuensis nov. sp. (Amoebozoa; Arcellinida; Hyalospheniidae): A New Member of the Nebela saccifera - equicalceus - ansata Group Described from Sphagnum Peatlands in South-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmin; Man, Baiying; Kosakyan, Anush; Lara, Enrique; Gu, Yansheng; Wang, Hongmei; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2016-09-01

    Hyalospheniids are among the most common and conspicuous testate amoebae in high-latitude peatlands and forest humus. These testate amoebae were widely studied as bioindicators and are increasingly used as models in microbial biogeography. However, data on their diversity and ecology are still very unevenly distributed geographically: notably, data are lacking for low-latitude peatlands. We describe here a new species, Nebela jiuhuensis, from peatlands near the Middle Yangtze River reach of south-central China with characteristic morphology. The test (shell) has hollow horn-like lateral extensions also found in N. saccifera, N. equicalceus (=N. hippocrepis), and N. ansata, three large species restricted mostly to Sphagnum peatlands of Eastern North America. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) data confirm that N. jiuhuensis is closely related to the morphologically very similar North American species N. saccifera and more distantly to N. ansata within the N. penardiana group. These species are all found in wet mosses growing in poor fens. Earlier reports of morphologically similar specimens found in South Korea peatlands suggest that N. jiuhuensis may be distributed in comparable peatlands in Eastern Asia (China and Korea). The discovery of such a conspicuous new species in Chinese peatlands suggests that many new testate amoebae species are yet to be discovered, including potential regional endemics. Furthermore, human activities (e.g., drainage, agriculture, and pollution) have reduced the known habitat of N. jiuhuensis, which can thus be considered as locally endangered. We, therefore, suggest that this very conspicuous micro-organism with a probably limited geographical distribution and specific habitat requirement should be considered as a flagship species for microbial biogeography as well as local environmental conservation and management. PMID:27593700

  16. Geochronological, geochemical, and Nd-Hf isotopic studies of the Qinling Complex, central China:Implications for the evolutionary history of the North Qinling Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunrong Diwu; Yong Sun; Yan Zhao; BingXiang Liu; Shaocong Lai

    2014-01-01

    The Qinling Complex of central China is thought to be the oldest rock unit and the inner core of the North Qinling Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Therefore, the Qinling Complex is the key to understanding the pre-Paleozoic evolution of the NQOB. The complex, which consists of metagraywackes and marbles, un-derwent regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism. In this study, we constrained the formation age of the Qinling Complex to the period between the late Mesoproterozoic and the early Neoproterozoic (ca. 1062e962 Ma), rather than the Paleoproterozoic as previously thought. The LA-ICP-MS data show two major metamorphic ages (ca. 499 and ca. 420e400 Ma) for the Qinling Complex. The former age is consistent with the peak metamorphic age of the high- and ultra-high pressure (HP-UHP) rocks in the Qinling Complex, indicating that both the HP-UHP rocks and their country rocks experienced intensive regional metamorphism during the Ordovician. The latter age may constrain the time of partial melting in the NQOB between the late Silurian and early Devonian. The Qinling Complex is mostly affiliated with subductioneaccretion processes along an active continental margin, and should contain detritus deposited in a forearc basin. The available data indicate that the NQOB was an independent micro-continent at least prior to the Neoproterozoic, and included a portion of the Grenville orogenic belt during the period of 1.2e0.8 Ga. The NQOB has experienced a unique geological history, which is obviously different from that of the North China Craton (NCC) and the Yangtze Craton during the Precambrian. The Neoproterozoic granitoids that intruded the Qinling Complex can be interpreted as the products of assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. The NQOB was separated from Rodinia at ca. 830e740 Ma. Subsequently, the NQOB moved closer to the northern margin of the NCC, and the initial accretion or collision with the NCC occurred from the late Cambrian to the early Ordovician.

  17. Ecosystem Services Evaluation and Its Spatial Characteristics in Central Asia’s Arid Regions: A Case Study in Altay Prefecture, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Fu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are important foundations to realize the sustainable development of economy and society. The question of how to quantitatively evaluate ecosystem services in a scientific way is a hot topic among international researchers. Studying the spatial characteristics of ecosystem services in arid regions can provide the theoretical and practical basis for coordinating a sustainable man-land relationship. Altay Prefecture of China, a typical arid region in Central Asia, was taken as the study area. It is on the Silk Road economic belt, which is a key region in the program of developing Western China. Three ecosystem services: water yield, soil conservation, and net primary productivity were quantitatively evaluated. The results show that (1 the spatial distribution pattern has a distinct characteristic of zonality; (2 mountain zone and mountain-oasis ecotone are the hotspots of ecosystem services; and (3 the correlation between water yield and net primary productivity shows a gradual increasing trend as altitude decreases. Objective analysis from the aspect of mechanism is given by discussing the causes of this particular pattern. It is found that altitude and slope have great influence on spatial distributions of ecosystem services, zones with the most amount of services are distributed in 1.5–2 km-altitude and 15–25°-slope. Different human activities in different regions and spatial distance decay of ecosystem services also contribute to the formation of spatial pattern. Thus, overgrazing, logging and mining are prohibited in mountain zones and mountain-oasis ecotones. Scholars are encouraged to focus on desert-ecosystem services in the future.

  18. Petrology,Chronology and Isotope Geochemistry of the Proterozoic Amphibolites from Xiangshan,Central Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡恭任; 章邦桐; 等

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of a comprehensive study on the petrology,trace elements and isotopic geochemistry of the Xiangshan amphibolites,we suggest that the protoliths of the amphibolites were basalts formed in an island-arc tectonic setting.The basaltic magma was derived from a slightly depleted mantle source with a small amount of crustal contamination.Assemblage of the rock-froming minerals indicates that these amphibolites underwent a low-grade metamorphism of amphibolite facies.According to the formation age(1113Ma) and subsequent metamophic age(726.6Ma) of the basalts aw well as the geological and gochemical features of these amphibolites,a tectonic model of Proterozoic oceanic island-arc setting is proposed for central Jiangxi.

  19. Late Carboniferous N-MORB-type basalts in central Inner Mongolia, China: Products of hydrous melting in an intraplate setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Feng, Yue-Xing; Wang, Yan-Yang; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liao, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Petrogenesis of the ca. 310 Ma Benbatu basalts in central Inner Mongolia is crucial for constraining the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The Benbatu basalts have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7042-0.7048), positive εNd(t) (+ 8.99 to + 9.24) and εHf(t) values (+ 15.38 to + 15.65), and are characterized by relatively flat rare earth element patterns and enrichment of Rb, U, Pb, Zr and Hf, but depletion of Nb, Ta, Sr and Ti, resembling those of the normal Mid-Ocean-Ridge Basalt (N-MORB). Variations of trace element ratios (e.g., Sm/Yb and La/Sm) suggest that the basalts were derived from spinel peridotites, with a melting depth of basalts from typical arc basalts and back arc basin basalts. The arc-like geochemical signatures (i.e., enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and depletion of Nb and Ta) are attributed to hydrated mantle source that may be caused by fluids released from stagnant oceanic slabs in the mantle transition zone. Integrating geological evidences with geochemical and isotopic features of the Benbatu basalts, we proposed that these basalts were produced under an intraplate extensional setting during the Late Carboniferous. The genesis of the Benbatu basalts therefore argues for the pre-Carboniferous accretion of the XMOB and highlights the importance of the deep-Earth recycling water in the generation of the Late Carboniferous magmatism in this region.

