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Sample records for central cancer treatment

  1. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hoang Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods: Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results: The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955. The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%. Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion: From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance.

  2. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  3. Treatment of Central Type Lung Cancer by CT Guided Percutaneous Implants of 125I Radioisotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaokun Hu; Mingyou Wang; Zhiguo Yang; Chundong Qiu; Dongfang Lü; Xiaodong Li; Taiyang Zuo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To discuss the method, safety and effectiveness of the treatment for central-type carcinoma of the lungs by CT guided percutaneous implants of 125I radioisotopes in tissues.METHODS Twenty-two cases of central-type lung cancer located by plain and /or enhanced CT scans were retrospectively analyzed, among which 18cases were verified pathologically using a CT guided percutaneous puncture and biopsy before treatment. The CT guided treatment was conducted immediately after the pathological results were obtained. The number of the radioisotopes used was seven to 16. The intensities of radioactivity for 125I radioisotopes were 22, 26, 30 and 33 MBq per particle.The total intensity of radioactivity was 181 to 355 MBq. The puncture point was only one. The frequency for adjustment of needling direction was two to five times. The punctures were conducted through the anterior chest wall in eight cases, through the lateral chest wall in eight cases and thruogh the posterior chest wall in six cases. Six of the 22 cases were given intravenous chemotherapy.RESULTS Of the 22 cases, 20 were followed-up for more than one month, 16over two months, ten over three months and three cases for six months. In the 20 cases which were followed-up for one month, the diameters of the tumors were reduced by 50% or more in 18 cases, showed no change in two cases with none showing enlargement. In the 16 cases followed-up for more than two months, the diameters of tumors were reduced by 50% or more in 15cases, one case showed no change and none enlarged. In the ten cases with three months of follow-up, the tumor diameters were diminished by 50%or more in eight cases, showed no change in one case and enlarged in one case. In the three cases followed-up for six months, the diameters of tumors were reduced by 50% or more in all the cases. Of the 22 cases, atelectasis occurred in 12 before therapy. The lungs expanded again in nine cases in the follow-up after treatment. Symptoms after

  4. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  5. The consequences of treatment and disease in patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: cognitive function and performance status. North Central Cancer Treatment Group.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, B.P.; C. H. Wang; O'Fallon, J.R.; Colgan, J P; Earle, J. D.; Krigel, R. L.; Brown, L D; McGinnis, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    Per protocol, patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in an intergroup phase II trial conducted by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group had their cognitive functions measured using the Folstein and Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and their physical functions measured using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Score (PS) at study entry, at each treatment evaluation, and at quarterly intervals thereafter until ...

  6. A preliminary analysis of the reduction of chemotherapy waste in the treatment of cancer with centralization of drug preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Hyeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction:chemotherapy is essential to treat most types of cancer. Often, there is chemotherapy waste in the preparation of drugs prescribed to the patient. Leftover doses result in toxic waste production.Objective:the aim of the study was to analyze chemotherapy waste reduction at a centralized drug preparation unit.Methods:the study was cross-sectional, observational and descriptive, conducted between 2010 and 2012. The data were obtained from chemotherapy prescriptions made by oncologists linked to a health insurance plan in Curitiba, capital of the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Dose and the cost of chemotherapy waste were calculated in each application, considering the dose prescribed by the doctor and the drug dosages available for sale. The variables were then calculated considering a hypothetical centralized drug preparation unit.Results:there were 176 patients with a cancer diagnosis, 106 of which underwent treatment with intravenous chemotherapy. There were 1,284 applications for intravenous anticancer medications. There was a total of 63,824mg in chemotherapy waste, the cost of which was BRL 448,397.00. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 4,607.00. In the centralized model, there was 971.80mg of chemotherapy waste, costing BRL 13,991.64. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 132.00.Conclusion:the use of centralized drug preparation units may be a strategy to reduce chemotherapy waste.

  7. Evaluation of radioactive seeds implantation under PET-CT guidance for the treatment of central lung cancer with obstructive atelectasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate percutaneous puncturing 125I seed implantation by using PET-CT guided target localization technique in treating central lung cancer complicated by obstructive pulmonary atelectasis. Methods: A total of 30 patients with suspected central lung cancer complicated by obstructive pulmonary atelectasis on preoperative chest films were enrolled in this study. As no clear distinction existed between the tumor and the atelectatic consolidation shadow on plain chest films, CT scanning was carried out in all patients. If CT scan was still not able to determine the margin of the tumor, an additional PET-CT scanning was adopted. After ascertaining the location of the lung cancer, percutaneous puncturing implantation of 125I seeds under PET-CT guidance was performed. The clinical data and the therapeutic results were evaluated. Results: A sharp distinction between the tumor and the atelectatic consolidation shadow was demonstrated on PET-CT scans in 21 cases. The mean volume of the targeted lesion reckoned from PET-CT scans was 26 cm3, and the 125I seeds were implanted. The mean volume of the targeted lesion calculated on CT scans was 37 cm3. Six months after the treatment, the follow-up CT exam showed that the effective rate was 93% (28/30). The one-year survival rate was 100% . The complications included pneumothorax (n = 8), small amount of hemoptysis (n = 12) and fever (n = 2). No displacement or immigration of the implanted seeds occurred. Conclusion: PET-CT scanning is far superior to conventional CT scanning in determining the target area of the tumor in patients with central lung cancer complicated by obstructive pulmonary atelectasis. (authors)

  8. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1) a...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  9. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  10. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  11. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous growths Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding Seal nerve endings after ...

  12. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment and prophylaxis of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debourdeau, P.; Farge, D.; Beckers, M.; Baglin, C.; Bauersachs, R. M.; Brenner, B.; Brilhante, D.; Falanga, A.; Gerotzafias, G. T.; Haim, N.; Kakkar, A. K.; Khorana, A. A.; Lecumberri, R.; Mandala, M.; Marty, M.; Monreal, M.; Mousa, S. A.; Noble, S.; Pabinger, I.; Prandoni, P.; Prins, M. H.; Qari, M. H.; Streiff, M. B.; Syrigos, K.; Buller, H. R.; Bounameaux, H.

    2013-01-01

    . Background: Although long-term indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) and loss of the CVC, there is lack of consensus on management of CVC-related thrombosis (CRT) in cancer patients and heterogeneity in clinical practices worldwide. Objectives: To establish

  13. Alcohol consumption and colon cancer prognosis among participants in north central cancer treatment group phase III trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Limburg, Paul J; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Sinicrope, Frank A; Chan, Emily; Gill, Sharlene; Goldberg, Richard M; Kahlenberg, Morton; Nair, Suresh; Shields, Anthony F; Newcomb, Polly A; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomization to FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab (N = 1984). Information was collected on lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity and consumption of different types of alcohol. Cox models assessed the association between alcohol consumption and outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS), time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, study arm, body mass, smoking, physical activity and performance status. No statistically significant difference in outcomes between ever and never drinkers were noted [hazard ratio (HR)DFS  = 0.86, HRTTR  = 0.87, HROS  = 0.86, p-values = 0.11-0.17]. However, when considering alcohol type, ever consumers of red wine (n = 628) had significantly better outcomes than never consumers (HRDFS  = 0.80, HRTTR  = 0.81, HROS  = 0.78, p-values = 0.01-0.02). Favorable outcomes were confirmed in patients who consumed 1-30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 601, HR = 0.80-0.83, p-values = 0.03-0.049); there was a suggestion of more favorable outcomes in patients who consumed >30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 27, HR = 0.33-0.38, p-values = 0.05-0.06). Beer and liquor consumption were not associated with outcomes. Although alcohol consumption was not associated with colon cancer outcomes overall, mild to moderate red wine consumption was suggestively associated with longer OS, DFS and TTR in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:27060850

  14. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. A preliminary analysis of the reduction of chemotherapy waste in the treatment of cancer with centralization of drug preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Hyeda; Elide Sbardellotto Mariano da Costa

    2015-01-01

    SummaryIntroduction:chemotherapy is essential to treat most types of cancer. Often, there is chemotherapy waste in the preparation of drugs prescribed to the patient. Leftover doses result in toxic waste production.Objective:the aim of the study was to analyze chemotherapy waste reduction at a centralized drug preparation unit.Methods:the study was cross-sectional, observational and descriptive, conducted between 2010 and 2012. The data were obtained from chemotherapy prescriptions made by on...

  16. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... but these effects are uncommon ( 1 , 3 , 7 ). Diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting ... a standard treatment for cancer ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). Many clinical trials are ...

  17. Cancer Treatment Scams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health Insurance? Cancer ... Talk to Your Doctor First. Tagged with: health , miracle claims , scam September 2008 You Might Also Like ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  1. Nanotechnology for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gmeiner, William H.; Ghosh, Supratim

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to increase the selectivity and potency of chemical, physical, and biological approaches for eliciting cancer cell death while minimizing collateral toxicity to nonmalignant cells. Materials on the nanoscale are increasingly being targeted to cancer cells with great specificity through both active and passive targeting. In this review, we summarize recent literature that has broken new ground in the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment with an emphasis o...

  2. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used in cancer treatment? What are the advantages of laser therapy? What are the disadvantages of ... the drugs used in PDT. What are the advantages of laser therapy? Lasers are more precise than ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

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    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  4. Surgical Excision with Forehead Flap as Single Modality Treatment for Basal Cell Cancer of Central Face: Single Institutional Experience of 50 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdeep Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common skin cancer worldwide. The WHO has defined it as “a locally invasive, slowly spreading tumor which rarely metastasizes, arising in the epidermis or hair follicles and in which the peripheral cells usually simulate the basal cells of the epidermis.” Here we discuss the management of BCCs of central face with surgical excision and reconstruction with forehead flap as single modality treatment. Material and Methods. This is a retrospective review of 50 patients who underwent surgical excision of BCC involving the facial region followed by primary reconstruction using forehead flaps at a single institution. There were 20 males and 30 females, mean age of 59 years. Results. No recurrence at primary site was observed during the follow-up of 1–4 yrs. There was no ectropion or exposure sequela. However, epiphora was evident. Size of lesions ranged from 2 to 6 cm. Keloid formation was seen in 2 (4% patients. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were satisfactory. Conclusion. For the face, the best reconstructive effort eventually fails in the face of tumor recurrence. The forehead flap represents one of the best methods for repair of extensive facial defects. Complete tumor extirpation, the primary event, is the key.

  5. Treatment Success in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Soares, Heloisa P.; Hozo, Iztok; Bepler, Gerold; Clarke, Mike; Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The evaluation of research output, such as estimation of the proportion of treatment successes, is of ethical, scientific, and public importance but has rarely been evaluated systematically. We assessed how often experimental cancer treatments that undergo testing in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) result in discovery of successful new interventions. Methods We extracted data from all completed (published and unpublished) phase 3 RCTs conducted by the National Cancer Institute cooperative groups since their inception in 1955. Therapeutic successes were determined by (1) assessing the proportion of statistically significant trials favoring new or standard treatments, (2) determining the proportion of the trials in which new treatments were considered superior to standard treatments according to the original researchers, and (3) quantitatively synthesizing data for main clinical outcomes (overall and event-free survival). Results Data from 624 trials (781 randomized comparisons) involving 216 451 patients were analyzed. In all, 30% of trials had statistically significant results, of which new interventions were superior to established treatments in 80% of trials. The original researchers judged that the risk-benefit profile favored new treatments in 41% of comparisons (316 of 766). Hazard ratios for overall and event-free survival, available for 614 comparisons, were 0.95 (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.98) and 0.90 (99% CI, 0.87- 0.93), respectively, slightly favoring new treatments. Breakthrough interventions were discovered in 15% of trials. Conclusions Approximately 25% to 50% of new cancer treatments that reach the stage of assessment in RCTs will prove successful. The pattern of successes has become more stable over time. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ethical principle of equipoise defines limits of discoverability in clinical research and ultimately drives therapeutic advances in clinical medicine. PMID:18362256

  6. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  7. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Schenberg, Eduardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of canc...

  8. Neurologic Complications of Cancer and its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Giglio, Pierre; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) are very susceptible to cancer and its treatment. The most direct involvement of the nervous system manifests in the development of primary brain and spinal cord tumors. Many cancers exhibit a propensity toward spread to the CNS, and brain metastases are common problems seen in malignancies such as lung, breast, and melanoma. Such spread may involve the brain or spine parenchyma or the subarachnoid space. In the ...

  9. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  10. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000827.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with pain To use the sharing features on this page, ... health care provider about your options. What Causes Pain The pain from cancer can have a few ...

  11. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  13. Breast cancer burden in central Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgaili M Elgaili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Elgaili M Elgaili1, Dafalla O Abuidris2, Munazzah Rahman3, Arthur M Michalek4, Sulma I Mohammed3,51Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, University of Gezira, Sudan; 2Radiation Oncology Department, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, University of Gezira, Sudan; 3Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA; 4Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA; 5Purdue Cancer Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is a worldwide disease resulting in many deaths. Although breast cancer incidence is lower in Sub-Saharan African countries than in developed countries, African women are more likely than women in the developed world to be diagnosed at later stages of the disease and, thus, are more likely to die from it. This is due to the lack of awareness by women, accessibility to screening methods, and availability of African-based research findings that would influence decision making at the governmental level. This descriptive study was undertaken to shed light on the type, stage and age distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in women living in central Sudan encompassing al-Gezira, Blue Nile, White Nile, and Sennar States. Cases comprised 1255 women from central Sudan diagnosed with breast cancer and referred to and treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology, and Oncology, from January 1999 to December 2006. Data revealed that 74% of the women were <50 years old or premenopausal. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common pathology (82% and women presenting with stage III or higher tumors that had already metastasized, while ductal carcinoma in situ was the least prevalent (0.5% finding. Estrogen and progesterone receptors expression were performed on a limited number of samples and the overwhelming majority of cases were observed to be negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression.Keywords: female breast cancer, estrogen

  14. Cancer Treatment-Induced Neurotoxicity: A Focus on Newer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jacqueline B.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity from traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy is widely recognized. The adverse effects of newer therapeutics such as biological and immunotherapeutic agents are less familiar and they are also associated with significant neurotoxicity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This review addresses the main toxicities of cancer treatment by symptom with a focus on the newer therapeutics. Recognition of these patterns of toxicity is important as drug discontinuation or dose adjustment may prevent further neurologic injury. Also, knowledge of these toxicities helps to differentiate treatment-related symptoms from progression of cancer or its involvement of the nervous system. PMID:26391778

  15. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  16. Anal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  17. Plasma for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that grew from research in application of low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasmas in bioengineering. One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is cancer therapy. Convincing evidence of CAP selectivity towards the cancer cells has been accumulated. This review summarizes the state of the art of this emerging field, presenting various aspects of CAP application in cancer such as the role of reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen), cell cycle modification, in vivo application, CAP interaction with cancer cells in conjunction with nanoparticles, and computational oncology applied to CAP.

  18. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with comorbiditie

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miscarriage (premature birth of a fetus that cannot survive). Women who were exposed to DES before birth ... to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  2. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and x-rays ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. Certain factors ...

  3. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Pigarova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes insipidus represents a serious disease that dramatically interferes with the everyday life of patients due to the need to constantly replenish of fluid lost in the urine, which comes amid shortage of synthesis, secretion or action of pituitary hormone vasopressin. The main difficulty is the differential diagnosis of types of diabetes insipidus in patients with the syndrome of polydipsia-polyuria as the correct differential diagnosis of these forms predetermine the safety and efficacy of further treatment. This lecture presents the current concepts of etiology, diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus (CDI. We give the comparative characteristics of various preparations of desmopressin for the treatment of the central form of the disease. We also consider the features of the management of selected patient populations with CDI: during pregnancy and lactation, pathology of the thirst sensation, after traumatic brain injury and neurosurgery.

  5. Treatment Considerations for Cancer Pain: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Gharibo, Christopher; Ho, Kok-Yuen

    2015-11-01

    Cancer pain is prevalent, undertreated, and feared by patients with cancer. In April 2013, a panel of pain experts convened in Singapore to address the treatment of cancer pain. They discussed the various types of cancer pain, including breakthrough pain, which is sometimes clinically confused with analgesic gaps. Reasons for undertreating cancer pain include attitudes of patients, clinicians, and factors associated with healthcare systems. The consequences of not treating cancer pain may include reduced quality of life for patients with cancer (who now live longer than ever), functional decline, and increased psychological stress. Early analgesic intervention for cancer pain may reduce the risk of central sensitization and chronification of pain. To manage pain in oncology patients, clinicians should assess pain during regular follow-up visits using validated pain measurement tools and follow prescribing guidelines, if necessary referring patients with cancer to pain specialists. Many patients with cancer require opioids for pain relief. Pain associated with cancer may also relate to cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Many patients with cancer are what might be considered "special populations," in that they may be elderly, frail, comorbid, or have end-stage organ failure. Specific pain therapy guidelines for those populations are reviewed. Patients with cancer with a history of or active substance abuse disorder deserve pain control but may require close medical supervision. While much "treatment inertia" exists in cancer pain control, cancer pain can be safely and effectively managed and should be carried out to alleviate suffering and improve outcomes. PMID:25469726

  6. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Mark H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Chen, Xiaoyuan [National Institutes of Health (NIH), Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. (orig.)

  7. Central venous catheters and catheter locks in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handrup, Mette Møller; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Schrøder, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC).......To determine if the catheter lock taurolidine can reduce the number of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in pediatric cancer patients with tunneled central venous catheters (CVC)....

  8. Antimatter cancer treatment

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "The idea that antimatter beams could treat cancer might seem ridiculous. But researchers working at Cerns particle accelerator laboratory in Geneva don't think so. They have just reported a successful first experiment into the biological effects of antiprotons radiation on living cells."

  9. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around it. Sometimes lymph nodes , half of the thyroid gland on the same side of the body as the cancer, and muscles, tissues , and a nerve in the neck are also removed. Tumor debulking : A surgical procedure in which as much ...

  10. Results of a planned interim toxicity analysis with trimodality therapy, including carboplatin AUC = 4, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, amifostine, and radiation for locally advanced esophageal cancer: preliminary analyses and treatment recommendations from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group

    OpenAIRE

    Jatoi, Aminah; Martenson, James; Mahoney, Michelle R; Lair, Bradley S; Brindle, Jeffrey S; Nichols, Frank; Caron, Normand; Rowland, Kendrith; Tschetter, Loren; Alberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Purpose An aggressive trimodality approach from the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network [carboplatin AUC = 6, days 1 and 22; 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 continuous infusion, days 1–42, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, days 1 and 22; 45 Gy] has resulted in remarkable pathologic response rates but notable toxicity. This trial was designed to mitigate this toxicity by starting with a lower carboplatin dose, AUC = 4, and by adding subcutaneous amifostine. Methods This phase II trial included patients with loc...

  11. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  13. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that ... not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos More Videos ...

  14. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  16. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  17. Is risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse related to adjuvant taxane treatment in node-positive breast cancer? Results of the CNS substudy in the intergroup Phase III BIG 02-98 Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pestalozzi, B.C.; Francis, P.; Quinaux, E.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer central nervous system (CNS) metastases are an increasingly important problem because of high CNS relapse rates in patients treated with trastuzumab and/or taxanes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated data from 2887 node-positive breast cancer patients randomised in the BIG...

  18. Unproven methods in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, S P

    1993-07-01

    The nature-based and nontoxic image makes application of unproven methods in oncology attractive in contrast to application of a mechanized scientific medicine. The application frequency of these treatments ranges from 10% to greater than 60%. Increasingly, the promoters try to create a scientific impression through a pseudologic cancer theory, a harmless diagnostic test, and a holistic treatment of every cancer. Of the big variety of unproven methods, which are summarized in 11 groups in this review, the following are discussed: anthroposophic and other mistletoe preparations; homeopathy; Maharishi Ayur-Veda; unproven anticancer diets; orthomolecular medicine, including ascorbic acid; and methods supposedly stimulating unspecific and specific defense mechanisms. In conclusion, physicians should beware of and have knowledge of currently used unproven cancer treatments for epidemiologic, social, economic, and scientific reasons. PMID:8364081

  19. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  20. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment. PMID:8066398

  1. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, and, in fact, ... when detected, you know, and when patients get treatment. Okay. So it’s very important, you know, to ...

  2. Discovery – Methotrexate: Chemotherapy Treatment for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 1950s, treatment for the majority of cancers was limited to either surgery or the use of radiation. The discovery of the use of methotrexate in curing a rare cancer marked the first time a cancer had been cured. This led to the development of many of today’s common cancer treatments.

  3. Theophylline in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanseli Efeoğlu Gönlügür

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is a drug used for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. It inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase, thereby preventing the intracellular break-down of cyclic AMP. Potentially beneficial therapeutic effects of theophylline include bronchial smooth-muscle relaxation, enhanced mucociliary transport, decrease in pulmonary hypertension, improved diaphragmatic contractility, and central stimulation of ventilation. On the other hand, theophylline evokes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in human breast cancer cells. Theophylline-treated melanoma cells exhibit low adhesion to laminin/collagen type IV. Consequently, theophylline possesses the capacity to inhibit not only cell proliferation, but also the metastatic behaviour of melanoma cells. This drug prevents neovascularization of the tumor by blocking endothelial cell proliferation. The combination of theophylline with cytotoxic drugs may permit a reduction in the effective dose needed in chemotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients. It has also a prophylactic effect on the nephrotoxicity due to cisplatin. However, this drug may inhibit small cell lung cancer cells but stimulate pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. It is necessary to perform large, prospective studies for the exact role of theophylline on each type of lung cancer.

  4. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  5. [Robotic surgery for cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oouchida, Kenoki; Ieiri, Satoshi; Kenmotsu, Hajime; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Hashizume, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Surgical operation is still one of the important options for treatment of many types of cancer. In the present-day treatment of cancer, patients' quality of life is focused on and surgeons need to provide minimally invasive surgery without decreasing the curability of disease. Endoscopic surgery contributed to the prevalence of minimally -invasive surgery. However it has also raised a problem regarding differences in surgical techniques among individual surgeons. Robot-assisted surgery provides some resolutions with 3D vision and increases the freedom of forceps manipulation. Furthermore, 3D visual magnification, scaling function, and the filtering function of surgical robots may make it possible for surgeons to perform microsurgery more delicate than open surgery. Here, we report the present status and the future of the representative surgical robot, and the da Vinci surgical system. PMID:22241345

  6. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  7. Cancer treatment-related bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sue A.; Guise, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Bone health may be impaired in many patients being treated for cancer. Primary tumors that reside in or form metastases to bone can result in compromised skeletal integrity. It has also been increasingly recognized that patients undergoing therapies for treatment of cancer are at higher risk of bone loss. These include androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer among others. Hypogonadism induced by many of these cancer treatments results...

  8. Communicative skills in treatmenting cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication within oncology is a core clinical skill but one in which few oncologists or specialist cancer nurses have received much formal training. Inadequate communication may cause much distress for patients and their families, who often want considerably more information than is usually provided. Many patients leave consultations unsure about the diagnosis and prognosis, confused about the meaning of--and need for-further diagnostic tests, unclear about the management plan and uncertain about the true therapeutic intent of treatment. Additionally, communication difficulties may impede the recruitment of patients to clinical trials, delaying the introduction of efficacious new treatments into clinics

  9. A phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pilocarpine for vaginal dryness: North Central Cancer Treatment group study N04CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Charles L; Balcueva, Ernie P; Liu, Heshan; Sloan, Jeff A; Kottschade, Lisa A; Stella, Philip J; Carlson, Mark D; Moore, Dennis F; Zon, Robin T; Levitt, Ralph; Jaslowski, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal dryness is a common problem for which effective and safe nonestrogenic treatments are needed. Based on preliminary promising data that pilocarpine attenuated vaginal dryness, the current trial was conducted. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pilocarpine, at target doses of 5 mg twice daily and 5 mg four times daily, with a placebo. Vaginal dryness was recorded by patient-completed questionnaires at baseline and weekly for 6 weeks after study initiation. The primary endpoint for this study was the area under the curve summary statistic composed of the longitudinal responses obtained at baseline and through the 6 weeks of treatment to a numerical analogue scale asking patients to rate their perceived amount of vaginal dryness. The primary analysis was carried out by a single t test using a two-side alternative to compare the collective pilocarpine treatment arms with the collective placebo arms. A total of 201 patients enrolled in this trial. The primary analysis, comparing vaginal dryness symptoms in the collective pilocarpine arms against the placebo arm, did not reveal any benefit for the pilocarpine treatment. This finding was confirmed by other secondary analyses. Toxicity evaluation revealed more nausea, sweating, rigors, and urinary frequency with the pilocarpine arms compared with the placebo arm.

  10. Electrodiagnosis in cancer treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Christian M

    2011-05-01

    As cancer patients are living longer and the number of cancer survivors increases, more secondary complications related to cancer and its treatments are being recognized. A large number of neuromuscular processes, stemming from cancer itself, from secondary metabolic effects, from paraneoplastic syndromes, from preexisting conditions, or from adverse effects related to cancer treatments, can affect the peripheral nervous system at any level. Electrodiagnostic tools such as nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography are uniquely suited to assess the function of the peripheral nervous system and are valuable tools in confirming and defining neuromuscular dysfunction and in helping guide oncologic and physiatric treatment and prognosis for the cancer rehabilitation patient.

  11. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  12. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  13. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... June 24, 2016 The first-person story of a retired educator’s Medicare scam experience – and the FTC ...

  14. [New frontiers in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Giampaolo; Daniele, Gennaro

    2006-12-01

    The knowledge acquired in the past few years on the regulatory mechanisms of cancer growth and spreading have started to be translated in the development of a new therapeutic modality directed against previously defined molecular targets, now defined as "target therapy", thus introducing a truly revolutionary concept in the anticancer therapeutic strategies. The novel molecular targeted drugs are usually integrated in therapeutic regimens that combine such novel agents with the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and several studies have now demonstrated their efficacy in the clinical practice. The future goal of cancer therapy will be the tailoring of treatments based on the specific molecular features of the tumor of each patient, with the aim to obtain the maximum therapeutic efficacy with the lowest toxicity.

  15. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, William H.; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Schaheen, Lara W.; Tatum, Roger P.; Turkin, Igor N.; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L.; van der Sluis, Peter C.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C.R.; Wu, Peter C.; Zonderhuis, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

  16. Type of Cancer Treatment: Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the role that targeted therapies play in cancer treatment. Includes how targeted therapies work against cancer, who receives targeted therapies, common side effects, and what to expect when having targeted therapies.

  17. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  18. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  19. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadyalpatil, Nikhil Suresh; Supriya, Chopra; Prachi, Patil; Ashwin, Dsouza; Avanish, Saklani

    2016-01-01

    GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), esophageal cancer (EC), and pancreatic cancer (PC). Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist, these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes. The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach) to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs) need focussed attention

  20. Changing paradigm in treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sundaram Viswanath; Abhishek Pathak; Amul Kapoor; Anvesh Rathore; Bhupendra Nath Kapur

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer. It accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases and 19% of cancer-related deaths. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of all new cancer cases and 9.3% of all cancer cases. There has also been a dramatic rise worldwide in both the absolute and relative frequencies of lung cancer occurrence. In 1953 it became the most common cause of cancer mortality in men. By 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, causing almost twice as many deaths as breast cancer. The demographic proifle of lung cancer has changed greatly over the years; however, methods for diagnosing, screening, and managing lung cancer patients have improved. This is due to our growing understanding of the biology of lung cancer. It is now possible to further deifne lung cancer types beyond small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, new histology-based therapeutic modalities have been developed, and more new lung cancer biomarkers have been uncovered. Therefore, more detailed histological characterization of lung cancer samples is warranted in order to determine the best course of treatment for speciifc patients. This review article describes how these new molecular technologies are shaping the way lung cancer can be treated in future.

