WorldWideScience

Sample records for central asian manuscript

  1. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  2. Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Delsarte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In these excerpts from a manuscript from the François Delsarte archive, the French author offers us passages from his notebooks, with considerations on the techniques used by singers, especially on degrees and expression. It presents the foundations of his work and offers advices to students. The text explains Delsarte’s viewpoint on inspiration and its role in artistic work. It discusses aspects related to his form of pedagogy in the form of dialogue.

  3. Radioresistance in Central Asian tortoise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Bogdanova-Berezovskaya, I.G.; Dvornikova, L.I.

    Season-related studies were conducted on the phenomenal radioresistance of the Central Asian tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii), in order to obtain greater understanding of the factors that determine this physiological uniqueness. Test animals were exposed to gamma radiation from a Co-60 source with dosages ranging from 12.9 to 25.8 Cl/kg in the spring, summer, fall, and winter. Using Pearson's ..gamma..-distribution coefficient calculations of the mean lethal dose for the season yielded 16.33 Cl/kg for winter, 10.94 Cl/kg for spring, 7.1 Cl/kg for summer, and 19.71 Cl/kg for fall. The animals were thus seen to be most susceptible to radiation damage in the spring and summer. Correlation with histological and hematological studies showed that animals irradiated in spring and summer succumbed as a result of damage to the GI and the hematopoietic systems, whereas animals that died as a result of irradiation during the fall and winter season did so because of depletion of hepatic glycogen stores. 5 references, 1 figure.

  4. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  5. Central Asian gas in Eurasian power game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobanli, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, various gas pipeline projects have been proposed to diversify transit routes and export markets of the landlocked Central Asian states. To evaluate the pipeline project's impact on the players' bargaining power, I apply the cooperate game theory to a quantitative model of the Eurasian gas trade and quantify the bargaining power structure via the Shapley value. Due to ample production capacities in Central Asia, I observe little strategic interaction between the West and China. Thus, demand competition with China is not necessarily a disadvantage for the West, and the Turkmenistan–China pipeline does not affect the impact of the westbound projects aiming Europe and Turkey. For Turkmenistan, i.e., the main supplier in the region, a link via the Caspian Sea to Turkey is the most beneficial westbound option. Although the projects carrying gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan to Europe enjoy the European Commission's political support, they yield marginal benefits to the European consumers. Thanks to its transit position, Turkey collects a large share of the benefits in the East–West gas trade. - Highlights: • The Eurasian gas trade is represented as a cooperative game which is solved with the Shapley value. • There is no demand competition between the West and China for Central Asian gas. • For Turkmenistan the route via the Caspian Sea is the most beneficial westbound pipeline option. • Turkey emerges as a transit country and collects a large share of the benefits from the East–West gas trade. • A link to Europe yields marginal benefits to Turkmenistan and Europe

  6. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  7. Radioecological monitoring of transboundary rivers of the Central Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashev, B.S.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Kist, A.A.; Radyuk, D.S.; Vdovina, E.D.; Zhuk, L.I.

    2005-01-01

    Results of radioecological investigation of Central Asian rivers are presented. Investigation was done as part of the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the United States. The study of waterborne radionuclides and metals concentrations in Central Asia is of particular interest because of the history of nuclear materials mining, fabrication, transport, and storage there, when it was part of the Soviet Union. This development left a legacy of radionuclides and metals contamination in some Central Asian regions, which poses a clear health hazard to populations who rely heavily upon surface water for agricultural irrigation and direct domestic consumption. (author)

  8. Some solutions to the Central Asian region's energy cooperation problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatulina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    It stands to reason that the resource-rich Central Asian Region (CAR), which is located at the crossroads between the Near and Middle East, South Asia, China, and Russia and is also in direct proximity to the countries experiencing "energy starvation," is of important geostrategic significance. It is a well-known fact that CAR has vast energy potential. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have large supplies of oil and gas resources, which enjoy demand on the world market. In particular,...

  9. Growing inter-Asian connections: Links, rivalries, and challenges in South Korean–Central Asian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical context, which emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, combined with Korea's growing economic prowess, enabled greater dynamism and diversification in Seoul's foreign policy-making. Growing pressure from energy-intensive economies coupled with new developments and investment in logistics and infrastructure has brought different parts of the Eurasian landmass closer together in recent years. Inter-Asian connections are especially growing. This article uses the case of deepening relations between Korea and the post-Soviet Central Asian republics as a vantage point to reflect on one such example of unfolding Asian inter-connectedness. In addition it sees Seoul's engagement in the region as a fitting example of Korea's broader ambitions to assert itself as a global economic player. The article shows that Korea's policy toward Central Asia has been primarily driven by energy needs and is defined by pragmatism. It finds that the economic dimension of the relationship has greatly overshadowed other aspects such as politics and security. In its pursuit of closer ties with the region Seoul has sought to turn structural weaknesses into added value and has attempted to develop a distinctive, non-threatening profile built around the lack of a political baggage and geopolitical ambitions, and the desire to share its experience of formerly impoverished turned leading economy. In turn, Central Asia's selective integration in the world economy has continued, also thanks to its ties with Korea. The Central Asian republics welcomed the opportunity to diversify their foreign relations, the sources of foreign investment and export routes. At the same time the opaque business environment, a leadership succession, which cannot be postponed for much longer, and Seoul's “no-strings attached” approach expose Korea to some risks as regime stability might not last forever.

  10. NATO AND CENTRAL ASIAN STATES: THE PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akmataliyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cooperation between NATO and Central Asian countries dates back to the 1990s, significant presence of the Alliance in the region is visible throughout the last decade only. The cooperation advanced due to the NATO-led operation in Afghanistan. However, its planned conclusion in 2012 will not lead to the withdrawal of the Alliance from Central Asia. Throughout the last decade NATO developed a network of diversified partnerships with countries of the region. In this process Kazakhstan emerged as its most promising and active partner.

  11. Dorset and Thule divergence from East Central Asian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Jones, G

    1998-06-01

    The history of the immigration of East Asians to America during the last glacial period remains controversial. In an attempt to add critical data to this problem, a large sample of whole teeth derived from Southeast Asian, Mongolian, Thule, Western Inuit, and pre-Inca (Huari) people was quantified (N = 4,507 teeth from 495 individuals; approximately 30 variables per tooth). Multivariate analysis helped establish that all Native Americans were likely derived from one ancient, extinct population that resided in the region of Mongolia (east Central Asia), and that Mongolians and Southeast Asians are two independent groups. A controversial and enigmatic Central Canadian Arctic "Thule culture Inuit" group on Southampton Island that survived until 1902 was identified as a relic, mainly Paleoeskimo Dorset community. Surprisingly, there was little, or no, indication of Dorset-to-Thule gene flow. Cumulatively, the data suggest that a small population of Paleoindian founders remained resident in Beringia, may have blocked further immigration, and were the antecedents to the Thule/Inuit. With the confluence of the Arctic and Pacific oceans at the breakup of Beringia, the resulting increased availability of marine animal food sources allowed this population to increase in size and expand throughout the eastern Arctic.