  20. Late Caledonian Ductile Thrusting Deformation in the Central East Kunlun Belt, Qinghai, China and Its Significance: Evidence from Geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guocan; CHEN Nengsong; ZHU Yunhai; ZHANG Kexin

    2003-01-01

    A high-angle ductile thrusting deformation with top-to-the-north movement penetratively developed in theProterozoic-Early Paleozoic metamorphic rocks along the Central East Kunlun belt. The deformed rocks suffered epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. On the basis of our previous study, we present more data in this paper to further supportthat the ductile thrust deformation occurred in the later Caledonian and more detailed information about the deformation.A zircon U-Pb concordant age of 446±2.2 Ma of a deformed granodiorite in the ductile thrust zone was obtained and can beinterpreted as the lower limit of the deformation. A syntectonically crystallized and also strongly deformed hornblende Ar/Ar dating gives an Ar/Ar plateau age of 426.5±3.8 Ma, which represents the deformation age. A strongly orientatedmuscovite gives an Ar/Ar plateau age of 408±1.6Ma, representing the cooling age after the peak temperature, constrainingthe upper limit of the ductile thrust deformation. This ductile thrust deformation can be interpreted as the result of theclosing of the Central East Kunlun archipelago ocean. To the north, Ar/Ar plateau ages of 382.9±0.2 Ma and 386.8±0.8 Maof muscovite in the deformed Xiaomiao Group represent the uplift cooling ages of deeper rocks after the thrustingmovement. The original thrusting foliation has a low angle. A rotation model was put forward to explain the developmentof the foliation from the original low-angle to present high-angle dipping.

  1. Vegetation Control in the Long-term Self-stabilisation of the Liangzhou Oasis of the Upper Shiyang River Watershed of West-central Gansu, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Charles; Hassan, Quazi

    2010-05-01

    Oases are special ecological systems that naturally oppose the encroachment of deserts by staying moist. Oases provide important habitat refugia for plants, animals, and humans alike. Oases in NW China account for only about 5% of the total land area of the region, but give shelter and feed about 95% of the area's growing population. It has been proposed by many scientists and observers of desertification in NW China that rapid economic development in the area is largely unsustainable and is occurring at the very detriment of the oases. This presentation explores the relationship between vegetation in the Liangzhou Oasis in the Upper Shiyang River Watershed (USRW) of west-central Gansu, China, and within-watershed precipitation, soil water storage, and oasis self-support. Oases along the base of the Qilian Mountains receive a significant portion of their water supply (> 90%) from surface and subsurface flow originating from the Qilian Mountains. Investigation of vegetation control on oasis-water conditions in the USRW is based on an application of a process model of soil-water hydrology. The model is used to simulate long-term soil water content in the Liangzhou Oasis as a function of (i) monthly composites of MODIS images of land surface and mean air temperature, (ii) spatiotemporal calculations of monthly precipitation and relative humidity generated with the assistance of genetic algorithms, and (iii) an 80-m resolution digital elevation model of the area. Modelled removal of vegetation is shown to affect within-watershed precipitation and soil water storage by reducing the exchange of water vapour from the land surface to the air, increasing the air's lifting condensation level by promoting drier air conditions, and causing the high-intensity precipitation band in the Qilian Mountains to weaken and to be displaced upward in the watershed, leading to an overall reduction in soil water in the Liangzhou Oasis. Feedback mechanisms of oasis self-support introduced

  2. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of widespread shrub Rhododendron simsii in China reveals multiple glacial refugia during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Hai-Fei YAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeography of common and widespread species can help us to understand the history of local flora and vegetation.Here,we study the semi-evergreen shrub Rhododendron simsii Planch.,which is found in most areas of current evergreen broad leaved forest in China.Two noncoding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions(rpl20-rps12 and trnL-F) and three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer sets (E-AAC/M-CTA,E-AGC/M-CTA and E-AGG/M-CAT) were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern in relation to past (last glacial maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modeling.The cpDNA data revealed four phylogeographic groups (East,South,West,and North groups) corresponding to geographic regions.Molecular dating suggests that lineage diversification within species likely occurred during the mid-to-late Pleistocene.In contrast,the four main cpDNA phylogeographic groups were not supported by the AFLP dataset.The highest likelihood of the AFLP data was obtained when samples were clustered into three groups (K =3).However,these groupings did not correspond to separate geographic regions supported by cpDNA data.Both mismatch distribution analysis and environmental niche modeling (ENM) indicated that multiple glacial refugia were maintained across the range of Rhododendron simsii during the last glacial maximum,contrary to the previous hypothesis that subtropical broad leaved evergreen forests were forced to retreat southward as far as 25°N.The discordance between the patterns revealed by cpDNA and AFLP data indicate that localized postglacial range expansions may facilitate extensive gene flow between the major glacial refugia.

  3. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  4. Human induced dryland degradation in Ordos Plateau, China, revealed by multilevel statistical modeling of normalized difference vegetation index and rainfall time-series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing ZHANG; JianMing NIU; Tongliga BAO; Alexander BUYANTUYEV; Qing ZHANG; JianJun DONG; XueFeng ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation causes serious environmental problems in many regions of the world, and although it can be effectively assessed and monitored using a time series of rainfall and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from remotely-sensed imagery, dividing human-induced land degradation from vegetation dynamics due to climate change is not a trivial task. This paper presented a multilevel statistical modeling of the NDVI-rainfall relationship to detect human-induced land degradation at local and landscape scales in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China, and recognized that anthropogenic activities result in either positive (land restoration and re-vegetation) or negative (degradation) trends. Linear regressions were used to assess the accuracy of the multi-level statistical model. The results show that:(1) land restoration was the dominant process in the Ordos Plateau between 1998 and 2012;(2) the effect of the statistical removal of precipitation revealed areas of human-induced land degradation and improvement, the latter reflecting successful restoration projects and changes in land man-agement in many parts of the Ordos; (3) compared to a simple linear regression, multilevel statistical modeling could be used to analyze the relationship between the NDVI and rainfall and improve the accuracy of detecting the effect of human activities. Additional factors should be included when analyzing the NDVI-rainfall relationship and detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands to improve the accuracy of the approach and elimi-nate some observed non-significant residual trends.

  5. Prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Almost 2 million children die from ARTIs each year, and most of them are from developing countries. The prevalence and correlation of pathogens in ARTIs are poorly understood, but are critical for improving case prevention, treatment, and management. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in children with ARTIs. A total of 39,756 children with one or more symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, herpangina, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, were enrolled in the study. All patients were hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012, and were evaluated for infectious agents. Pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii, were screened simultaneously in patient blood samples using anti-pathogen IgM tests. Regression analysis was used to reveal correlations among the pathogens. Our results showed that one or more pathogens were identified in 10,206 patients, and that Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenoviruses, and influenza B virus were the leading infectious agents. Mixed-infections of pathogens were detected in 2,391 cases, with Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the most frequent pathogen. The most common agents in the co-infections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza B virus. Regression analysis revealed a linear correlation between the proportion of mixed infections and the incidence of multi-pathogen infections. The prevalence of infectious agents in children with ARTIs was determined. Equations were established to estimate multiple infections by single-pathogen detection. This revealed a linear correlation for

  6. 我国中部地区自主创新人才竞争力评价与分析%Evaluation and Analysis on Competitiveness of Independent Innovation Talents in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚莉

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of competitiveness of innovation talents is the key to promote central rise and accelerate industrial structure adjustment and industrial upgrading in central China. Firstly, the paper analyzes a classified index comparison on competitiveness of innovation talents in six provinces of central China by means of efficiency coefficient method. Then it produces a comprehensive evaluation value by comparing with other provinces. Finally, the paper proposes some relevant strategies and measures to promote competitiveness of innovation talents in central China according to the evaluation results.%创新人才竞争力的提高是促进中部崛起、加快中部地区产业结构调整和产业升级的关键.运用功效系数分析法首先对中部六省的创新人才竞争力进行分指标对比,通过与其它省份的比较产生综合评价值,根据评价结果提出提升我国中部地区创新人才竞争力的相应对策与措施.