  1. Phase I North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial-N9923 of escalating doses of twice-daily thoracic radiation therapy with amifostine and with alternating chemotherapy in limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The primary goal was to identify the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) that can be given with chemotherapy and amifostine for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC). Methods and Materials: Treatment began with two cycles of topotecan (1 mg/m2) Days 1 to 5 and paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) Day 5 (every 3 weeks) given before and after TRT. The TRT began at 6 weeks. The TRT was given in 120 cGy fractions b.i.d. and the dose escalation (from 4,800 cGy, dose level 1, to 6,600 cGy, dose level 4) followed the standard 'cohorts of 3' design. The etoposide (E) (50 mg/day) and cisplatin (C) (3 mg/m2) were given i.v. before the morning TRT and amifostine (500 mg/day) was given before the afternoon RT. This was followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as Grade ≥4 hematologic, febrile neutropenia, esophagitis, or other nonhematologic toxicity, Grade ≥3 dyspnea, or Grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable for the Phase I portion of the trial. No DLTs were seen at dose levels 1 and 2. Two patients on dose level 4 experienced DLTs: 1 patient had a Grade 4 pneumonitis, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, and anorexia, and 1 patient had a Grade 5 hypoxia attributable to TRT. One of 6 patients on dose level 3 had a DLT, Grade 3 esophagitis. The Grade ≥3 toxicities seen in at least 10% of patients during TRT were esophagitis (53%), leukopenia (33%), dehydration (20%), neutropenia (13%), and fatigue (13%). The median survival was 14.5 months. Conclusion: The MTD of b.i.d. TRT was 6000 cGy (120 cGy b.i.d.) with EP and amifostine

  2. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor responds to treatment. Newly Diagnosed CNS Teratomas Treatment of newly diagnosed mature and immature central nervous system (CNS) teratomas may include the following: Surgery to remove as ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  4. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  5. Cancer cachexia, mechanism and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyoshi Aoyagi; Krista P Terracina; Ali Raza; Hisahiro Matsubara; Kazuaki Takabe

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that half of all patients with cancereventually develop a syndrome of cachexia, with anorexiaand a progressive loss of adipose tissue and skeletalmuscle mass. Cancer cachexia is characterized by systemicinflammation, negative protein and energy balance, andan involuntary loss of lean body mass. It is an insidioussyndrome that not only has a dramatic impact on patientquality of life, but also is associated with poor responsesto chemotherapy and decreased survival. Cachexia isstill largely an underestimated and untreated condition,despite the fact that multiple mechanisms are reported tobe involved in its development, with a number of cytokinespostulated to play a role in the etiology of the persistentcatabolic state. Existing therapies for cachexia, includingorexigenic appetite stimulants, focus on palliation ofsymptoms and reduction of the distress of patients andfamilies rather than prolongation of life. Recent therapiesfor the cachectic syndrome involve a multidisciplinaryapproach. Combination therapy with diet modificationand/or exercise has been added to novel pharmaceuticalagents, such as Megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone,ghrelin, omega-3-fatty acid among others. These agentsare reported to have improved survival rates as well asquality of life. In this review, we will discuss the emergingunderstanding of the mechanisms of cancer cachexia,the current treatment options including multidisciplinarycombination therapies, as well an update on new andongoing clinical trials.

  6. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...

  7. Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160652.html Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment Extra chemo drugs failed to change course of ... t benefit patients with a rare type of bone cancer, according to a new ... teenagers. With current treatments, only 65 to 70 percent of patients live ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... 2004 than in 2003. Today's continuing progress against cancer is the result of enhanced prevention strategies, earlier detection, and better treatment — much of ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  10. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  11. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-κB pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-κB, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  12. Brachytherapy in treatment of vaginal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Kaprin; V. N. Galkin; S. A. Ivanov; V. A. Solodkiy; V. A. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of diagnosis and treatment of different types of primary vaginal cancer are highlighted, the role and place of brachytherapy as independent method or combined treatment modality for this pathology is shown in the review. Epidemiological data on incidence of vaginal cancer in Russia are represented, presumptive mechanisms for development of the disease, risk factors, histological types, features of the course, clinical presentation, diagnostic algorithm are described. Treatment...

  13. Overview: New Modality for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is now becoming a promising modality of cancer treatment upon the clinical successes of adoptive T-cell transfer and immune checkpoint blockade. At the 30th Nagoya International Cancer Treatment Symposium, Marcel R.M. van den Brink (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) showed novel strategies to control malignant relapse and graft-versus-host disease, both major obstacles for clinical benefits in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Alexander M. Lesokhin (MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) presented an overview of immune checkpoint blockade, particularly focusing on hematologic malignancies stressing the importance of immunomonitoring to identify biomarkers.

  14. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  15. Neoadjuvant Treatment for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulM.Schneider; HuanXi; StephanE.Baldus; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger

    2004-01-01

    Because the conflicting data currently available from the performed randomized trials it is very difficult to provide strict guidelines for the treatment of patients with locoregional advanced esophageal cancers. Surgery however, remains the standard of care for potentially resectable disease. Preoperative chemotherapy is still controversial with two large randomized trials resulting in two different conclusions regarding the survival benefit. Preoperative chemoradiation is also controversial since only one randomized trial showed a clear survival benefit however, the patients treated with surgery alone in this trial had an unusually poor outcome. And the study by Urba et al was not powered enough to show a clear survival benefit for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The results of three metaanalysis of these randomized studies show lower rate of resection, higher rate of R0-resection, more often postoperative mortality and better prognosis for patients with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. As a consequence one may consider offering neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to patients with locallyadvanced disease under the premise that patients have a good performance status and understand the controversies about this therapeutic option. Larger trials with sufficient power to clearly detect survival benefits for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy are necessary before this therapeutic option will be the standard of care.

  16. Neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Semiglazov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available linical trials have shown that the status of the women achieving complete pathomorphological repression (CPR of a tumor is characterized by significantly improved survival as compared to that of those who have not to an equal degree. The achievement of CPR as an intermediate marker for improved survival is chiefly observed in women with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (BC: triple-negative and HER-2-positive. In patients with the latter subtype, addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy doubles the rate of CPR and correlates with higher survival rates. The performed clinical trials have established that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is the most suitable treatment for patients with steroid hormone receptor overexpression. Whether it may be used in combination with targeted (anti-HER-2 therapy for estrogen and HER-2 coexpression is being investigated. Neoadjuvant therapy for suitable BC stages can accelerate the assessment of novel medications through identification of predictive biological markers for response (CPR in particular. Although standard neoadjuvant therapy gives an obvious benefit to patients with CPR, other patients with the so-called residual disease are at high recurrence risk.

  17. 乳腺癌患者携带PICC化疗并发导管败血症的诊治探讨%Diagnosis and treatment of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC)-related sepsis in breast cancer patients carrying PICC catheter for chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xing; Vishnu Prasad Adhikari; Lingquan Kong; Hongyuan Li; Guosheng Ren; Feng Luo; Kainan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our research was to study the incidence, clinical diagnosis and treatment of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC)-related sepsis in breast cancer patients carrying PICC catheter for chemotherapy. Methods: The data of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of PICC-related sepsis in 215 cases of breast cancer patients carrying PICC catheter for chemotherapy in our hospital from August, 2009 to September, 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 216 PICCs had been successfully applied in 215 cases of breast cancer patients and followed for a total of 19,109 catheter days, (median catheterization duration, 88.9 days, range 1-212 days). Among those, 3 (1.39%) PICCs were removed respectively as a result of PICC-related sepsis in 29, 73 and 108 catheter-days (median 70 d), with a rate of 0.16 per 1000 catheter-days. Conclusion: Chemotherapeutic treatment via PICC for breast cancer patients is one of the most secure and effective measures but there exists small number of cases in which PICC catheter related sepsis is possible. Careful observation of relevant symptoms and signs, early diagnosis and treatment, not relying completely on blood culture tests and timely removal of PICC catheter can be very effective in treating PICC-related sepsis in these patients.

  18. [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bíró, Krisztina; Géczi, Lajos; Németh, Hajnalka

    2015-09-01

    There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26339912

  19. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  20. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Salazar-León, Jonathan; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%-95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development. PMID:23144564

  1. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  2. Treatment of Cancer-Associated Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. van Sluis; H.R. Buller

    2009-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication in cancer patients, which is associated with bad outcome. Increased recurrence rates and bleeding complications as compared to non-cancer patients during the treatment of VTE, require special attention. This review aims to summarize the avail

  3. Safety of anticoagulant treatment in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Ineke Theodora; Bleker, Suzanne Mariella; Van Es, Nick; Buller, Harry Roger; Di Nisio, Marcello; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of (recurrent) venous thronnboembolism. They are also at increased risk of bleeding. This makes treatment of venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in cancer patients challenging. Areas covered: In this review, we will focus on the safety of anticoagul

  4. Focal adhesion signaling in breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of survival and migratory pathways in cancer cells is essential to better comprehending cancer progression, metastasis formation and drug resistance, thereby benefiting the development of novel anticancer treatments. The overall goal of the work is to better un

  5. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, RA; Nieuwenhuijzen, GAP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJT; Hospers, GAP; Wiggers, T

    2004-01-01

    Historically, locally advanced rectal cancer is known for its dismal prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is subject to continuous change due to development of new and better diagnostic tools, radiotherapeutic techniques, chemotherapeutic agents and understanding of the subject

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy . Mohs microsurgery . A clinical trial of laser therapy . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical ... nodes in the groin ). External or internal radiation therapy followed by ... clinical trial of laser surgery . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. During ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miscarriage (premature birth of a fetus that cannot survive). Women who were exposed to DES before birth ... to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs ...

  9. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According ... to their doctor before trying or buying such products and should not stop or delay their conventional ...

  10. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  11. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  12. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  13. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  14. Targeted biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lufang; Xu, Ningning; Sun, Yan; Liu, Xiaoguang Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a complex invasive genetic disease that causes significant mortality rate worldwide. Protein-based biopharmaceuticals have significantly extended the lives of millions of cancer patients. This article reviews the biological function and application of targeted anticancer biopharmaceuticals. We first discuss the specific antigens and core pathways that are used in the development of targeted cancer therapy. The innovative monoclonal antibodies, non-antibody proteins, and small molecules targeting these antigens or pathways are then reviewed. Finally, the current challenges in anticancer biopharmaceuticals development and the potential solutions to address these challenges are discussed.

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. When the esophagus and ...

  17. Treatment Individualization in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, Robin M J M; Beijnen, Jos H; Bernards, René; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been characterized as a genetically heterogeneous disease, with a large diversity in molecular pathogenesis resulting in differential responses to therapy. However, the currently available validated biomarkers KRAS, BRAF, and microsatellite instability do not sufficiently cover

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Gallbladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the outer layers as it grows. Being female can increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk factor does not mean that ...

  19. Treatment Options for Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the outer layers as it grows. Being female can increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk factor does not mean that ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  1. Childhood cancer and vitamins: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-02-01

    Discussions of pediatric nutrition and cancer usually focus on important issues of ensuring an adequate nutrient intake (enteral and parenteral) during and after the early treatment phase of care. However, information is available that suggests that vitamin status may have additional roles in the care of children with cancer. Over the last decade, investigators have reported findings that suggest that maternal preconception and perinatal vitamin intake and status influence the cancer risk of the infant and child. Others have shown a relationship between vitamin and antioxidant status and the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects for children undergoing chemotherapy. Vitamin D has potential anti-cancer activity and vitamin D status is suboptimal in many children in North America. Each of these issues is briefly presented from a perspective of prevention and treatment of childhood cancer.

  2. Antimetabolite Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Malyn May Asuncion; Neidigh, Jonathan W.; Wall, Nathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly and aggressive disease. Less than 1% of diagnosed patients survive 5 years with an average survival time of only 4–8 months. The only option for metastatic pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy where only the antimetabolites gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil are used clinically. Unfortunately, efforts to improve chemotherapy regimens by combining, 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine with other drugs, such as cisplatin or oxaliplatin, have not increased cell killing or improve...

  3. Surgical treatment for liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicole; C; Tsim; Adam; E; Frampton; Nagy; A; Habib; Long; R; Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Primary liver cancer is amongst the commonest tumors worldwide,particularly in parts of the developing world,and is increasing in incidence. Over the past three decades,surgical hepatic resection has evolved from a high risk,resource intensive procedure with limited application,to a safe and commonly performed operation with a range of indications. This article reviews the approach to surgical resection for malignancies such as hepatocellular cancer,metastatic liver de-posits and neuroendocrine tumors. Surv...

  4. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  5. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  6. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  7. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  9. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase III Double-Blind, Randomized Trial From the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A two-arm, double-blind, randomized trial was performed to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma who were undergoing external beam radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream daily. The primary study endpoint was the provider-assessed maximal grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints included provider-assessed Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse event monitoring. The patient-reported outcome measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and a quality-of-life self-assessment. An assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 176 patients were enrolled between September 21, 2007, and December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary endpoint showed no difference in the mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs. 1.3 for placebo; p = .18). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity was greater in the placebo group (p = .04), primarily from pruritus. For the patient-reported outcome measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for the MMF group showed less itching (p = .008), less irritation (p = .01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (p = .02), and less annoyance with skin problems (p = .04). The group's maximal Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (p = .02) and less itching (p = .002). Conclusion: Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy might experience reduced acute skin toxicity compared with patients receiving placebo.

  10. Mometasone Furoate Effect on Acute Skin Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy: A Phase 3 Double-Blind, Randomized Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N06C4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert C.; Schwartz, David J.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Griffin, Patricia C.; Deming, Richard L.; Anders, Jon C.; Stoffel, Thomas J.; Haselow, Robert E.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Bearden, James D.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Martenson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A 2-arm, double-blinded, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma receiving external beam radiotherapy to breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to daily apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream. Primary study end point was provider-assessed maximum grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 radiation dermatitis. Secondary end points included provider-assessed CTCAE grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse-event monitoring. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and quality of life self-assessment. Assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results In total, 176 patients were enrolled from September 21, 2007 through December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary end point showed no difference in mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs 1.3 for placebo; P=.18). CTCAE toxicity was greater in placebo group (P=.04), primarily from pruritus. For PRO measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for MMF group showed less itching (P=.008), less irritation (P=.01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (P=.02), and less annoyance with skin problems (P=.04); the group's maximum Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (P=.02) and less itching (P=.002). Conclusion Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy may experience reduced acute skin toxicity in comparison to placebo. PMID:20800381

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel Medical ... when detected, you know, and when patients get treatment. Okay. So it’s very important, you know, to ...

  12. Towards individualized treatment for esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, P.S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in staging, treatment, and perioperative care, esophageal cancer remains a devastating disease with a 5-year overall survival rate of only 15-25%. As prognosis is often poor, multimodality (rather than single modality) treatment approaches are frequently applied to increa

  13. Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Tao, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs’ moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole. PMID:27338440

  14. Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Huang, Bo; Tao, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs' moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole. PMID:27338440

  15. Impact of cancer and cancer treatment on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Dimou, Petros; Anagnostou, Ioannis; Zeginiadou, Theodosia

    2015-01-01

    While cancer, and especially testicular cancer and Hodgkin's disease, affects male fertility in many ways, the current increase of survival of male cancer patients of reproductive age or earlier has emerged as a new challenge to their subsequent ability to father children. Cancer treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can have a transitory as well as a permanent detrimental impact on male fertility. Gonadotoxic effects and the length of time for sperm recovery after radiotherapy depends not only on initial semen quality, but also on gonadal dosage and the delivery method after chemotherapy, on the type of regimens and dosages and on the spermatogenesis phase that each drug impacts. Combination treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will induce more gonadotoxicity than either modality alone. Although efforts to prevent gonadal toxicity in cancer treatment are routinely applied, sperm cryopreservation remains the gold standard to maintain male fertility after cancer survival. Fertility preservation for prepubertal boys presents the greatest problem due to the absence of mature sperm in their gonads. In this area, research efforts are concentrated on cryopreservation of immature gametes and, in particular, techniques for their maturation and proliferation after thawing. PMID:26732148

  16. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Orozco, Breanna Z

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength), negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass), increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer.

  17. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The surgeon may use part of the small intestine to make a tube that passes urine through an opening ( stoma ). This is called an ostomy or urostomy . If ... surgeon may also use part of the small intestine to make a new storage pouch ( continent ... the urine through a stoma. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Urethral Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The surgeon may use part of the small intestine to make a tube that passes urine through an opening ( stoma ). This is called an ostomy or urostomy . If ... surgeon may also use part of the small intestine to make a new storage pouch ( continent ... the urine through a stoma. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around it. Sometimes lymph nodes , half of the thyroid gland on the same side of the body as the cancer, and muscles, tissues , and a nerve in the neck are also removed. Tumor debulking : A surgical procedure in which as much ...

  20. Economic evaluation of cancer treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Uyl-de Groot (Carin)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCancer is an important cause of illness and death, accounting for a high percentage of mortality in Western countries. In the Netherlands, about 30% of all deaths is due to cancel' and the prevalence, an indicator of the present burden of illness to society, is clearly rising (Coebergh,

  1. Pediatric malignancies, treatment outcomes and abandonment of pediatric cancer treatment in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Slone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. METHODS: Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0-15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. RESULTS: Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]  = 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.97. Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.05-2.58. CONCLUSIONS: Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  2. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...

  3. Thulium laser treatment for bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Haitao Liu; Shujie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Recent innovations in thulium laser techniques have allowed application in the treatment of bladder cancer. Laser en bloc resection of bladder cancer is a transurethral procedure that may offer an alternative to the conventional transurethral resection procedure. We conducted a review of basic thulium laser physics and laser en bloc resection procedures and summarized the current clinical literature with a focus on complications and outcomes. Literature evidence suggests that thulium laser te...

  4. Keeping Your Sex Life Going Despite Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can affect fertility How cancer treatment can affect sexual desire and response How cancer treatments can affect sexuality and fertility Dealing with sexual problems What treatments are available to help with ...

  5. [Clonidine in the treatment of cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bøje; Sjøgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    Clonidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist with analgetic properties. Due to its side-effects, the drug is administered via the epidural or spinal route. A literature search yielded nine controlled studies on clonidine as a supplemental drug in the epidural or spinal treatment of cancer pain....... These studies were systematically reviewed to evaluate the evidence of efficacy in patients with cancer pain. CONCLUSION: Despite weak evidence, clonidine may be a useful adjunct in epidural or spinal morphine therapy of cancer pain Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/3...

  6. Current practice of gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon Young Choi; Ji Yeong An; Hyung-Il Kim; Jae-Ho Cheong; Woo Jin Hyung; Sung Hoon Noh

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to overview the current practice of gastric cancer treatment including surgery and other adjuvant modalities.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and main guidelines in the East and West.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Although varied adjuvant modalities have been proved to be benefit for treating gastric cancer,surgery is still the most important treatment strategy against gastric cancer.Actively adapting to new technology is important but it should be balanced with an effort to establish sound scientific rationale that adheres to oncologic principles.Conclusions Future treatment of gastric cancer will be focused on tailored,personalized therapy.For achieving it,collaboration across disciplines is essential.Also the philosophy of caring for the patients with gastric cancer should be rooted in the realization of true patient benefit regardless of who is providing the care.With these philosophies,we can shift the scientific and technological advances toward triumph over gastric cancer.

  7. Radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, Douglas; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of radioactive iodine (131-I) in the treatment of patients who have well differentiated thyroid cancer. We review definitions; staging; the two-principal methods for selection of a dosage of 131-I for ablation and treatment; the objectives of ablation and treatment; the indications for ablation and treatment; the recommendations for the use of 131-I for ablation and treatment contained in the Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association, the European Consensus, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine; the dosage recommendations and selection of dosage for 131-I by the these organizations; and the Washington Hospital Center approach.

  8. Nutrition and cancer: issues related to treatment and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Gary

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews nutritional issues related to cancer treatment and further explores nutritional needs pertinent to cancer survivorship. It examines the major problems with nutrition when patients undergo the main cancer treatment modalities of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Particular attention is paid to long-term dietary advice in acknowledgement of the improved effectiveness of cancer treatment and the chronic nature of the condition.

  9. Rectal cancer treatment: Improving the picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach for rectal cancer treatment is currently well defined. Nevertheless, new and promising advances are enriching the portrait. Since the US NIH Consensus in the early 90's some new characters have been added. A bird's-eye view along the last decade shows the main milestones in the development of rectal cancer treatment protocols. New drugs, in combination with radiotherapy are being tested to increase response and tumor control outcomes. However, therapeutic intensity is often associated with toxicity. Thus, innovative strategies are needed to create a better-balanced therapeutic ratio. Molecular targeted therapies and improved technology for delivering radiotherapy respond to the need for accuracy and precision in rectal cancer treatment.

  10. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours.

  11. Practice setting and physician influences on judgments of colon cancer treatment by community physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    McFall, S L; Warnecke, R B; Kaluzny, A D; Ford, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article compares judgments about the treatment of Dukes' B2 and C colon cancer made by general surgeons to those of internists and family practitioners. Physician and practice variables were specialty, affiliation with a Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) hospital, time in practice, professional centrality (level of participation in cancer information networks), solo practice, and number of colon cancer patients. DATA COLLECTION METHODS. Data are combined from national...

  12. School-aged children after the end of successful treatment of non-central nervous system cancer: longitudinal assessment of health-related quality of life, anxiety and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Stam, H; Oort, F J; Last, B F; Brons, P P T; Caron, H N; Grootenhuis, M A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate: (1) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and anxiety in school-aged cancer survivors during the first 4 years of continuous remission after the end of treatment; and (2) correlations of disease-related coping with HRQoL and anxiety. A total of 76 survivors aged 8-15 years completed questionnaires about HRQoL, anxiety and disease-related cognitive coping at one to five measurement occasions. Their HRQoL was compared with norm data, 2 months (n = 49) and 1 year (n = 41), 2 years (n = 41), 3 years (n = 42) and 4 years (n = 27) after treatment. Through longitudinal mixed models analyses it was investigated to what extent disease-related cognitive coping was associated with HRQoL and anxiety over time, independent of the impact of demographic and medical variables. Survivors reported worse Motor Functioning (HRQoL) 2 months after the end of treatment, but from 1 year after treatment they did no longer differ from the norm population. Lower levels of anxiety were associated with male gender, being more optimistic about the further course of the disease (predictive control) and less searching for information about the disease (interpretative control). Stronger reliance on the physician (vicarious control) was associated with better mental HRQoL. As a group, survivors regained good HRQoL from 1 year after treatment. Monitoring and screening survivors are necessary to be able to trace the survivors at risk of worse HRQoL.

  13. Computerized diagnosis of delayed metastases of central lung cancer according to clinicoroentgenological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on literary data and the material available (237 patients with central lung cancer), methods of central cancer delayed metastases computerized diagnosis are developed according to the clinicoroentgenological data. Using computers, Baijes and Wald methods, 68.6 and 69.4% of correct answers respectively are obtained. Symptoms are distinguished, testifying to the presence of central lung cancer delayed metastases with the most probability

  14. Oncolytic Adenoviruses in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alemany

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic use of viruses against cancer has been revived during the last two decades. Oncolytic viruses replicate and spread inside tumors, amplifying their cytotoxicity and simultaneously reversing the tumor immune suppression. Among different viruses, recombinant adenoviruses designed to replicate selectively in tumor cells have been clinically tested by intratumoral or systemic administration. Limited efficacy has been associated to poor tumor targeting, intratumoral spread, and virocentric immune responses. A deeper understanding of these three barriers will be required to design more effective oncolytic adenoviruses that, alone or combined with chemotherapy or immunotherapy, may become tools for oncologists.

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Laryngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may work better in patients who have stopped smoking before beginning treatment. External radiation therapy to the thyroid or the pituitary gland may change the way the thyroid gland works. The doctor may test the thyroid gland before and after ...

  16. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monica; Millan; Sandra; Merino; Aleidis; Caro; Francesc; Feliu; Jordi; Escuder; Tani; Francesch

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high incidence, and approxi-mately 60% of colorectal cancer patients are older than 70, with this incidence likely increasing in the near future. Elderly patients(> 70-75 years of age) are a very heterogeneous group, ranging from the very fit to the very frail. Traditionally, these patients have often been under-treated and recruited less frequently to clinical trials than younger patients, and thus are underrepresented in publications about cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that fit elderly patients can be treated in the same way as their younger counterparts, but the treatment of frail patients with comorbidities is still a matter of controversy. Many factors should be taken into account, including fitness for treatment, the wishes of the patient and family, and quality of life. This review will focus on the existing evidence for surgical, oncologic, and palliative treatment in patients over 70 years old with colorectal cancer. Careful patient assessment is necessary in order to individualize treatment approach, and this should rely on a multidisciplinary process. More well-designed controlled trials are needed in this patient population.

  17. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ellegaard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C; Anand, Atul; Cederkvist, Luise; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Nylandsted, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Mellemgaard, Anders; Østerlind, Kell; Friis, Søren; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27333030

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  20. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Non- ...

  1. Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist Before Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer Treatment Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer ... protection for their growing teeth and facial bones. 3 - Fight cancer Serious side effects in the mouth ...

  2. Cyclopamine: from cyclops lambs to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Garrossian, Massoud; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom

    2014-07-30

    In the late 1960s, the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine was isolated from the plant Veratrum californicum and identified as the teratogen responsible for craniofacial birth defects including cyclops in the offspring of sheep grazing on mountain ranges in the western United States. Cyclopamine was found to inhibit the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in embryonic development. More recently, aberrant Hh signaling has been implicated in several types of cancer. Thus, inhibitors of the Hh signaling pathway, including cyclopamine derivatives, have been targeted as potential treatments for certain cancers and other diseases associated with the Hh signaling pathway. A brief history of cyclopamine and cyclopamine derivatives investigated for the treatment of cancer is presented.

  3. Late deaths after treatment for childhood cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, M M; Kingston, J. E.; Kinnier Wilson, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of 749 deaths occurring among 4082 patients surviving at least five years after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in Britain before 1971 has been undertaken. Of the 738 with sufficient information the numbers of deaths attributable to the following causes were: recurrent tumour, 550 (74%), a second primary tumour, 61 (8%), a medical condition related to treatment of the tumour, 49 (7%), an traumatic death unrelated to the tumour or its treatment, 34 (5%), finally, any other c...

  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Events Weekly Calendar Weekly Calendar Archive Speeches Audio/Video Featured Videos FTC Events For Consumers For ... in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy ...

  5. Intense neutron sources for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of small, solid-target, pulsed neutron sources for nuclear weapons applications. The feasibility of using this type of neutron source for cancer treatment is discussed. Plans for fabrication and testing of such a source is briefly described

  6. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  7. Improvements in locoregional treatment of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Donker

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer represents the most common female malignancy in the developed world, affecting approximately one out of eight women during her lifetime. Nowadays local control is excellent as a result of several improvements in diagnosis and treatment over the past few decades. This means that many pa

  8. Treatment of locally advanced prostatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A locally advanced prostate cancer is defined as a malignant process spreading beyond the prostate capsule or in seminal vesicles but without distant metastasis or regional lymph nodes invasion. Clinical classification, prediction and treatment of prostate cancer. An exact staging of clinical T3 stadium is usually difficult because of the frequent over and under staging. The risk prognostic stratification is performed through nomograms and ANN (artificial neural networks. The options for treatment are: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, hormonal therapy by androgen blockade. Radical prostatectomy is considered in patients with T3 stage but extensive dissection of lymph nodes, dissection of neurovascular bundle (on tumor side, total removal of seminal vesicle and sometimes resection of bladder neck are obligatory. Postoperative radiotherapy is performed in patients with invasion of seminal vesicles and capsular penetration or with prostate specific antigen value over 0.1 ng/ml, one month after the surgical treatment. Definitive radiotherapy could be used as the best treatment option considering clinical stage, Gleason score, age, starting prostate specific antigen (PSA value, concomitant diseases, life expectancy, quality of life, through multidisciplinary approach (combined with androgen deprivation. Hormonal therapy in intended for patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Conclusion. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer is still controversial and studies for better diagnosis and new treatment modalities are ongoing.

  9. Gene delivery for the treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men. Whilst treatments for early-stage disease are largely effective, current therapies for metastatic prostate cancer, particularly for bone metastasis, offer only a few months increased lifespan at best. Hence new treatments are urgently required. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer where it can ‘silence’ specific cancer-related genes. However the clinical application of siRNA...

  10. Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites. Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer incidence and mortality were computed by comparison with expected annualized rates for a general population matched for age, sex, and race. Results: Gastrointestinal cancers developed in 25 patients. The incidence RR was 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.5] and mortality RR was 3.8 (CI, 2.4-4.7). Sites associated with significantly increased risks included the stomach [RR 7.3 (CI, 3.4-13.8)], small intestine [RR 11.6 (CI, 1.9-38.3)], and pancreas [RR 3.5 (CI, 1.1-8.5)]. Risk was significantly elevated after combined modality therapy, RR 3.9 (CI, 2.2-5.6). The risk after radiotherapy alone was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-3.4), not a statistically significant elevation. The RR for gastrointestinal cancer was greatest after treatment at young age and decreased with advancing age. It was significantly elevated within 10 years after treatment [RR 2.0 (CI, 1.1-3.5)] and increased further after 20 years [RR 6.1 (CI, 2.5-12.7)]. Risk assessed by attained age paralleled risk according to age at treatment. Fifteen cases of gastrointestinal cancers arose within the irradiation fields. Conclusion: Patients treated for Hodgkin's disease are at modestly increased risk for secondary gastrointestinal cancer, especially after combined modality therapy and treatment at a young age. Risk was highest more than 20 years after treatment, but was significantly elevated within 10 years. Gastrointestinal sites with increased risk included the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine

  11. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human malignancies,ranking 4th among causes for cancer-related death in the Western world including the United States.Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure,but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation.Different studies demonstrate and confirm that advanced pancreatic cancer is among the most complex cancers to treat and that these tumors are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Currently there is no consensus around the world on what constitutes "standard"adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer.This controversy derives from several studies,each fraught with its own limitations.Standards of care also vary somewhat with regard to geography and economy,for instance chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or vice versa is considered the optimal therapy in North America while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe.Regardless of the efforts in adjuvant and neoadjuvant improved therapy,the major goal to combat pancreatic cancer is to find diagnostic markers,identifying the disease in a pre-metastatic stage and making a curative treatment accessible to more patients.In this review,authors examined the different therapy options for advanced pancreatic patients in recent years and the future directions in adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments for these patients.