  12. Spatial patterns in Central Asian climate and equilibrium line altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupper, Summer; Koppes, Michele

    2010-01-01

    A suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations and a glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) model are compared to reconstructed glacier advances from geomorphic data and used to test the sensitivity of Central Asian glaciers to simulated climate changes at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Results highlight temperature changes as being the most important influence on glacier ELA changes during the LGM. With the exception of the southern Himalaya, for much of Central Asia there is consistency between GCMs for simulated LGM temperature changes, with a mean cooling of 4 0 C. Further research will necessarily need to focus on detailed analysis of the inter-model differences in temperature in the southern Himalaya, and acquiring additional paleoclimate proxies in the region in order to further constrain the GCMs.

  13. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrain analysis concept envisages primarily a possibility of approximation of fragments / terrains of various geodynamic settings which belong to different plates. The terrain analysis can supplement the theory of plate tectonics in solving problems of geodynamics and tectonics of regions of the crust with complex structures. The Central Asian belt is among such complicated regions. Terrain structures occurred as a result of combined movements in the system of 'frontal' and/or oblique subduction – collision. In studies of geological objects, it is required first of all to prove their (vertical and horizontal autochthony in relations to each other and then proceed to paleogeodynamic, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. Obviously, such a complex approach needs data to be obtained by a variety of research methods, including those applied to study geologic structures, stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, lithothlogy, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetism etc. Only by correlating such data collected from inter-disciplinary studies of the regions, it is possible to establish reliable characteristics of the geological settings and avoid mistakes and misinterpretations that may be associated with the 'stratigraphic' approach to solutions of both regional and global problems of geodynamics and tectonics of folded areas. The terrain analysis of the Central Asian folded belt suggests that its tectonic structure combines marginal continental rock complexes that were formed by the evolution of two major oceanic plates. One of them is the plate of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. As the analogue of the current Indo-Atlantic segment of Earth, it is characterised by the presence of continental blocks in the composition of the oceanic crust and the formation of oceanic basins resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and Gondvana. In the course of its evolution, super-continents disintegrated, and the blocks were reunited into the Kazakhstan

  14. Lake Baikal isotope records of Holocene Central Asian precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, George E. A.; Mackay, Anson W.; Vologina, Elena; Jones, Matthew D.; Panizzo, Virginia N.; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Snelling, Andrea M.; Sturm, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Climate models currently provide conflicting predictions of future climate change across Central Asia. With concern over the potential for a change in water availability to impact communities and ecosystems across the region, an understanding of historical trends in precipitation is required to aid model development and assess the vulnerability of the region to future changes in the hydroclimate. Here we present a record from Lake Baikal, located in the southern Siberian region of central Asia close to the Mongolian border, which demonstrates a relationship between the oxygen isotope composition of diatom silica (δ18Odiatom) and precipitation to the region over the 20th and 21st Century. From this, we suggest that annual rates of precipitation in recent times are at their lowest for the past 10,000 years and identify significant long-term variations in precipitation throughout the early to late Holocene interval. Based on comparisons to other regional records, these trends are suggested to reflect conditions across the wider Central Asian region around Lake Baikal and highlight the potential for further changes in precipitation with future climate change.

  15. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-12-30

    A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI 'barcode' region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular 'barcode'. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics.

  16. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jiaguo; Bobushev, Temirbek S.; Kulmatov, Rashid; Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik

    2012-06-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources. With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region, food and water security issues become even more crucial now and, if not addressed properly, could affect the regional stability. The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements, food and water, are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives. As a feedback, changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses, food production, and lifestyles of the rural community in the region. Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause, extent, rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region. Much of these have been understood, or under investigation by various projects, but solutions or research effort to develop solutions, to these urgent regional issues are lacking. This article, serves as an introduction to the special issue, provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  17. Summary of current research on Central Asian vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mei YANG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian vortex (CAV is an important synoptic-scale system that causes rainstorms, short-term heavy precipitation, hail, and sustained low temperatures in Xinjiang. This paper summarizes the current research conducted on the CAV since the 1960s. The objective definition of the CAV has been revised and a deep and shallow CAV classification proposed. Two high-frequency areas of deep CAV activity are the Kazakhstan hills (Sayan mountains and the eastern area of the Aral Sea (Tashkent; events mostly occur in summer and 40% cause strong rainfall. In addition, two high-frequency activity areas of the shallow CAV are located in the west and south of the Pamirs Plateau and mostly occur in spring; 23.2% of occurrences cause strong rainfall. The western and eastern water vapor transport relates to westerlies and a strong low-level easterly jet stream (LLEJ extending from Gansu to Xinjiang, respectively, and water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau transports even more northwards and enters Xinjiang. The deep CAV has an obvious cold core structure down to 300 hPa. The conversion terms from eddy available potential energy (AE to eddy kinetic energy (KE and eddy kinetic energy inflow (BKE from the open atmospheric region boundaries are the main sources of KE which cause rapid development of the CAV. The anomalous anti-cyclone center over the northeast Atlantic is the fountain of Rossby wave energy dispersion; Rossby waves propagate from the northeast Atlantic to eastern Europe (Urals (EEU, and then continuously propagate to Central Asia causing development of the CAV. The CAV requires further study to characterize the meso-scale system structure and evolution characteristics. In addition, physical modeling of the severe convective weather occurring under the CAV is required to determine the critical impacts of this severe convective weather and enable forecasting and early-warning indexes.

  18. Rheumatologic services in Central Asian countries: current state of development of rheumatology in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurzakova, Nazgul A; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Saatova, Guli M; Shukurova, Surayo M; Mirzakhanova, Mavliuda I; Kydyralieva, Ryskul B; Jumagulova, Aynagul S; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Seisenbaev, Askar Sh; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Rheumatologic and public health services of Central Asia's republics have suffered hugely as a result of social and economic declines following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and transition of these republics to market economies. Between 1990 and 2000 there was a mass outflow of highly skilled rheumatologists and teachers and researchers in rheumatology to countries abroad, leading to significant deprivation of rheumatological service in Central Asian countries. During this time, there was continued growth of various rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatic fever, and musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. The medical and social burden of RDs imposed on society was strongly underestimated until recent times. There is an urgent need to define the epidemiology of RDs and their impact on the quality of life of people afflicted by these conditions, and to improve the diagnostics and treatment of these conditions.