  7. Carbonate cementation-dissolution in deep-seated sandstones near the overpressure top in central Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi; HE Sheng; WANG Furong; HE Zhiliang; WU Hengzhi; MENG Xianlong

    2009-01-01

    Fluid/rock interaction occurs frequently in the sandstones near the overpressure top in central Junggar Basin, and carbonate cementation-dissolution is related closely to the formation of secondary pores in the reservoir sandstones. From petrological, hydrochemical and fluid-inclusion studies of the deep-seated sandstones near the overpressure top in central Junggar Basin and the carbon and oxygen isotopic characteristics of carbonate cements in those sandstones, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Carbonates are the major cements. Two-stage cemen-tation was commonly developed, with late-stage ferroan carbonate cementation being dominant; several secondary porosity zones were developed vertically in the sandstones near the overpressure top, and there is a mutually com-pensatory relationship between the carbonate contents and the mean porosity; (2) the alkalescent formation-water chemical environments are in favor of carbonate precipitation; (3) there were two phases of thermal fluid activity which are related to the late-stage carbonate cementation-dissolution; (4) with the overpressure top as the boundary, carbonate cements in the sandstones have slightly negative δ13C and δ180 values, showing such a variation trend that the δ13C and δ18O values near the coal-bearing Jurassic strata are lighter, those in the overpressure top are heavier, and those at the upper part of the overpressure top are lighter, which is considered to be the result of kinetic isotope fractionation driven by episodically overpressured fluid flow; (5) carbonate cementation is closely associated with the decarboxylation of organic acids, and secondary porosity zones resultant from dissolution by organic acids and CO2 derived from Jurassic coal-beating strata, are the most important reservoir space of hydrocarbon, Studies of the mechanisms of carbonate cementation-dissolution and formation of secondary pores in the deep-seated sandstones near the overpressure top are of great

  8. Impact of Megacity Jobs-Housing Spatial Mismatch on Commuting Behaviors: A Case Study on Central Districts of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This studyutilized the mobile signaling data to conductthe impact analysis of jobs-housing spatial mismatch on commuting behavior, with eight typical employment centers of three categories selected as the research subjects. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and indictors including commuting distance, accessibilities from cumulative opportunity model etc., this study demonstrates that (a cumulative percentage of short commuting distance (e.g., less than 3 km reflects the jobs-housing spatial match between employment centers and their peripheral areas; and (b combining the indicators of employed population and area covered within a certain space-time range among indictors of accessibility, it is possible to identify the degree of jobs-housing balance and efficiency of the transport system. According to the evaluation radar maps, the authors believe that employment centers could be divided into three categories: those with a gathering power, those with improvable functions, and those with local adjustment potentials. Possible measures including controlling the gathering power of the city centers, improving the function mix and transport facilities, and optimizing the overall local environment, etc. could be made to achieve jobs-housing balance in central districts and their peripheral areas as a whole. Besides, the study, proceeding from the perspective of commuters, suggests that optimization of jobs-housing distribution along banded corridors would be more efficient than those within the traditional region so as to reduce commuting traffic load.

  9. Late Cenozoic sedimentary process and its response to the slip history of the central Altyn Tagh fault, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正乐; 张岳桥; 陈宣华; 王小凤; A.S.Ramon; W.B.Zack

    2001-01-01

    The ENE-striking Altyn Tagh fault (ATF), extending along the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the major important strike-slip faults, and has been known as one of the key areas to debate the eastward extrusion and crustral shortening models of the Tibetan Plateau during and after India-Asia collision. This paper mainly presents new evidence of Late Cenozoic sedimentary process to reconstruct the slip history of the ATF during the Late Cenozoic. Field measurements and laboratory analyses of the sedimentary characteristics in the Late Cenozoic basins in the central Altyn Tagh fault suggest that Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequence should be divided into three units according to facies changes. The paleo-topography reconstruction shows that the sedimentation in these basins was tightly related with the fault, indicating that the ATF has experienced at least three stages of strike slipping in the Late Cenozoic. New geological data from the Late Cenozoic sedimentary basins and the formation of th

  10. Statistical characteristics of environmental parameters for warm season short-duration heavy rainfall over central and eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fuyou; Zheng, Yongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoling; Mao, Dongyan; Sun, Jianhua; Zhao, Sixiong

    2015-06-01

    Water vapor content, instability, and convergence conditions are the key to short-duration heavy rainfall forecasting. It is necessary to understand the large-scale atmospheric environment characteristics of short-duration heavy rainfall by investigating the distribution of physical parameters for different hourly rainfall intensities. The observed hourly rainfall data in China and the NCEP final analysis (FNL) data during 1 May and 30 September from 2002 to 2009 are used. NCEP FNL data are 6-hourly, resulting in sample sizes of 1573370, 355346, and 11401 for three categories of hourly rainfall ( P) of no precipitation ( P adopting a temporal matching method. The results show that the total precipitable water (PWAT) is the best parameter indicating the hourly rainfall intensity. A PWAT of 28 mm is necessary for any short-duration heavy rainfall. The possibility of short-duration heavy rainfall occurrence increases with PWAT, and a PWAT of 59 mm is nearly sufficient. The specific humidity is a better indicator than relative humidity. Both 700- and 850-hPa relative humidity greater than 80% could be used to determine whether or not it is going to rain, but could not be used to estimate the rainfall intensity. Temperature and potential pseudo-equivalent temperature are also reasonable indicators of short-duration heavy rainfall. Among the atmospheric instability parameters, the best lifted index (BLI) performs best on the short-duration rainfall discrimination; the next best is the K index (KI). The three rainfall categories are not well recognized by total totals (TT) or the temperature difference between 850 and 500 hPa (DT85). Three-quarters of short-duration heavy rainfall occurred with BLI less than -0.9, while no short-duration heavy rainfall occurred when BLI was greater than 2.6. The minimum threshold of KI was 28.1 for short-duration heavy rainfall. The importance of dynamic conditions was well demonstrated by the 925- and 850-hPa divergence. The

  11. Genetic Diversity of Two Important Groups of Maize Landraces with Same Name in China Revealed by M13 Tailed-Primer SSRs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-zhai; GUO Rong-hua; ZHAO Jiu-ran; CAI Yi-lin; WANG Feng-ge; CAO Mo-ju; WANG Rong-huan; SHI Yun-su; SONG Yan-chun; WANG Tian-yu; LI Yu