  12. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C.;

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We the...... of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy...... then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients...... with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any...

  13. Treatment Modification in Young Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharl, Anton; Salterberg, Annette; Untch, Michael; Liedtke, Cornelia; Stickeler, Elmar; Papathemelis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients not older than 40 years are referred to as young patients. These women benefit from chemo-, endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy to a similar degree as older women. Surgery and radiation therapy also follow the same recommendations. This manuscript deals with the following topics that need special consideration in young women: endocrine therapy and ovarian suppression; fertility protection and family planning; and genetic counselling. There is an on-going debate on whether tamoxifen is sufficient as an endocrine treatment in young patients with endocrine-responsive tumours or whether suppression of ovarian function in combination with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor should be preferred. Recent data suggest a benefit from ovarian suppression plus exemestane in women of 35 years or younger with high-risk breast cancer. However, increased side effects bear the risk of lesser compliance, which eventually results in higher mortality. Child bearing is nowadays frequently postponed to the 4th decade of life, thereby increasing the number of women who have not yet finished their reproductive desires when diagnosed with breast cancer. These patients are in urgent need of counselling for fertility protection. Breast cancer diagnosis at young age is an indication for a possible mutation in breast cancer susceptibility genes. This has an impact on the cancer risk of the whole family, especially the offspring. Drugs that are specifically targeted to cancer cells with genetic alterations that impair DNA repair are already entering the arsenal of oncologists. PMID:27031253

  14. Useless Treatments Common in Young, Terminal Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159214.html Useless Treatments Common in Young, Terminal Cancer Patients 3 in 4 get aggressive therapies with ... quarters of young or middle-aged Americans with terminal cancer receive aggressive treatment during the last month of ...

  15. Nutrition for the Person with Cancer during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is an important part of cancer treatment. Eating ...

  16. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  17. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  18. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well

  19. Contemporary methods of treatment of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kozłowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequently diagnosed worldwide malignant cancer in males, and the second in females, with more than 1,200,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths, annually. Screening tests in oncology allow the detection of cancerous disease at an early, asymptomatic stage. The procedures most frequently performed in the case of colorectal cancer include: low anterior resection by the Dixon method (manual suture or staplers; abdominoperineal resection of the rectum by the Miles method; surgical procedure by the Hartmann method; local resection. Various techniques of preoperative radiotherapy are applied, aimed at tumour mass reduction (scheme I and/or obtaining local sterilisation (schemes I and II, which results in the reduction of local metastases (by approximately 50%, as well as an improvement with respect to long-term survival (by approximately 10%. At present, the following drugs for treatment of various forms of colorectal cancer have been registered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA: fluorouracil capecitabine irinotecan, oxaliplatin, cetuximab, and bevacizumab. The combination of complete cytoreductive surgery (CCS, the goal of which is the removal of all visible (macroscopically cancer foci, with a simultaneous intraperitoneal chemotherapy in hyperthermia – HIPEC, destroying microscopic remains of the disease, allows the curing of some patients with peritoneal cancer. The effect of the action of monoclonal antibodies – cetuximab and panitumumab – is the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells, intensification of their apoptosis, as well as reduction of synthesis and secretion of pro-angiogenic factors, such as interleukin 8 (IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, antibodies targeted against EGFR impair the repair of DNA damage caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the cells of the malignant tumour.

  20. Intestinal obstructions following the cervical cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-six intestinal obstructions occured among 2149 patients of cervical cancer treated during period 1961 - 1975. They are divided into four groups, that is, 1.29 cases living with no signs of recurrence after the treatment for obstructions, 2.7 cases that died of obstructions or of complications from its treatment, 3.6 cases that once cured from the obstructions but died from the cancer more than one year after the treatment, 4.24 cases that died from the cancer within one year after the treatment for obstructions. With significantly high incidence, intestinal obstructions are observed with the post-operatory irradiation over 5,000 rads to the whole pelvis or post operatory irradiation using combined telecobalt and small sources. The common sites of obstructions are small intestine to the operated group and sigmoid colon or rectum to the radiotherapy group. Twenty-nine of the patients were treated conservatively and of them 15 are living, intestinal resections and end to end anastomoses were performed to 8 patients, 5 of them are living, but 7 of them suffered from wound disruptions, so the indication for this operation should be carefully decided. (auth.)

  1. Tetracycline to Prevent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor-Induced Skin Rashes: Results of a Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N03CB)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, Aminah; Rowland, Kendrith; Sloan, Jeff A.; Gross, Howard M.; Fishkin, Paul A.; Kahanic, Stephen P.; Novotny, Paul J.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Johnson, David B.; Tschetter, Loren K.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are effective cancer therapies, but they cause a rash in greater than 50% of patients. This study tested tetracycline for rash prevention. METHODS This placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled patients who were starting cancer treatment with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Patients could not have had a rash at enrollment. All were randomly assigned to either tetracycline 500 milligrams orally twice a day for 28 days versus a placebo. Patients were monitored for rash (monthly physician assessment and weekly patient-reported questionnaires), quality of life (SKINDEX-16), and adverse events. Monitoring occurred during the 4-week intervention and then for an additional 4 weeks. The primary objective was to compare the incidence of rash between study arms, and 30 patients per arm provided a 90% probability of detecting a 40% difference in incidence with a p-value of 0.05 (2-sided). RESULTS Sixty-one evaluable patients were enrolled, and arms were well balanced on baseline characteristics, rates of drop out, and rates of discontinuation of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Rash incidence was comparable across arms. Physicians reported that 16 tetracycline-treated patients (70%) and 22 placebo-exposed patients (76%) developed a rash (p=0.61). Tetracycline appears to have lessened rash severity, although high drop out rates invite caution in interpreting findings. By week 4, physician-reported grade 2 rash occurred in 17% of tetracycline-treated patients (n=4) and in 55% of placebo-exposed patients (n=16); (p=0.04). Tetracycline-treated patients reported better scores, as per the SKINDEX-16, on certain quality of life parameters, such as skin burning or stinging, skin irritation, and being bothered by a persistence/recurrence of a skin condition. Adverse events were comparable across arms. CONCLUSION Tetracycline did not prevent epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor

  2. Active home-based cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaro S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiano Bordonaro Fabio Raiti, Annamaria Di Mari, Calogera Lopiano, Fabrizio Romano, Vitalinda Pumo, Sebastiano Rametta Giuliano, Margherita Iacono, Eleonora Lanteri, Elena Puzzo, Sebastiano Spada, Paolo TralongoUOC Medical Oncology, RAO, ASP 8 Siracusa, ItalyBackground: Active home-based treatment represents a new model of health care. Chronic treatment requires continuous access to facilities that provide cancer care, with considerable effort, particularly economic, on the part of patients and caregivers. Oral chemotherapy could be limited as a consequence of poor compliance and adherence, especially by elderly patients.Methods: We selected 30 cancer patients referred to our department and treated with oral therapy (capecitabine, vinorelbine, imatinib, sunitinib, sorafenib, temozolomide, ibandronate. This pilot study of oral therapy in the patient’s home was undertaken by a doctor and two nurses with experience in clinical oncology. The instruments used were clinical diaries recording home visits, hospital visits, need for caregiver support, and a questionnaire specially developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC, known as the QLQ-C30 version 2.0, concerning the acceptability of oral treatment from the patient’s perspective.Results: This program decreased the need to access cancer facilities by 98.1%, promoted better quality of life for patients, as reflected in increased EORTC QLQ-C30 scores over time, allowing for greater adherence to oral treatment as a result of control of drug administration outside the hospital. This model has allowed treatment of patients with difficult access to care (elderly, disabled or otherwise needed caregivers that in the project represent the majority (78% of these.Conclusions: This model of active home care improves quality of life and adherence with oral therapy, reduces the need to visit the hospital, and consequently decreases the number of lost hours of work on

  3. The evolving biology and treatment of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taichman, Russel S.; Loberg, Robert D; Mehra, Rohit; Kenneth J Pienta

    2007-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of androgen deprivation for treatment of advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated, prevention strategies and medical therapies for prostate cancer have been based on understanding the biologic underpinnings of the disease. Prostate cancer treatment is one of the best examples of a systematic therapeutic approach to target not only the cancer cells themselves, but the microenvironment in which they are proliferating. As the population ages and prostate cancer pre...

  4. Multidisciplinary Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varkey, Prashanth; Liu, Yi-Tien; Tan, Ngian Chye

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. Multimodality treatment is often the only way to achieve improved function, quality of life, and survival, calling for a multidisciplinary team approach, particularly in view of the rapid advances being made in various fields. The roles of the head and neck surgeon and reconstructive surgeon are discussed, together with the input afforded by specialists in areas such as diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, medical onco...

  5. Predictors of Venous Thromboembolic Events Associated with Central Venous Port Insertion in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hohl Moinat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of central venous port (CVP catheter in the cancer population is associated with increased incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE. However, trials have shown limited benefit of antithrombotic treatment to prevent catheter-related venous thrombosis. This prospective observational cohort study was designed to assess the incidence of VTE closely related to CVP implantation in patients with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, and to identify a high risk subgroup of patients. Between February 2006 and December 2011, 1097 consecutive cancer patients with first CVP implantation were included. Catheter-related VTE were defined as deep venous thrombosis in the arm, with or without pulmonary embolism (PE, or isolated PE. The incidence of CVP-associated VTE was 5.9% (IC95 4.4–7.3% at 3 months, and 11.3% (IC95 9.4–13.2% at 12 months. The incidence of any VTE was 7.6% (IC95 6.0–9.3% at 3 months, and 15.3% (IC95 13.1–17.6% at 12 months. High Khorana risk score and lung cancer were significant predictors of 3 month VTE. In conclusion, this large cohort study of patients with first CVP catheter implantation confirms the high incidence of VTE associated with the CVP implantation and allow identifying high risk patients who may benefit from thromboprophylaxis.

  6. Cryosurgery for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, H B

    1980-08-01

    Cryosurgery is that branch of cryobiology and surgery which deals with the therapeutic application of cold at profoundly low temperatures (those below 0 degrees C) for the purpose of destroying tissues in selected target sites. The freezing process induces coagulation necrosis and is confined to the tissues within the region of the probe application and the ice ball. The degree and extent of tissue destruction depend largely on the size of the ice ball and the temperatures within it. Various types of equipment and probes are commercially available for cryosurgery, but it was only after the development of reliable, versatile cryosurgical systems cooled by liquid nitrogen that numerous applications for cryosurgery were proposed, including therapy for cancer. In the treatment of cancer, clinical success with cryosurgery has led to the more wide-spread application of this modality in selected patients. Cryosurgery has been used for readily accessible lesions in specific anatomic areas, most frequently the skin and oral cavity. It is an attractive alternative to extirpative surgery, particularly in the head and neck, where removal of large portions of the mandible or maxilla are often required to control cancer. Therefore, it is not surprising that many of the pioneering efforts in the treatment of cancer have been conducted by otorhinolaryngologists. The full theoretic potential of cryotherapy was somewhat slow to be realized because many early endeavors were directed toward palliation, especially of accessible tumors of the skin and oral cavity, after failure of tumor control by radiation or surgery or both. This limited application during the early period of evaluation reflected a naturally timorous course that was taken by those who introduced the new modality into clinical practice. This period paralleled the development of new apparatus, early clinical trials, and the assessment of the clinical potential of cryosurgery in patients with incurable cancer

  7. Cardiotoxicity of oncologic treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac affectation by neoplastic diseases may be due to the heart invasion produced by itself tumor, compression of the heart and / or great vessels by noncardiac neoplasms, most commonly embolization and therapeutic purposes antitumor. Cancer treatment has experienced significant progress in recent decades by the great expansion of chemotherapeutic agents and the refinement of radiotherapy techniques; however, many of the most effective drugs antineoplastic and thoracic irradiation cause both acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Thus, the long-term monitoring of patients receiving anthracycline drugs Crucial in the therapy of many neoplasms, demonstrates clinical heart failure in 4.5 to 7% of patients, increasing the incidence of defects in the cardiac function over time. Its pathogenesis is likely included in the formation of free radicals, alterations calcium transport, dysfunction or adrenergic amines glass release active. Dex razoxane is the only clinically used cardio protective marketed for selected group of patients with breast cancer, it is necessary development of new agents that protect the cardiotoxicity of this group of drugs and reduce morbidity and secondary mortality to them. In this work, the tracking shows 4 patients with breast cancer who had received treatment with anthracyclines and the cardiotoxic manifestation suffered, resulting in changes in their treatment, and in one of the patients was used cardio protective medication

  8. [Advancement in the treatment against prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Abe, Takashige; Maruyama, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of basic science and medical technology, the treatment against prostate cancer (PC) has dramatically changed. Although the introduction of robotic radical prostatectomy and particle therapies in patients with early stage PC is of much note, the issues on the over-treatment and treatment cost should be heeded. From these points, active surveillance has been an important strategy in these patients. In patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive PC, especially high volume metastases, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with docetaxel has been reported to prolong overall survival compared with ADT alone. Lastly, several novel therapeutic agents have been investigated and shown to be favorable outcomes in patients with castration resistant PC. This review focuses on the recent advancement in the treatment against PCs. PMID:26793875

  9. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Crauciuc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  11. Treatment of cervical cancer in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganović Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 1897, when the first radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy was done by Wertheim in Vienna, this operation has had the central role in the surgical treatment of invasive cervical tumors. Material and methods. In the period from 1997 to 2010, 177 patients diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IB1 - II were operated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Banja Luka. All patients underwent radical hysterectomy by Wertheim - Meigs. The aim of this study is to present the technique of this operation, as well as its effectiveness in the treatment of cervical cancer. Results. The distribution of the patients having invasive cervical cancer according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification was as follows: I B1 - 35.67%, I B2 - 23.17%, II A - 15.48%, II B - 25.68% on average is 21.3 removed lymph glands. The rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications was 8 (4.51% and 17 (9.60%, respectively. Of the 26 patients who were operated in the period from 2005 - 2010, 13 had stage II B according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; there were 6 lethal outcomes (23.08 and the five-year survival rate was 76.92%. Discussion and conclusion. By applying the proper surgical technique and early prevention of immediate complications, we achieved satisfactory results in operative morbity and mortality, intraoperative and postoperative complications of the lesion for radical surgery by the Wertheim- Meigs-in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in the I B - II B stage according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification.

  12. Liposomal nanomedicines in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, G; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer type and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males. In most cases, no curative treatment options are available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer as these tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapy. Targeted drug delivery, usin

  13. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  14. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  15. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  16. The centrality of cancer proteins in human protein-protein interaction network: a revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Xie, Luyu; Zhou, Shuigeng; Liu, Hui; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Topological analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has been widely applied to the investigation on cancer mechanisms. However, there is still a debate on whether cancer proteins exhibit more topological centrality compared to the other proteins in the human PPI network. To resolve this debate, we first identified four sets of human proteins, and then mapped these proteins into the yeast PPI network by homologous genes. Finally, we compared these proteins' properties in human and yeast PPI networks. Experiments over two real datasets demonstrated that cancer proteins tend to have higher degree and smaller clustering coefficient than non-cancer proteins. Experimental results also validated that cancer proteins have larger betweenness centrality compared to the other proteins on the STRING dataset. However, on the BioGRID dataset, the average betweenness centrality of cancer proteins is larger than that of disease and control proteins, but smaller than that of essential proteins. PMID:24878726

  17. Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Catarina Marques,1 José MF Ferreira,1 Ecaterina Andronescu,2 Denisa Ficai,2 Maria Sonmez,3 Anton Ficai21Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 3National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest, RomaniaAbstract: The purpose of this review is to present the most recent findings in bone tissue engineering. Special attention is given to multifunctional materials based on collagen and collagen–hydroxyapatite composites used for skin and bone cancer treatments. The multifunctionality of these materials was obtained by adding to the base regenerative grafts proper components, such as ferrites (magnetite being the most important representative, cytostatics (cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, silver nanoparticles, antibiotics (anthracyclines, geldanamycin, and/or analgesics (ibuprofen, fentanyl. The suitability of complex systems for the intended applications was systematically analyzed. The developmental possibilities of multifunctional materials with regenerative and curative roles (antitumoral as well as pain management in the field of skin and bone cancer treatment are discussed. It is worth mentioning that better materials are likely to be developed by combining conventional and unconventional experimental strategies.Keywords: bone graft, cancer, collagen, magnetite, cytostatics, silver

  18. Theranostic nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Lee

    The main focus of this research was to evaluate the ability of a novel multifunctional nanoparticle to mediate drug delivery and enable a non-invasive approach to measure drug release kinetics in situ for the treatment of cancer. These goals were approached by developing a nanoparticle consisting of an inorganic core (i.e. gadolinium sulfoxide doped with europium ions or carbon nanotubes). This was coated with an external amphiphilic polymer shell comprised of a biodegradable polyester (i.e. poly(lactide) or poly(glycolide)), and poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer. In this system, the inorganic core mediates the imaging aspect, the relatively hydrophobic polyester encapsulates hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs, and poly(ethylene glycol) stabilizes the nanoparticle in an aqueous environment. The synthesis of this nanoparticle drug delivery system utilized a simple one-pot room temperature ring-opening polymerization that neglected the use of potentially toxic catalysts and reduced the number of washing steps. This functionalization approach could be applied across a number of inorganic nanoparticle platforms. Coating inorganic nanoparticles with biodegradable polymer was shown to decrease in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Nanoparticles could be further coated with multiple polymer layers to better control drug release characteristics. Finally, loading polymer coated radioluminescent nanoparticles with photoactive drugs enabled a mechanism for measuring drug concentration in situ. The work presented here represents a step forward to developing theranostic nanoparticles that can improve the treatment of cancer.

  19. Toremifene in the treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Mika VJ; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Although more widespread screening and routine adjuvant therapy has improved the outcome for breast cancer patients in recent years, there remains considerable scope for improving the efficacy, safety and tolerability of adjuvant therapy in the early stage disease and the treatment of advanced disease. Toremifene is a selective estrogen receptor modifier (SERM) that has been widely used for decades in hormone receptor positive breast cancer both in early and late stage disease. Its efficacy has been well established in nine prospective randomized phase III trials compared to tamoxifen involving more than 5500 patients, as well as in several large uncontrolled and non-randomized studies. Although most studies show therapeutic equivalence between the two SERMs, some show an advantage for toremifene. Several meta-analyses have also confirmed that the efficacy of toremifene is at least as good as that of tamoxifen. In terms of safety and tolerability toremifene is broadly similar to tamoxifen although there is some evidence that toremifene is less likely to cause uterine neoplasms, serious vascular events and it has a more positive effect on serum lipids than does tamoxifen. Toremifene is therefore effective and safe in the treatment of breast cancer. It provides not only a useful therapeutic alternative to tamoxifen, but may bring specific benefits. PMID:25114854

  20. Clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and early cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze clinico pathological presentation of tongue cancers and to calculate survival rates (SR) with disease free survival rates (DFSR) and recurrence rates (RR) in different treatment modalities and to compare the results of surgery alone and radiotherapy alone in stage I and stage II disease and to calculate better option of treatment in early tongue cancers. Design: A longitudinal study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad (PIMS) from January 1987 to June 1998. Patients and Methods: Case histories of 67 patients were collected from departmental record. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender of patient, location of tumor, presenting symptoms and their duration, biopsy report, predominant histological pattern of tumor, nodal status, stage of tumor, treatment modality employed, tumor recurrence, metastasis and survival rates with disease-free survival rates after 2 years' follow-up. Results: Among 67 patients there were 31 males and 36 females. Mean age was 50 years (range 20 - 80 years). Sixty seven patients with primary cancer of tongue constituted 38.8% of oral cavity cancers during period of 1987 - 1998 in PIMS. Smoking, poor oro dental hygiene (POOH) and betel nuts chewing were the main risk factors. Odynophagia and painful ulcers on lateral border of tongue were the main clinical symptoms with average duration of 7 months. Regional lymph nodes were palpable in 32.8%, 5.5% was in stage I, 35.8% in stage II, 29.8% in stage III, and 28.3% was in stage IV. No patient was found to have distant metastasis. Histopathology in 94% of cases was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recurrence and survival rates were determined in 49 patients. Average time of recurrence was 12.5 months. Recurrence was 100% loco regional (LR). It was 85.7% in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone, 42.1% in patients treated with surgery alone and 31.2% in patients

  1. Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160953.html Prostate Cancer Treatments: Different Choices for Different Men Survival rates are ... in fact, found that survival from localized prostate cancer was approximately 99 percent, irrespective of the treatment assigned. However, the cancer spread in 33 of ...

  2. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  3. Psychological Implications of Cancer Treatment in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia OPRIŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article involves some theoretical aspects of a very difficult topic. Emergence and treatment of cancer in pregnancy is a challenging task for specialists who are supposed to offer treatment, care and support therapy. Psychotherapy also has some distinct features due to the specific characteristics of a pregnant woman. Given these cases are rare, the importance of promoting this subject in the psychologist’s and physician’s world is very important. The idea of progress is based on this kind of work, related to very difficult and specific cases, which implies a collaboration in pluridisciplinary teams. General psychological aspects, the announcement of diagnosis, psychological phases in regaining balance during therapy, psychological effects during treatment, mobilization of the fighting spirit and a reduction in depression and anxiety are only some of the important aspects we propose here.

  4. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Lung Cancer June 15, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, premiering from Beth Israel ... number one cause of cancer-related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, ...

  5. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  6. Regional differences in recommended cancer treatment for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Vivian; Ku-Goto, Meei-Hsiang; Hui ZHAO; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about regional variation in cancer treatment and its determinants. We compare rates of adherence to treatment guidelines for elderly patients across Texas and whether local specialist supply is an important determinant of treatment variation. Methods Previous literature reviewed indicated 7 recommended courses of treatment for colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. We analyzed Texas Cancer Registry data linked with Medicare claims for the years 2004 to 2007 to...

  7. Adjusting to life after treatment: distress and quality of life following treatment for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Costanzo, E S; Lutgendorf, S.K.; Mattes, M L; Trehan, S; Robinson, C B; Tewfik, F; Roman, S L

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and anecdotal findings suggest that the completion of cancer treatment may be marked by heightened distress and disrupted adjustment. The present study examined psychological adjustment during the 3 months following treatment among 89 women with stages 0–III breast cancer. Participants completed measures of depression, cancer-related anxiety, cancer concerns, and quality of life at three time points: during treatment, 3 weeks following the end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatmen...

  8. [Coproductive teamwork in surgical cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshiro; Harihara, Yasushi; Furushima, Kaoru

    2013-04-01

    With regard to surgical treatment of cancer, there is a strong demand for safe treatment with few errors: treatment must be based on transparency, understandability, and rationality. There is also demand for treatment which is quick, efficient and not wasteful. Rather than maintaining our current pyramidal system which has doctors standing as authorities at the top, there is a need for a flat, non-authoritarian system at every level and section of the hospital. As we change methodology, electronic medical records and clinical pathways will be important tools. Among the surgical department's treatment team in our hospital, there are many branches at work on peri-operative management aside from operations; There are teams for infection control (ICT), nutrition support (NST), decubitus and stoma management, rehabilitaion, and chemotherapy, and team cooperation after discharge from hospital. In addition, the collaborative and coproductive team focusing on pain releif and palliative care in terminal phase (PCT) is important. Having introduced each of the parts of team treatment within the setting of the surgical department, the need now for strong leadership from young and brightful surgeons is also emphasized. PMID:23848009

  9. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  10. Only Half of Rectal Cancer Patients Get Recommended Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158339.html Only Half of Rectal Cancer Patients Get Recommended Treatment: ... therapy for rectal cancer in the United States, only slightly more than half of patients receive it, ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  13. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following: Wide local excision : Removal ... cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity. Plastic surgery : An operation that restores or improves the appearance ...

  14. Cancer risk after cyclophosphamide treatment in idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.A. van den; Dijk, P.R. van; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide treatment improves renal survival in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, use of cyclophosphamide is associated with cancer. The incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy was evaluated, and the cancer

  15. Hybrid Theranostic Platforms for Cancer Nanomedical Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Julfakyan, Khachatur

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is a leading case of mortality worldwide. Governments spent multibillion expenses on treatment and palliative care of diseased people. Despite these generous funding and intensive research with aim to find a cure or efficient treatment for cancer, until now there is a lack in selective cancer management strategies. Conventional treatment strategies for cancer, such as surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy don’t have selectivity toward cancer – the property of discrimination of healthy organs and tissues from the diseased site. Chemotherapy is very challenging as the difference between effective and lethal doses is very minuscule in most cases. Moreover, devastating side effects dramatically changes the quality of life for cancer patients. To address these issues two main strategies are intensively utilized in chemistry: (I) the design and synthesis of novel anticancer organic compounds with higher selectivity and low toxicity profiles and the second, design and preparation of biocompatible nanocarriers for imaging and anticancer compound selective delivery nanomedicine. The following dissertation combines the above two strategies as bellows: First project is related to the design and synthetic route development toward novel nature-inspired group of heterocyclic compounds – iso-Phidianidines. The second project focused on design, preparation and evaluation of hybrid theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic in a single entity). Chapter 1 is a general background review of the major topics that will be discussed in this dissertation. The first efficient and high-yielding synthetic route toward iso-phidianidines, containing regioisomeric form of 1,2,4-oxadiazole linked to the indole via methylene bridge is reported in Chapter 2. In vitro test of the synthesized library of iso-phidianidines revealed micromolar range of cytotoxicity toward human cervical cancer cell line. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of

  16. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Olof Jannasch; Andrej Udelnow; Stefanie Wolff; Hans Lippert; Pawel Mroczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC) are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010....

  17. Molecular markers′ progress of breast cancer treatment efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wang; Jingwei Xu; Guang Shi; Guanghao Yin

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a famous malignant tumor which is caused by varieties of mutation in multiple genes. In order to detect breast cancer in an earlier time and take appropriate treatment which includes  predicting treatment efficacy, we need a more accurate method of discovering the occurrence of breast cancer. With the development of molecular biology and biological detection technologies continue to emerge, molecular markers of breast cancer have gaining more and more widespread attention, an...

  18. Upper limb lymphedema after breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)

  19. Treatment of colorectal cancer - distance results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vasile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances about carcinogenesis and natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC,particularly the establishment of filiations polyp-cancer, are important objectives for a new approach to diagnosis of this disease. Decade 1990-2000 was the decade of CRC detection and prevention, but the decade 2000-2010 is the period of application of new diagnostic and therapeutic concepts. The aim of this study was to highlight the epidemiological,clinical,therapeutic, evolution and prognosis aspects of this cancer at five years after treatment. The research was based on examination of the computerized system of C.E.U.H. of Craiova, observation sheets, operation protocols and anatomic-pathological results, from which we identified from January 2003 until December 2005 a number of 134 patients with CRC investigated, treated and followed completely. At study end (01.07.2010 we noted that 51 of 134 resected patients (38.05% were alive. The median survival time to the entire group of 134 caseswas 44.35 + / -29.94 months. Factors that contribute to a favorable prognosis in CRC are female gender, urban environement origin, ounger than 50 years, the absence of disease or complications associated with neoplasia, colic locations, elective surgery, vegetant and papillary forms, G1 and G2 grading and the disease diagnosed in TMN stages I and II.

  20. Demethylating Agents in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Howell, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene silencing resulting from aberrant DNA methylation can lead to tumorigenesis. Therefore, drugs that inhibit or interfere with DNA methylation have been used to reactivate and induce silenced gene re-expression in malignancies. Two demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine, are approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and are now considered the standard of care in MDS. In this review, we discuss clinical data, including clinical benefits and toxicities, which led to the approval of azacitidine and decitabine. We also summarize findings from clinical trials that used these two demethylating agents in the treatment of solid tumors. Lastly, we discuss some limitations in the use of azacitidine and decitabine in cancer therapy.

  1. Managing Health Care After Cancer Treatment: A Wellness Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Moye, Jennifer; Langdon, Maura; Jones, Janice M.; Haggstrom, David; Naik, Aanand D.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients and health care providers lack awareness of both the existence of, and treatments for, lingering distress and disability after treatment. A cancer survivorship wellness plan can help ensure that any referral needs for psychosocial and other restorative care after cancer treatment are identified.

  2. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Mulder; E.C. van Dalen; M. van den Hof; D. Bresters; B.G.P. Koot; S.M. Castellino; Y. Loke; E. Leclercq; P.N. Post; H.N. Caron; A. Postma; L.C.M. Kremer

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood cancer. Howev

  3. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Hulett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379 with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction.