  19. Prevalence and change of central obesity among US Asian adults: NHANES 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Chen, Yang; Boucher, Nicole L; Rothberg, Amy E

    2017-08-25

    Central obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. The prevalence of central obesity has not been reported fully among Asian adults in the United States (US). Cross-sectional data of 1288 Asian adults aged 20 years or over was selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with a stratified multi-stage sampling design. The prevalence of central obesity was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Chi-square tests were conducted to test the significance of the prevalence differences across characteristic groups. The overall prevalence of central obesity among US Asian adults was 58.1% in 2011-2014. The prevalence of central obesity was higher in older adults (73.5%) than in young adults (45.4%) (p young adults (39.2% vs 51.5%), men (45.4% vs 56.6%), adults with college education or above (54.2% vs 61.7%) and non-poor adults (55.4% vs 62.4%). Compared with men, women had higher prevalence in each subgroup of age, education, poverty, and length of time (except for the subgroup of "born in the US") (all p obesity is prevalent in Asian adults, particularly in older adults and women. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat obesity in Asian adults as Asians are incurring the greatest increase in type 2 diabetes in parallel with the rising rate of central adiposity.

  20. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (Fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Peter W. Fritsch; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried...

  1. The Extractiones de Talmud and their relationship to the hebrew Talmud Manuscripts of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence (MS Magl. coll. II.I.7, 8 and 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisse Cecini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Talmud manuscripts Magl. coll. II.I.8 and 9 of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence contain marginal Talmud-translations in Latin which correspond to the 13th century translation Extractiones de Talmud. The two manuscripts are described and their textual evidence is compared both with the Latin manuscript tradition of the Extractiones and with the Hebrew/Aramaic Talmudic text which they contain, trying to answer the question of whether the Florence manuscripts are the Vorlage of the Latin translation of the Talmud. The matter reveals itself as complex: striking analogies seem to suggest an affirmative answer to the question at stake; however, evidence can also be found which rather supports the opposite conclusion. Nevertheless, the Florence manuscripts certainly belong to a Hebrew/Aramaic tradition which is very close to the Vorlage of the Extractiones. Moreover, the Latin text they offer in their magins reflects a prior stage of work in the production of the Extractiones, featuring unique variants and passages, which are corrected or omitted in the rest of the Latin manuscript tradition.

  2. Prevalence and change of central obesity among US Asian adults: NHANES 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. The prevalence of central obesity has not been reported fully among Asian adults in the United States (US. Methods Cross-sectional data of 1288 Asian adults aged 20 years or over was selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with a stratified multi-stage sampling design. The prevalence of central obesity was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs and Chi-square tests were conducted to test the significance of the prevalence differences across characteristic groups. Results The overall prevalence of central obesity among US Asian adults was 58.1% in 2011–2014. The prevalence of central obesity was higher in older adults (73.5% than in young adults (45.4% (p < 0.0001. Women had 13.4% higher prevalence than men (64.4% vs 51.0%, p < 0.0001. The prevalence increased over time (2011–2012 vs 2013–2014 in young adults (39.2% vs 51.5%, men (45.4% vs 56.6%, adults with college education or above (54.2% vs 61.7% and non-poor adults (55.4% vs 62.4%. Compared with men, women had higher prevalence in each subgroup of age, education, poverty, and length of time (except for the subgroup of “born in the US” (all p < 0.05 and in the subgroup of “married or living with partner” for marital status (p < 0.0001. Conclusion Central obesity is prevalent in Asian adults, particularly in older adults and women. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat obesity in Asian adults as Asians are incurring the greatest increase in type 2 diabetes in parallel with the rising rate of central adiposity.

  3. Seahorse Manuscript Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Metadata for figures presented in manuscript reporting bioenergetic effects of exposure to environmentally relevant organic compound in human airway epithelial...

  4. Climate contributions to vegetation variations in Central Asian drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Li; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia comprises a large fraction of the world's drylands, known to be vulnerable to climate change. We analyzed the inter-annual trends and the impact of climate variability in the vegetation greenness for Central Asia from 1982 to 2011 using GIMMS3g normalized difference vegetation index...

  5. 'The Iranian connection': the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    Of the possible routes to connect Caucasian and Central Asian oil to market, the 'Iranian connection' is the most interesting. The economic attraction of the Iranian route is clear: large transport capacities exist in the various pieces of Iran's existing network, large refining centers are located near the Caspian and there ate unutilized export terminals [it

  6. WHITHER DEVELOPMENT? THE EFFECTS OF THE EURASIAN UNION ON THE CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the impact of the Eurasian Union on the Central Asian republics, with a focus on remittances trends. To this end I review at first the literature regarding the effects of the Customs Union on its members. Then, I assess the current state of the economies most likely to be affected by membership in the Eurasian Union, i.e. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, whose specificity is their dependency on remittances. Secondly, I present a plausible scenario in regard to the influence of the formalization of this regional organization on the emerging Central Asian regional security subcomplex. I argue that the EEU is a hindrance towards the five Central Asian Republics’ evolving towards a regional security complex. Not only has it already distorted trade in the region, but it can also turn some presently frozen conflicts into security hotspots. I hold that the only way to spur development in the region is, internally, to diversify the economy, and, externally, to bring the five republics closer. I try to show that the Central Asian Republics should simultaneously pursue a switch from a balance of threat to regional integration and sustainable national development. Nonetheless, the EEU will have at best mixed effects when it comes to these necessities. Alternatively, China and the New Silk Road initiative that it endorses might contribute to de-securitizing some of the existing issues.

  7. Print and Manuscript

    OpenAIRE

    Erne, Lukas Christian

    2007-01-01

    Positioning Shakespeare at the "crossroads of manuscript and print" and exploring what the choice of print or manuscript reveals about the poet's intended audience and the social persona the poet wanted to assume and fashion, argues that "Shakespeare's authorial self-presentation begins as a poet and, more specifically, as a print-published poet" with the publication of Venus and Adonis in 1593 and the allusion to the publication of Rape of Lucrece in the next year. Yet also considers the imp...

  8. Comparative Analysis of China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Poshtich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of the energy factor on formulating China’s political and economic strategy towards Central Asia. Therefore, the article provides the profound analysis of the PRC energy strategy in the region, namely its principles, goals, objectives and mechanisms. The article also examines the key areas of energy cooperation between China and the five Central Asian states, as well as the major joint energy projects. Moreover, the article takes a close look at the Silk Road Economic Belt as one of the largest and most ambitious Chinese economic projects, for it is directly relevant to the development of energy cooperation in the region. The author also analyses the prospects as well as possible problems of further energy cooperation between China and Central Asian states. 