    2009-01-01

    Maize landraces White Dent and Golden Queen played a very important role in the pre-hybrid era of maize production in China. However, dozens of accessions with the same names of White Dent and Golden Queen are preserved in China National Genebank (CNG). The present study investigated the genetic diversity of these two important groups of maize landraces, as well as the relationships within and among them. Thirty-four landrace accessions with the name of White Dent and 10 with Golden Queen preserved in CNG were fingerprinted with 52 simple sequence repeats with tailed primer M13. Summary statistics including average number of alleles per locus, gene diversity/expected heterozygosity, and observed heterozygosity were carried out using PowerMarker ver. 3.25 software. The test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of all the 44 maize landrace accessions were also performed by PowerMarker. We observed a significant differentiation in terms of the average number of alleles between White Dent and Golden Queen (6.44 alleles per locus in White Dent, 4.48 in Golden Queen), while both groups of maize landraces had a relatively high but similar gene diversity (0.61 of White Dent, 0.63 of Golden Queen). The fixation index (FST) was only 0.0044, while the percentage of loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within these two groups of White Dent and Golden Queen was 32.69 and 3.92%, respectively. The rather high genetic diversity and average number of alleles per locus confirmed that both groups of landraces had a rather broad germplasm base. The extremely low fixation index showed that there was little genetic variation between White Dent and Golden Queen and the molecular variation within these two groups was remarkably high, indicating no genetic drift between White Dent and Golden Queen and suggesting different improvement approaches to these two important groups of landraces. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test revealed that the group of

  12. Observation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere of a mountain site in central China: temperature and relative humidity effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosols (SOA derived from isoprene, pinene and caryophyllene were determined for PM10 and size-segregated (9-stage aerosols collected at the summit (2060 m, a.s.l. of Mt. Hua, central China during the summer of 2009. Concentrations of estimated isoprene, α-/β-pinene and β-caryophyllene derived SOC are 81± 53, 29 ± 14 and 98 ± 53 ng m−3, accounting for 2.7± 1.0%, 0.8 ± 0.2% and 2.1 ± 1.0% of OC, respectively. Concentrations of biogenic (BSOA, the isoprene/pinene/caryophyllene oxidation products and anthropogenic (ASOA, mainly aromatic acids SOA positively correlated with temperature (R=0.57–0.90. However, a decreasing trend of BSOA concentration with an increase in relative humidity (RH was observed during the sampling period, although a clear trend between ASOA and RH was not found. Based on the AIM Model calculation, we found that during the sampling period an increase in RH resulted in a decrease in the aerosol acidity and thus reduced the effect of acid-catalysis on BSOA formation. Size distribution measurement showed that most of the determined isoprene derived SOA may form in aerosol phase and enriched in the fine mode (cis-pinonic acid presents a large peak in the coarse mode (>2.1 μm due to its highly volatile nature.

  13. Exchange of Proton and Major Elements in Two-Layer Canopies Under Acid Rain in a Subtropical Evergreen Forest in Central-South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Zhang; Guang-Ming Zeng; Yi-Min Jiang; Chun-Yan Du; Guo-He Huang; Mei Zeng; Xiao-Kang Su; Ren-Jun Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Canopy exchanges of H+ and N (NH4+-N, NO3--N) and other major ions were evaluated and quantified in twolayer canopies based on throughfall measurements in Shaoshan Forest during the period 2000-2002, central-south China. The collected annual rainfall, throughfall, and sub-throughfall were 1 401, 1 191, and 1 084 mm/year, respectively. Fifteen percent and 8% of rainfall (or 9% of throughfall) were intercepted by the top canopy and sub-canopy layers, respectively. The foliar leaching of base cations from the top canopy was significantly higher than that from the sub-canopy, and the latter accounted for 25% of the former. The uptake of H+ and NH4+ was significantly higher in the top canopy than in the sub-canopy, indicating that the canopy buffering capacity in the top canopy was stronger than the sub-canopy;Mg2+ can be absorbed from water flux on the sub-canopy foliar surfaces to compensate for the Mg deficit in the forest soil during the growing season.

  14. Long-term trend and abrupt events of the Holocene Asian monsoon inferred from a stalagmite δ18O record from Shennongjia in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xiaohua; WANG Yongjin; CHENG Hai; KONG Xinggong; WU Jiangying; EDWARDS R. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution oxygen-isotope record from a thorium-uranium-dated stalagmite from Shanbao Cave at Shennongjia reflects variations in the amount of monsoon precipitation for the period from 11.5 to 2.1 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal aBP). Between 11.5 and 9.3 ka, a sharp decrease in δ18O indicates a rapid increase in monsoon precipitation. An interval of generally high monsoon precipitation is observed between 9.3 and 4.4 ka. An arid period has prevailed between 4.4 and 2.1 ka. The long-term trend of Shanbao record appears to follow summer insolation at 33°N latitude. An abrupt decrease in monsoon precipitation around 4.3 ka is synchronous with the collapse of Neolithic culture in central China. This abrupt change could have resulted from the amplification of the gradually decreased summer insolation by the positive vegetation-atmosphere-aerosol feedback. The weakened Asian monsoon events were in concert with decreased Greenland temperature during the early Holocene, centered at 8.2, 8.6, 9.3, 10.2 and 11.0 ka. This correlation suggests that changes in low-latitude monsoon are connected with climate change in high-latitude polar region.

  15. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Mountains in Central China Based on a Sun-Sky Radiometer Site of SONET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 3 km Dark Target (DT aerosol optical depth (AOD products, 10 km DT and Deep Blue (DB AOD products from the Collection 6 (C6 product data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are compared with Sun-sky Radiometer Network (SONET measurements at Song Mountain in central China, where ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol properties are still very limited. The seasonal variations of AODs are significant in the Song Mountain region, with higher AODs in spring and summer and lower AODs in autumn and winter. Annual mean AODs (0.55 µm vary in the range of 0.5–0.7, which indicates particle matter (PM pollutions in this mountain region. Validation against one-year ground-based measurements shows that AOD retrievals from the MODIS onboard Aqua satellite are better than those from the Terra satellite in Song Mountain. The 3 km and 10 km AODs from DT algorithms are comparable over this region, while the AOD accuracy of DB algorithm is relatively lower. However, the spatial coverage of DB products is higher than that of 10 km DT products. Moreover, the optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosols at Song Mountain are analyzed on the basis of SONET observations. It suggests that coarse-mode aerosol particles dominate in spring, and fine-mode particles dominate in summer. The aerosol property models are also established and compared to aerosol types used by MODIS algorithm.

  16. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  17. Marine Ingressive Events Recorded in Epicontinental Sequences:Example from the Cretaceous Songliao Basin of NE China in Comparison with the Triassic Central Europe Basin of SW Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pujun; LIU Wanzhu; YIN Xiuzhen; SCHNEIDER Werner; MATTERN Frank

    2002-01-01

    Songliao Basin is filled predominantly with continental facies sediments including alluvial fan, fluvial plain, fan delta, lacustrine delta, shore - shallow lacustrine, beach salty flat, semi - deep to deep lacustrine, subaqueous gravity flow,lacustrine swamp and pyroclastic sediments. However, some event units were formed during lake - marine linking periods of the Mid - Cretaceous in the basin, which include black shales with high values for salinity (Sr/Ba) , alkalinity ( Ca + Mg)/(Si + Al) , reducibility (Ni + Zn)/Ga and sulfide sulfur as well as heavy isotopes. The Breitenholz -section to be represented for facies comparison with the Cretaceous evaporitic series in Northeast China is localized in Southwest Germany. Stratigraphically it belongs to the Crabfeld Formation of Keuper of the Germanic Triassic corresponding to Ladinian - Carnian of the international reference scale, and is generally called Lower Gipskeuper. The Germanic Triassic was deposited in the epicontinental (cratonic) central Europe Basin. It covered the area in between Great Britain, North Sea, Poland and Southern Germany. It is composed of cyclic deposits of multicolored mudstones, gypsum/anhydrite, and dolomite beds. The two cases of marine ingression - influenced sequences share some common features.