  4. Natural compounds for pediatric cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Veronica; Boffa, Iolanda; De Masi, Gina; Zollo, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    There is a tremendous need in clinics to impair cancer progression through noninvasive therapeutic approaches. The use of natural compounds to achieve this is of importance to improve the quality of life of young patients during their treatments. This review will address the "status of the art" related to the potential of natural compounds that are undergoing investigation in combination with standard therapeutic protocols in preclinical and clinical studies and their importance for pediatric cancer treatment. The early studies of drug discovery of these natural compounds discussed here include the main targets, the cellular signaling pathways involved, and the potential modes of action. We also focus on some promising natural compounds that have shown excellent results in vitro and in vivo: Chebulagic acid, Apigenin, Norcantharidin, Saffron/Crocin, Parthenolide, Longikaurin E, Lupeol, Spongistatin 1, and Deoxy-variolin B. Additionally, we introduce the effects of several compounds from nutraceutical and functional foods, to underline their potential use as adjuvant therapies to improve therapeutic benefits. For this purpose, we have selected several compounds: Agaritine, Ganoderma and GL6 peptide, Diallyl trisulfide and Ajoene from garlic, Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea, Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Quercetin. PMID:26650503

  5. Irradiation techniques for the breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiotherapy is a cancer treatment way based on the radiation employment. It acts on the tumor, destroying the wicked cells and impeding that this it grows and reproduce. With the radiotherapy the probability of cure of some types of cancer; among them the one of breast, it increases. The investigations in oncology have allowed to develop new technologies with which is possible, for example, to locate the tumors accurately and to adapt the irradiation fields to their form. This has allowed to improve the treatments since it can destroy the tumor applying an intense radiation dose without producing irreversible damages to other organs and healthy tissues of the body. In the underdeveloped countries or in development as Mexico, and almost all those of Latin America, it is not still possible to have several of these technologies in the main oncological centers of the country by their high cost. It is expected that their cost go lowering and that its going to develop technologies more cheap so that they can be applied in more general way to the population that suffers of this suffering. (Author)

  6. Outcome of different oncoplastic surgical (OPs) techniques for centrally located breast cancer (CLBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oncoplastic breast surgery is a standard treatment of early breast cancer, offering a balance between good cosmetic outcome and limited risk of locoregional recurrence, by enabling proper resection margins. Aim of study: To present multiple techniques of partial breast reconstruction following the resection of centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) resection. Patients and methods: From January 2011 to August 2014, 21 patients underwent central quadrantectomy for carcinoma of the central region of the breast. Excisions included the nipple/areola complex, in most of the cases, down to the pectoralis fascia with a wide safety margin, and proper axillary management. Oncoplastic approaches included latissimus dorsi flap, inferior pedicle flap, Melon slice, Grisotti and round block techniques. Results: Mean age of patients was 49.5 ± 10.61 years. Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Postoperative pathology revealed a tumor mean safety margin of 2.5± 0.83 cm, with positive axillary lymph nodes in 15 (75.0%) patients. Nineteen (95.0%) patients received postoperative breast radiotherapy, while 9/20 (45.0%) and 3/20 (15.0%) received adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, respectively, and only 8/20 (40.0%) patients received both therapies. During a median follow- up period of 14.89 months, neither local nor distant metastasis, were detected. The postoperative cosmetic result evaluated by the patients was excellent in 6/20 patients (30.0%), good in 11/20 patients (55.0%), fair in 3/20 (15.0%) with neither poor nor bad results, with an overall mean of 4.0 ± 0.5 equivalent to 80% satisfaction. Conclusion: Multiple oncoplastic breast surgery techniques can be used for the resection of CLBC with satisfying cosmetic outcomes.

  7. The Relationship between Centralization of Care and Geographic Barriers to Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Martin F.; Wisnivesky, Juan; Le, Valerie H.; Sarpel, Umut; Stensland, Kristian D.; Oh, William K.; Galsky, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Centralization of cystectomy treatment for bladder cancer, while associated with improved outcomes, may impose geographic barriers to care. However, whether this effect may be counterbalanced by an increased number of high volume centers has not previously been explored. Objective: To characterize changes in geographic disparities to high volume cystectomy centers over time. Methods: Data on all inpatient admissions for cystectomy in New York State (NYS) from 1997–2011 was obtained from the Department of Health. Using these data, we classified hospitals according to cystectomy volume and measured patient distance traveled to a cystectomy center. Population weights, from the US Census, were used to describe changes in minimum travel distance to high- or very high-volume (HV/VHV) facilities across the NYS population. Results: Bladder cancer patients underwent cystectomies at 195 hospitals during the study period. In 1997–2001, eleven HV/VHV facilities accounted for 37.5% of all cystectomies, while sixteen HV/VHV hospitals accounted for 71.5% of all procedures during 2007–2011. Median distance traveled by cystectomy patients to all hospitals increased from 9.6 to 14.4 miles in 1997–2001 to 2007–2011, respectively. In the same time span, the median travel distance for the NYS population to a HV/VHV center decreased by 1.9 and 9.4 miles at the median and 75th percentile, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a complicated relationship between centralization and geographic access. While centralization has led to a decrease in overall access to cystectomy facilities, the process simultaneously improved access to high volume centers. PMID:27500199

  8. Cost trend analysis of initial cancer treatment in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Yun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the high cost of initial cancer care, that is, care in the first year after diagnosis, limited information is available for specific categories of cancer-related costs, especially costs for specific services. This study purposed to identify causes of change in cancer treatment costs over time and to perform trend analyses of the percentage of cancer patients who had received a specific treatment type and the mean cost of care for patients who had received that treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of trends in initial treatment costs focused on cancer-related surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and treatments other than active treatments. For each cancer-specific trend, slopes were calculated for regression models with 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of patients diagnosed in 2007 showed that the National Health Insurance (NHI system paid, on average, $10,780 for initial care of a gastric cancer patient and $10,681 for initial care of a lung cancer patient, which were inflation-adjusted increases of $6,234 and $5,522, respectively, over the 1996 care costs. During the same interval, the mean NHI payment for initial care for the five specific cancers increased significantly (p<0.05. Hospitalization costs comprised the largest portion of payments for all cancers. During 1996-2007, the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy significantly increased in all cancer types (p<0.05. In 2007, NHI payments for initial care for these five cancers exceeded $12 billion, and gastric and lung cancers accounted for the largest share. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to the growing number of NHI beneficiaries with cancer, treatment costs and the percentage of patients who undergo treatment are growing. Therefore, the NHI must accurately predict the economic burden of new chemotherapy agents and radiation therapies and may need to develop programs for stratifying patients according to their potential benefit

  9. The CANSURVIVOR Project : meeting post-treatment cancer survivors’ needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ivers, Mary E.; Dooley, Barbara A.; Bates, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Cancer survivor numbers in Ireland are increasing due to the success of modern treatments. Although most survivors have a good quality of life not all survivors return to 'normal' after treatment. The HSE funded CANSURVIVOR research project has found that many survivors have difficulties and need help to recover and adjust after cancer treatment. Over a number of exploratory studies using interviews, focus groups and a survey of 262 breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer survivors, the ...

  10. Systemic 5-fluorouracil treatment causes a syndrome of delayed myelin destruction in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ruolan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer treatment with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents often is associated with delayed adverse neurological consequences. Despite their clinical importance, almost nothing is known about the basis for such effects. It is not even known whether the occurrence of delayed adverse effects requires exposure to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, the presence of both chemotherapeutic agents and the body's own response to cancer, prolonged damage to the blood-brain barrier, inflammation or other such changes. Nor are there any animal models that could enable the study of this important problem. Results We found that clinically relevant concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; a widely used chemotherapeutic agent were toxic for both central nervous system (CNS progenitor cells and non-dividing oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Short-term systemic administration of 5-FU caused both acute CNS damage and a syndrome of progressively worsening delayed damage to myelinated tracts of the CNS associated with altered transcriptional regulation in oligodendrocytes and extensive myelin pathology. Functional analysis also provided the first demonstration of delayed effects of chemotherapy on the latency of impulse conduction in the auditory system, offering the possibility of non-invasive analysis of myelin damage associated with cancer treatment. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that systemic treatment with a single chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, is sufficient to cause a syndrome of delayed CNS damage and provide the first animal model of delayed damage to white-matter tracts of individuals treated with systemic chemotherapy. Unlike that caused by local irradiation, the degeneration caused by 5-FU treatment did not correlate with either chronic inflammation or extensive vascular damage and appears to represent a new class of delayed degenerative damage in the CNS.

  11. Clinical analysis and treatment of central pain due to headinjury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Central pain is induced by the involvement of the abnormal pain pathway due to diseases of the central nervous system. Central pain after brain trauma is common clinically, but it is often misdiagnosed and neglected because of lack of objective disturbances. We treated 20 cases of central pain after head injury by invigorating blood circulation and satisfactory result was obtained.

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related deaths in this country. It far exceeds breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer, and, in fact, ... and try and get a biopsy of the lesion. There are other ways to approach the lesion, ...

  13. Oncologic treatment of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To perform a retrospective descriptive study on breast cancer in patients treated in our hospital to assess the biological profile and treatment heating in these patients. Material and methods: We collect information from medical records for the period 2006 to 2010 included. Basic statistical analyzes were performed with the sample obtained using the Epi data. Results: From a total of 720 patients, showed that 31% are under 50 and 69% are older than 50 years. The 95 % of the total, surgery was performed. The 94 % is to Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. I stages were 17%, 39% Stages II, III Stages Stages IV 29% and 15%. 79% had one or two positive hormone receptors. At 86 % Radiation was performed either in the breast or chest wall treatments regional nodal areas when directed. In the vast majority gave a dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast and nodal areas when corresponded with overprinting in the surgical bed of 16Gy. In cases of treatment of wall thoracic, was given a dose of 50 Gy. The number of relapses in irradiated territories was 5 patients. The average treatment time was 45 heating days for patients who underwent conservative surgery and 38 days for patients who underwent mastectomy. Conclusions: The parameters analyzed in this study are comparable to those work results in other centers. The local recurrence rate in patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy is extremely low

  14. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  15. Prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection (VI level in papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Olegovich Rumiantsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of central lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is very common. However, prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection additionally to thyroidectomy does not significantly affect disease-free and overall survival of PTC patients. Meanwhile its routine conduction is tangibly increase postsurgical complications. From efficacy/safety point of view prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection couldn't be recommended as substantiated in all PTC patients.

  16. Conservative treatment of premature rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The largest radical resections in rectal cancer with significant morbidity and mortality (Urinary dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, permanent colostomy, etc.), on certain occasions and with high selectivity, they can be avoided with the implementation of local resections. Our intention is to assess the results of conservative treatment of rectal cancer early. Material and Methods: Between 01.01.89 and 31.12.09 14 consecutive patients were treated carriers rectal adenocarcinoma who had never received prior cancer treatment and a second simultaneous showed no neoplasia. The age of the patients presented a range between 44 and 72 years with a mean of 60.4 years; sex similarly partitioned and according to ECOG performance status was 0≤2. All patients were operated through a anal resection of which 4 were performed a submucosal tumor excision (T1) and 10 excision was entire rectal wall and tumor invaded the muscularis propria (T2). For this one type of surgery patients were selected the following criteria: tumor ≤6 cm. the anal verge, size ≤3 cm., GH I-II, vegetative, mobile, and T1-2, N0 by EER. After intervention, the pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed that 4 patients GH III, lymphovascular invasion and / or peri neural, or close surgical margins (+) (≤3 mm.) And T3, so underwent Miles operation (March 1 T1 and T2). Subsequently the rest of the patients (10) underwent concomitant radio chemotherapy. Radiation therapy was similar all using megavoltage photons (CO-60, 18mV) to the entire pelvic volume in a normofraccionamiento to complete 50.40 Gy (1.8 Gy / 28) using multiple fields (box technique). Chemotherapy was prepared 5FU + LV in the first patient (4), in following (4) was used 5FU continuous infusion (1st and 5th week) and the remaining (2) Capecitabine. Follow up was complete. Results: In our sample we extract local failure was 4 (29%), distant failure 3 (20%) and two local and distant failures (14%) so it follows that

  17. Breast cancer treatment in mutation carriers: surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; D'Alonzo, Marta; Sgro, Luca G; Tomasi Cont, Nicoletta; Bounous, Valentina; Robba, Elisabetta

    2016-10-01

    The surgical option which should be reserved for patients with BRCA1/2 mutation and breast cancer diagnosis is still debated. Several aspects should be considered before the surgical decision-making: the risk of ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), the potential survival benefit of prophylactic mastectomy, and the possible risk factors that could either increase or decrease the risk for IBR or CBC. Breast conservative treatment (BCT) does not increase the risk for IBR in BRCA mutation carriers compared to non-carriers in short term follow-up; however, an increased risk for IBR in carriers was observed in studies with long follow-up. In spite of the increased risk for IBR in patients who underwent BCT than patients with mastectomy, no significant difference in breast-cancer specific or overall survival was observed by local treatment type at 15 years. Patients with BRCA mutation had a higher risk for CBC compared with non-carriers and BRCA1-mutation carriers had an increased risk for CBC compared to BRCA2-mutation carriers. Bilateral mastectomy is intended to prevent CBC in BRCA mutation carriers, however, no difference in survival was found if a contralateral prophylactic mastectomy was performed or not. For higher-risk groups of BRCA mutated patients, a more-aggressive surgical approach may be preferable, but there are some aspects that should be considered in the surgical decision-making process. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy and performing oophorectomy are associated with a decreased risk for IBR. When considering the risk for CBC, three risk factors were associated with significantly decreased risk: the use of adjuvant tamoxifen, performing oophorectomy and older age at first breast cancer diagnosis. As a result, we could identify a group of patients that might benefit from a more aggressive surgical approach (unilateral mastectomy or unilateral therapeutic mastectomy with concomitant contralateral prophylactic

  18. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  19. Conforming to cancer staging, prognostic indicators and national treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra-Long, Gwendylen R

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer staging and prognostic indicators guide treatment planning, and as such the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer Commission on Cancer (ACoS CoC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have recognized this as quality patient care. Overton Brooks Veterans Administration (OBVAMC) developed an organizational policy and procedure, flow algorithms, treatment plan templates, and education strategies in order to conform to this quality care approach. The purpose of this article is to share this systematic approach that is able to support clinical and working cancer stage and prognostic indicators which have been recognized by national standard setting organizations as quality patient care.

  20. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment:friend or foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce Montgomery; Heather H Cheng; James Drechsler; Elahe A Mostaghel

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo-and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of deifning their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer.

  1. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  2. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wanxia; Lin Miao; Lü Ye; Yang Biao; Yao Cong; Liu Juan; Wang Wenru

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite,feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the patients. The frequently reported symptoms by those on chemotherapy were nausea, feeling sluggish, weight loss, vomiting, and taste change. The frequently reported symptoms by those on radiotherapy were feeling sluggish, weight loss, loss of appetite, difficult sleeping, and changing taste. The symptoms of loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, hair loss, and nausea were both frequently reported by those on radiotherapy and those on chemotherapy. Conclusion Symptom monitoring may be facilitated by TRSC, based on the severity and frequency of reported symptoms, more patients and caregivers could know which symptoms should be preferential interventions.

  3. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  4. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser; Françoise Meunier

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an impor...

  5. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these interfere with how well the cancer treatment works? What proactive measures, like sperm banking or egg preservation, are possible for my child? Are any experimental options available? After treatment, how will we know ...

  6. Epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Zamir Ali; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, H M; Sultana, Sabira; Khan, Asmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is more common in men over the age of 65 years. There are 15% cases with positive family history of prostate cancer Worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death among the U.S. men. Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age with the highest rates in older man. Globally millions of people are suffering from this disease. This study aims to provide awareness about prostate cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  7. Novel Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer in London UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Black

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An intensive and in-depth two-day conference providing an advanced level updateKEY TOPICS TO BE COVERED:New paradigms for targeted therapiesNew anti-cancer agents ~ industry viewpointNovel approaches to the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancerDrug development and precision radiotherapyEuropean drug development initiativesMarket access to novel cancer drugsRegulatory issues in marketing authorisation of anti-cancer productsGene and cell therapies and trial endpointsDeveloping cancer vaccinesCLICK HERE for more information 

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in the Real-World Setting in Central Europe: The INSIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlau, Rodryg; Cufer, Tanja; Berzinec, Peter; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Olszewski, Włodzimierz; Popper, Helmut; Bajcic, Paolo; Dušek, Ladislav; Zbozinkova, Zuzana; Pirker, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The ImplementatioN of perSonalized medicine In NSCLC in Central Europe: EGFR testing, Histopathology, and clinical feaTures (INSIGHT) observational study assessed both implementation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing and treatment of patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a real-world setting in Central Europe. A total of 1785 patients from 14 cancer centers of six Central European countries were enrolled. EGFR mutations were detected in tumors of 13.8% of the patients. More than 70% of patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line therapy. The INSIGHT study demonstrated the establishment of EGFR mutation testing, a mutation rate consistent with other Caucasian patients populations, and adherence to current guidelines regarding treatment of patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors in Central Europe.

  9. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  10. Analysis of the efficiency of cryogenic treatment for oropharyngeal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Tabolinovskaya; I. N. Pustynskiy

    2016-01-01

    The material for the study was the medical records of 40 patients with oropharyngeal cancer who had undergone cryogenic treatment at the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center in the period 1975 to 2009. Analysis of the long-term results of cryogenic treatment for primary cancer, recurrences, and traditional therapy-untreated tumor showed its efficacy in 60 % of the patients. Cancer recurrence occurred in 31 (25.8 %) patients who had completed the treatment: in 25.0 % of the primary pati...

  11. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-01-01

    of the individual patient ’ s needs, values and experiences is key to developing the environment to support the patient quality of life. The present study holds implications for practice to inform design of future hospital environments for cancer treatment. The study points to the importance for being attentive...... these concepts, the study demonstrates how the hospital environment is a fl ow of relations between space and practice that changes and challenges a structural idea of design and healing. Patients ’ sense of healing changes with the experience of progression in treatment and the capacity of the hospital space...... to incite an experience of homeliness and care. Furthermore, cancer patients continuously challenge the use and limits of space by individual objects and practices of privacy and home. Discussion. Healing environments are complex relations between practices, space and care, where recognition...

  12. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  13. Persistent pain and sensory disturbances after treatment for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Gärtner, Rune;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain.......To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain....

  14. Tailored Tamoxifen Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients : A Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G. L.; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p

  15. Tailored tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer patients : A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke G L; Linn, Sabine C.; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an endocrine agent, is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. It has greatly reduced disease recurrence and mortality rates of breast cancer patients, however, not all patients benefit from tamoxifen treatment because in approximately 25% to 30% of the p

  16. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone. T

  17. Pharmacoeconomics of Available Treatment Options for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliadt, Steven B.; Penson, David F.

    2007-01-01

    The resources devoted to managing metastatic prostate cancer are enormous, yet little attention has been given to directly measuring the economic consequences of treatment alternatives. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of available treatments for metastatic prostate cancer, including hormone-sensitive disease, androgen-independent prostate cancer and locally advanced/progressive disease. We identified 58 articles addressing economic issues related to metastati...

  18. Factors Influencing Selection of Treatment for Colorectal Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalli-Björkman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden and elsewhere there is evidence of poorer cancer survival for patients of low socioeconomic status (SES), and in some settings differences in treatment by SES have been shown. The aim of this thesis was to explore factors which influence cancer treatment decisions, such as knowledge reaped from clinical trials, patient-related factors, and physician-related factors. In a register study of colorectal cancer, all stages, patients were stratified for SES-factors. Differences were seen ...

  19. Opioids for cancer pain: the challenge of optimizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Gérard E; VanItallie, Theodore B

    2010-10-01

    During 2007, 11.7 million US men and women of all ages suffered from some form of invasive cancer. During their illness, at least 70% (8.2 million) will experience pain sufficiently severe to require chronic opioid treatment. Cancer-induced pain is usually described under 3 headings: acute pain, chronic pain, and breakthrough pain. Among patients with chronic, persistent cancer pain controlled by around-the-clock analgesics, there is a high prevalence of breakthrough pain-often precipitated by some form of physical activity. Breakthrough pain seems best treated by a powerful, fast-acting opioid such as intravenous morphine or transmucosal fentanyl. At present, opioids are virtually the only analgesics capable of controlling moderate and severe cancer pain. In recent years, a veritable arsenal of opioids with a wide range of pharmacologic properties has become available for use in different pain situations. The World Health Organization has developed a 3-step "analgesic ladder" to guide management of cancer pain, based on the pain's severity, estimated by means of a 1 to 10 numeric rating scale. As the severity of the pain escalates, more potent (World Health Organization Step III) opioids are used. When faced with a difficult case of cancer pain, the physician must choose-from an array of options-the safest and most effective opioid analgesic and the most appropriate delivery system. Such decisions require an adequate understanding of the available opioids and experience with their use. The pharmacodynamic response to a given opioid depends on the nature of the receptor to which the opioid binds and its affinity for the receptor. Morphine activates the μ-opioid receptors, resulting in not only analgesia and sedation, but also euphoria, respiratory depression, constipation, and pruritus. The existence of a number of opioid receptor subtypes, each with its own repertoire of responses, has given rise to the hope (as yet unrealized) that an opioid can be found (or

  20. Optimised electroporation mediated DNA vaccination for treatment of prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunological therapies enhance the ability of the immune system to recognise and destroy cancer cells via selective killing mechanisms. DNA vaccines have potential to activate the immune system against specific antigens, with accompanying potent immunological adjuvant effects from unmethylated CpG motifs as on prokaryotic DNA. We investigated an electroporation driven plasmid DNA vaccination strategy in animal models for treatment of prostate cancer. METHODS: Plasmid expressing human PSA gene (phPSA) was delivered in vivo by intra-muscular electroporation, to induce effective anti-tumour immune responses against prostate antigen expressing tumours. Groups of male C57 BL\\/6 mice received intra-muscular injections of phPSA plasmid. For phPSA delivery, quadriceps muscle was injected with 50 mug plasmid. After 80 seconds, square-wave pulses were administered in sequence using a custom designed pulse generator and acustom-designed applicator with 2 needles placed through the skin central to the muscle. To determine an optimum treatment regimen, three different vaccination schedules were investigated. In a separate experiment, the immune potential of the phPSA vaccine was further enhanced with co- administration of synthetic CpG rich oligonucleotides. One week after last vaccination, the mice were challenged subcutaneously with TRAMPC1\\/hPSA (prostate cancer cell line stably expressing human PSA) and tumour growth was monitored. Serum from animals was examined by ELISA for anti-hPSA antibodies and for IFNgamma. Histological assessment of the tumours was also carried out. In vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with splenocytes from treated mice. RESULTS: The phPSA vaccine therapy significantly delayed the appearance of tumours and resulted in prolonged survival of the animals. Four-dose vaccination regimen provided optimal immunological effects. Co - administration of the synthetic CpG with phPSA increased anti-tumour responses

  1. Nanoparticle Based Combination Treatments for Targeting Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, D; Kyriacopulos, P; Yassini, B; Wright, A; Burkhart, E; Jacek, S; Pratt, M; Peterson, CR; Rai, P

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of cancer remains one of the most challenging tasks facing the healthcare system. Cancer affects the lives of millions of people and is often fatal. Current treatment methods include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapies or some combinations of these. However, recurrence is a major problem. These treatments can be invasive with severe side effects. Inefficacies in treatments are a result of the complex and variable biology of cancerous cells. Malignant tumor cells and normal functioning cells share many of the same biological characteristics but the main difference is that in cancer cells there is in an overuse and over expression of these biological characteristics. These pertinent characteristics can be grouped into eight hallmarks, as illustrated by Hanahan and Weinberg. These characteristics include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, activating invasion and metastasis, reprogramming energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction. In order to provide a noninvasive, effective treatment, delivery methods must be explored in order to transport cytotoxic agents used for targeting the hallmarks of cancer in a safer and more effective fashion. The use of nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers provides an effective method in which multiple cytotoxic agents can be safely delivered to cancer tissue to simultaneously target multiple hallmarks. By targeting multiple hallmarks of cancer at once, the efficacy of cancer treatments could be improved drastically. This review explores the uses and efficacy of combination therapies using nanoparticles that can simultaneously target multiple hallmarks of cancer. PMID:27547592

  2. [Treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Orazio

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) represents one of the oncological fields where the most impressive improvements has been observed in the last decades. At the beginning of this century, the expected survival of mCRPC patients was not more than 12 months. After the introduction of docetaxel in the clinical practice in 2004, and the recent availability of new drugs cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and radium-223 the landscape is dramatically changed with an expected median survival of about three years. The possibility of administering docetaxel, abiraterone acetate, and enzalutamide as first line treatment, and cabazitaxel, abiretone acetate, and enzalutamide as second line, as well as the availability of radium-223 for the treatment of mCRPC patients regardless of chemotherapy administration, changed the natural history of the disease. At the same time, it is probable that also the biology of the disease is changing with the appearance of mechanisms of resistance which are common to all the drugs. This plays a central role in sequencing the available drugs not only in the first and second line setting but also beyond the second line. The future challenges for the oncologists will be to develop new drugs able to overcome the resistances, mainly when they are native, to find the optimal sequence to optimize the use of available drugs, to place at the best place other active drugs, such as vaccines and radiopharmaceuticals, to exploit the new drugs also in a hormone-sensitive phase. PMID:25621779

  3. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options. PMID:26217165

  4. Elevated copper and oxidative stress in cancer cells as a target for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Anshul; Mumper, Russell J

    2009-02-01

    As we gain a better understanding of the factors affecting cancer etiology, we can design improved treatment strategies. Over the past three to four decades, there have been numerous successful efforts in recognizing important cellular proteins essential in cancer growth and therefore these proteins have been targeted for cancer treatment. However, studies have shown that targeting one or two proteins in the complex cancer cascade may not be sufficient in controlling and/or inhibiting cancer growth. Therefore, there is a need to examine features which are potentially involved in multiple facets of cancer development. In this review we discuss the targeting of the elevated copper (both in serum and tumor) and oxidative stress levels in cancer with the aid of a copper chelator d-penicillamine (d-pen) for potential cancer treatment. Numerous studies in the literature have reported that both the serum and tumor copper levels are elevated in a variety of malignancies, including both solid tumor and blood cancer. Further, the elevated copper levels have been shown to be directly correlated to cancer progression. Enhanced levels of intrinsic oxidative stress has been shown in variety of tumors, possibly due to the combination of factors such as elevated active metabolism, mitochondrial mutation, cytokines, and inflammation. The cancer cells under sustained ROS stress tend to heavily utilize adaptation mechanisms and may exhaust cellular ROS-buffering capacity. Therefore, the elevated copper levels and increased oxidative stress in cancer cells provide for a prospect of selective cancer treatment.

  5. Intranasal treatment of central nervous system dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Frey, William H; Craft, Suzanne; Danielyan, Lusine; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-10-01

    One of the most challenging problems facing modern medicine is how to deliver a given drug to a specific target at the exclusion of other regions. For example, a variety of compounds have beneficial effects within the central nervous system (CNS), but unwanted side effects in the periphery. For such compounds, traditional oral or intravenous drug delivery fails to provide benefit without cost. However, intranasal delivery is emerging as a noninvasive option for delivering drugs to the CNS with minimal peripheral exposure. Additionally, this method facilitates the delivery of large and/or charged therapeutics, which fail to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, for a variety of growth factors, hormones, neuropeptides and therapeutics including insulin, oxytocin, orexin, and even stem cells, intranasal delivery is emerging as an efficient method of administration, and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diseases with CNS involvement, such as obesity, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, seizures, drug addiction, eating disorders, and stroke. PMID:23135822

  6. Oncoplastic Resection of Retroareolar Breast Cancer: Central Quadrantectomy and Reconstruction by Local Skin-Glandular Flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy. The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result. With the help of Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques, BCS can be offered to these patients. In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-Iaterally based pedicled flap were evaluated. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NC]), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health. Their ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (mean: 48.4±10.2 years). Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only I had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass. The size of their tumors ranged from 4 to 33mm (mean: 16.9±8.6mm). Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction. Seventeen cases had their tumors strictly in the retro-areolar region, while 5 had tumors extending for a maximum of I.5Cm beyond the areolar edge. All patients underwent central quadrantec-tomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection. Advancement of an infero-Iaterally based skin-glandular flap was then carried out. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Results: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%). The free safety margin (SM) ranged from 9 to 13mm (mean: 10. 0.9mm). This could be accomplished from the first attempt in 18 patients; however, in 5 patients a second wider excision was needed to obtain an adequate

  7. A prostate MRI atlas of biochemical failures following cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Kurhanewicz, John; Tewari, Ashutosh; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiation therapy (RT) are the most common treatment options for prostate cancer (PCa). Despite advancements in radiation delivery and surgical procedures, RP and RT can result in failure rates as high as 40% and >25%, respectively. Treatment failure is characterized by biochemical recurrence (BcR), which is defined in terms of prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentrations and its variation following treatment. PSA is expected to decrease following treatment, thereby its presence in even small concentrations (e.g 0.2 ng/ml for surgery or 2 ng/ml over the nadir PSA for radiation therapy) is indicative of treatment failure. Early identification of treatment failure may enable the use of more aggressive or neo-adjuvant therapies. Moreover, predicting failure prior to treatment may spare the patient from a procedure that is unlikely to be successful. Our goal is to identify differences on pre-treatment MRI between patients who have BcR and those who remain disease-free at 5 years post-treatment. Specifically, we focus on (1) identifying statistically significant differences in MRI intensities, (2) establishing morphological differences in prostatic anatomic structures, and (3) comparing these differences with the natural variability of prostatic structures. In order to attain these objectives, we use an anatomically constrained registration framework to construct BcR and non-BcR statistical atlases based on the pre-treatment magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the prostate. The patients included in the atlas either underwent RP or RT and were followed up for at least 5 years. The BcR atlas was constructed from a combined population of 12 pre-RT 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI and 33 pre-RP 3T MRI from patients with BcR within 5 years of treatment. Similarly, the non-BcR atlas was built based on a combined cohort of 20 pre-RT 1.5T MRI and 41 pre-RP 3T MRI from patients who remain disease-free 5 years post treatment. We chose the atlas framework as it

  8. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to try and determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary lesion itself, you know. And ... Okay. And with most cancers, you know, they spread first by going through what we call the “ ...