  9. Islamic Influence on HIV Risk and Protection Among Central Asian Male Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stacey A; McCrimmon, Tara; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Sultangaliyeva, Alma; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    HIV incidence is increasing in Central Asia, where migrant workers experience risks for acquiring sexually transmitted HIV. As a social and structural factor that may influence perceptions and behavior, we examine how Islam shapes HIV risk and protection. Phenomenological qualitative interviews examine religion and contexts of HIV risk among 48 male Central Asian migrant workers residing in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Men described nonvaginal sex, alcohol use, premarital sex, and extramarital sex as forbidden or frowned upon. Religious networks were unlikely to discuss HIV risks, and some men viewed religious affiliation or practices as protective. Marital practices including neke (religious marriage), polygyny, and bride kidnapping may be linked to risk. Findings suggest adhering to Islamic ideals may be protective for some men, but for others, assumptions of protection may enhance risk. HIV prevention strategies among Central Asian migrants may be strengthened by attention to religious and cultural understandings of risk and protection.

  10. The Central Asian Journal of Global Health to Increase Scientific Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Freese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO Collaborating Center at the University of Pittsburgh, USA partnering with Nazarbayev University, developed the Central Asian Journal of Global Health (CAJGH, cajgh.pitt.edu in order to increase scientific productivity in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Scientists in this region often have difficulty publishing in upper tier English language scientific journals due to language barriers, high publication fees, and a lack of access to mentoring services. CAJGH seeks to help scientists overcome these challenges by providing peer-reviewed publication free of change with English and research mentoring services available to selected authors. CAJGH began as a way to expand the Supercourse scientific network (www.pitt.edu/~super1 in the Central Asian region in order to rapidly disseminate educational materials. The network began with approximately 60 individuals in five Central Asian countries and has grown to over 1,300 in a few short years. The CAJGH website receives nearly 900 visits per month. The University of Pittsburgh's “open access publishing system” was utilized to create CAJGH in 2012. There are two branches of the CAJGH editorial board: Astana (at the Center for Life Sciences, Nazarbayev University and Pittsburgh (WHO Collaborating Center. Both are comprised of leading scientists and expert staff who work together throughout the review and publication process. Two complete issues have been published since 2012 and a third is now underway. Even though CAJGH is a new journal, the editorial board uses a rigorous review process; fewer than 50% of all submitted articles are forwarded to peer review or accepted for publication. Furthermore, in 2014, CAJGH will apply to be cross referenced in PubMed and Scopes. CAJGH is one of the first English language journals in the Central Asian region that reaches a large number of scientists. This journal fills a unique niche that will assist scientists in Kazakhstan and Central Asia publish their

  11. The Central Asian Journal of Global Health to Increase Scientific Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Kyle; Shubnikov, Eugene; LaPorte, Ron; Adambekov, Shalkar; Askarova, Sholpan; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Linkov, Faina

    2013-01-01

    The WHO Collaborating Center at the University of Pittsburgh, USA partnering with Nazarbayev University, developed the Central Asian Journal of Global Health (CAJGH, cajgh.pitt.edu) in order to increase scientific productivity in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Scientists in this region often have difficulty publishing in upper tier English language scientific journals due to language barriers, high publication fees, and a lack of access to mentoring services. CAJGH seeks to help scientists overcome these challenges by providing peer-reviewed publication free of change with English and research mentoring services available to selected authors. CAJGH began as a way to expand the Supercourse scientific network (www.pitt.edu/~super1) in the Central Asian region in order to rapidly disseminate educational materials. The network began with approximately 60 individuals in five Central Asian countries and has grown to over 1,300 in a few short years. The CAJGH website receives nearly 900 visits per month. The University of Pittsburgh's "open access publishing system" was utilized to create CAJGH in 2012. There are two branches of the CAJGH editorial board: Astana (at the Center for Life Sciences, Nazarbayev University) and Pittsburgh (WHO Collaborating Center). Both are comprised of leading scientists and expert staff who work together throughout the review and publication process. Two complete issues have been published since 2012 and a third is now underway. Even though CAJGH is a new journal, the editorial board uses a rigorous review process; fewer than 50% of all submitted articles are forwarded to peer review or accepted for publication. Furthermore, in 2014, CAJGH will apply to be cross referenced in PubMed and Scopes. CAJGH is one of the first English language journals in the Central Asian region that reaches a large number of scientists. This journal fills a unique niche that will assist scientists in Kazakhstan and Central Asia publish their research findings and

  12. U. S. Central Asian policy under president Barack Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There can be no doubt that during the eighteen months it has been in power, the Obama Administration has in due course defined the main vectors and priorities of U.S. foreign policy, determined the country's key geopolitical interests, drawn up and adopted a National Security Strategy, and compiled a Nuclear Policy Review. The following factors are having an impact on U.S. policy in the post-Soviet expanse, which includes Central Asia (CA): relations with Russia, the PRC, the Islamic Republic...

  13. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in central Asian mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Wen, Zhi-Bin; Fritsch, Peter W; Sanderson, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried out in order to confirm its taxonomic status and reconstruct its evolutionary history. We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA and BBM for ancestral area reconstruction, to study its spatiotemporal evolution. Our results show that Calophacais monophyletic and nested within Caragana. The divergence time of Calophaca is estimated at ca. 8.0 Ma, most likely driven by global cooling and aridification, influenced by rapid uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau margins. According to ancestral area reconstructions, the genus most likely originated in the Pamir Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot and hypothesized Tertiary refugium of many Central Asian plant lineages. Dispersals from this location are inferred to the western Tianshan Mountains, then northward to the Tarbagatai Range, eastward to East Asia, and westward to the Caucasus, Russia, and Europe. The spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca provides a case contributing to an understanding of the flora and biodiversity of the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions.

  14. Cryosphere, climate and capitalism: drivers of Central Asian water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Minbaeva, C.; Wilson, A. M.; Satylkanov, R.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of meltwater to Central Asia's trans-boundary rivers and groundwater reserves suggests future water stress for the region. Climate is likely to induce shifts in water supply volume and delivery timing, while a complex fabric of socio-political factors complicates water management and adaptation strategies. To clarify the drivers of water stress over a large scale (440km, 4,200m elevation change), we conducted a socio-hydrologic study of Krygyzstan's Naryn River in the Tien Shan mountains, headwater stem of the Syr Darya and source of the disappearing Aral Sea. Using a combination of geochemical sampling, hydro-chemical mixing models, remote sensing image processing and community surveys, we characterized both the social and hydrologic controls of water supplies from glacier snout to downstream areas where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. We find melt-sourced water dominates hydrologic inputs to both surface flow and groundwater from headwaters to reservoir, suggesting high sensitivity of water supply to a warming climate. On a regional scale, the importance of melt to trans-boundary river flow serving thirsty downstream countries may increase hostility between already tense neighbors. Water stress on the basin level, however, is currently less impacted by supply than by access, agricultural knowledge deficiencies and infrastructure issues that are relic from the post-Soviet transition in the 1990s. The interplay of these factors suggests the need for creative and proactive water management adaptation planning in the Naryn basin and throughout similar melt-reliant areas of arid Central Asia.