  18. NDVI-Based Analysis on the Influence of Climate Change and Human Activities on Vegetation Restoration in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Region, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, climate change has affected vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau’s Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region in central China using MODIS-NDVI data for 2000–2014. We examined the roles of regional climate change and human activities in vegetation restoration, particularly from 1999 when conversion of sloping farmland to forestland or grassland began under the national Grain-for-Green program. Our results indicated a general upward trend in average NDVI values in the study area. The region’s annual growth rate greatly exceeded those of the Three-North Shelter Forest, the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the Qinling–Daba Mountains, and the Three-River Headwater region. The green vegetation zone has been annually extending from the southeast toward the northwest, with about 97.4% of the region evidencing an upward trend in vegetation cover. The NDVI trend and fluctuation characteristics indicate the occurrence of vegetation restoration in the study region, with gradual vegetation stabilization associated with 15 years of ecological engineering projects. Under favorable climatic conditions, increasing local vegetation cover is primarily attributable to ecosystem reconstruction projects. However, our findings indicate a growing risk of vegetation degradation in the northern part of Shaanxi Province as a result of energy production facilities and chemical industry infrastructure, and increasing exploitation of mineral resources.

  19. Crustal structure across the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze platform, central China, from seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Bai, Z.; Mooney, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Wang, E.; Teng, J.; Okaya, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present active-source seismic data recorded along a 300??km-long profile across the Three Gorges area of the western Yangtze platform, central China. From west to east, the profile crosses the Zigui basin, Huangling dome and Jianghan basin. The derived crustal P-wave velocity structure changes significantly across the Tongchenghe fault that lies at the transition from the Huangling dome to the Jianghan basin. West of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Zigui basin and the Huangling dome, we observe a ~ 42??km thick crust of relatively low average velocity (6.3-6.4??km/s). In contrast, east of the Tongchenghe fault, beneath the Jianghan basin, the crust is only 30??km thick and has a high average velocity (6.6-6.7??km/s). A west-east variation in crustal composition along the Tongchenghe fault is also inferred. West of the fault, P-wave velocities suggest a felsic composition with an intermediate layer at the base of the crust, whilst, east of the fault, felsic, intermediate, and mafic crustal layers are apparent. Our results suggest that the crust beneath the Jianghan basin has been thinned by rifting, accompanied by intrusion of the lower crust by mafic dikes and sills. The west-to-east division of the crust in the Three Gorges area coincides with first-order geophysical contrasts in gravity, topography, crustal and lithospheric thickness. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Re-Os system of black schist from the Mesoproterozoic Bayan Obo Group, Central Inner Mongolia, China and its geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Bagas, Leon; Nie, Fengjun; Jiang, Sihong; Li, Chao

    2016-09-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Bayan Obo Group in central Inner Mongolia, China, represents a sedimentary sequence deposited in the Bayan Obo Rift Basin. New Re-Os dates are reported here for the black shale (schist) from the group. Re-Os geochronology of the black schist provides an age of 1447 ± 42 Ma, which is consistent with the previous work from the literature and provides a direct and new constraint for the age of the group. The dating indicates that the Re-Os isotopes for the black schist have remained undisturbed during lower amphibolite facies metamorphism. The ca. 250 Ma age for gold-bearing sulfides also indicates that the Re-Os isotopes for the schist have not been affected by hydrothermal overprinting of reduced fluid. The initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.93 ± 0.14 for the schist is interpreted to represent the Os isotopic composition of the seawater during deposition of the group, which indicates that the Os composition of Mesoprotozoic seawater fluctuated during the Mesoproterozoic, and was temporary very radiogenic similar to present day seawater. The Re-Os data suggests that rifting of the Bayan Obo Basin peaked during ca. 1447 Ma, and the Bilute Formation in the Bayan Obo Group may have been deposited in the Bayan Obo Sea in a restricted or semi-restricted depositional environment.

  1. Overview of the Mount Tai Experiment (MTX2006 in Central East China in June 2006: studies of significant regional air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an intensive field campaign at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l., Shandong Province, located at the center of Central East China, during the period 28 May to 30 June 2006, to study seasonal maxima of regional air pollution with respect to ozone (O3 and aerosols. The specific objectives, campaign design, and major findings are summarized. High concentrations of O3 and its precursors, and aerosols, were detected and studied in the context of annual variations. Most importantly, we identified that emissions from regional-scale open crop residue burning after the harvesting of winter wheat, together with photochemical aging, strongly increased the concentrations of O3, aerosols, and primary species relevant to air quality in this month of the year. Studies of in-situ photochemical activity, regional source attribution of O3, O3-aerosol interactions, validation of satellite observations of tropospheric NO2, behaviors of volatile organic compounds, organic/inorganic aerosol species, loss rates of black carbon (BC, and instrument inter-comparisons are also summarized. The observed BC levels must have a strong impact on the regional climate.

  2. Origin and Accumulation of Natural Gases in the Upper Paleozoic Strata of the Ordos Basin in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yangming; WANG Jibao; LIU Xinse; ZHANG Wenzheng

    2009-01-01

    The natural gases in the Upper Paleozoic strata of the Ordos basin are characterized by relatively heavy C isotope of gaseous alkanes with δ13C1 and δ13C2 values ranging mainly from-35‰ to -30‰ and-27‰ to-22‰,respectively,high δ13C excursions (round 10)between ethane and methane and predominant methane in hydrocarbon gases with most C1/(C1-C5)ratios in excess of 0.95, suggesting an origin of coal-derived gas.The gases exhibit different carbon isotopic profiles for C1.C4 alkanes with those of the natural gases found in the Lower Paleozoic of this basin.and believed to be originated from Carboniferous-Permian coal measures.The occurrence of regionally pervasive gas accumulation iS distinct in the gently southward-dipping Shanbei slope of the central basin.It is noted that molecular and isotopic composition changes of the gases in various gas reservoirs are associated With the thermal maturities of gas source rocks.The abundances and δ13C values of methane generally decline northwards and from the basin center to its margins.and the effects of hydrocarbon migration on compositional modification seem insignificant.However, C isotopes of autogenetic calcites in the vertical and lateral section of reservoirs show a regular variation,and are as a whole depleted upwards and towards basin margins.Combination with gas maturity gradient, the analysis could be considered to be a useful tool for gas migration.