  9. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is still less than the total number of deaths from lung cancer in general. I hope that our discussion today will be informative to you and help us to help you understand lung cancer as it ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  11. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an oropharyngeal cancer, the cancer of the upper airway here in the throat. And during the workup ... room and performed a thoracoscopic lobectomy because we wanted to minimize the effects of surgery, major lung ...

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and prostate cancer, and, in fact, if you add up the mortalities from those three cancers alone, ... for this patient or in other cases a combined approach of radiation, with or without chemotherapy, in ...

  14. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center in New York City. During the program, it’s easy for you to make referrals, make appointments ... to try to tackle the lung cancer as it stands in 2009. In 2009, lung cancer is ...

  15. Gene Therapy Used in Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Wirth; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has been, from the beginning, a target of intense research for gene therapy approaches. Currently, more than 60% of all on-going clinical gene therapy trials worldwide are targeting cancer. Indeed, there is a clear unmet medical need for novel therapies. This is further urged by the fact that current conventional cancer therapies are frequently troubled by their toxicities. Different gene therapy strategies have been employed for cancer, such as pro-drug activating suicide gene therapy...

  16. Contemporary methods of treatment of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Kozłowska; Stanisław Głuszek

    2016-01-01

    Today, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed worldwide malignant cancer in males, and the second in females, with more than 1,200,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths, annually. Screening tests in oncology allow the detection of cancerous disease at an early, asymptomatic stage. The procedures most frequently performed in the case of colorectal cancer include: low anterior resection by the Dixon method (manual suture or staplers); abdominoperineal resection of t...

  17. [Treatment of Cancer Pain and Medical Narcotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization has reported that when morphine is used to control pain in cancer patients, psychological dependence is not a major concern. Our studies were undertaken to ascertain the modulation of psychological dependence on morphine under a chronic pain-like state in rats. Morphine induced a dose-dependent place preference. We found that inflammatory and neuropathic pain-like states significantly suppressed the morphine-induced rewarding effect. In an inflammatory pain-like state, the suppressive effect was significantly recovered by treatment with a κ-opioid receptor antagonist. In addition, in vivo microdialysis studies clearly showed that the morphine-induced increase in the extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.) was significantly decreased in rats pretreated with formalin. This effect was in turn reversed by the microinjection of a specific dynorphin A antibody into the N.Acc. These findings suggest that the inflammatory pain-like state may have caused the sustained activation of the κ-opioidergic system within the N.Acc., resulting in suppression of the morphine-induced rewarding effect in rats. On the other hand, we found that attenuation of the morphine-induced place preference under neuropathic pain may result from a decrease in the morphine-induced DA release in the N.Acc with a reduction in the μ-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, nerve injury results in the continuous release of endogenous β-endorphin to cause the dysfunction of μ-opioid receptors in the VTA. This paper also provides a review to clarify misunderstandings of opioid analgesic use to control pain in cancer patients. PMID:26632147

  18. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, Savitri C; Krabbe, Paul F M; Jansen, Margriet M G; Festen, Jan; Joosten, Frank B M; Kaanders, J Hans A M; van den Hoogen, Frank J A; Verbeek, André L M; Marres, Henri A M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether scree

  19. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  20. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  1. Carboplatin treatment of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde S; Yde, Christina Westmose; Christensen, Ib J;

    2012-01-01

    Antiestrogen resistance is a major clinical problem in current breast cancer treatment. Therefore, biomarkers and new treatment options for antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer are needed. In this study, we investigated whether antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer cell lines have increased...... sensitivity to carboplatin, as it was previously shown with cisplatin, and whether low Bcl-2 expression levels have a potential value as marker for increased carboplatin sensitivity. Breast cancer cells resistant to the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant, and two out of four cell lines resistant...... to the antiestrogen tamoxifen, were more sensitive to carboplatin treatment compared to the parental MCF-7 cell line. This indicates that carboplatin may be an advantageous treatment in antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer; however, a marker for increased sensitivity would be needed. Low Bcl-2 expression...

  2. USE OF PREDICTORS TO CHOOSE TREATMENT POLICY FOR THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zh. Brzhezovsky,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of treatment in patients with papillary thyroid cancer, by applying a great deal of clinical material. Different prognostic factors have been studied for their influence on the survival of the patients after surgical treatment. The most optimal treatment policy is proposed to be defined for patients with this form of cancer on the basis of the association between the above factors.

  3. The role of nanotechnology in cancer treatment and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Vanessa Micaela dos Santos; Silva, Ana Catarina; Lopes, Carla Martins

    2010-01-01

    Cancer treatment is one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Several attempts have been made, in order to find more successful treatments. Nanotechnology can be applied to target drugs to the surface or to the interior of specific cells. In addition, it can also be used in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Therefore, nanotechnology opened a new vast exploiting area for cancer treatment. The studies must go on to obtain tailor-made therapies, with low adverse side effe...

  4. Low-dose capecitabine (Xeloda) for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Miger, Jasmine; Holmqvist, Annica; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Albertsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The prodrug capecitabine (Xeloda) has been an important drug for treatment for gastrointestinal cancer (GI-cancer). This study explores the efficacy of continuous metronomic Xeloda, as well as tolerability and best response during treatment. Patients (n = 35) with stage IV GI-cancer were included in the study and were divided into two groups; upper (n = 13) and lower (n = 22) GI-cancer. All patients were given continuous metronomic Xeloda (500 mg × 2). Best response was measured by radiologic...

  5. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment with Particle Beam Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Zargarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this century, cancer incidence has become one of the most significant problems concerning human. Conventional radiotherapy damage healthy tissue and in some cases may cause new primary cancers. This problem can be partially solved by hadron therapy which would be more effective and less harmful compared to other forms of radiotherapies used to treat some cancers. Although carbon ion and proton therapy both are effective treatments, they have serious differences which are mentioned in this paper and compared between the two methods. Furthermore, various treatments have been performed on head and neck cancer with hadrons so far will be discussed.

  6. Does a central review platform improve the quality of radiotherapy for rectal cancer? Results of a national quality assurance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Quality assurance (QA) for radiation treatment has become a priority since poorly delivered radiotherapy can negatively influence patient outcome. Within a national project we evaluated the feasibility of a central review platform and its role in improving uniformity of clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in daily practice. Material and methods: All Belgian radiotherapy departments were invited to participate and were asked to upload CTVs for rectal cancer treatment onto a secured server. These were centrally reviewed and feedback was given per e-mail. For each five consecutive patients per centre, the overlap parameter dice coefficient (DC) and the volumetric parameters volumetric ratio (RV) and commonly contoured volume (VCC) were calculated. Results: Twenty departments submitted 1224 eligible cases of which 909 were modified (74.3%). There was a significant increase in RV and VCC between the first ten patients per centre and the others. This was not seen for DC. Statistical analysis did not show a further significant improvement in delineation over the entire review period. Conclusion: Central review was feasible and increased the uniformity in CTV delineation in the first ten rectal cancer patients per centre. The observations in this study can be used to optimize future QA initiatives

  7. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches. PMID:19481061

  8. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches.

  9. Micro satellite instability in colorectal cancer stage II. Hospital Central de las fuerzas armadas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: micro satellite instability (MSI) is a good prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) located. Its value as a predictive marker against adjuvant treatment of chemotherapy (CT) has been shown fluoropyrimidine in various publications. The MSI occurs in 15% of colorectal tumors and sporadic in 90% of tumors in the context of colorectal cancer syndrome hereditary nonpolyposis. In Uruguay there are no studies about this phenomenon. Objective: To determine the incidence of micro satellite instability in a sample of patients using the Hospital Central de las fuerzas armadas oncology service, association with a compatible family history and the histological features of the tumors associated therewith. Methods: The medical records of patients were analyzed with CRC diagnosed stage II between 01/2001 and 12/2009. Data of the patients were analyzed which had complete histology and evolution. Results: 30/52 patients (57.6%) were analyzed. 40% had a detected MSI by kits for Pcr (polymerase chain reaction) to D2S123, D5S250, D17S346, BAT25 and BAT26 according to the Bethesda criteria. In those patients they filed a MSI: the median age was 70 years; 58.3% male. No patient had a family history consistent with HNPCC. 5.6% (3) they received Adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Regarding tumor characteristics: 75% (9) were T3, and T4 were 25% (3); 8.3% histologic grade I (1) II 58.3% (7) 8.3% III (1) without Data 33% (6). This tumor lymphocyte infiltration was reported in 25% (3), absent 33.3% (4), not reported in 41.6% (5). Conclusions: This is the first analysis of these characteristics carried out in Uruguay. The same has been detected MSI percentage higher than reported in the literature International. In either case a compatible family history met HNPCC

  10. Pregnancy after successful cancer treatment: what needs to be considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Barbara; Henes, Melanie; Neunhoeffer, Eva; Fehm, Tanja; Huebner, Stephanie; Kanz, Lothar; Marini, Patricia; Mayer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in oncology led to improved treatment results and increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors. Fulfilling the desire to have children is important for many patients after cancer treatment. Consequently, oncologists, gynecologists and obstetricians are seeing more patients who wish to conceive after treatment. The necessary prerequisites that should be considered when supporting a planned pregnancy after cancer treatment are discussed in this article. The possible consequences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the course of pregnancy and the health of the offspring, as well as the interactions between cancer and pregnancy, are reviewed with the focus on childhood cancer, malignant lymphomas, and breast cancer. Despite chemo- or radiotherapy, neither the teratogenic risk nor the risk of adventitious cancers appears to be increased for the offspring of cancer survivors. However, there is a slightly higher risk of miscarriage after chemotherapy. In case of radiation to the uterus, there is a higher risk of premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and increased perinatal mortality. The effect is more pronounced after prepubertal radiation than for postpubertal radiation. The former cancer patient's desire to conceive can nevertheless be supported, given that pregnancy and birth are closely monitored. PMID:22414979

  11. An observational study of cancer treatment-induced dental abnormalities in paediatric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kaberi Das; Munlima Hazarika; Manigreeva Krishnatreya; Amal Chandra Kataki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric cancer patients who receive radiation and chemotherapy (CT) suffer from various risks of oral complications and odontogenesis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at a regional cancer centre of North East India from 2010 to 2013. The impact of cancer treatment by CT and radiation on orodental health was studied on a total of 100 paediatric cancer patients. Results: The common dental abnormalities were microdontia, hypodontia, root abnormalities, abnorm...

  12. Growth factor receptors and related signalling pathways as targets for novel treatment strategies of hepatocellular cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Hopfner; Detlef Schuppan; Hans Scherübl

    2008-01-01

    Growth factors and their corresponding receptors are commonly overexpressed and/or dysregulated in many cancers including hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Clinical trials indicate that growth factor receptors and their related signalling pathways play important roles in HCC cancer etiology and progression, thus providing rational targets for innovative cancer therapies. A number of strategies including monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors ("small molecule inhibitors") and antisense oligonucleotides have already been evaluated for their potency to inhibit the activity and downstream signalling cascades of these receptors in HCC. First clinical trials have also shown that multi-kinase inhibition is an effective novel treatment strategy in HCC. In this respect sorafenib, an inhibitor of Raf-, VEGF- and PDGF-signalling, is the first multi-kinase inhibitor that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced HCC. Moreover, the serine-threonine kinase of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) upon which the signalling of several growth factor receptors converge plays a central role in cancer cell proliferation, mTOR inhibition of HCC is currently also being studied in preclinical trials. As HCCs represent hypervascularized neoplasms, inhibition of tumour vessel formation via interfering with the VEGF/VEGFR system is another promising approach in HCC treatment. This review will summarize the current status of the various growth factor receptor-based treatment strategies and in view of the multitude of novel targeted approaches, the rationale for combination therapies for advanced HCC treatment will also be taken into account.

  13. Treatment Options for Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors and Childhood Pineoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  14. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    of counts of trained personnel and equipment in cancer diagnostics and treatment in the two countries. RESULTS: With regard to lung and breast cancer, the data seem to indicate that Danish patients are diagnosed later, and that Denmark lags behind in treatment capacity. With regard to rectal cancer......, the data seem to indicate that concentrating operations in fewer hospitals, and improvements in operation technique have been introduced earlier in Sweden than in Denmark. With regard to prostate cancer, however, the data seem to indicate that many more indolent cases that do not need treatment...... to indicate that problems in the areas of sufficient capacity for diagnostic workup and treatment may explain some of the difference in survival between Danish and Swedish cancer patients Udgivelsesdato: 2001/1/22...

  15. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability...... and validity of the system was tested in 30 deaths, which were independently assessed by two clinical research associates and two paediatric oncologists. We defined treatment-related mortality as death occurring in the absence of progressive cancer. Of the 30 reviewed deaths, the reliability of classification...

  16. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  17. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  18. Diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxing Niu; Guohua Ren; Shuping Song

    2008-01-01

    The morbility of prostate cancer has risen in China in recent years, it is important to diagnose and treat prostate cancer standardly and systemically.This review analyzed the status and advances of PSA examination, digital rectal examination, prostate biopsy in prostate cancer, and it gave a detailed description of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, etc.The advances of targeted therapy and tumor vaccine is also discussed.

  19. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Vendrell, I.; Macedo, D.; Alho, I.; Dionísio, M. R.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be relate...

  20. Oncology Nursing and Shared Decision Making for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Mehmeti, Enisa; Spawn, Nadia; McCarter, Sarah P; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the contemporary role of the oncology nurse throughout the entire cancer shared decision-making (SDM) process. Study participants consisted of 30 nurses and nurse practitioners who are actively involved in direct care of patients with cancer in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis are: oncology nurses have various roles at different time points and settings of cancer SDM processes; patient education, advocacy, and treatment side effects management are among the top nursing roles; oncology nurses value their participation in the cancer SDM process; oncology nurses believe they have a voice, but with various degrees of influence in actual treatment decisions; nurses' level of disease knowledge influences the degree of participation in cancer SDM; and the nursing role during cancer SDM can be complicated and requires flexibility.
. PMID:27668378

  1. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Meunier, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an important way. Some patients are confronted with societal discrimination due to slower performance, chronic fatigue or partial inability and these things can adversely affect employment, education, insurance or mortgage opportunities. In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30-31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment. PMID:26217161

  2. Surgical treatment of double primary liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aijun; Ma, Senlin; Pawlik, Timothy; Wu, Bin; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cui, Longjiu; Wu, Mengchao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Double primary liver cancer (DPLC) is a special type of clinical situation. As such, a detailed analysis of the surgical management and prognosis of patients with DPLC is lacking. The objective of the current study was to define the management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery for DPLC at a major hepatobiliary center. A total of 87 patients treated by surgical resection at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from January 1st, 2007 to October 31st, 2013 who had DPLC demonstrated by final pathological diagnosis were identified. Among these, 50 patients had complete clinical and prognostic data. Demographic and tumor characteristics as well as the prognosis were analyzed. The proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) (+), HBsAg (+), and HBeAg (−) hepatocirrhosis in all patients was 21.84%, 67.82%, and 63.22%, respectively. Incidental findings accounted for 58.62% of patients; among those who had symptoms, the main symptom was abdominal pain (31.03%). Nonanatomic wedge resection was the main operative approach (62.07%). Postoperatively, the main complications included seroperitoneum (11.49%), hypoproteinemia (10.34%), and pleural effusion (8.05%). Factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) tumor size (P = 0.002) and use of postoperative prophylactic transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment (P = 0.015). Meanwhile, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) size (P = 0.045), ICC size (P < 0.001), and liver function (including aspartate aminotransferase [P = 0.001] and r-glutamyl transferase [P < 0.001]) were associated with overall survival (OS). Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis or cirrhosis is also an important factor in the pathogenesis of DPLC and surgical treatment is safe for it with low complication rates. In addition, it is effective to prolong DFS that DPLC patients undergo postoperative

  3. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  4. Cancer Treatment Using Peptides: Current Therapies and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi Thundimadathil

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peptides in cancer therapy with special emphasis on peptide drugs which are already approved and those in clinical trials. The potential of peptides in cancer treatment is evident from a variety of different strategies that are available to address the progression of tumor growth and propagation of the disease. Use of peptides that can directly target cancer cells without affecting normal cells (targeted therapy) is evolving as an alternate strategy to convent...

  5. The place of radiotherapy in the treatment of vulva cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the therapeutic aspects of the treatment of vulva cancers. This analytic retrospective study is based on a set of 15 patients who have been treated between 1996 and 2010, for an epidermoid cancer for 14 of them. Eleven of them have been irradiated. This rare cancer has a negative prognosis, mainly because of early ganglionary metastases. Radiotherapy (external or interstitial curie-therapy) is a prevailing therapeutic tool. Chemotherapy is emerging, notably concomitantly with radiotherapy. Short communication

  6. Breast cancer causes and treatment: where are we going wrong?

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour CB; Mothersill C

    2013-01-01

    Colin B Seymour, Carmel MothersillMedical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaAbstract: This discussion paper seeks to provoke thoughts about cancer research in general, and why breast cancer in particular is not yet “curable”. It asks the question – are we looking at the disease in the right way? Should we regard cancer as a progressive state, which is part of aging? Should we tailor treatment to &ldquo...

  7. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  8. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chawaboon Dechsukum; Pranee Ratanasuwan; Niwat Keawpradub; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Arunporn Itharat; Athima Saetung

    2005-01-01

    Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23) and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3) and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS). SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts) procedures used were similar to tho...

  9. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millsop, Jillian W.; Sivamani, Raja K; Nasim Fazel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other su...

  10. Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Rodier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of are-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae.

  11. Thoracic Duct Fistula after Thyroid Cancer Surgery: Towards a New Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Jean-François; Volkmar, Pierre-Philippe; Bodin, Frédéric; Frigo, Séverine; Ciftci, Sait; Dahlet, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of a re-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae. PMID:21734879

  12. Extraction of Maxillary Central Incisors: An Orthodontic-Restorative Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Hedayati; Maryam Zare; Fateme Bahramnia

    2014-01-01

    Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary ce...

  13. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  14. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  15. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  16. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  17. Biomedical Engineering 2008. New methods for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanninen, J.; Koskelainen, A.; Ilmoniemi, R.J. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The report consists of 11 student papers presented in 2008 at the Seminar on Biomedical Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology (Finland). The topics of the seminar included: cancer risk factors and diagnosis, radiation therapy, boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT), chemotherapy, cooling and heating therapy, immunotherapy, angiogenesis inhibition approaches, gene therapy and ablation therapy of liver cancer

  18. Redox Proteomics Sheds Light on Photodynamic Treatment of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsaytler, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death among humans in the world, exceeded only by heart disease. One of the promising modalities for the treatment of cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is based on the concept that (1) certain light-sensitive compounds (photosensitizers) can be locali

  19. Megestrol acetate in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Alexieva-Figusch (Jana)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThere are many non-elucidated questions concerning cancer, especially of the breast, in which hormones are involved. The scope of this particular study is to bring more clarity on the role of the progestin megestrol acetate in the hormonal treatment of breast cancer. It should be kept in

  20. Gastric cancer : staging, treatment, and surgical quality assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Johannes Leen

    2012-01-01

    Research described in this thesis focuses on several aspects of gastric cancer care: staging and prognostication, multimodality treatment, and surgical quality assurance. PART I - STAGING AND PROGNOSTICATION Cancer staging is one of the fundamental activities in oncology.6,7 For over 50 years, the

  1. Challenges in the multimodality treatment of rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swellengrebel, Hendrik Albert Maurits

    2013-01-01

    Remaining questions and current goals in the treatment of rectal cancer include optimizing staging accuracy, establishing the optimal neoadjuvant strategy to be implemented in the different stages of rectal cancer and possibly leading to the evidence-based introduction of organ sparing and non-opera

  2. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and consecu

  3. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glucose into the patient’s body and the cancer cells, you know, take up glucose more than the regular cells in the body, and it will give us ... high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with minimal damage overall to the normal surrounding ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy . Mohs microsurgery . A clinical trial of laser therapy . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical ... nodes in the groin ). External or internal radiation therapy followed by ... clinical trial of laser surgery . Check the list of NCI-supported cancer ...

  5. Multimodality Treatment in Pancreatic and Periampullary Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Morak (Marjolein)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Pancreatic cancer is the eight most common form of cancer in Europe with 96.000 new cases yearly. This incidence closely matches the mortality rate, thus revealing the aggressive behaviour of this tumour. Five-year survival after diagnosis is only 5% with a median overa

  6. Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to get the immune system to target cancer. Experimental adoptive cell transfer therapies involve removing immune cells from a patient’s body, reengineering them to learn to attack cancer, and then re-infusing them into the patient’s ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... me reiterate what Sam was saying about the importance of a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have a great team here to do that because we work so closely together so often. My role, after Sam assists in diagnosing cancers, is to ...

  8. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... me reiterate what Sam was saying about the importance of a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have a great team here to do that because we work so closely together so often. My role, after Sam assists in diagnosing cancers, is to ...

  9. Systemic Treatment Approaches in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bontenbal (Marijke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most conmlon malignant tumor among women, with an estimated 135,000 new cases and 58,000 recorded deaths per year in the Europeau Community in 1990. With respect to the Netherlands, the most recent data of The Netherlands Cancer Registry show an incidence of nearly 1

  10. Current and emerging treatments for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regine, W F; John, W J; Mohiuddin, M

    1997-10-01

    The worldwide annual pancreatic cancer death rate equals its estimated annual incidence. Surgery has been considered the only curative modality for this disease, but only 5 to 15% of patients are candidates for potentially curative resection. Evidence that postoperative adjuvant treatment improves outcome has been limited to a single randomised trial of a well tolerated split-course chemoradiation regimen. More intensive regimens have since been developed and are associated with, at best, a modest improvement in patient outcome. The potentially significant morbidity associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy, which can compromise the delivery of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation, has led to the development of preoperative adjuvant ('neoadjuvant') chemoradiation in these patients. Although experience suggests that such an approach is feasible, its ultimate impact awaits further evaluation. Combined modality therapy has produced the most promising results in patients with unresectable or locally advanced disease. However, only modest improvements in median survival and minimal increases in long term survival have so far been achieved. This observation has encouraged many investigators to devise innovative methods of delivering therapy, including radioisotope implantation and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Combined modality therapy with radioisotope implantation appears to have the greatest potential for improving local control and survival in these patients. IORT may be associated with lower morbidity than radioisotope implantation, but its impact may be limited by the radiobiological disadvantage associated with single dose boost therapy. Although new radiosensitising drugs are being tested, the problem of distant metastasis remains significant. New chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine appear to have the potential to produce better results than those achieved over the last 35 years with fluorouracil. Investigations into the optimal integration of

  11. Many Patients with Cancer Need Better Treatments for Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Uptodate view on diagnostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 4 years leading endocrine societies of the world published clinical recommendations on diag nostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. The article covers most aspects of following patients with this pathology.

  13. For Some Breast Cancers, New Drug May Be Treatment Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from an international clinical trial suggest that women with metastatic, HER2-positive breast cancer that is no longer responding to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) may soon have a new treatment option.

  14. Novel Brain Cancer Treatment Taps into Sound Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Novel Brain Cancer Treatment Taps Into Sound Waves Experimental device seems to help more chemotherapy reach ... When the so-called SonoCloud was activated, sound waves opened the blood-brain barrier, letting in more ...

  15. Pharmacological treatment of depression in women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    escitalopram and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, significantly improved depression and QOL compared with baseline values. In conclusion, depression is a clinical problem in patients with breast cancer. Pharmacological treatment with antidepressants may improve depression and QOL. However...

  16. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... new in ovarian cancer research and treatment? Risk factors and causes Scientists continue to study the genes responsible for familial ...

  17. Brain Cancer Treatment Shows Promise in Early Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental viral treatment may extend the lives of patients with a hard-to-treat brain cancer, researchers say. For the phase 1 study, patients ...

  18. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30–31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment.

  19. Gene Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Deanna; Burmester, James K.

    2006-01-01

    The broad field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments that are likely to become important in preventing deaths from cancer. In this review, we discuss the history, highlights and future of three different gene therapy treatment approaches: immunotherapy, oncolytic virotherapy and gene transfer. Immunotherapy uses genetically modified cells and viral particles to stimulate the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Recent clinical trials of second and third generation vacc...

  20. Intermediate Megavoltage Photon Beams for Improved Lung Cancer Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Feng, Yuanming; Ahmad, Munir; Ming, Xin; Zhou, Li; Deng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of intermediate megavoltage (3-MV) photon beams on SBRT lung cancer treatments. To start with, a 3-MV virtual beam was commissioned on a commercial treatment planning system based on Monte Carlo simulations. Three optimized plans (6-MV, 3-MV and dual energy of 3- and 6-MV) were generated for 31 lung cancer patients with identical beam configuration and optimization constraints for each patient. Dosimetric metrics were evaluated and compared am...

  1. PKM2, a Central Point of Regulation in Cancer Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis is the dominant metabolic pathway utilized by cancer cells, owing to its ability to divert glucose metabolites from ATP production towards the synthesis of cellular building blocks (nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids to meet the demands of proliferation. The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2 catalyzes the final and also a rate-limiting reaction in the glycolytic pathway. In the PK family, PKM2 is subjected to a complex regulation by both oncogenes and tumour suppressors, which allows for a fine-tone regulation of PKM2 activity. The less active form of PKM2 drives glucose through the route of aerobic glycolysis, while active PKM2 directs glucose towards oxidative metabolism. Additionally, PKM2 possesses protein tyrosine kinase activity and plays a role in modulating gene expression and thereby contributing to tumorigenesis. We will discuss our current understanding of PKM2's regulation and its many contributions to tumorigenesis.

  2. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  3. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  4. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening ...

  5. Theranostic nanomedicine for cancer detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Fan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA according to the American Cancer Society. In the past 5 years, “theranostic nanomedicine”, for both therapeutics and imaging, has shown to be “the right drug for the right patient at the right moment” to manage deadly cancers. This review article presents an overview of recent developments, mainly from the authors' laboratories, along with potential medical applications for theranostic nanomedicine including basic concepts and critical properties. Finally, we outline the future research direction and possible challenges for theranostic nanomedicine research.

  6. Concerns on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shen-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Breast cancer is one of the neoplasms that have greatest negative psychological impact on the sufferers. Although China is among the low morbidity country of breast cancer, its yearly increasing rate in China is 1%-2% higher than the average rate of the word.1 Due to its largest population in the word, China tops the world in its breast cancer cases but general medical care for the patients still lags behind the developed countries. These issues are related to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China.

  7. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  8. Cancer treatment and gonadal function : experimental and established strategies for fertility preservation in children and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Richard A.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Kelsey, Tom; Spears, Norah; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of gonadal function,is an important priority for the long-term health of cancer survivors of both sexes and all ages at treatment.. The loss of an opportunity for fertility is a prime concern in both male and female cancer survivors, however the endocrine consequences of gonadal damage are also central to long-term health and wellbeing. Some fertility preservation techniques, such as semen and embryo cryopreservation for the adult man and woman respectively, are established and s...

  9. Early Gastric Cancer: Current Advances of Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linlin; Qin, Jinyu; Wang, Jin; Guo, Tianjiao; Wang, Zijing; Yang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopy is a major method for early gastric cancer screening because of its high detection rate, but its diagnostic accuracy depends heavily on the availability of endoscopic instruments. Many novel endoscopic techniques have been shown to increase the diagnostic yield of early gastric cancer. With the improved detection rate of EGC, the endoscopic treatment has become widespread due to advances in the instruments available and endoscopist's experience. The aim of this review is to summarize frequently-used endoscopic diagnosis and treatment in early gastric cancer (EGC). PMID:26884753

  10. Early Gastric Cancer: Current Advances of Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopy is a major method for early gastric cancer screening because of its high detection rate, but its diagnostic accuracy depends heavily on the availability of endoscopic instruments. Many novel endoscopic techniques have been shown to increase the diagnostic yield of early gastric cancer. With the improved detection rate of EGC, the endoscopic treatment has become widespread due to advances in the instruments available and endoscopist’s experience. The aim of this review is to summarize frequently-used endoscopic diagnosis and treatment in early gastric cancer (EGC.

  11. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer surgery was done. It’s really an elaborate video game, and I would like to show you ... a whole lobe, you know, by doing the video-assisted thorascopic surgery alone? Absolutely. And you know ...