  15. Foreign Direct Investments in Central Asian Energy: A CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. BARRY

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan have adopted significant legislative changes since the fall of the former Soviet Union in an effort to attract foreign direct investment into their energy sectors. Of the three republics, Kazakhstan has been the most successful in attracting foreign interest, but all three republics face significant challenges in further development of oil and gas infrastructure. Even if these countries are completely successful in bringing in foreign investment, a question will remain: who wins and who loses in these countries. Using updated data, this paper will use a computable general equilibrium model to measure the effects of FDI into Central Asia. Results of the model suggest that the region would be better off overall from foreign investment in its natural gas sector, due mostly to improvements in overall production efficiency and its overall terms of trade. However, the gain in the natural gas sector would come at the expense of production and net exports of non-petroleum related industries.

  16. Exogenous vs Endogenous Growth in the EU’s EaP and Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharipov Ilkhom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to determine and analyse the factors that affected economic growth in the EU’s Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries in the 2000-2015 period. Economic growth is one of the main targets of economic policy of any country and influenced by various determinants. Of particular interest is the endogenous and exogenous nature of these factors. Having classified these factors into exogenous and endogenous ones, we examined and determined the significance and robustness of various factors influencing the economic growth in these countries, like investment, human capital, research and development, economic policies and macroeconomic conditions, openness to trade, geography, political factors and others. Correlation and factor analysis showed significance and strong association of GDP per capita with physical, human capital, and R&D in EaP countries and with natural resources and active population share in Central Asian countries.

  17. Desert Dust and Health: A Central Asian Review and Steppe Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe. In the Gobi Desert, our case study in Khanbogd, Mongolia addressed large-scale mining’s potential dust risk to the health of the local population. Dust traps showed variable exposure to particulates among herder households and town residents; dust density distribution indicated that sources beyond the mine need to be considered when identifying particulate sources. Research suggests that atmospheric dust from multiple causes may enhance human particulate exposure. Greater awareness of dust in greater Central Asia reflects community concern about related health implications. Future human well-being in the region will require more thorough information on dust emissions in the changing environment.

  18. Desert Dust and Health: A Central Asian Review and Steppe Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Troy; Edwards, Mona

    2017-11-03

    In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe. In the Gobi Desert, our case study in Khanbogd, Mongolia addressed large-scale mining's potential dust risk to the health of the local population. Dust traps showed variable exposure to particulates among herder households and town residents; dust density distribution indicated that sources beyond the mine need to be considered when identifying particulate sources. Research suggests that atmospheric dust from multiple causes may enhance human particulate exposure. Greater awareness of dust in greater Central Asia reflects community concern about related health implications. Future human well-being in the region will require more thorough information on dust emissions in the changing environment.

  19. EARLY STAGE OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN OROGENIC BELT BUILDING: EVIDENCES FROM THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO. Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan area to south-east (Baikal area and further to north-east (Patom area. Here we present the synthesis of all available and reliable LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological studies of detrital zircons from these sedimentary successions.

  20. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. © G. Salgado-Maldonado et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  1. In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern, Turkic-speaking groups during historical times, into a long-lasting group of settled populations, which may be represented nowadays by Tajiks and Turkmen. Contrary to what is generally thought, our results suggest that the recurrent expansions of eastern nomadic groups did not result in the complete replacement of local populations, but rather into partial admixture. PMID:20823912

  2. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  3. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  4. The changing nationality composition of the Central Asian and Transcaucasian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, T

    1997-06-01

    Patterns and levels of migration in eight states located in the southern region of the former Soviet Union are analyzed for the period from 1989 to the beginning of 1996. "The focus of the paper is on the composition of migration streams by nationality and the impact that migration has had on the changing population of the newly independent states formed after the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. Recent data are tabulated and estimates discussed in detail disclosing the exodus of Russians and movement of other nationalities in each of the Transcaucasian (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) and Central Asian (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) countries." excerpt

  5. State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

  6. IAU South West and Central Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hakopian, S. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced its Strategic Plan on Astronomy for Development in 2009, during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). One of its main components was the creation of the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and corresponding Regional Offices (ROADs) for implementation and coordination of its aims. The OAD was created in Cape Town, South Africa and later on ROADs were created in 8 regions. Since 2015, Armenia hosts one of them, IAU South West Asian (SWA), later renamed to South West and Central Asian (SWCA) ROAD. At present, already 6 countries have officially joined (Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Turkey), but the Office serves for a rather broad region, from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. Armenia's geographical location and its historical role in astronomy (both for well-known archaeoastronomical heritage and the presence of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) founded by Viktor Ambartsumian in 1946) serve as a link between Europe and Eastern Partnership countries, Middle East and Asia in general. We run activities in 3 directions, Task Forces (TF): TF1 Universities and Research, TF2 Children and Schools and TF3 Public Outreach. We present our projects and all other accomplishments and discuss the role of our ROAD in maintaining contacts and development of astronomy in the region, as well as contacts between Europe and the Eastern Partnership countries. Most up-to-date information about the IAU SWCA ROAD is available on its webpage at http://iau-swa-road.aras.am/eng/index.php.

  7. The Iranian connection: the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    The prospect of exporting Caspian Sea crude oil production via a transit route through Iran is discussed. There are many political and economic barriers that are preventing the establishment of a transit route to bring the landlocked hydrocarbon resources of Azerbaijan and Central Asia to world oil markets. A route via Iran is most appealing because of the existing system of pipelines and export facilities already in place there, plus its close geographic location to Central Asia. Close to 2 MMb/d of production from the Caspian region could be accommodated at under $1.50/barrel transit costs. However, the opposition from the United States and Israel to any Iranian connection for the Caspian Sea production is well documented. The Russians, too, are opposed to any export option for Caucasian or Central Asian crude production that would bypass Russia because it would reduce its economic leverage over the new republics. It is widely believed that export through Iran would be more beneficial to the individual state governments by providing them with greater net well head revenues, as well as in reinforcing their independence at the expense of the central government in Moscow

  8. Determinants of neonatal and under-three mortality in Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies dealt with factors associated with childhood mortality, especially in developing countries, but less is known about former communistic countries. We therefore analyzed the factors affecting mortality rates among children in the Central Asian countries Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. We focused on the impact of living place (rural versus urban and age dependency (neonatal versus under-three mortality on the mortality risk. Methods: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys data (DHS for the three Central Asian countries. The combined data set included information about 2867 children under the age of three, 135 of whom died. We studied three multiple logistic regression models: for the mortality under the age of three, for neonatal mortality (1st month of life and for mortality in 2nd-36th month of life. Results: Under-three mortality was independently associated with living in a rural versus urban area (OR 1.69 (CI 1.11-2.56, birth order and mother not being currently married vs. married (OR 0.52 (CI 0.25-1.08. There was a lower risk of mortality for children living in larger families (six or more household members vs. less than six, OR 0.45 (CI 0.30-0.65. Living in a rural area was more strongly associated with mortality in 2-36 month of life than with neonatal mortality. Differences between countries were greater in neonatal mortality than in mortality between 2nd-36th month of life. Conclusions: This study suggests that urban-rural differences with respect to childhood mortality in these countries persist after adjusting for several socioeconomic factors.