  3. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  4. Early Cretaceous continental delamination in the Yangtze Block: Evidence from high-Mg adakitic intrusions along the Tanlu fault, central Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liqiong; Mo, Xuanxue; Santosh, M.; Yang, Zhusen; Yang, Dan; Dong, Guochen; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xinchun; Wu, Xuan

    2016-09-01

    Early Cretaceous high-Mg adakitic rocks from central Eastern China provide important insights into the thinning mechanism of the over-thickened lithosphere in the Yangtze Block (YB) as well as the North China Block (NCB). The Tanlu fault (TLF), located between the North China and Yangtze Blocks, and has been considered as a prominent pathway of magmas and fluids that resulted in lithosphere thinning of the YB during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Here we report the petrology, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology, in situ Hf isotopes, and whole-rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of four high-Mg adakitic intrusions along the TLF in northeastern Langdai. These adakitic intrusions consist of monzodiorite, quartz monzonite porphyry, and quartz monzodiorite. Zircon LA-MC-ICPMS analyses of five samples yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 127.58 ± 0.80, 126.90 ± 0.81, 120.71 ± 0.64, 122.75 ± 0.57, and 129.2 ± 1.1 Ma, indicating their emplacement during the Early Cretaceous. The intrusions have intermediate SiO2 (53.18-65.48 wt%) and high potassium (K2O = 3.07-3.95 wt%; Na2O/K2O = 1.02-1.26) and are classified as shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline series. They are characterized by high MgO (1.80-7.35 wt%), Mg# (50-65), Sr (591-1183 ppm), Ni (20.3-143.0 ppm), and Cr (51.40-390.0 ppm) contents, high (La/Yb)N (11.60-28.33) and Sr/Y (27.9-113.5) ratios, and low Y (7.79-22.4 ppm) and Yb (0.60-2.01 ppm) contents, comparable with high-Mg adakites. The samples are enriched in light rare earth elements but depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements with slightly negative to positive Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.81-1.30), resembling the features of high-Mg adakitic rocks. Their whole-rock εNd(t) = -16.2 to -15.0, initial (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7060-0.7074, low radiogenic Pb (206Pb/204Pb(t) = 16.208-16.509, 207Pb/204Pb(t) = 15.331-15.410, and 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 36.551-36.992), and zircon εHf(t) = -36.6 to -16.6 suggest magma derivation from a continental crustal

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND RESPONSE OF LARGE STATED OWNED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL RELATED INDUS TRIES: COMPANY CASE STUDIES FROM CENTRAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using interview data from three large state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in agriculture related industries, this paper reveals that SOEs in inland area are much slow in response to globalization. Although they pursued some strate gies to adjust themselves, they are far behind the position to utilize the opportunities generated by economic globaliza tion. Most of them are still out of the networks of transnational corporations. The strategies they adopted are quite differ ent from SOEs in the coastal area. They overlook the importance of information infrastructure, well-educated personnel, and collaboration with the competitive leaders in their industries. The lagging situation is related to isolated location, tradi tional culture, and slow progress in enterprise reform. International comparison shows that the case companies did follow the general patterns that globalization promotes extension of company′s networks of linkages but in a rather slow phase. The decision makers should encourage intra-regional linkages between SOEs, between SOEs and private, foreign owned companies, as well as inter-regional linkages among them. The latter appears particularly important given the enlarging gaps between coastal and inland areas.

  6. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  7. A short note on ground-motion recordings from the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake and ground-motion prediction equations in the Central and Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M 7.9) occurred along the western edge of the eastern China SCR and was well recorded by modern strong-motion instruments: 93 strong-motion stations within 1.4 to 300 km rupture distance recorded the main event. Preliminary comparisons show some similarities between ground-motion attenuation in the Wenchuan region and the central and eastern United States, suggesting that ground motions from the Wenchuan earthquake could be used as a database providing constraints for developing GMPEs for large earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

  8. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  9. A comprehensive assessment of agricultural intensification scenarios for the Dongting Lake basin in south-central China in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Chang, Xiao; Sun, Jin

    2016-07-01

    To explore the future of the material demand, pollutant emission, production, and arable land area surrounding the Dongting Lake basin, and to find a potential solution for agricultural development, this study assumes the following four agriculture intensification scenarios: the natural development scenario (ND), the production development scenario (PD), the moderate intensification scenario (MI), and the local resilience scenario (LR). The scenarios focus on different developmental patterns (natural development, short-term production growth, long-term sustainability, or self-sufficiency).The result shows to satisfy the food demand in 2030, and the production of crop and meat will be 26.96, 30.25, 28.05, and 16.27 × 10(6) t in ND, PD, MI, and LR, respectively; more than 1.78 × 10(6) ha of arable land is needed. Compared with the year 2012, the material input and pollutant output will increase by a maximum of 18.32 and 122.31 %, respectively. By classifying the environmental risk into four categories-greenhouse gas emission, air pollution, eutrophication, and ecotoxicity-the composite environmental risk index (CER) is calculated. The CER in PD was the highest, followed by that in ND, LR, and MI. Due to the production allocation within the 35 cities and counties, the spatial distribution of CER is more homogenous in PD and MI than in ND. The analysis of the scenarios reveals that through technological improvement and spatial allocation of agricultural production, scenario MI could be a potential direction for the government to design a sustainable agricultural-environmental system. PMID:27040549

  10. SWOT Analysis and Relative Countermeasures Research on Undertaking Industrial Transfer in Central China%中部地区承接产业转移的SWOT分析及其对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亮; 闫安

    2014-01-01

    During the process of undertaking industries in Central China, there are some highlighted problems, such as the absence of industrial supporting ability, laggard modern logistics industry, environmental pollution and wasting of resources, which seriously restricted the sound development of Central China in undertaking industrial transfer. In this paper, SWOT theory is adopted to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in Central China, and the thought of Central China in undertaking industrial transfer. Corresponding policy advices are given from various aspects as completion of supporting facilities, construction of logistics, government function, environmental protection and inter-regional cooperation.%中部地区在承接产业的过程中存在一些突出的问题,如产业配套能力欠缺、现代物流业落后、环境污染和资源浪费现象严重等,严重制约了中部地区承接产业转移的健康发展。本文运用SWOT分析理论,从中部地区的优势、劣势、机遇和威胁等方面展开,研究中部地区承接产业转移的思路,从产业配套完善、物流建设、政府作用、环境保护和区域间合作等多个角度提出相应的政策建议。

  11. 中部地区经济发展的战略模式研究%Discussion on Strategic Mode of Economic Development in the Central Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱军

    2011-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis of development strategic modes in several regions of China, the alternative strategic models for thedevelopment of central region were put forward.%在对我国几个区域性发展战略模式进行对比分析的基础上,提出了中部地区发展可选择的战略模式.

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of Cenozoic intra-plate basalts in east-central China: Constraints on recycling of an oceanic slab in the source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Qing; Ma, Chang-Qian; Robinson, Paul T.

    2016-10-01

    Cenozoic mafic rocks in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces, east-central China are chiefly basanites and alkali olivine basalts with subordinate tholeiites, which were erupted in three stages; Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary. The rocks become increasingly alkaline as they become younger. On a primitive mantle-normalized multi-element plot, these lavas exhibit typical OIB-like trace element patterns, including enrichment in most incompatible elements (LILE and HFSE) and negative K and Pb anomalies. The compositions of the mafic rocks indicate that they were derived from a mantle source mainly containing clinopyroxene and garnet, most probably a mixture of pyroxenite/eclogite and peridotite. A mineral equilibrium projection shows that all the mafic magmas were produced at pressures of 3-4 GPa, implying an asthenospheric origin. Their positive Ba and Sr anomalies and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggest derivation from an EM1-type mantle source. However, poor correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd indicate an isotopically heterogeneous source for the magmas, including DMM, EM1 and EM2, representing mantle peridotite, recycled ancient oceanic crust and seafloor sedimentary rocks, respectively. Variable correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios, CaO-MgO contents and Eu/Eu* and Ce/Ce* anomalies with rock type imply that marine sediments (plus variable amounts of oceanic crust) and peridotites were the dominant source lithologies of the basanites, whereas recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite/eclogite) was the main source of the weakly alkaline basalts. This hypothesis is supported by seismic tomographic images of the mantle beneath the region, which show the presence of a stagnant subducted slab in the mantle transition zone. Thus, we propose a petrological model in which a hybrid magma column originated from the mantle transition zone and assimilated some of the overlying peridotite during upwelling, to become the parental magmas of these mafic rocks

  13. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W

    2015-09-01

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK. PMID:26283359

  14. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; King, Roy; Mehdi, S Q; Edmonds, Christopher A; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Lin, Alice A; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K; Ramesh, A; Usha Rani, M V; Thakur, Chitra M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Majumder, Partha P; Underhill, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000-15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era--not Indo-European--expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.