  12. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  13. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... she actually could have gone home on the second day after surgery, but we were a little ... ve got to fight it. This was my second bout with cancer, so I’ve had experience ...

  14. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should talk to their doctor before ... gov Accessibility Digital Government Strategy Open Government Federal Trade Commission Headquarters: 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC ...

  15. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rigid instruments that are applicable in an earlier generation of thoracic and thoracoscopic devices and definitely better ... therapy is is the use of high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with minimal ...

  16. Treatment Options by Stage (Hypopharyngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and x-rays ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. Certain factors ...

  17. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. When the esophagus and ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy ...

  19. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... unit and the director of the endobronchial ultrasound service on the pulmonary division of Beth Israel. Our ... the lung cancer division of the radiation oncology service. Good morning, Walter? Good morning. How are you? ...

  20. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like each of them to tell you some words about what they do and how they apply ... Sullivan, and let’s listen to some of her words. Larynx cancer. PET scan and CAT was ordered. ...

  1. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the physicians, the nurse practitioners and the nursing staff, but we’re also very rigorous in maintaining ... both cancers, my case was taken before the staff board and I was discussed at the staff ...

  2. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chief of thoracic surgery in their Brooklyn division. We would like to talk to you today about out multidisciplinary approach to lung cancer, how we help to support the patients, how we help ...

  3. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... was saying about the importance of a multidisciplinary team when managing such a complicated disease as lung cancer, and we really do have a great team here to do that because we work so ...

  4. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to try and determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary lesion itself, you know. ... As Dr. Reyes mentioned, you know, traditionally staging has been done by surgical mean, which means doing ...

  5. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... presented in a multidisciplinary fashion to our tumor board, and we discussed her case, as we do ... cancers, my case was taken before the staff board and I was discussed at the staff meeting. ...

  6. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in between the ribs. We divide just the soft tissue of the thorax, the chest wall. And, ... therapy is is the use of high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with minimal damage ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Testicular Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nonseminomas . These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly ... trials is available from the NCI website . To Learn More About Testicular Cancer For more information from ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  9. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...

  10. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need for their cancer. I’d like to stress to everyone that what we do here at ... is really on target. You know it’s pretty anxiety provoking for a patient to be sitting in ...

  11. The Role of Methylation in Breast Cancer Susceptibility and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Marie-Christine; Labrie, Yvan; Diorio, Caroline; Durocher, Francine

    2015-09-01

    DNA methylation is a critical mechanism of epigenetic modification involved in gene expression programming, that can promote the development of several cancers, including breast cancer. The methylation of CpG islands by DNA methyltransferases is reversible and has been shown to modify the transcriptional activity of key proliferation genes or transcription factors involved in suppression or promotion of cell growth. Indeed, aberrant methylation found in gene promoters is a hallmark of cancer that could be used as non-intrusive biomarker in body fluids such as blood and plasma for early detection of breast cancer. Many biomarker genes have been evaluated for breast cancer detection. However, in the absence of a unique biomarker having the sufficient specificity and sensitivity, a panel of multiple genes should be used. Treatments targeting aberrant methylation by DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, which trigger re-expression of silenced genes, are now available and allow for better treatment efficiency. PMID:26254344

  12. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Zaragoza O; Bermúdez-Morales VH; Pérez-Plasencia C; Salazar-León J; Gómez-Cerón C; Madrid-Marina V

    2012-01-01

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztac...

  13. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dieli-Conwright CM; Orozco BZ

    2015-01-01

    Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offs...

  14. Diaphragm pacers as a treatment for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maida Lynn; Tablizo, Mary Anne; Kun, Sheila; Keens, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare syndrome present from birth, and is defined as the failure of automatic control of breathing. All patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome require life-long ventilatory support during sleep, although approximately a third of patients require ventilatory support 24 h per day. Diaphragm pacers offer a modality of ventilatory support that affords congenital central hypoventilation syndrome patients with maximal mobility for full-time ventilatory patients, and they may allow for a more normal lifestyle in the appropriate patient. They may permit tracheostomy decannulation in those requiring only support during sleep. Diaphragm pacing entails surgical placement of an electrode onto the phrenic nerve, connected to a subcutaneous receiver. There is an external battery-operated transmitter and antenna placed on the skin over the receiver. The transmitter emits energy, similar to radio transmission, which is converted into an electrical current by the receiver. This stimulates the phrenic nerve resulting in a diaphragmatic contraction. Settings on the transmitter include respiratory rate and electrical voltage, and are adjusted to give enough tidal volume to allow for adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Therefore, diaphragm pacing is an attractive alternative mode of mechanically assisted ventilation for many patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

  15. Breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Geuna, Elena; Zucchini, Giorgia; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are associated with the inheritance of autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility alleles BRCA1 and BRCA2. Until recently, the medical management of BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer has not differed from that of the sporadic breast cancer counterpart. However, there is mounting evidence that this molecular alteration confers sensitivity or resistance to systemic therapies that can be exploited in terms of medical management. For example, studies support the use of platinum salts chemotherapy in BRCA mutated cancers. Moreover, a number of targeted therapies are showing activity in BRCA mutation carriers. Above all, BRCA defective tumor cells are particularly sensitive to Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This review will summarize the state of the art of the medical treatment of breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, with a particular focus on chemotherapies and targeted therapies. PMID:26799758

  16. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehab, Moataz; Elbaz, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2− locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the

  17. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehab, Moataz; Elbaz, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2- locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the

  18. Old Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Newcomers in Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika, Giordani; Federica, Zoratto; Martina, Strudel; Anselmo, Papa; Luigi, Rossi; Marina, Minozzi; Davide, Caruso; Eleonora, Zaccarelli; Monica, Verrico; Silverio, Tomao

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer treatment is based more on molecular biology that has provided increasing knowledge about cancer pathogenesis on which targeted therapy is being developed. Precisely, targeted therapy is defined as a "type of treatment that uses drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to identify and attack specific cancer cells". Nowadays, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved many targeted therapies for gastrointestinal cancer treatment, as many are in various phases of development as well. In a previous review we discussed the main monoclonal antibodies used and studied in gastrointestinal cancer. In addition to monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent another class of targeted therapy and following the approval of imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for gastrointestinal cancers treatment such as sunitinib, regoragenib, sorafenib and erlotinib. Moving forward, the purpose of this review is to focus on the efficacy data of main tyrosine kinase inhibitors commonly used in the personalized treatment of each gastrointestinal tumour and to provide a comprehensive overview about experimental targeted therapies ongoing in this setting. PMID:26278713

  19. Old Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Newcomers in Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Erika; Zoratto, Federica; Strudel, Martina; Papa, Anselmo; Rossi, Luigi; Minozzi, Marina; Caruso, Davide; Zaccarelli, Eleonora; Verrico, Monica; Tomao, Silverio

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer treatment is based more on molecular biology that has provided increasing knowledge about cancer pathogenesis on which targeted therapy is being developed. Precisely, targeted therapy is defined as a "type of treatment that uses drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to identify and attack specific cancer cells". Nowadays, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved many targeted therapies for gastrointestinal cancer treatment, as many are in various phases of development as well. In a previous review we discussed the main monoclonal antibodies used and studied in gastrointestinal cancer. In addition to monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent another class of targeted therapy and following the approval of imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for gastrointestinal cancers treatment such as sunitinib, regoragenib, sorafenib and erlotinib. Moving forward, the purpose of this review is to focus on the efficacy data of main tyrosine kinase inhibitors commonly used in the personalized treatment of each gastrointestinal tumour and to provide a comprehensive overview about experimental targeted therapies ongoing in this setting.

  20. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  1. Seeking Mind, Body and Spirit Healing—Why Some Men with Prostate Cancer Choose CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine over Conventional Cancer Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. White

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use only complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.Objectives: To 1 explore why men decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM 2 understand the role of holistic healing in their care, and 3 document their recommendations for health care providers.Methods: Semi-structured interviews and follow-up focus groups.Sample: Twenty-nine men diagnosed with prostate cancer who declined all recommended conventional treatments and used CAM.Results: Based on strong beliefs about healing, study participants took control by researching the risks of delaying or declining conventional treatment while using CAM as a first option. Most perceived conventional treatment to have a negative impact on quality of life. Participants sought healing in a broader mind, body, spirit context, developing individualized CAM approaches consistent with their beliefs about the causes of cancer. Most made significant lifestyle changes to improve their health. Spirituality was central to healing for one-third of the sample. Participants recommended a larger role for integrated cancer care.Conclusion: Men who decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM only may benefit from a whole person approach to care where physicians support them to play an active role in healing while carefully monitoring their disease status.

  2. Extraction of Maxillary Central Incisors: An Orthodontic-Restorative Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hedayati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy.

  3. Costs and water quality effects of wastewater treatment plant centralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    The costs and water quality impacts of two regional configurations of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northeastern Illinois are compared. In one configuration, several small treatment plants are consolidated into a smaller number of regional facilities. In the other, the smaller plants continue to operate. Costs for modifying the plants to obtain various levels of pollutant removal are estimated using a simulation model that considers the type of equipment existing at the plants and the costs of modifying that equipment to obtain a range of effluent levels for various pollutants. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine the water quality effects of the various treatment technologies and pollutant levels. Cost and water quality data are combined and the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment configurations is compared. The regionalized treatment-plant configuration is found to be the more cost-effective.

  4. Pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy as salvage treatment of locally advanced or recurrent gynecologic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P T; Roed, H; Engelholm, S A;

    1998-01-01

    presents the first clinical results from The Finsen Center with PDR-brachytherapy in patients with locally advanced or recurrent gynecologic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 1993 and August 1996, 34 patients with gynecologic malignancies (22 pelvic recurrences, 12 primary locally advanced) have....... There was no difference in survival probability when stratifying the patients by primary diagnosis (recurrent vs. primary advanced), relapse locations (central vs. central + pelvic wall mass) or treatment volume. Seventeen chronic grade III complications were observed in 10 patients. Large treatment volumes significantly...... correlated to severe gastrointestinal complications. Fifteen of 17 chronic grade III complications were observed in patients treated for recurrent disease. CONCLUSION: PDR-brachytherapy in combination with external irradiation is an effective treatment option for patients with locally advanced or recurrent...

  5. Cancer-related intrusive thoughts predict behavioral symptoms following breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, A; Bower, JE; Stanton, AL; Ganz, PA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral symptoms are common in breast cancer survivors, including disturbances in energy, sleep, and mood, though few risk factors for these negative outcomes have been identified. Our study examined intrusive thoughts as a predictor of lingering symptoms in breast cancer survivors in the year following treatment. Method: Data come from the Moving Beyond Cancer psychoeducational intervention trial, aimed at easing the transition from patient to survivor. Women (n = 558) complete...

  6. Lapatinib for the treatment of breast cancer in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang HJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hongjiang Wang Department of Breast Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lapatinib is an oral, small-molecule, reversible inhibitor of both epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor–2 (HER2 tyrosine kinases. In March 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration approved lapatinib for use in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of women with HER2-overexpressing, advanced or metastatic breast cancer. This review discusses the available information of lapatinib in Chinese breast cancer patients, focusing on its effectiveness and clinical application against advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In pivotal phase III trials, a combination of lapatinib and capecitabine significantly decreased the risk of disease progression compared to capecitabine alone in women with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Other trials were used to evaluate lapatinib in combination with hormone therapy, in combination with trastuzumab, and as an adjunct to adjuvant therapy for early-stage disease. Preclinical data have revealed that lapatinib is active in trastuzumab-resistant cell lines as well as synergistic with trastuzumab. In clinical trials, lapatinib has not been associated with serious or symptomatic cardiotoxicity. Further, it can cross the blood–brain barrier and may therefore have a role in preventing cancer progression in the central nervous system. Thus, lapatinib warrants further evaluation in HER2-positive metastatic and early-stage breast cancer patients. Keywords: lapatinib, HER2 positive, breast cancer, molecular targeting therapy

  7. [Treatment of prostate cancer using cryoablation: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorov, A V; Vasil'ev, A O; Ivanov, V Iu; Kovylina, M V; Prilepskaia, E A; Pushkar', D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the choice of tactics of treatment of the patient with prostate cancer (PCa) requires to take into account the degree of differentiation and stage of tumor, age of the patient and his somatic diseases, the risk of complications, as well as the patient's desire and physician's experience. Due to the progressive development of medical technology, interest in minimally invasive treatments for prostate cancer, such as cryoablation, interstitial brachytherapy and HIFU-therapy, has grown. Cryoablation of the prostate gland is a tissue ablation by local effects of very low temperatures and is minimally invasive, highly effective treatment for prostate cancer that can be used as the primary treatment, and in the case of tumor recurrence after radiotherapy. Focal cryoablation of the prostate allows to selectively destroy the known tumor with preservation of organ function and without reducing the quality of life of the patient. Focal therapy for prostate cancer is an alternative to radical treatment and active surveillance, occupying an intermediate position between them. Due to the lack of long-term results, focal cryoablation is an experimental type of treatment. First cryoablation of the prostate using modern equipment was carried out in Russia in March 2010, at the Department of Urology MSMSU. Since that time, we performed this procedure in 122 patients with prostate cancer; cryoablation was primary treatment in 110 patients and was used as salvage treatment in 12 patients. In most cases, the operation was performed under epidural or spinal anesthesia. According to the protocol, all the patients underwent 2 cycles of freezing and thawing under transrectal ultrasound guidance. A significant improvement of equipment for cryosurgery, the use of cryoneedles with smaller diameter, and the use of temperature sensors and catheters to warm the urethral mucosa have allowed to minimize the number of complications in comparison with other methods of treatment of

  8. Follow-up after treatment for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisler, Jeffrey; Chaput, Genevieve; Sussman, Jonathan; Ozokwelu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To offer FPs a summary of evidence-based recommendations to guide their follow-up survivorship care of women treated for breast cancer. Quality of evidence A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016 using the search words breast cancer, survivorship, follow-up care, aftercare, guidelines, and survivorship care plans, with a focus on review of recent guidelines published by national cancer organizations. Evidence ranges from level I to level III. Main message Survivorship care involves 4 main tasks: surveillance and screening, management of long-term effects, health promotion, and care coordination. Surveillance for recurrence involves only annual mammography, and screening for other cancers should be done according to population guidelines. Management of the long-term effects of cancer and its treatment addresses common issues of pain, fatigue, lymphedema, distress, and medication side effects, as well as longer-term concerns for cardiac and bone health. Health promotion emphasizes the benefits of active lifestyle change in cancer survivors, with an emphasis on physical activity. Survivorship care is enhanced by the involvement of various health professionals and services, and FPs play an important role in care coordination. Conclusion Family physicians are increasingly the main providers of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer should be viewed as a chronic medical condition even in women who remain disease free, and patients benefit from the approach afforded other chronic conditions in primary care. PMID:27737976

  9. Sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment: a 15-year monocentric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, P; Saias-Magnan, J; Jouve, E; Grillo, J M; Karsenty, G; Metzler-Guillemain, C; Perrin, J

    2012-03-01

    Sperm banking is an important procedure to preserve fertility before cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyse cryopreservation activity retrospectively for 1080 patients referred to the sperm bank for sperm cryopreservation before cancer treatment. This study included 1007 patients diagnosed with testicular cancer (TC) (41.7%), lymphoma (26%), other haematological cancers (9.4%) or other types of cancer (22.8%); of these, 29 patients did not produce any semen sample and cryopreservation was impossible for 67 patients. Semen characteristics before treatment were within normal ranges, except moderate asthenospermia. Sperm concentration was significantly lower in TC than in non-TC. Straws from 57 patients (6.3%) were used in assisted reproductive technologies, which led to a 46.8% cumulative birth rate. Straws were destroyed for 170 patients (18.7%) and 140 patients performed semen analyses after cancer therapy. After an average delay of 22.5 months after the end of therapy, 43 patients (30.7%) exhibited azoospermia. This study of a large population of cancer patients revealed a high level of successful sperm storage. Utilization of cryopreserved spermatozoa led to good chances of fatherhood. Nevertheless, sperm banks should be aware of the low rates of straw use and straw destruction by cancer patients.

  10. Cancer stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, G J

    2005-12-01

    Malignant tumours intrinsic to the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most difficult of neoplasms to treat effectively. The major biological features of these tumours that preclude successful therapy include their cellular heterogeneity, which renders them highly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the propensity of the component tumour cells to invade, diffusely, the contiguous nervous tissues. The tumours are classified according to perceived cell of origin, gliomas being the most common generic group. In the 1970s transplacental administration of the potent neurocarcinogen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), enabled investigation of the sequential development of brain and spinal neoplasms by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The significance of the primitive cells of the subependymal plate in cellular origin and evolution of a variety of glial tumours was thereby established. Since then, the development of new cell culture methods, including the in vitro growth of neurospheres and multicellular tumour spheroids, and new antigenic markers of stem cells and glial/neuronal cell precursor cells, including nestin, Mushashi-1 and CD133, have led to a reappraisal of the histological classification and origins of CNS tumours. Moreover, neural stem cells may also provide new vectors in exciting novel therapeutic strategies for these tumours. In addition to the gliomas, stem cells may have been identified in paediatric tumours including cerebellar medulloblastoma, thought to be of external granule cell neuronal derivation. Interestingly, while the stem cell marker CD133 is expressed in these primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuronal/glial 2 (NG2), which appears to denote increased proliferative, but reduced migratory activity in adult gliomas, is rarely expressed. This is in contrast to the situation in the histologically similar supratentorial PNETs. A possible functional 'switch' between

  11. [Streamlined treatment pathway for a colorectal cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Arto; Ristamäki, Raija; Keränen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    The organization of colorectal cancer patient treatment, the pathway, is an important component of the quality of care of a large patient group as nearly 3000 colorectal cancer patients are diagnosed and treated annually in Finland. By designing and describing the whole pathway, the more streamlined approach can be made and thus improve patient care. Multidisciplinary team work between colorectal surgeons, oncologists, pathologists and radiologists is flexible team work, having been proven to improve overall treatment results. This method of working together is also a good tool for the development of the pathway to a better organized treatment. PMID:27483633

  12. Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Sara Y; Ulrich, Uwe A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has been a cornerstone in the management of this malignancy for more than 100 years. Today, for early-stage and low-risk cervical cancer, surgery is still considered the gold standard. If the preoperative assessment of the tumor reveals a situation prompting postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy, the latter should be planned as the primary treatment option, being preceded by staging laparoscopy including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. As an alternative to the open approach, the definitive surgical treatment should be either performed laparoscopically, or be laparoscopic-assisted, or laparoscopically robotic-assisted. PMID:27614875

  13. Potential applications of synchrotron radiation to the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although conventional radiotherapy remains to be one of the most useful treatments for cancer, it is not the best strategy to maximize the effects on the tumors and minimize the damage to the surrounding tissues due to its physical and biological characteristics. Synchrotron radiation (SR) with uniquely physical and biological advantages may represent an innovative approach for cancer treatment. In recent years, SR-based photon activation therapy, stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and micro-beam radiation treatment have been developed, and the results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are very promising. It is necessary to understand the physical and radiobiological principle of those novel strategies before the approach is applied to the clinic. In this paper, we summarize the advances of SR in terms of physical, radiobiological advantages and its potential clinical applications. With the successful operation of shanghai synchrotron radiation, good opportunities in China have been provided for investigations on the treatment of cancer with synchrotron radiation. (authors)

  14. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  15. Quality of life in cancer patients with disfigurement due to cancer and its treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandi Arunachalam

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Living with a disfiguring body which is visibly different is not always easy. A sudden change either due to cancer or its treatment or due to side effects leads to significant social maladjustment, elevated anxiety, depression, and poor quality of life among the cancer survivors with body disfigurement which calls for multiprofessional involvement in addressing various psychosocial issues.

  16. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. Updated March 14, 2014. www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html . Accessed March 20, 2016.

  17. The capacity of spiral CT angiography in evaluation of the central pulmonary vascular involvement from central lug cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the capacity of CTA including multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) and volume rendering technique (VRT) in evaluation of the central pulmonary vascular involvement from central lung cancer (CLC), and to compare with transverse image. Methods: In a prospective series, 52 spiral CT examinations were performed on a Picker 6000 scanner for suspected CLC. Contrast medium was injected at a rate of 4 ml/s with a power injector. The scanning delay was 20 seconds. The study volume was from the arch of the aorta to the inferior pulmonary veins done in a single breath-hold, using 3 mm collimation, pitch of 1.0 and reconstructed at 1 mm intervals. 6 patients without CLC were excluded. Three radiologists compared transverse image with CTA (MPR and VR) image in a blind way, and then the findings were compared with the surgical and pathological results. Results: Reconstructed image quality was graded as excellent (50.0%) or good (41.3%), whereas motion-related artifacts led to poor image quality in 8.7% of cases. In evaluating vascular encasement of CLC, CTA was more sensitive (97.3% vs 84.0%), specific (91.1% vs 89.3%), and accurate (94.7% vs 86.3%) than transverse images. The difference in sensitivity and accuracy was statistically significant (χ2 = 7.878, P = 0.005 and χ2 = 5.532, P = 0.019, respectively). Conclusions: CTA is a more useful imaging modality before pneumonectomy, especially in pulmonary artery reconstruction and in extended resection for locally advanced lung cancer particularly when cardiopulmonary bypass is needed

  18. Translational potential of cancer stem cells: A review of the detection of cancer stem cells and their roles in cancer recurrence and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with many clinical implications in most cancer types. One important clinical implication of CSCs is their role in cancer metastases, as reflected by their ability to initiate and drive micro and macro-metastases. The other important contributing factor for CSCs in cancer management is their function in causing treatment resistance and recurrence in cancer via their activation of different signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Hedgehog, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT pathways. Thus, many different therapeutic approaches are being tested for prevention and treatment of cancer recurrence. These may include treatment strategies targeting altered genetic signalling pathways by blocking specific cell surface molecules, altering the cancer microenvironments that nurture cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation of CSCs, immunotherapy based on CSCs associated antigens, exploiting metabolites to kill CSCs, and designing small interfering RNA/DNA molecules that especially target CSCs. Because of the huge potential of these approaches to improve cancer management, it is important to identify and isolate cancer stem cells for precise study and application of prior the research on their role in cancer. Commonly used methodologies for detection and isolation of CSCs include functional, image-based, molecular, cytological sorting and filtration approaches, the use of different surface markers and xenotransplantation. Overall, given their significance in cancer biology, refining the isolation and targeting of CSCs will play an important role in future management of cancer.

  19. LOW RISK PROSTATE CANCER: ACTIVE TREATMENT OR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašković, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The widely used screening for prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen has resulted in identification of potentially lethal prostate cancers at a much more curable stage and has been associated with significant falls in prostate cancer mortality. In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is one of the deadliest malignancies in men, the advent of sensitive diagnostic testing has also resulted in detection of low risk cancers due to the high incidence of latent prostate cancer in aging men and prolonged natural history of the disease. This, in turn, has entailed the problem of cancer overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Approximately 6 times as many men will be diagnosed with the disease as will die from it. Active surveillance appeared as a response to the clearly documented risks of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low risk prostate cancer for localized prostate cancer. It entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with 'curative-intent' treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at an increased risk of disease progression. This approach attempts to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and lost opportunity for cure. A systematic literature review brings current knowledge on the subject.

  20. Breast cancer recurrence: follow up after treatment for primary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hiramanek, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer will affect one in 12 Australian women in their lifetime. After potentially curative treatment, it is usual for patients to be followed up for many years. However, controversies surround follow up, and its value is uncertain.

  1. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer surgery was done. It’s really an elaborate video game, and I would like to show you some of the images from some of our operations. Right here you’re looking at ... thorascopic surgery alone? Absolutely. And you know ...

  2. Selectively targeting estrogen receptors for cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanle, Erin K.; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens regulate growth and development through the action of two distinct estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, which mediate proliferation and differentiation of cells. For decades, ER alpha mediated estrogen signaling has been therapeutically targeted to treat breast cancer, most nota

  3. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today is Dr. Walter Choi who is the director of the lung cancer division of the radiation oncology service. Good morning, Walter? Good morning. How are you? Morning Sam, thank you for coming. I really appreciate that you took time out of your day to come. As an ...

  4. Social comparison and coping with cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R; Botke, G; van den Bergh, F

    2000-01-01

    In the present study scales were developed as indicators of four social comparison processes of respectively identification with others who are either doing better or worse and contrasting one's situation against the situation of either upward or downward comparison others. In a sample of 112 cancer

  5. Telomerase targeting in cancer treatment : new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, MN; de Jong, S; de Vries, EGE; van der Zee, AGJ

    1999-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein expressed in 85% of advanced cancers but not in most somatic cells, compensates for telomeric DNA erosion and as such stabilizes cell immortality. Telomerase inhibition might restore mortality in tumor cells. Recent progress is illustrated in studies on telomerase and

  6. Do cancer and treatment type affect distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, J. M.; Reyners, A. K. L.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J. E. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined differences in distress levels and Distress Thermometer (DT) cutoff scores between different cancer types. The effect of socio-demographic and illness-related variables on distress was also examined. Methods One thousand three hundred fifty patients (response=51%) completed que

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blade come across there. See how nice and clean the staple line is? Yeah. There’s just a ... radiation therapy is is the use of high-energy X-rays that preferentially kill cancer cells with ...

  8. Identification of treatments targeting PMLexpressing breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Insausti Urkia, Naroa

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to find a suitable ATO concentration to combine with already approved chemotherapeutic agents to find that synergistic effect in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB 231 cell line, as a new strategy to treat the disease.

  9. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical doctor, you know, with an abnormal chest X-ray. As you know, the suspicion of lung cancer, ... to reach a diagnosis. Once you have abnormal X-ray, I think the next thing to do would ...

  10. A Novel Theranostic Platform for Targeted Cancer Therapy and Treatment Monitoring | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cancer treatment currently relies heavily upon administration of cytotoxic drugs that attack both cancerous and healthy cells due to limited selectivity of drugs. Therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity can be improved by employing a multifunctional drug delivery system that allows targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release and therapeutic effect monitoring. The integration of therapeutic and diagnostic treatments has created a new genre in patient care and personalized medicine termed theranostics. |

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of bronchial arterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of central non-small cell lung cancer%中心型非小细胞肺癌支气管动脉灌注疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫东; 周纯武; 刘德忠; 陈雁; 曾辉英; 李槐

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价经支气管动脉灌注(BAI)治疗中心型非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)的价值.方法 58例影像学判断手术切除难度较大或不能手术切除的中心型NSCLC患者行BAI治疗,其中鳞癌51例,腺癌6例,腺鳞癌1例.BAI前临床分期为Ⅱb期3例,Ⅲa期26例,Ⅲb期29例.结果 BAI后,31例患者获得根治性手术切除机会.未行手术切除的27例患者中,8例行放射治疗,2例行放化疗,1例行全身化疗,其余16例仅对症支持治疗.BAI总有效率为43.1%.58例患者中,53例患者BAI后发生Ⅰ、Ⅱ度胃肠道反应,24例患者出现低热.58例患者的中位生存时间为29.1个月.BAI后行根治性切除患者的中位生存时间为65.2个月,而未行手术切除者的中位生存时间为15.9个月,二者之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).Ⅲa期患者中位生存时间为39.0个月,Ⅲb期患者中位生存时间为20.4个月,差异有统计学意义(P=0.042).结论 BAI用于治疗估计手术切除有困难、不伴有远处转移的中心型NSCLC疗效确切.%Objective To evaluate the long-term efficacy of bronchial arterial infusion (BAI)chemotherapy in the treatment of centeral non-small cell lung cancer.Methods Fifty-eight patients with central non-small-cell lung cancer, who were assessed as difficult operable or non-operable by imaging examination, received BAI of cisplatin, epirubicin and mitomycin alone or in combination.It includes 51cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 6 cases of adenocarcinoma and 1 case of adenosquamous carcinoma.The cinical stage before BAI was Ⅱ b in 3 cases, Ⅲa in 26 cases and Ⅲb in 29 cases.Long term follow-up was conducted and the results were statistically analyzed.Results The total effective rate of BAI was 43.1%.The mediam survival (MS) of all 58 patients was 29.1 months.31 patients after BAI became operable and were rasected, had a median survival of 65.2 months.27 patients after BAI were not resected and had a MS of 15.9 months.There was a significant

  12. The Treatment of Breast Cancer Using Liposome Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposome-based chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of breast cancer can in principle enhance the therapeutic index of otherwise unencapsulated anticancer drugs. This is partially attributed to the fact that encapsulation of cytotoxic agents within liposomes allows for increased concentrations of the drug to be delivered to the tumor site. In addition, the presence of the phospholipid bilayer prevents the encapsulated active form of the drug from being broken down in the body prior to reaching tumor tissue and also serves to minimize exposure of the drug to healthy sensitive tissue. While clinically approved liposome-based chemotherapeutics such as Doxil have proven to be quite effective in the treatment of breast cancer, significant challenges remain involving poor drug transfer between the liposome and cancerous cells. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements made in the development of liposome-based chemotherapeutics with respect to improved drug transfer for use in breast cancer therapy.