  9. A chronological framework connecting the early Upper Palaeolithic across the Central Asian piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Iovita, Radu; Sprafke, Tobias; Glantz, Michelle; Talamo, Sahra; Horton, Katharine; Beeton, Tyler; Alipova, Saya; Bekseitov, Galymzhan; Ospanov, Yerbolat; Deom, Jean-Marc; Sala, Renato; Taimagambetov, Zhaken

    2017-12-01

    Central Asia has delivered significant paleoanthropological discoveries in the past few years. New genetic data indicate that at least two archaic human species met and interbred with anatomically modern humans as they arrived into northern Central Asia. However, data are limited: known archaeological sites with lithic assemblages generally lack human fossils, and consequently identifying the archaeological signatures of different human groups, and the timing of their occupation, remains elusive. Reliable chronologic data from sites in the region, crucial to our understanding of the timing and duration of interactions between different human species, are rare. Here we present chronologies for two open air Middle to Upper Palaeolithic (UP) sequences from the Tien Shan piedmont in southeast Kazakhstan, Maibulak and Valikhanova, which bridge southern and northern Central Asia. The chronologies, based on both quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and polymineral post-infrared infrared luminescence (pIR-IRSL) protocols, demonstrate that technological developments at the two sites differ substantially over the ∼47-19 ka time span. Some of the innovations typically associated with the earliest UP in the Altai or other parts of northeast Asia are also present in the Tien Shan piedmont. We caution against making assumptions about the directionality of spread of these technologies until a larger, better defined database of transitional sites in the region is available. Connections between the timing of occupation of regions, living area setting and paleoenvironmental conditions, while providing hypotheses worth exploring, remain inconclusive. We cautiously suggest a trend towards increasing occupation of open air sites across the Central Asian piedmont after ∼40 ka, corresponding to more humid climatic conditions which nevertheless included pulses of dust deposition. Human occupation persisted into the Last Glacial Maximum, despite cooler, and possibly drier

  10. Paleogeography of the Central Asian proto-Paratethys Sea in the Eocene: Controlling mechanisms and paleoenvironmental impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments of the Central Asian basins include remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. Before this sea retreated westward and eventually separated as the Paratethys Sea, it extended across Eurasia from the Mediterranean Tethys to the Tarim Basin

  11. NEW AREAS OF COOPERATION OF CHINA AND CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES IN THE FIRST DECADE OF THE 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: At the end of 2000-s, regional relations between China and Central Asian states was under threat of the current World Financial Crisis. But it also provided the impetus to search for new mechanisms, forms and directions of the regional cooperation. It marks China’s new development plan for Xinjiang after ten years of Western Development Strategy of the central government.

  12. Central Obesity and H. pylori Infection Influence Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in an Asian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The prevalence rates of Barrett's esophagus (BE in western countries are higher than Asian ones, but little is known about their difference among risk factors of BE. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of various risk factors including central obesity, body mass index (BMI, metabolic syndrome and H. pylori infection, with BE.A total of 161 subjects with BE were enrolled and compared to age- and gender-matched controls randomly sampled (1:4 from check-up center in same hospital. Central obesity was defined by waist circumference (female>80cm; male>90cm, metabolic syndrome by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Taiwan. Independent risk factors for BE were identified by multiple logistic regression analyses.The mean age for BE was 53.8±13.7 years and 75.8% was male. H. pylori infection status was detected by the rapid urease test with the prevalence of 28.4% and 44.4% in the BE patients and controls, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analyses showed the risk was associated with higher waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-3.60, metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.38-2.96 and negative H. pylori infection (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BE associated with higher waist circumference (adjusted OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.89-4.12 and negative H. pylori infection (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70.Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of BE whereas H. pylori infection with a lower risk in an ethnic Chinese population.

  13. The Origin of the Chinese Central Tianshan Block in the Southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from Detrital Zircon Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Long, X.; Yuan, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Central Tianshan Block (CTB) is one of the oldest continental fragments in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Although it is vital for understanding the evolution of the CAOB, its origin has been poorly studied. The CTB was previously suggested to have been originated from the North China, the South China, the Tarim cratons or the East European Craton (Baltica). A total of 165 concordant U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses of detrital zircon are obtained from three meta-sediments in the CTB, including one meta-sandstone from Xingxingxia formation and one meta-sandstone as well as one quartzite from Kawabulake formation. Detrital zircon grains from the Xingxingxia and Kawabulake formations are dominated by respective youngest age populations at 1002 Ma and 930-960 Ma, providing constraints on the maximum depositional ages for these two formations. Zircon grains from the meta-sediments have very similar age distributions, with two dominant peaks at 0.93-1.0 Ga and 1.0-1.6 Ga and a minor peak at 2.3-2.7 Ga. They have similar Hf isotopic signatures, suggesting that the meta-sediments in the CTB share similar sedimentary provenance. The early Neoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are mainly local-derived, whereas the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic grains are both autochthonous and allochthonous. The occurrence of these Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic zircon grains are coincident with the Nuna breakup and the Rodinia assembly. This suggests that the CTB might experience the tectonic switching of the Nuna to the Rodinia. The distinct Meso-Neoproterozoic age patterns and Hf isotopic compositions of these detrital grains from the CTB and the surrounding blocks indicate that the CTB was not located close to the North China, the South China or the Tarim cratons in Precambrian. Our new data suggest that the CTB was most likely once a part of the East European Craton before the Neoproterozoic. This study was supported by National Basic Research Program of China

  14. Statistical-Dynamical Seasonal Forecasts of Central-Southwest Asian Winter Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Goddard, Lisa; Barnston, Anthony G.