  15. China Eximbank:A Bridge Linking China and the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Established in 1994 and solely owned by the central government, The ExportImport Bank of China (China Eximbank)is a government policy bank under the direct leadership of the State Council.……

  16. miRNA profiles in plasma from patients with sleep disorders reveal dysregulation of miRNAs in narcolepsy and other central hypersomnias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anja; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Knudsen, Stine;

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases including neurological disorders. The aim is to address the involvement of miRNAs in the pathophysiology of central hypersomnias including autoimmune narcolepsy with cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency...... controls using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) panels. SETTING: University hospital based sleep clinic and research laboratories. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with type 1 narcolepsy, 12 patients with type 2 narcolepsy, 12 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, and 12 healthy controls...

  17. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  18. Patterns and relationships of plant traits, community structural attributes, and eco-hydrological functions during a subtropical secondary succession in central Yunnan, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Denggao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes in land use lead to major changes in plant community composition and structure which have strong effects on eco-hydrological processes and functions. We here tested the hypothesis that changes in traits of living plants have resulted in changes in structural attributes of the community that influenced eco-hydrological functions by altering eco-hydrological processes. This was done in the context of a subtropical secondary forest suc­cession following land abandonment in Central Yunnan (Southwest China. During the succession, species with high specific leaf area (SLA, high leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC, high specific root length (SRL, and low leaf dry matter content (LDMC were progressively replaced by species with the opposite characteristics. The obtained results of correlation analyses were as follows: (1 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and the leaf area index (LAI. Significant correlations were detected between LAI, canopy interception and stemflow, and surface runoff and soil erosion. (2 Significant correlations were also found between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, LDMC, and accumulated litter biomass. High accumulated litter biomass strongly increases the maximum water-retaining capac­ity of litter. However, significant correlations were not found between the maximum water-retaining capacity of litter and surface runoff and soil erosion. (3 Correlations were significant between community-aggregated SLA, LNC, and fine root biomass. Fine root biomass was not significantly related to the maximum water-retaining capacity of the soil, but was significantly related to surface runoff and soil erosion. These results suggest that canopy characteristics play a more important role in control of runoff and soil erosion at the studied site. It follows that plant functional traits are closely linked with canopy characteristics, which should be used as a standard for selecting species in

  19. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Kang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (alkyl-PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-PAHs, 15 oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ∑29PAHs, ∑4AZAs, ∑15OPAHs, and ∑11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885 n gg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118 ng g(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192 g mol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived PAHs and retene, etc.), indicated that PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an.

  1. Chronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope studies of Jurassic intrusions in the Diyanqinamu porphyry Mo mine, central Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hairui; Huang, Zhilong; Li, Wenbo; Leng, Chengbiao; Ma, Deyun; Zhang, Xingchun

    2014-07-01

    Available cores of porphyritic granite and aplitic granite from the Diyanqinamu porphyry Mo deposit in the north central Great Xing’an Range presented an opportunity to examine and analyze Mesozoic igneous rocks far from the Paleo-Pacific subduction zone. The Diyanqinamu granites are highly fractionated I-type, distinguished from the M-, A- or S-type granite by: high SiO2, and Rb; low Zr, Nb, Y, and Ce; low Fe2O3total/MgO and (K2O + Na2O)/CaO ratios; low alumina saturation index (Haker diagrams; low Ba, Sr, Nb, P, Ti, Eu; linear relationship in both (La/Yb)N vs. La and Sr vs. Ba diagrams; and, decreasing LREE and ∑REE with increasing SiO2. The Diyanqinamu granites have young depleted-mantle two-stage model ages (avg. TDM2 = 660 Ma) similar to those of most Mesozoic voluminous felsic magmas in northeastern China, and were likely sourced from pre-existent crustal components both “old” and juvenile that had been juxtaposed during the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. These granites project in the transitional field from syn-collision to post-collision tectonic settings on tectonic discrimination diagrams, implying emplacement in an extensional environment. Extensional volcanism and basin formation in the Great Xing’an Range region in Late Jurassic is coeval with the Diyanqinamu granites, demonstrating that post-orogenic lithospheric extension related to the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean was the main driving force for Late Jurassic magmatism in this region.

  2. Rates and regimes of photochemical ozone production over Central East China in June 2006: a box model analysis using comprehensive measurements of ozone precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An observation-based box model approach was undertaken to estimate concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals and the net photochemical production rate of ozone at the top of Mount Tai, located in the middle of Central East China, in June 2006. The model calculation was constrained by the measurements of O3, H2O, CO, NO, NO2, hydrocarbon, HCHO, and CH3CHO concentrations, and temperature and J values. The net production rate of ozone was estimated to be 6.4 ppb h−1 as a 6-h average (09:00–15:00 CST, suggesting 58±37 ppb of ozone is produced in one day. Thus the daytime buildup of ozone recorded at the mountain top as ~23 ppb on average is likely affected by in situ photochemistry as well as by the upward transport of polluted air mass in the daytime. On days with high ozone concentrations (hourly values exceeding 100 ppb at least once, in situ photochemistry was more active than it was on low ozone days, suggesting that in situ photochemistry is an important factor controlling ozone concentrations. Sensitivity model runs for which different NOx and hydrocarbon concentrations were assumed suggested that the ozone production occurred normally under NOx-limited conditions, with some exceptional periods (under volatile-organic-compound-limited conditions in which there was fresh pollution. We also examined the possible influence of the heterogeneous loss of gaseous HO2 radicals in contact with aerosol particle surfaces on the rate and regimes of ozone production.

  3. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  4. Detection of East/Central/South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Myanmar, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  5. Stable isotope ratios reveal food source of benthic fish and crustaceans along a gradient of trophic status in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Na; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-08-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which have produced high productivity in the northwestern ECS. This study evaluated potential contributions of terrigenous POM (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing stable isotopic compositions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic crustaceans and fish. Benthic consumers exhibited δ13C values similar to those of their autochthonous food sources (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton), revealing their major reliance on marine production. In contrast, the δ13C values of benthic fish (-19.6‰ to -13.5‰) and crustaceans (-18.9‰ to -15.0‰) were much higher than that of terrigenous POM (-25.7‰), which generally accounted for less than 20% of the most fish diet. Phytoplankton and zooplankton generally exhibited higher δ13C values at eutrophic and highly productive inshore sites than at oligotrophic offshore sites. This enrichment of inshore δ13C values was mainly attributed to lower photosynthetic fractionation during algal blooms, an effect that was further enhanced during flood period of the Changjiang. The δ13C values of demersal fish assemblages were also significantly higher at inshore sites and decreased seaward. However, fish δ15N values and their estimated trophic levels showed relatively small spatial variation. The disproportionate variations in δ13C and δ15N values suggested that the enriched C isotopic signatures derived from an elevated δ13C baseline of the inshore food web instead of trophic enrichment of the isotopic ratios. The significantly positive correlations between concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients versus fish δ13C provided further evidence for the use of pelagic algal bloom materials by inshore consumers. The isotopic and oceanographic survey data suggested that