  13. Understanding the benefit of metformin use in cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Pamela J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biguanides have been developed for the treatment of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. Recently, metformin, the most widely prescribed biguanide, has emerged as a potential anticancer agent. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical evidence supports the use of metformin as a cancer therapeutic. The ability of metformin to lower circulating insulin may be particularly important for the treatment of cancers known to be associated with hyperinsulinemia, such as those of the breast and colon. Moreover, metformin may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cells by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and protein synthesis. The evidence supporting a role for metformin in cancer therapy and its potential molecular mechanisms of action are discussed.

  14. Treatment of advanced rectal cancer after renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yi Liu; Xiao-Bo Liang; Yao-Ping Li; Yi Feng; Dong-Bo Liu; Wen-Da Wang

    2011-01-01

    Renal transplantation is a standard procedure for end-stage renal disease today. Due to immunosuppressive drugs and increasing survival time after renal trans-plantation, patients with transplanted kidneys carry an increased risk of developing malignant tumors. In this case report, 3 patients with advanced rectal can-cer after renal transplantation for renal failure were treated with anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection plus total mesorectal excision, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. One patient eventually died of metastasized cancer 31 mo after therapy, although his organ grafts functioned well until his death. The other 2 patients were well during the 8 and 21 mo follow-up periods after rectal resection. We therefore strongly argue that patients with advanced rectal cancer should receive standard oncology treatment, including opera-tion and adjuvant treatment after renal transplantation. Colorectal cancer screening in such patients appears justified.

  15. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2011-01-01

    treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms......Abstract Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data...... from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement...

  16. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  17. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  18. Oncolytic Viruses in the Treatment of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle G. Potts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder carcinoma is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Up to 85% of patients with bladder cancer are diagnosed with a tumor that is limited to the bladder mucosa (Ta, T1, and CIS. These stages are commonly termed as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. Although the treatment of NMIBC has greatly improved in recent years, there is a need for additional therapies when patients fail bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG and chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that bladder cancer may be an ideal target for oncolytic viruses engineered to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells leaving normal cells unharmed. In support of this hypothesis, here we review current treatment strategies for bladder cancer and their shortcomings, as well as recent advancements in oncolytic viral therapy demonstrating encouraging safety profiles and antitumor activity.

  19. Botanical Agents for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian W. Millsop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are common neoplasms worldwide and are the most common cancers in the United States. Standard therapy for cutaneous neoplasms typically involves surgical removal. However, there is increasing interest in the use of topical alternatives for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly superficial variants. Botanicals are compounds derived from herbs, spices, stems, roots, and other substances of plant origin and may be used in the form of dried or fresh plants, extracted plant material, or specific plant-derived chemicals. They possess multiple properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties and are, therefore, believed to be possible chemopreventive agents or substances that may suppress or reverse the process of carcinogenesis. Here, we provide a review of botanical agents studied for the treatment and prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancers.

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-associated Oral Cancers and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, N; Wang, X; Yuan, Y

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be associated with several types of human cancer, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and head-and-neck cancers. Among these cancers, HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers, inclusive of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC), have recently risen dramatically in men under 50 years old. Within 20 years, the percentage of HPV-positive OSCC in total OSCC went from less than 20% to more than 70% in the United States and some European countries. This article reviews the incidence trend and pathogenesis of HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers as well as current treatment modalities for the disease.

  1. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: General Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved survival rates among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma over the past few decades have come with increased incidence of second malignancies. One of the major concerns among female survivors is the significantly elevated risk of breast cancer that appears with extended follow-up. In this review, we include the published literature regarding the risk of breast cancer after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. We also present the possible long-term surveillance strategies and the optimal time to start screening these women. This could potentially help in early detection of secondary breast cancers and consequently improve outcomes. Furthermore, because of prior radiotherapy, the management of the breast cancer among this unique population has been controversial. We discuss the characteristics of breast cancer that occurs after Hodgkin's lymphoma and also treatment options that could be implemented

  2. Recent Progress in Cancer-Related Lymphedema Treatment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shaitelman, Simona F; Cromwell, Kate D.; Rasmussen, John C.; Stout, Nicole L; Armer, Jane M.; Lasinski, Bonnie B.; Cormier, Janice N

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer-related lymphedema. Lymphedema incidence by tumor site is evaluated. Measurement techniques and trends in patient education and treatment are also summarized to include current trends in therapeutic and surgical treatment options as well as longer-term management. Finally, an overview of the policies related to insurance coverage and reimbursement will give the clinician an overv...

  3. CURRENT TREATMENTS FOR UROTHELIAL CANCER OF THE UPPER URINARY TRACT

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Afonin; M. I. Volkova; V. B. Matveev

    2014-01-01

    TNephroureterectomy is by right considered to be the gold standard for treatment in patients with urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract. Nevertheless, various surgical treatments are now being intensively developed and introduced into clinical practice and a possibility of using adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also being studied. The review summarizes data on various methods of treatment, its efficiency, long-term results and prognosis.

  4. Treatment of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer in Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Eila C

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in older patients is challenging. Definitive therapy of localized disease requires either surgery or radiation therapy, ideally combined with systemic chemotherapy. However, current population data suggest that less than half of patients older than age 70 are offered such treatments. We will review tools available to assess the fitness of older patients for surgery, alternatives, and tips for perioperative patient treatment.

  5. Systemic treatment for hereditary cancers: a 2012 update

    OpenAIRE

    Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Byrski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The history of specific therapy for hereditary tumors dates back to mid 1980s and involves a number of reports demonstrating regression of familial colon polyps upon administration of sulindac. Virtually no clinical studies on other hereditary cancer types were available until the year 2009, when Byrski et al. presented the data on unprecedented sensitivity of BRCA1-associated breast malignancies to cisplatin. This breakthrough has revived interest to the treatment of cancer in germ-line muta...

  6. The Multifaceted Role of Curcumin in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Grishma Rane; Madhu Mathi Kanchi; Frank Arfuso; Arunachalam Chinnathambi; Zayed, M. E.; Sulaiman Ali Alharbi; Benny K. H. Tan; Alan Prem Kumar; Gautam Sethi

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment modalities over the last decade, neither the incidence of the disease nor the mortality due to cancer has altered in the last thirty years. Available anti-cancer drugs exhibit limited efficacy, associated with severe side effects, and are also expensive. Thus identification of pharmacological agents that do not have these disadvantages is required. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric (Curcumin longa), is one such agent that has bee...

  7. Insomnia and its Treatment in Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentino, Lavinia; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    Insomnia is a common complaint in breast cancer patients and has been shown to have a host of psychological and medical correlates and consequences. Typically insomnia is treated pharmacologically, however more recent findings from randomized controlled clinical trials support the use of cognitive behavioral therapies. The aim of this article is to review the empirically supported breast cancer literature on insomnia, briefly present and explain the insomnia treatment options available, and e...

  8. Investigational Agents in Development for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Westin, Shannon N.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Coleman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Although significant success has been achieved in the treatment of advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer, there is clearly room for improvement. The use of targeted agents in this patient population has the promise to provide improved survival and quality of life. There are a myriad of relevant pathways under exploration in all settings of ovarian cancer. Clinical trial data are accumulating for antiangiogenic therapy, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-specific inhibitors an...

  9. Access to treatment and educational inequalities in cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Jon H. Fiva; Hægeland, Torbjørn; Rønning, Marte; Syse, Astri

    2014-01-01

    The public health care systems in the Nordic countries provide high quality care almost free of charge to all citizens. However, social inequalities in health persist. Previous research has, for example, documented substantial educational inequalities in cancer survival. We investigate to what extent this may be driven by differential access to and utilization of high quality treatment options. Quasi-experimental evidence based on the establishment of regional cancer wards indicates that i) h...

  10. Acess to Treatment and Educational Inequalities in Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Jon H. Fiva; Haegeland, Torbjørn; Rønning, Marte; Syse, Astri

    2013-01-01

    The public health care systems in the Nordic countries provide high quality care almost free of charge to all citizens. However, social inequalities in health persist. Previous research has, for example, documented substantial educational inequalities in cancer survival. We investigate to what extent this may be driven by differential access to and utilization of high quality treatment options. Quasi-experimental evidence based on the establishment of regional cancer wards indicates that i) h...

  11. Pain in Breast Cancer Treatment: Aggravating Factors and Coping Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy; Livia Maria Pereira de Godoy; Stelamarys Barufi; José Maria Pereira de Godoy

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate pain in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema and the characteristics of aggravating factors and coping mechanisms. The study was conducted in the Clinica Godoy, São Jose do Rio Preto, with a group of 46 women who had undergone surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. The following variables were evaluated: type and length of surgery; number of radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions; continued feeling of the removed breast (phantom limb), i...

  12. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chinembiri, Tawona N; Du Plessis, Lissinda H.; Minja Gerber; Hamman, Josias H.; Jeanetta du Plessis

    2014-01-01

    Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melano...

  13. Breast cancer treatment and sexual dysfunction: Moroccan women's perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This exploratory prospective study evaluated women's responses to questions that asked them to describe how their body image and sexual functioning had changed since their breast cancer diagnosis to treatment. Methods A questionnaire concerning body image scale and various sexual problems experienced after diagnosis and treatment was anonymously completed by 120 women in the outpatient clinic of our hospital's Division of medical Oncology. To be eligible, subjects had to be sexually active and had histology proven breast cancer. They also had to have received treatment for breast cancer. Results 100% of participants have never spoken with their doctor about this subject. 84% of the participants continued sexual activity after treatment, but there was an increase in the incidence of sexual functioning problems which resulted in a slight reduction in the quality of their sex lives. 65% of the women experienced dyspareunia followed by lubrication difficulties (54% and the absence or reduction of sexual desire (48% and 64%, respectively while, 37% had lack of satisfaction (37%. Female orgasmic disorder and brief intercourse and arousal were reported respectively by 40% and 38% of the subjects. The sexual dysfunctions were absent before diagnosis and management of breast cancer in 91.5% subjects and of these 100% subjects complained of a deterioration of the symptomatology after the various treatments. 90% of the dysfunctions were observed after chemotherapy, 9% after surgery and 3% after radiotherapy; none of the subjects indicated the onset of dysfunctions to have been associated with hormonotherapy. 100% expressed not having received sufficient information about how the disease and treatment (including surgery might affect their sexual life. Conclusion Breast cancer and its treatment may result in significant difficulties with sexual functioning and sexual life. Addressing these problems is essential to improve the quality of

  14. New strategy for diagnosis and treatment of gynecological cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Jing-he

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the 21st century medicine is characterized by population problem, the great impact of computer and information technology, the contribution of genetics development to disease prevention and treatment, and the reform of health care system. By 2025, there will be 274 million people over 60 years old and cancer may be the primary killer as well in China. The incidences of cancers of the lung, intestine, and breast are on the rise; the incidence of cervical cancer is decreasing in developed countries while increasing in developing ones.

  15. Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kah Poh; Mohile, Supriya G; Kessler, Elizabeth; Fung, Chunkit

    2016-10-01

    The aging of the population, along with rising life expectancy, means that increasing numbers of older men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and a large proportion of these men will present with metastatic disease. In this paper, we discuss recent advances in prostate cancer treatment. In particular, we review management approaches for older patients with metastatic prostate cancer based on the decision tree developed by the International Society of Geriatric Oncology, which categorized older men as "fit," "vulnerable," and "frail" according to comprehensive geriatric assessment. PMID:27586377

  16. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moataz Ehab,1 Mohamad Elbaz2,31Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy School, Helwan University, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. Each year, thousands die either because of disease progression or failure of treatment. Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes based on the molecular expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. These receptors represent important therapeutic targets either through monoclonal antibodies or through small-molecule inhibitors directed toward them. However, up to 40% of patients develop either a primary or a secondary resistance to the current treatments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for investigating new targets in order to overcome the resistance and/or enhance the current therapies. Cell cycle is altered in many human cancers, especially in breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, especially CDK4 and CDK6, play a pivotal role in cell cycle progression that makes them potential targets for new promising therapies. CDK inhibition has shown strong antitumor activities, ranging from cytostatic antiproliferative effects to synergistic effects in combination with other antitumor drugs. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the first-generation CDK inhibitors, recently, new CDK inhibitors have emerged that are more selective to CDK4 and CDK6 such as palbociclib, which is the most advanced CDK4/6 inhibitor in trials. In preclinical studies, palbociclib has shown a very promising antitumor activity, especially against ERα+ breast cancer subtype. Palbociclib has gained world attention, and US the Food and Drug Administration has accelerated its approval for first-line treatment in combination with letrozole for the first-line systematic

  17. Maximizing outcomes in genitourinary cancers across the treatment continuum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, John M

    2011-04-01

    Key controversies concerning the management of genitourinary cancers across the treatment continua were discussed at the second annual Interactive Genitourinary Cancer Conference (IGUCC) held in February 2010 in Athens, Greece. Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer among western men and prevention strategies are needed. Trials evaluating 5α-reductase inhibitors have reported beneficial and clinically meaningful results, but uptake remains low for primary prostate cancer prevention. Prostate cancer detection programmes are also important as curative treatments for advanced disease are unavailable. Two large landmark randomized controlled trials reported conflicting results concerning screening efficacy and uncovered high levels of over-diagnosis and potential over-treatment. Tailored management strategies after diagnosis are important and predictive markers that distinguish between aggressive and indolent tumours are needed. The majority of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer are clinically localized. Active surveillance of favourable risk patients may be beneficial in the intermediate term, while an integrated approach of multi-modality therapy in patients with adverse features is recommended. The benefits of new technologies such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and robotic prostatectomy have not been established in prospective randomized trials vs current standards of care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to evolving the management of advanced prostate cancer into a chronic disease paradigm. Docetaxel plus prednisone is the standard first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but the optimal timing of chemotherapy initiation has not been addressed in randomized clinical trials. Retrospective analyses suggest that asymptomatic patients with adverse prognostic factors for survival may also benefit from receiving chemotherapy. Bladder cancer is a common malignancy and the

  18. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2002-01-01

    by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance......BACKGROUND: Results from short-term studies of histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists on survival of patients with solid tumours are debatable. In this study the efficacy of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on long-term survival of patients with colorectal cancer was evaluated. METHODS...... curative resection of colorectal cancer and who do not receive perioperative blood transfusion and do not develop postoperative infectious complications....

  19. Survivin, a Promising Gene for Targeted Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsabadi, Fatemeh T; Eidgahi, Mohammad Reza Akbari; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Daneshvar, Nasibeh; Allaudin, Zeenathul Nazariah; Yamchi, Ahad; Shahbazi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Drawbacks of conventional cancer treatments, with lack of specificity and cytotoxicity using current approaches, underlies the necessity for development of a novel approach, gene-directed cancer therapy. This has provided novel technological opportunities in vitro and in vivo. This review focuses on a member of an apoptosis inhibitor family, survivin, as a valuable target. Not only the gene but also its promoter are applicable in this context. This article is based on a literature survey, with especial attention to RNA interference as well as tumor- specific promoter action. The search engine and databases utilized were Science direct, PubMed, MEDLINE and Google. In addition to cell-cycle modulation, apoptosis inhibition, interaction in cell-signaling pathways, cancer-selective expression, survivin also may be considered as specific target through its promoter as a novel treatment for cancer. Our purpose in writing this article was to create awareness in researchers, emphasizing relation of survivin gene expression to potential cancer treatment. The principal result and major conclusion of this manuscript are that survivin structure, biological functions and applications of RNA interference systems as well as tumor-specific promoter activity are of major interest for cancer gene therapy. PMID:27644605

  20. Artesunate/amodiaquine malaria treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6-59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5-87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008.

  1. Parental involvement in paediatric cancer treatment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, K; Collier, J; Hewitt, M.; Blake, H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated parents' information needs and involvement in decision-making processes affecting the care of children diagnosed with cancer. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess parental satisfaction in 50 mothers and 16 fathers responsible for 58 children in an English Paediatric Oncology Unit. Parents reported that doctors contributed almost twice as much to the decision-making process as they did, but parental satisfaction was positively correlated with the amount of ...

  2. In Silico Experimental Modeling of Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trisilowati; D. G. Mallet

    2012-01-01

    In silico experimental modeling of cancer involves combining findings from biological literature with computer-based models of biological systems in order to conduct investigations of hypotheses entirely in the computer laboratory. In this paper, we discuss the use of in silico modeling as a precursor to traditional clinical and laboratory research, allowing researchers to refine their experimental programs with an aim to reducing costs and increasing research efficiency. We explain the metho...

  3. Role of chelates in treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Laxmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelates are used in cancer as cytotoxic agent, as radioactive agent in imaging studies and in radioimmunotherapy. Various chelates based on ruthenium, copper, zinc, organocobalt, gold, platinum, palladium, cobalt, nickel and iron are reported as cytotoxic agent. Monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioactive metals such as yttrium-90, indium-111 and iodine-131 are used in radioimmunotherapy. This review is an attempt to compile the use of chelates as cytotoxic drugs and in radioimmunotherapy.

  4. Lipoplatin Treatment in Lung and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fantini

    2011-01-01

    Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteristics. Lipoplatin was shown to be effective in NSCLC both in phase 2 and phase 3 trials, with the same response rate of Cisplatin, a comparable overall survival but less toxicity. A new protocol aiming to elucidate the double capacity of Lipoplatin to act as a chemotherapeutic and angiogenetic agent in triple-negative breast cancer patients is upcoming.

  5. HIFU for palliative treatment of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2011-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a novel non-invasive modality for ablation of various solid tumors including uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, hepatic, renal, breast and pancreatic tumors. HIFU therapy utilizes mechanical energy in the form of a powerful ultrasound wave that is focused inside the body to induce thermal and/or mechanical effects in tissue. Multiple preclinical and non-randomized clinical trials have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HIFU for pa...

  6. Iodine-125 seeds for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Feher, Anselmo; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Nagatomi, Helio R.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Souza, Carla D., E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: czeituni@pobox.co, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: jmoura31@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: hrnagato@ipen.b, E-mail: jemanzoli@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, cancer has become one of the major public health problems. An estimate by the Health Ministry showed that 466,430 people had the disease in the country in 2008. The prostate cancer is the second largest death cause among men. The National Institute of Cancer estimated the occurrence of 50,000 new cases for 2009. Some of these patients are treated with Brachytherapy, using Iodine-125 seeds. By this technique, small seeds with Iodine-125, a radioactive material, are implanted in the prostate. The advantages of radioactive seed implants are the preservation of healthy tissues and organs near the prostate, besides the low rate of impotence and urinary incontinence. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, which belongs to the Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN, established a program for the development of the technique and production of Iodine-125 seeds in Brazil. The estimate for the 125-Iodine seeds demand is of 8,000 seeds/month and the laboratory to be implanted will need this production capacity. The purpose of this paper is to explain the project status and show some data about the seeds used in the country. The project will be divided in two phases: technological development of a prototype and a laboratory implementation for the seeds production. (author)

  7. Heat Shock Proteins, Autoimmunity, and Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K. Calderwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs have been linked to the therapy of both cancer and inflammatory diseases, approaches that utilize contrasting immune properties of these proteins. It would appear that HSP family members Hsp60 and Hsp70, whether from external sources or induced locally during inflammation, can be processed by antigen-presenting cells and that HSP-derived epitopes then activate regulatory T cells and suppress inflammatory diseases. These effects also extend to the HSP-rich environments of cancer cells where elevated HSP concentrations may participate in the immunosuppressive tumor milieu. However, HSPs can also be important mediators of tumor immunity. Due to their molecular chaperone properties, some HSPs can bind tumor-specific peptides and deliver them deep into the antigen-processing pathways of antigen-presenting cells (APCs. In this context, HSP-based vaccines can activate tumor-specific immunity, trigger the proliferation and CTL capabilities of cancer-specific CD8+ T cells, and inhibit tumor growth. Further advances in HSP-based anticancer immunotherapy appear to involve improving the properties of the molecular chaperone vaccines by enhancing their antigen-binding properties and combating the immunosuppressive tumor milieu to permit programming of active CTL capable of penetrating the tumor milieu and specifically targeting tumor cells.

  8. Treatment of Urethral Strictures from Irradiation and Other Nonsurgical Forms of Pelvic Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Iyad Khourdaji; Jacob Parke; Avinash Chennamsetty; Frank Burks

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), photon beam therapy (PBT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryotherapy are noninvasive treatment options for pelvic malignancies and prostate cancer. Though effective in treating cancer, urethral stricture disease is an underrecognized and poorly reported sequela of these treatment modalities. Studies estimate the incidence of stricture from BT to be 1.8%, EBRT 1.7%, combined EBRT and BT 5.2%, an...

  9. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchardy Magnin, Christine; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gérald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival.

  10. Cancer-related fatigue: prevalence, assessment and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common symptoms reported by patients and is defined as the feeling of extraordinary exhaustion associated with a high level of distress, disproportionate to the patients' activity, and is not relieved by sleep or rest. Prevalence rates range from 59 to nearly 100% depending on the clinical status of the cancer. Except for chemotherapy-induced anemia, the mechanisms responsible for CRF are not yet completely understood. Therefore, CRF may be influenced by multiple possible somatic and psychosocial factors. CRF has been shown as either a short-term side effect of adjuvant cancer therapy or a chronic long-term late effect. Compared with other symptoms, such as pain or nausea, CRF is more distressing and often long lasting, with a strong impact on daily living and quality of life. The concept of fatigue has been widely elaborated and operationalized in different dimensions within the last few decades and specific instruments assessing fatigue in cancer populations have been developed. To support patients and alleviate CRF symptoms various treatment strategies are discussed in this article, including information and counseling, enhancement of activities, exercise and sports therapy, psychosocial interventions as well as pharmacological treatment. In most Western countries, treatment of CRF has been identified as a priority for advancing cancer patient care. This article gives an overview of the concept of CRF, its pathogenesis, assessment and treatment strategies. PMID:21831025

  11. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence and mortality rates of cancer are currently on the top of disease pattern and the number is increasing and increasing worldwide. The impact of screening program for early diagnosis has been proved their important roles in the war against cancer because it helps increase the cure rates, decrease the mortality and morbidity rates, and therefore reduces the economic-social burden. Advances in diagnostic imaging techniques, especially the hybrid imaging (X-ray and Nuclear Medicine) such as PET/CT, SPECT/CT, PET/MRI, is important in accurate staging and these help choose the optimized treatment options to prolong survival while improve the quality of life. The treatment outcomes of cancer has certain remarkable advances based on variety of research to modify, promote and strengthen the traditional treatments (surgery-chemotherapy-radiation) such as laparoscopic surgery, combined chemo-regimens, intensity modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, radio surgery, PET/CT simulation, radioactive seeds implant, selective internal radiation therapy, intra-operative radiation therapy, etc. as well as the emerge of new methods such as targeted therapy, immune therapy, radio immunotherapy, proton therapy and heavy ion. Treatment of cancer is now the “individualized treatment” with the advances of biochemistry and histopathology. To achieve the most optimal outcomes, cancer should be approached by a multi professional team including biochemistry, immunology, histopathology, surgical oncology, medical oncology and radiation oncology. (author)

  12. Moving to place: childhood cancer treatment decision making in single-parent and repartnered family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-03-01

    Few researchers have studied how parents from diverse family structures cope with childhood chronic illness. We designed this study to discern the childhood cancer treatment decision-making (TDM) process in these families. Using grounded theory, we interviewed 15 custodial parents, nonresidential parents, and stepparents who had previously made a major treatment decision for their children with cancer. "Moving to place" was the central psychosocial process by which parents negotiated involvement in TDM. Parents moved toward or were moved away from involvement based on parent position in the family (custodial, nonresidential, and stepparent), prediagnosis family dynamics, and time since diagnosis. Parents used the actions of stepping up, stepping back, being pushed, and stepping away to respond to the need for TDM. Parents faced additional stressors because of their family situations, which affected the TDM process. Findings from this study provide important insight into diverse families and their unique parental TDM experiences.

  13. What does cancer treatment look like in consumer cancer magazines? An exploratory analysis of photographic content in consumer cancer magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Selene G; Della, Lindsay J; Sohn, Steve H

    2011-04-01

    In an exploratory analysis of several highly circulated consumer cancer magazines, the authors evaluated congruency between visual images of cancer patients and target audience risk profile. The authors assessed 413 images of cancer patients/potential patients for demographic variables such as age, gender, and ethnicity/race. They compared this profile with actual risk statistics. The images in the magazines are considerably younger, more female, and more White than what is indicated by U.S. cancer risk statistics. The authors also assessed images for visual signs of cancer testing/diagnosis and treatment. Few individuals show obvious signs of cancer treatment (e.g., head scarves, skin/nail abnormalities, thin body types). Most images feature healthier looking people, some actively engaged in construction work, bicycling, and yoga. In contrast, a scan of the editorial content showed that nearly two thirds of the articles focus on treatment issues. To explicate the implications of this imagery-text discontinuity on readers' attention and cognitive processing, the authors used constructs from information processing and social identity theories. On the basis of these models/theories, the authors provide recommendations for consumer cancer magazines, suggesting that the imagery be adjusted to reflect cancer diagnosis realities for enhanced message attention and comprehension.

  14. [Research Progress of EGFR-TKI Therapy for Patients with Central Nervous System 
Metastases from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinghua; Xin, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Approximately half of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop central nervous system metastases during the course of their disease which indicate poor prognosis. A part of NSCLC patients demonstrates activating epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutations who represent effectiveness and well tolerance of EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy. Although the systemic efficacy of targeted agents is established, the efficacy of central nervous system (CNS) metastases is not as well characterized. In this article, we review recent data on the use of EGFR inhibitors for treatment of patients with NSCLC and CNS metastases. PMID:27561797

  15. Breast cancer in Brazil: epidemiology and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio AP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adma Poliana Cecilio,1 Erika Tomie Takakura,1 Jaqueline Janaina Jumes,1 Jeane Wilhelm dos Santos,1 Ana Cristina Herrera,2 Vanessa Jacob Victorino,3 Carolina Panis11Laboratory of Inflammatory Mediators, State University o West Paraná, UNIOESTE, Campus Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil; 2Pontifícia Universidade Católica (PUC, Campus Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; 3School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University (FM-USP, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Notwithstanding the advances in tumor research, diagnosis, and treatment, breast cancer is still a challenge worldwide. This global burden of disease has been associated with population aging and the persistence of cancer-related behaviors. The number of women diagnosed with breast cancer has been estimated as increasing, especially in middle-income countries such as Brazil. Estimates from the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA point to breast cancer as the major malignant neoplasia in Brazilian women and the main cause of death from cancer in the country. This fact has been associated with increased life expectancy, urbanization, and cancer-related behaviors. Given this scenario, it is clear that there is a need for identifying and discussing which factors have substantially contributed to this growing number of cases in Brazil, including access to treatment, prevention and early diagnosis, weaknesses of the local health policy, and intrinsic genetic peculiarities of the Brazilian population. This review aims to address the role of such factors.Keywords: breast cancer, treatment, prevention, epidemiology, Brazil, cancer screening, mammograms, health policies

  16. Advances in the surgical treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; He, Qiang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Hong-Yuan; Ren, Guo-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer has become the top malignant neoplasm in Chinese women with an increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. As a crucial part of comprehensive treatment of breast cancer, breast surgical technique is ceaselessly ameliorating and enriching its features. With the purpose of achieving minimal surgical intervention and satisfactory cosmetic results, the trend of mammary surgery is focusing on minimally invasive treatment and aesthetics in the 21st century. This article gives an overview of the most representative surgical procedures, such as breast conservative surgery, sentinel lymph node dissection, oncoplastic technique and breast reconstructive surgery. PMID:27265302

  17. Treatment of 28 Girl's Idiopathic Central Sexual Precocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立础; 张宇; 黄建婷

    2001-01-01

    @@Twenty-eight girls suffering from idiopathic central sexual precocity were treated by integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine (TCM-WM), and compared with 16 girls treated with Leuprorelin acetate. METHODS Clinical Data According to the diagnostic standard proposed in "Pratical Pediatrics" (ZHU Fu-tang edit. 6th ed. People's Health Publishing House. 1996∶1915), 44 patients of true sexual precocity, who had pubertal development before they were 8 years old were selected. Cranial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) checking showed that the hypophysis of them were all normal on its sagittal plane and coronal plane. Hormone provocative test showed that the peak value of gonadal hormones in them, including follicule stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2), were all above the normal range. And no disease of heart, liver, kidney, adrenal or thyroid was found. By Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, their Syndrome belonged to Yin-deficiency and Fire-hyperactivity type, chiefly manifesting as red tongue, irritation, thirsty and constipation.