    2005-06-01

    Interannual precipitation variability in central-southwest (CSW) Asia has been associated with East Asian jet stream variability and western Pacific tropical convection. However, atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced by observed sea surface temperature (SST) poorly simulate the region's interannual precipitation variability. The statistical-dynamical approach uses statistical methods to correct systematic deficiencies in the response of AGCMs to SST forcing. Statistical correction methods linking model-simulated Indo-west Pacific precipitation and observed CSW Asia precipitation result in modest, but statistically significant, cross-validated simulation skill in the northeast part of the domain for the period from 1951 to 1998. The statistical-dynamical method is also applied to recent (winter 1998/99 to 2002/03) multimodel, two-tier December-March precipitation forecasts initiated in October. This period includes 4 yr (winter of 1998/99 to 2001/02) of severe drought. Tercile probability forecasts are produced using ensemble-mean forecasts and forecast error estimates. The statistical-dynamical forecasts show enhanced probability of below-normal precipitation for the four drought years and capture the return to normal conditions in part of the region during the winter of 2002/03.May Kabul be without gold, but not without snow.—Traditional Afghan proverb

  15. DEEP STRUCTURE OF THE SIBERIAN PLATFORM – CENTRAL ASIAN MOBILE BELT TRANSITION ZONE FROM TELESEISMIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mordvinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep velocity sections of the transition zone from the Siberian platform to the Central Asian mobile belt are constructed by teleseismic tomography and P-receiver function techniques. An array of the dense ancient Siberian craton is identified in the velocity sections with areas of high seismic velocity. In the SSW section MOBAL_2003, the surface boundary of the craton corresponds to the southern margin of the Siberian platform and is nearly vertical to a depth of 120 km. At larger depths, the craton slides almost horizontally underneath the Tunka rift area. At depths from 150 to 250 km, it is in contact with the area under the Khamar-Daban mountain range. In the southeast, according to the SE velocity section PASSCAL_1992 across the South Baikal basin and the Khamar-Daban mountain range, the Siberian craton thickness is reduced from 270 to 150 km at the contact of the Siberian platform with the Baikal folded area. In this contact zone, the upper part of the craton is wedge-shaped and has an angle of about 45° with the ground surface; it completely tapers off at a depth of 150 km to the east of Lake Baikal. The vertical configuration of the southern segment of the Siberian craton, which evolved with time, may determine the nature of the Baikal rifting in the Cenozoic. 

  16. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  17. Socio-Structural Barriers, Protective Factors, and HIV Risk Among Central-Asian Female Migrants in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zabrocki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to build formative knowledge on socio-structural barriers, protective factors, and HIV sexual risk amongst Central-Asian female migrants in Moscow. Methods: Data collection included ethnographic interviews in Moscow with a purposive sample of 30 unmarried female migrants, 15 from Kyrgyzstan and 15 from Tajikistan. Results: Study participants reported difficulties with acquiring documents for legal status, financial insecurity, discrimination, sexual harassment, and lack of support. Based on analysis of the cases, one pathway linked lack of legal documentation and instrumental support with elevated sexual risk. Another pathways linked traditional cultural attitudes with both no and moderate sexual risk. Conclusion: Future HIV prevention efforts with Central Asian female migrants in Moscow should be multilevel and include: increasing HIV and prevention knowledge and skills, promoting condom use with regular partners, identifying and supporting cultural attitudes that protect against HIV sexual risk behaviors, facilitating legal status, building community support, and increasing economic options.

  18. Nature and timing of the final collision of Central Asian Orogenic Belt: insights from basic intrusion in the Xilin Gol Complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, H.; Brouwer, F.M.; Xiao, W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, Z.; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Solonker suture zone of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) records the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The nature and timing of final collision along the Solonker suture has long been controversial, partly because of an incomplete record of isotopic ages and differing interpretations

  19. Financial and Emotional Support in Close Personal Ties among Central Asian Migrant Women in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    This study advances research on the role of personal networks as sources of financial and emotional support in immigrants' close personal ties beyond the immediate family. Because resource scarcity experienced by members of immigrant communities is likely to disrupt normatively expected reciprocal support, we explored multi-level predictors of exchange processes with personal network members that involve (1) only receiving support, (2) only providing support, and (3) reciprocal support exchanges. We focus on an understudied case of Central Asian migrant women in the Russian Federation using a sample of 607 women from three ethnic groups-Kyrgyz, Tajik, Uzbek-who were surveyed in two large Russian cities-Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan. The survey collected information on respondents' demographic, socioeconomic, and migration-related characteristics, as well as characteristics of up to five individuals with whom they had a close relationship. Multi-level multinomial regression analyses were used to account for the nested nature of the data. Our results revealed that closer social relationships (siblings and friends) and greater levels of resources (income and regularized legal status) at both ego and alter levels were positively related to providing, receiving, and reciprocally exchanging financial and emotional support. Egos were more likely to provide financial assistance to transnational alters, whereas they were more likely to engage in mutual exchanges of emotional support with their network members from other countries. Personal network size and density showed no relationship with support exchanges. These findings provide a nuanced picture of close personal ties as conduits for financial and emotional support in migrant communities in a major, yet understudied, migrant-receiving context.

  20. Nature and provenance of the Beishan Complex, southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Li, Jinyi; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhang, Jin

    2018-03-01

    The ages and origins of metasedimentary rocks, which were previously mapped as Precambrian, are critical in rebuilding the orogenic process and better understanding the Phanerozoic continental growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan Complex was widely distributed in the southern Beishan Orogenic Collage, southernmost CAOB, and their ages and tectonic affinities are still in controversy. The Beishan Complex was previously proposed as fragments drifted from the Tarim Craton, Neoproterozoic Block or Phanerozoic accretionary complex. In this study, we employ detrital zircon age spectra to constrain ages and provenances of metasedimentary sequences of the Beishan Complex in the Chuanshanxun area. The metasedimentary rocks here are dominated by zircons with Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic age ( 1160-2070 Ma), and yield two peak ages at 1454 and 1760 Ma. One sample yielded a middle Permian peak age (269 Ma), which suggests that the metasedimentary sequences were deposited in the late Paleozoic. The granitoid and dioritic dykes, intruding into the metasedimentary sequences, exhibit zircon U-Pb ages of 268 and 261 Ma, respectively, which constrain the minimum deposit age of the metasedimentary sequences. Zircon U-Pb ages of amphibolite (274 and 216 Ma) indicate that they might be affected by multi-stage metamorphic events. The Beishan Complex was not a fragment drifted from the Tarim Block or Dunhuang Block, and none of cratons or blocks surrounding Beishan Orogenic Collage was the sole material source of the Beishan Complex due to obviously different age spectra. Instead, 1.4 Ga marginal accretionary zones of the Columbia supercontinent might have existed in the southern CAOB, and may provide the main source materials for the sedimentary sequences in the Beishan Complex.