  6. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of medieval sheep (Ovis aries) in central Italy reveals the predominance of haplogroup B already in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbianelli, F; Gargani, M; Pariset, L; Mariotti, M; Alhaique, F; De Minicis, E; Barelli, L; Ciammetti, E; Redi, F; Valentini, A

    2015-06-01

    We retrieved 34 medieval ovicaprine remains, from three archaeological sites of central Italy dating to about 1000 years old, and analyzed them using mitochondrial DNA. We compared the reconstructed haplogroups with modern sheep samples from Europe and the Middle East and sequences from the literature. In modern sheep, haplogroup HA is present in countries with access to the Mediterranean and close to the domestication center, whereas it is very rare or absent in the rest of Europe. The haplogroup HB was predominant in ancient samples (90%), whereas haplogroup HA was found at 10%. Ancient haplogroups match the present distribution in modern sheep in Italy, indicating that the current proportion of HA/HB was already established in the Middle Ages and is not the result of subsequent events such as selective breeding practices. PMID:25917303

  7. Analyzing gene expression from whole tissue vs. different cell types reveals the central role of neurons in predicting severity of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiri Stempler

    Full Text Available Alterations in gene expression resulting from Alzheimer's disease have received considerable attention in recent years. Although expression has been investigated separately in whole brain tissue, in astrocytes and in neurons, a rigorous comparative study quantifying the relative utility of these sources in predicting the progression of Alzheimer's disease has been lacking. Here we analyze gene expression from neurons, astrocytes and whole tissues across different brain regions, and compare their ability to predict Alzheimer's disease progression by building pertaining classification models based on gene expression sets annotated to different biological processes. Remarkably, we find that predictions based on neuronal gene expression are significantly more accurate than those based on astrocyte or whole tissue expression. The findings explicate the central role of neurons, particularly as compared to glial cells, in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and emphasize the importance of measuring gene expression in the most relevant (pathogenically 'proximal' single cell types.

  8. Ediacaran Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Ossa Morena and Central Iberian zones (SW Iberia) as revealed by Sm Nd isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guijarro, Rafael; Armendáriz, Maider; Quesada, Cecilio; Fernández-Suárez, Javier; Murphy, J. Brendan; Pin, Christian; Bellido, Felix

    2008-12-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of Palaeozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks in the southwest Iberian Massif (western end of the European Variscan Belt) are presented in order to unravel its complex poly-orogenic evolution during the closure of the Rheic Ocean and the amalgamation of Pangea. The Gondwanan margin in southwest Iberia SW Iberia is subdivided into the Ossa Morena and Central Iberian zones, separated by the Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone which represents a cryptic suture zone between these terranes. The relationships between these terranes, and between units preserved within the suture zone (e.g. the Sierra Albarrana Group) during the Palaeozoic and Neoproterozoic are controversial. Sm-Nd isotopic studies of representative sedimentary sequences covering the entire pre-Variscan record of the Ossa Morena and Central Iberian zones show very similar characteristics from the uppermost Ediacaran onwards. These data indicate that their accretion to one another must have been completed by the Late Neoproterozoic-Ediacarin that time (an event assigned to Cadomian orogeny) and that they never separated substantially from each other since that time. The Sm-Nd isotopic composition of the Sierra Albarrana Group metasedimentary rocks is similar to that of the pre-Cadomian sequences of the Ossa Morena Zone (Serie Negra), suggesting derivation from a common source. The common provenance of the Palaeozoic sequences in the two zones is identical to that of the pre-Cadomian Serie Negra of the Ossa Morena Zone, which in accordance with the data presented herein and published U-Pb zircon data indicates a West African affinity.

  9. Whole-genome sequence analyses of Western Central African Pygmy hunter-gatherers reveal a complex demographic history and identify candidate genes under positive natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Hammer, Michael F; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2016-03-01

    African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: I. Ancient clade splitting revealed by mitochondrial haplotype markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, A; Brandstätter, A; Thaler, R; Aray, B; Unterlechner, M; Niederstätter, H; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is an important pest of pome fruit with global distribution. It has adapted successfully to different habitats by forming various ecotypes and populations, often termed strains, which differ among each other in several morphological, developmental, and physiological features. Many strains of Cydia pomonella have developed resistance against a broad range of chemically different pesticides. Obviously, pesticide-resistant strains must have a genetic basis inherent to the gene pool of codling moth populations, and this deserves our particular attention. The primary intention of the present study was to contribute novel information regarding the evolutionary phylogeny and phylogeography of codling moth populations in Central Europe. In addition, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that differential biological traits and response patterns towards pesticides in codling moth populations may be reflected at a mitochondrial DNA level. In particular, we wanted to test if pesticide resistance in codling moths is associated repeatedly and independently with more than one mitochondrial haplotype. To this end, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and constructed phylogenetic trees based on three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the A+T-rich region of the control region (CR), and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). The results indicate that Central European populations of Cydia pomonella are clearly divided in two ancient clades. As shown by means of a molecular clock approach, the splitting of the two clades can be dated to a time period between the lower and middle Pleistocene, about 1.29-0.20 million years ago. It is assumed that the cyclic changes of warm and cold periods during Pleistocene may have lead to the geographic separation of codling moth populations due to glaciation, giving rise to the formation of the two separate refugial clades, as already shown for many

  11. Geochemistry of major and trace elements and Pb–Sr isotopes of a weathering profile developed on the Lower Cambrian black shales in central Hunan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical changes during black shale weathering are geochemically estimated. • Chemical changes and Pb–Sr data suggest four types of chemical reactions. • There were two stages of geochemical processes during black shale weathering. • Early stage of chemical differentiation led elements leaching and redistribution. • Soil was formed by later chemical homogenisation after the early differentiation. - Abstract: This paper reports a geochemical study on the major and trace elements and Pb–Sr isotopes of a weathering profile developed in the Lower Cambrian black shales in central Hunan (China). Six weathering horizons were identified and sampled vertically throughout the profile. The chemical composition of the profile consists of variable concentrations of the major elements Fe2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and P2O5 and of less variable concentrations of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, and K2O. The chemical change caused by weathering is estimated by mass-balance calculations, and the results show that the element mobility is characterised by substantial loss of SiO2, FeO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, LOI, Cr, V, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr, U, and Th, and moderate loss of Al2O3, MgO, Fe2O3, Ni, Cu, Pb, Tl, Sn, Sc, Ge and REE (Y). The high field strength elements TiO2, Sn, Sc, U, Ga, Ge, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta were immobile during weathering. The chemical changes and the Pb–Sr isotopic data suggest that four types of chemical reactions occurred: the oxidation of sulphide minerals (e.g., pyrite) and organic carbon (OS), the dissolution of less resistant clinochlore-Ia, calcite, and P-bearing minerals (DL), the dissolution of detrital albite and microcline (DA), and the transformation of clay (TC) minerals (e.g., muscovite and illite–smectite). These chemical reactions then led to two stages of geochemical processes, an early stage of chemical differentiation and a later stage of chemical homogenisation. The chemical differentiation dominated by the OS, DL, and DA reactions

  12. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463