  18. A Study on the Knowledge, Perception, and Use of Breast Cancer Screening Methods and Quality of Care Among Women from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castillo, Andrea B; Hernández-Valero, María A; Hovick, Shelly R; Campuzano-González, Martha Elva; Karam-Calderón, Miguel Angel; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Studies on health behaviors have observed several barriers to breast cancer screening, including lack of breast cancer knowledge, distrust of health care providers, and long waiting times to be screened or to receive screening results. We conducted a nested case-control study among a subsample of 200 women 21 years of age and older [100 patients (cases)], who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, and 100 controls, who were screened and found to be free of breast cancer), all residing in the Toluca metropolitan area in central Mexico. We examined how knowledge of breast cancer screening guidelines, perceptions of screening methods, and quality of health care influenced the use of breast cancer screening among study participants. Our study found that the most important factor associated with the decision to have breast cancer screenings was having a positive perception of the quality of care provided by the local health care centers, such as having competent clinic personnel, sufficient screening equipment, and reasonable waiting times to receive screening and to receive the screening results. Therefore, individual health care centers need to focus on the patients' perception of the services received by optimizing the care provided and, in so doing, increase the rates of early diagnosis and reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer as well as its associated treatment costs.

  19. Treatment results in males with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakisch, B. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Stoeger, H. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Poschauko, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Samonigg, H. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Bauernhofer, T. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Pojer, E. [Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Leitner, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Stuecklschweiger, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Peichl, K.H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, F. [Dept. of Statistics and Documentation, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria); Hackl, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Karl Franzens Univ. of Graz (Austria)

    1995-08-01

    Because cancer of the male breast is rare knowledge about its biology and behavior is essentially due to a compilation of pooled experiences. Hence, a continued report of cases appears to be important. Therefore a retrospective review of patients suffering from male breast cancer was carried out. Twenty-four evaluable cases were analyzed. Eight patients (1 patient with bilateral Stage I carcinoma was included) were in Stage I, 7 in Stage II, 2 in Stage IIIa, 4 in Stage IIIb, and 3 in Stage IV. Of 23 patients who were treated with mastectomy, 22 had modified radical mastectomy and postoperative irradiation to the chest wall as well as to the peripheral lymphatic areas in most cases. One patient underwent radical mastectomy. Another patient had an excision biopsy only, followed by irradiation. One of 24 patients received tamoxifen; another received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, prednisone (CMF) regimen in an adjuvant setting. Local recurrence developed in one of 23 (4%) patients treated with mastectomy and radiation therapy to the chest wall and peripheral lymphatics. Four (17%) patients developed distant metastases. The 5-year overall survival (Kaplan-Maier) was 90% for the entire group, 100% for patients in Stage I-III disease, and 60% in Stage IV disease (P = < 0.005). As observed in former reports the stage of disease at initial presentation seems to be a parameter that significantly contributes to survival in male breast cancer patients. To what extent improved local control by adequate local therapy, such as surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, may improve overall survival remains to be discussed. (orig.)

  20. COMBINED TREATMENT OF LOCALLY-ADVANCED BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chernyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC is an important clinical and scientific challenge. In 2013, in Russia, the absolute number of patients with first-ever diagnosis of bladder cancer was 12 992 people. There is an increasing proportion of detection of bladder cancer stage I–II disease patterns: 2003–50.8% in 2013–69.6%, while the number of newly diagnosed patients in III and IV clinical stages remains at 30%. The proportion of individuals who completed the treatment of the number of newly diagnosed patients with bladder cancer in 2013, was as follows: only surgical method — 65.4%, 33.5% combined. Purpose. Improvement of the results of treatment of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. Materials and methods. The main treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy. In the combined treatment of bladder cancer chemotherapy is the component that systemic exposure to the tumor, the way of regional and distant metastases. The study included 132 patients with locally advanced bladder cancer who were treated for 2005–2013, divided into four groups: NACT + CE — 27 people (20.5%, CE + ACT — 21 (15.9%, NACT + CE + ACT — 21 (15.9% only CE — 63 (47.7%. An important component of treatment has been the use of platinum (cisplatin or carboplatin in Schemes M–VAC and GP. An objective response is possible in 44.7%, and the stabilization process in 40.4% of patients.Results. The clinical effect is evaluated in all patients. In the group of NACT 21% of patients survived for more than 4 years, but did not survive the 5‑year mark. In the group of CE + ACT the indicator achieved only 3‑year survival rate, which amounted to 43%. In the group of CE — none of the patients did not live up to 3 years, with 2‑year survival rate was 30%. In the group of ACT + NCT + CE 3 patients (15% were alive at the time, passed the threshold of the 5‑year survival rate, there is no progression of cancer.Conclusion. Combined treatment mode NACT

  1. Comparison of clinical efficacy between arterial infusion and embolization with arterial infusion and argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of patients with advanced central type lung cancer%支气管动脉化疗+栓塞与支气管动脉化疗联合氩等离子体治疗晚期中央型肺癌的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芳; 刘玉全; 唐以军; 熊畅; 卢进昌; 刘先军; 刘为舜; 雷怀定; 罗国仕

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨应用支气管动脉化疗联合氩等离子体治疗晚期中央型肺癌的近期疗效.方法 分析比较我院45例晚期中央型肺癌分别行支气管动脉化疗+栓塞与支气管动脉化疗联合氩等离子体治疗疗效差别.结果 支气管动脉化疗联合氩等离子体治疗晚期中央型肺癌组实体瘤缓解率(87.5%)及气道狭窄再通改善率(91.7%)明显优于支气管动脉化疗+栓塞组的57.1%及52.4%,且近期生存质量好.结论 应用支气管动脉化疗联合氩等离子体治疗晚期中央型肺癌近期疗效明显优于支气管动脉化疗+栓塞治疗组,且能提高患者生活质量.%Objective To study the therapeutic effects to combine bronchial arterial chemotherapy with argon plasma coagulation on patients with advanced central type lung cancer. Methods 45 cases with central type lung cancer were collected, including one group treated by bronchial arterial chemotherapy combined with embolization and another group treated by bronchial arterial chemotherapy combined with argon plasma coagulation ( APC ). Results The solid tumor response rate and airway narrowing recanalization rate of improvement in the group treated by bronchial arterial chemotherapy combined with argon plasma coagulation were respectively 87. 5% and 91. 7% , which were significantly higher than the group treated by bronchial arterial chemotherapy combined with embolization, respectively 57. 1 % and 52. 4%. At the same time, the patients treated by bronchial arterial chemotherapy combined with argon plasma coagulation enjoyed better quality of life recently. Conclusion The clinical therapeutic effects of bronchial arterial chemotherapy combined with argon plasma coagulation on patients with advanced stage central type lung cancer is apparently superior comparing with that of bronchial arterial chemotherapy and embolization treatment group. The combined therapy of arterial infusion and APC can improve patients'life quality, thus it

  2. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the water and we ask anesthesia to blow up the lung. And you can see there, ... par for the course. That goes with the treatment that was done. And I’m just building ...

  3. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in order to implement the appropriate and the best treatment for our patients. Sam, what do you ... we make a decision as to what the best approach to making a diagnosis. From the pulmonary ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Laryngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may work better in patients who have stopped smoking before beginning treatment. External radiation therapy to the thyroid or the pituitary gland may change the way the thyroid gland works. The doctor may test the thyroid gland before and after ...

  5. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient different treatment options. Part of the assessment of whether they can be surgical candidates, you ... pulmonary function test, you know, to get an assessment of their lung function, and then make a ...

  6. Minimally Invasive Treatment for Lung Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sam has applied to this technique is an aggressive approach to getting preoperative biopsies and tissue for ... treatment together. Because we have such a close relationship, we’re able to do it in a ...

  7. Simulation of 3D-CRT treatment for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalhofer, Jardel L.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Junior, Juraci R.P., E-mail: jardellt@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rebello, Wilson F., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: samandacristine@uezo.rj.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Edmilson M., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Centro Universitario da Zona Oeste (UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Colegiado de Comutacao e Matematica; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: delano@inca.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, occurs doses deposition in healthy organs. During the treatment planning are calculated some doses due to photons. This dose deposition in healthy organs could induce to the appearance of new cancers foci. The aim of this study was to analyze the equivalent doses in healthy organs of a patient treated by radiotherapy for lung cancer. In order to calculate the doses, was done a computer simulation of radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer, adopting database of the treatment performed by INCA. To perform the simulation was used several tools, among them, the radiation transport code MCNPX, in which was shaped the radiotherapy room and the head from the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C / D, the patient was simulated by Voxel male phantom in Rex,and the treatment protocol adopted considers a beam with energy of 6 MV focusing on three gantry tilt angles (0 deg, 180 deg and 45 deg). In addition, there was variation in the opening of the radiation field according to the angle of inclination. The results of this study point to the organs close to the irradiated area are predominantly affected by the dose due to photons, affecting organs from different body systems, such as esophagus, heart, thymus, spine and lymph nodes. The calculated values demonstrating that the angle of 0 deg was the most responsible for the deposit of unwanted dose. The results showed that the simulations in this paper is developed in accordance with the planning data described in different studies and literature. (author)

  8. Vitamin D in combination cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2010-01-01

    As a steroid hormone that regulates mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism, 1α, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) also has broad spectrum anti-tumor activities as supported by numerous epidemiological and experimental studies. Calcitriol potentiates the anti-tumor activities of multiple chemotherapeutics agents including DNA-damaging agents cisplatin, carboplatin and doxorubicin; antimetabolites 5-fluorouracil, cytarabine, hydroxyurea, cytarabine and gemcitabine; and microtubule-disturbing agents paclitaxel and docetaxel. Calcitriol elicits anti-tumor effects mainly through the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, angiogenesis and the inhibition of cell invasiveness by a number of mechanisms. Calcitriol enhances the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation and certain antioxidants and naturally derived compounds. Inhibition of calcitriol metabolism by 24-hydroxylase promotes growth inhibition effect of calcitriol. Calcitriol has been used in a number of clinical trials and it is important to note that sufficient dose and exposure to calcitriol is critical to achieve anti-tumor effect. Several trials have demonstrated that safe and feasible to administer high doses of calcitriol through intermittent regimen. Further well designed clinical trials should be conducted to better understand the role of calcitriol in cancer therapy. PMID:20842231

  9. Vitamin D in combination cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyu Ma, Donald L. Trump, Candace S. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a steroid hormone that regulates mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism, 1α, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol also has broad spectrum anti-tumor activities as supported by numerous epidemiological and experimental studies. Calcitriol potentiates the anti-tumor activities of multiple chemotherapeutics agents including DNA-damaging agents cisplatin, carboplatin and doxorubicin; antimetabolites 5-fluorouracil, cytarabine, hydroxyurea, cytarabine and gemcitabine; and microtubule-disturbing agents paclitaxel and docetaxel. Calcitriol elicits anti-tumor effects mainly through the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, angiogenesis and the inhibition of cell invasiveness by a number of mechanisms. Calcitriol enhances the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation and certain antioxidants and naturally derived compounds. Inhibition of calcitriol metabolism by 24-hydroxylase promotes growth inhibition effect of calcitriol. Calcitriol has been used in a number of clinical trials and it is important to note that sufficient dose and exposure to calcitriol is critical to achieve anti-tumor effect. Several trials have demonstrated that safe and feasible to administer high doses of calcitriol through intermittent regimen. Further well designed clinical trials should be conducted to better understand the role of calcitriol in cancer therapy.

  10. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference. PMID:27630358

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  12. Clinicopathological classification and individualized treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LIU Yin-hua; XU Ling; ZHAO Jian-xin; DUAN Xue-ning; YE Jing-ming; LI Ting

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinicopathological classification was proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.We conducted a retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,tumor-nodal-metastatic (TNM) staging,and histopathological grade to investigate the value of these parameters in the treatment strategies of invasive breast cancer.Methods A retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,TNM staging,and histopathological grading of 213 cases has been performed by the methods recommended in the St.Gallen International Expert Consensus Report 2011.The estrogen receptor (ER),progesterone receptor (PR),human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2),and Ki-67 of 213 tumor samples have been investigated by immunohistochemistry according to methods for classifying breast cancer subtypes proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.Results The luminal A subtype was found in 53 patients (24.9%),the luminal B subtype was found in 112 patients (52.6%),the HER2-positive subtype was found in 22 patients (10.3%),and the triple-negative subtype was found in 26 patients (12%).Histopathological grade and TNM staging differed significantly among the four subtypes of breast cancer (P<0.001).Conclusion It is important to consider TNM staging and histopathological grading in the treatment strategies of breast cancer based on the current clinicopathological classification methods.

  13. Analytical signals from cancer patients following radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer patients are treated with high energy (8 to 30 MeV) gamma radiation. This treatment modality provides better depth dose distribution than more conventional low-energy gamma treatments, in particular for deeply located tumors. A by-product of the high-energy treatment is gamma-induced activity in the treatment volume following photonuclear reactions. These reactions are endogenic and require that the gamma radiation energy be above threshold value in order for the reaction to take place. For most elements, the threshold value is above 8 MeV; however, for low Z elements, this threshold may reach 18 MeV as is the case for oxygen. The cross sections for the (γ, n) reactions are few millibarns for low Z elements and increases up to few hundreds of millibarns for the heavy elements. The radionuclides resulting from photonuclear reaction are typically positron emitter or decay by electron capture. Thus, it is possible to monitor either the annihilation radiation (511 KeV) or the characteristic gamma radiation. The present work demonstrates that the activity induced in cancer patients following a single treatment (300 rad) enables the monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus in the irradiated volume. The results from measurements in phantom, cadavers, and cancer patients from different regions in the body are presented. The hypothesis to be tested is whether there are local changes in these two elements during the course of radiation treatment which might correlate with the efficacy of the treatment

  14. Filling the gap in central shielding: three-dimensional analysis of the EQD2 dose in radiotherapy for cervical cancer with the central shielding technique

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; NODA, SHIN-EI; Kato, Shingo; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide accurate dose distribution profiles of radiotherapy for cervical cancer when treated with the central shielding technique by analysing the composite 3D EQD2 dose distribution of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). On a phantom, four patterns of the combinations of whole pelvis irradiation (WP) (4 fields), pelvis irradiation with central shielding technique (CS) [anterior–posterior/posterior–anterior (AP-PA fields), shielding w...

  15. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  17. A novel strategy for cancer treatment:Targeting cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia; MA LeiNa; WANG YiGang; LIU XinYuan; QIAN QiJun

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cell/tumor-initiating cell (CSC/TIC) is a subclass of cancer cells possessing parts of properties of normal stem cell. It has a high capacity of proliferation and plays a pivotal role in tumor recurrence and tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At present, small molecule in-hibitors and fusion proteins are widely used in the CSC-targeting strategy. Gene-virotherapy, which uses oncolytic adenovirus as a vector to mediate the expression of therapeutic gene, shows a signifi-cant superiority to other regimens of cancer treatment and has a good efficacy in the treatment of solid tumors. Thus, it is a promising choice to apply gene-virotherapy into the CSC-targeting treatment. Based on the molecular mechanism underlying CSC self-renewal, a series of effective strategies for targeting CSC have been established. This review will summarize the recent research progresses on CSC-targeting treatment.

  18. RECURRENT ORAL AND OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER: CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaderenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant oral tumors account for 6 % in the total cancer incidence. The rate of recurrent tumors ranges from 25 to 50 %. About 80 % of patients with failed treatment are to undergo radiation, chemoradiation, or drug therapy. After retreatment, severe complications occur in more than half of the patients even to death (2 %. Some progress has been made in the treatment of recurrent tumors due to the current possibilities of surgical treatment. Surgical reintervention can be made and satisfactory treatment results obtained in a number of patients even if they develop recurrent tumor after a previous saving operation.

  19. RECURRENT ORAL AND OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER: CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaderenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant oral tumors account for 6 % in the total cancer incidence. The rate of recurrent tumors ranges from 25 to 50 %. About 80 % of patients with failed treatment are to undergo radiation, chemoradiation, or drug therapy. After retreatment, severe complications occur in more than half of the patients even to death (2 %. Some progress has been made in the treatment of recurrent tumors due to the current possibilities of surgical treatment. Surgical reintervention can be made and satisfactory treatment results obtained in a number of patients even if they develop recurrent tumor after a previous saving operation.

  20. Bevacizumab in the treatment of HER2-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Lorusso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Vito LorussoOncologic Institute, Vito Fazzi Hospital, Lecce, ItalyAbstract: Angiogenesis has a clear and definite role in the breast cancer progression process, making antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapies an attractive option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC. Bevacizumab is a potent humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF, which has shown regression of breast cancer in preclinical and clinical setting, either alone or in combination with cytotoxic treatment. Additionally, bevacizumab potentially increases the effectiveness of other anticancer therapies through the normalization of tumor vasculature, reduction of intratumoral pressure and improved tumor oxygenation. Phase 1/2 trials showed significant antitumor effects of bevacizumab in MBC, in particular in tumors not expressing HER2 receptor. A first phase 3 trial in pre-treated MBC patients showed better response rates but no survival benefit from the addition of bevacizumab to capecitabine. However, in two phase 2 trial in first-line setting in patients with MBC, bevacizumab improved progression-free survival in combination with weekly paclitaxel in comparison to paclitaxel alone or in combination with 3-weekly docetaxel in comparison with docetaxel alone, respectively. Bevacizumab in combination with taxanes seems to be a highly effective first-line treatment for MBC patients. Future research will investigate bevacizumab in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting, where even more potential may exist for these patients.Keywords: bevacizumab, breast cancer, HER2, HER2-negative breast cancer

  1. [Consequences of tobacco smoking on lung cancer treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C; Rivera, S; Fabre, E; Pricopi, C; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2016-04-01

    In France, in 2010, tobacco induced 81% of deaths by lung cancer corresponding to about 28,000 deaths. Continued smoking after diagnosis has a significant impact on treatment. In patients with lung cancer, the benefits of smoking cessation are present at any stage of disease. For early stages, smoking cessation decreases postoperative morbidity, reduces the risk of second cancer and improves survival. Previous to surgery, smoking cessation of at least six to eight weeks or as soon as possible is recommended in order to reduce the risk of infectious complications. Tobacco could alter the metabolism of certain chemotherapies and targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the EGF receptor, through an interaction with P450 cytochrome. Toxicity of radiations could be lower in patients with lung cancer who did not quit smoking before treatment. For patients treated by radio-chemotherapy, overall survival seems to be better in former smokers but no difference is observed in terms of recurrence-free survival. For advanced stages, smoking cessation enhances patients' quality of life. Smoking cessation should be considered as full part of lung cancer treatment whatever the stage of disease.

  2. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  3. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewertz, Marianne (Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)); Bonde Jensen, Anders (Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  4. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and familial colorectal cancer in Central part of Iran, Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of data on familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (CRC in Iran. We aimed to deter-mine the frequency of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC and familial colorectal cancer (FCC and to determine the frequency of extracolonic cancers in these families in Isfahan. Methods: We reviewed documents of all patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of CRC admitted to Isfa-han referral hospitals between 1995 and 2006. We also studied our CRC registry at Poursina Hakim Research Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found HNPCC and FCC families based on the Amsterdam II criteria and interviewed them for family history of CRC and extracolonic tumors. The family history was taken at least up to the second-degree relatives. Results: During 1996 to 2008, a total of 2580 CRC cases have been diagnosed. We found 14 HNPCC and 53 FCC families. Mean age of CRC at diagnosis was 48.0 ΁ 14.6 and 49.0 ΁ 13.9 years in the HNPCC and FCC families, re-spectively (p > 0.05. The total numbers of observed extracolonic tumors were 70 (21.6%; mean age = 53.6 ΁ 11.0 years and 157 (13.8%; mean age = 54.8 ΁ 18.0 years in HNPCC and FCC families, respectively (p > 0.05. CRC was respectively found in 52 and 76 members of the HNPCC and FCC families, revealing the frequency of HNPCC and FCC as 2.0% (52/2580 and 2.9% (76/2580, respectively. Conclusions: We found a relative high frequency of HNPCC (2.0% and FCC (2.9% among CRC cases in our socie-ty and high incidence of extracolonic tumors in their families. Further studies focusing on molecular basis in this field and designing a specific screening and national cancer registry program for HNPCC and FCC families should be con-ducted.

  5. Cancer treatment-related cardiac toxicity: prevention, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Ibrahim; Dillon, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Cancer therapies, especially anthracyclines and monoclonal antibodies, have been linked with increased rates of cardiotoxicity. The development of some cardiac side effects happens over several months, and changes in ejection fraction can be detected long before permanent damage or disability occurs. Advanced heart failure could be averted with better and earlier detection. Methodologies for early detection of cardiac changes include stress echocardiograms, cardiac velocity measurements, radionuclide imaging, cardiac MRI and several potential biomarkers. Many agents have been described for prophylaxis of cardiac events precipitated by cancer therapy. Prophylactic use of beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors may be considered for use with trastuzumab in breast cancer as tolerated. Recovery of cardiac function is possible early after the injury from a cancer therapy. Late complications for coronary artery disease, hypertension and arrhythmia are underappreciated. Treatments for severe cancer therapy-related cardiac complications follow the existing paradigms for congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease, although outcomes for cancer patients differ from outcomes for non-cancer patients. PMID:27372782

  6. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  7. Nanomaterials and Autophagy: New Insights in Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Inguscio, Valentina; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta Anna; Carata, Elisabetta; Dini, Luciana, E-mail: luciana.dini@unisalento.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technology (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Lecce 73100 (Italy)

    2013-03-21

    Autophagy represents a cell’s response to stress. It is an evolutionarily conserved process with diversified roles. Indeed, it controls intracellular homeostasis by degradation and/or recycling intracellular metabolic material, supplies energy, provides nutrients, eliminates cytotoxic materials and damaged proteins and organelles. Moreover, autophagy is involved in several diseases. Recent evidences support a relationship between several classes of nanomaterials and autophagy perturbation, both induction and blockade, in many biological models. In fact, the autophagic mechanism represents a common cellular response to nanomaterials. On the other hand, the dynamic nature of autophagy in cancer biology is an intriguing approach for cancer therapeutics, since during tumour development and therapy, autophagy has been reported to trigger both an early cell survival and a late cell death. The use of nanomaterials in cancer treatment to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs and target tumours is well known. Recently, autophagy modulation mediated by nanomaterials has become an appealing notion in nanomedicine therapeutics, since it can be exploited as adjuvant in chemotherapy or in the development of cancer vaccines or as a potential anti-cancer agent. Herein, we summarize the effects of nanomaterials on autophagic processes in cancer, also considering the therapeutic outcome of synergism between nanomaterials and autophagy to improve existing cancer therapies.

  8. COX-2 Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrigo Barboza De Nardi*, Talita Mariana Morata Raposo1, Rafael Ricardo Huppes1, Carlos Roberto Daleck2 and Renée Laufer Amorim3

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the main causes of death in canines and felines, and this fact is probably related to the increase in the longevity of these species. The longer the animals live, the higher the exposure to carcinogenic agents will be. With the high incidence of cancer in companion animals, new studies are currently being performed with the aim of finding therapeutic options which make the complete inhibition of the development of neoplasms in animals possible in the future. The correlation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 whith the development of cancer opens the way for the use of new therapeutic approaches. This relationship has been suggested based on various studies which established an association between the chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and a decrease in the incidence of colon carcinoma. As cancer progresses, COX-2 participates in the arachidonic acid metabolism by synthesizing prostaglandins which can mediate various mechanisms related to cancer development such as: increase in angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis, suppression of the immune response, acquisition of greater invasion capacity and metastasis. Accordingly, overexpression of this enzyme in tumors has been associated with the most aggressive, poor-prognosis cancer types, especially carcinomas. Therefore, treatments which use COX-2 inhibitors such as coxibs, whether administered as single agents or in combination with conventional antineoplastic chemotherapy, are an alternative for extending the survival of our cancer patients.

  9. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  10. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul K. Lall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment.

  11. Cognitive function after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Riis, Jens Østergaard; Engebjerg, Malene Cramer;

    2010-01-01

    start of adjuvant treatment and after 6 months by neuropsychological tests and questionnaires to evaluate cognitive function, quality of life and psychological distress. Neuropsychological tests did not reveal any differences in cognitive function between breast cancer patients after chemotherapy and......The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive function in patients with early breast cancer before and after adjuvant chemotherapy or 6 months of tamoxifen. We performed a population-based study in the county of North Jutland, Denmark, including 120 women aged <60 years who received adjuvant...... chemotherapy with seven cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and fluoruracil or adjuvant tamoxifen for 6 months for early breast cancer from 2004 to 2006. They were compared with an aged-matched group of 208 women without previous cancer selected randomly from the same population. Data were collected before...

  12. Personalized prostate cancer care: from screening to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conran, Carly A; Brendler, Charles B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented progress has been made in genomic personalized medicine in the last several years, allowing for more individualized healthcare assessments and recommendations than ever before. However, most of this progress in prostate cancer (PCa) care has focused on developing and selecting therapies for late-stage disease. To address this issue of limited focus, we propose a model for incorporating genomic-based personalized medicine into all levels of PCa care, from prevention and screening to diagnosis, and ultimately to the treatment of both early-stage and late-stage cancers. We have termed this strategy the "Pyramid Model" of personalized cancer care. In this perspective paper, our objective is to demonstrate the potential application of the Pyramid Model to PCa care. This proactive and comprehensive personalized cancer care approach has the potential to achieve three important medical goals: reducing mortality, improving quality of life and decreasing both individual and societal healthcare costs. PMID:27184548

  13. Clinical experience of double sleeve lobectomy of the bronchus and the pulmonary artery in patients with central lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukang Kuang; Changying Guo; Laiduo Zeng; Dongsheng Wang; Binglin Yin; Jiufa Wu; Jian Huang; Zhisheng He; Jianfeng Zhu; Feng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to introduce the surgical method and evaluate the efficacy of double sleeve lobectomy of the bronchus and the pulmonary artery in treatment for the central lung cancer. Method: From March 1995 to October 2010, double sleeve lobectomy of the bronchus and the pulmonary artery was performed in 45 cases with central lung cancer that involved the bronchial opening of an upper lobe of the lungs or the main bronchus and pulmonary artery but didn't involve any lower lobes. Among them, left upper lobectomy was performed in 37 cases, right medium-upper lobectomy was performed in 6 cases and right upper lobectomy was performed in 2 cases. Results: Postoperative complications were found in 12 cases. Among them, 3 cases were arrhythmia, 1 case was acute heart failure, 6 cases were obstructive pneumonia and pulmonary atelectasis, 2 cases were bronchial anastomotic fistula. Two cases died of cerebral infarction and massive hemoptysis respectively. Thirty-one cases were squamous carcinoma, 7 cases were adenocarcinoma, 4 cases were small cell lung cancer, 1 case was adenosquamous carcinoma, 1 case was sarcomatoid carcinomas, 1 case was mucinous adenocarcinoma. Ten cases were T3N0M0, 11 cases were T3N1M0, 17 cases were T3N2M0, 2 cases were T4N1M0, 5 cases were T4N2M0. The 1-year, 3-year, 5-year survival rates were 84.4% (38/45), 51.7% (15/29), 53.8% (7/13) respectively. Conclusion: The double sleeve lobectomy of the bronchus and the pulmonary artery can maximumly reserve the normal lung tissues while removing tumors, and avoid pneumonectomy. The surgery was safe and effective, while it required a high technique.

  14. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Staging and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Staging and Treatment Past ... Table of Contents Staging The extent (stage) of breast cancer needs to be determined to help choose ...

  15. New treatment option for women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a common breast cancer prevention drug, tamoxifen, in preventing breast cancer recurrence in young women who also receive post-surgical treatment to suppress ovarian funct

  16. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... Factors When you're told that you have skin cancer, it's natural to wonder what may have caused ...

  17. Natural cures for breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazza Shareef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation. This review has centered on the biochemical properties of Allium sativum, Echinacea, Curcuma longa, Arctium lappa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng and Flax seed. Extracts and juices of Withania somnifera, Amoora rohituka, Dysoxylum binectariferum and Vaccinium macrocarpon, respectively also used as anti-breast cancer. The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen the tumor growth and cholesterol synthesis.

  18. Natural cures for breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Munazza; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2016-05-01

    For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. These phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. They either stimulate the protective enzyme like glutathione transferase or prevent the cell proliferation. This review has centered on the biochemical properties of Allium sativum, Echinacea, Curcuma longa, Arctium lappa, Camellia sinensis, Panax ginseng and Flax seed. Extracts and juices of Withania somnifera, Amoora rohituka, Dysoxylum binectariferum and Vaccinium macrocarpon, respectively also used as anti-breast cancer. The volatile oils and extracts of these herbs and plants inhibit the synthesis of mevalonate that lessen the tumor growth and cholesterol synthesis. PMID:27275107

  19. Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

    2005-01-01

    Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF CRYOGENIC TREATMENT FOR TONGUE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tabolinovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic treatment results that have no analogues in Russian and foreign practice were analyzed in 121 patients with tongue cancer. The data on survival rates were used to objectively evaluate the efficiency of tongue cancer cryodestruction in accordance with the extent and pattern of a tumor process. Analysis of long-term (5–30-years results indicated the efficiency of cryodestruction used alone and in combination with radiation and drug therapies in 83.6 % of the new-onset patients and in 73.3 % of the patients with circumscribed recurrences and residual tumors. Recurrent cancer occurred in 19.3 % of 109 patients who had completed treatment: in 16.4 % of the new-onset patients and in 26.7 % of the patients with recurrences and uncured tumors. Local complications from the wound occurred in 6.6 % of the patients and were abolished in the postoperative period.