  1. Geometry, kinematics and tectonic models of the Kazakhstan Orocline, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yuan, Chao; Safonova, Inna; Cai, Keda; Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Yunying

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and is characterized by the occurrence of tight oroclines (Kazakhstan and Tuva-Mongolian oroclines). The origin of these large-scale orogenic curvatures is not quite understood, but is fundamentally important for understanding crustal growth and tectonic evolution of the CAOB. Here we provide an outline of available geological and paleomagnetic data around the Kazakhstan Orocline, with an aim of clarifying the geometry, kinematics and geodynamic origin of the orocline. The Kazakhstan Orocline is evident in a total magmatic image, and can be traced by the continuation of high magnetic anomalies associated with the Devonian Volcanic Belt and the Late Devonian to Carboniferous Balkhash-Yili arc. Paleomagnetic data show ∼112-126° clockwise rotation of the northern limb relative to the southern limb in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, as well as ∼15-28° clockwise rotation of the northern limb and ∼39-40° anticlockwise rotation of the southern limb relative to the hinge of the orocline during the Late Carboniferous to Permian. We argue that the Kazakhstan Orocline experienced two-stage bending with the early stage of bending (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous; ∼112-126°) driven by slab rollback, and the later stage (Late Carboniferous to Permian; 54-68°) possibly associated with the amalgamation of the Siberian, Tarim and Baltic cratons. This new tectonic model is compatible with the occurrence of rift basins, the spatial migration of magmatic arc, and the development of large-scale strike-slip fault systems during oroclinal bending.

  2. Implementing the ICPD Plan of Action in Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan (CARAK). Kazakhstan. Looming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujsekeev, A; Kajupova, N

    1995-01-01

    An ecological disaster besets the central Asian republic of Kazakhstan. The Aral Sea has shrunk so much, due to removal of its water for massive irrigation projects, that it may even disappear soon. The soils of the coastal zone have been degraded and denuded. Radiation activity from nuclear tests and chemical fertilizers pose a major health hazard. The poor economy and declining social services exacerbate Kazakhstan's problems. The new Republic of Kazakhstan has passed legislation that denotes the state and society as protectors of family, maternity, paternity, and childhood. Women comprise 62% of specialists with higher and secondary specialized education. Their critical contribution to the national economy merits policies to protect the social, economic, and health status of women. The quality of their reproductive health connects them with their social and economic status. Kazakhstan's relatively high maternal mortality rate has fallen over the last four years. Complications of pregnancy and labor as well as during the postpartum period account for most causes of maternal death. The percentage of maternal deaths from such complications has declined from 40% to 31.1% between 1991 and 1993. In fact, the percentage of maternal deaths from other causes has also decreased. The general state of women's health, reproductive function, and the quality of health services are interdependent factors influencing maternal mortality. The main determinants of maternal mortality are maternal age and parity, especially when the birth interval is less than two years. Unwanted pregnancies contribute greatly to maternal mortality. Health officials consider family planning to be a means to prevent and reduce abortions. They use the mass media to inform the public about family planning and the reproductive system. They promote breast feeding.

  3. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  4. Orsang Man: a robust Homo sapiens in Central India with Asian Homo erectus features

    OpenAIRE

    Dambricourt-Malassé, Anne; Raj, Rachna; Shah, Samit

    2013-01-01

    17th World Congress of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences "Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds", Manchester, August 5th-10th, 2013 Accepted preprint; A Homo sapiens calvarium recovered in a fluvial deposit of the Orsang River give evidence of genetic continuity between late Asian Homo erectus suggesting an Asian "like-cromagnoid" stadium in the evolutionary process. IRSL dating of the host sediments provided an age ranging from 50 to 30 ka. The interesting fea...

  5. Reviewing Manuscripts for Biomedical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmel, Gus M

    2010-01-01

    Writing for publication is a complex task. For many professionals, producing a well-executed manuscript conveying one's research, ideas, or educational wisdom is challenging. Authors have varying emotions related to the process of writing for scientific publication. Although not studied, a relationship between an author's enjoyment of the writing process and the product's outcome is highly likely. As with any skill, practice generally results in improvements. Literature focused on preparing manuscripts for publication and the art of reviewing submissions exists. Most journals guard their reviewers' anonymity with respect to the manuscript review process. This is meant to protect them from direct or indirect author demands, which may occur during the review process or in the future. It is generally accepted that author identities are masked in the peer-review process. However, the concept of anonymity for reviewers has been debated recently; many editors consider it problematic that reviewers are not held accountable to the public for their decisions. The review process is often arduous and underappreciated, one reason why biomedical journals acknowledge editors and frequently recognize reviewers who donate their time and expertise in the name of science. This article describes essential elements of a submitted manuscript, with the hopes of improving scientific writing. It also discusses the review process within the biomedical literature, the importance of reviewers to the scientific process, responsibilities of reviewers, and qualities of a good review and reviewer. In addition, it includes useful insights to individuals who read and interpret the medical literature. PMID:20740129

  6. Climate change impact on the river runoff: regional study for the Central Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaitseva, Natalya

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Aral Sea Basin are jointly used by the Central Asian states. The river flow is concentrated in the two largest transboundary rivers: the Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers, which run down from the mountains to the plains, cross the deserts and flow into the Aral Sea. Uzbekistan is the major water consumer in the Aral Sea Basin. In accordance with interstate agreements, on average 43-52 km 2 of water per year as allotted for use by Uzbekistan from the boundary rivers. About 90% of river flow is formed beyond Uzbekistan boundaries. Under current conditions, water resource shortages in Uzbekistan, even a small but stable reduction of these resources presents a drastic problem. The degree of impact of possible climate changes on the regime of mountain rivers of the Central Asia can be evaluated by sufficiently reliable mathematical models of the runoff formation in mountains. The basic mathematical model describes a complete cycle of the runoff formation, reflecting the main factors and processes: precipitation, dynamics of a snow cover, evaporation, contribution of melting and rain water to the catchment, glacial runoff, runoff transformation and losses in basin. The model complex consists of the model Of snow cover formation in the mountains basin, model of glacial runoff and model of snow melt and rainfall water inflow transformation in runoff. Model calculations of snow reserves in the mountains under different climatic scenarios have demonstrated their gradual decrease due to growing aridity of the climate. Contribution of the snow is expected to decrease by 15-30%1 especially for rivers, which are snow-fed. At present, the annual glacial runoff of the rivers of the Syrdarya River basin amounts to 8-15%. Under different prognoses,,, increase in this flow of up to 20% is expected. Contribution of glacial runoff to the rivers of the Amudarya River basin might grow 32-39% under the most 'severe' climatic scenarios. During the cropping season, an

  7. Isotope study of impact of climatic changes on hydrological cycle in Central Asian and Caspian arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferronsky, V.I.; Polyakov, V.A.; Lobov, A.L.; Batov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of replenishment of groundwater and lakes in the Central Asian and Caspian and region during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition time on the basis of isotope studies is discussed. Interpretation of the oxygen and carbon isotope record from the palaeogroundwaters and lake sediments shows that during climate cooling over the Eurasian continent its humid zone was extended towards the and regions. In addition, voluminous glaciers were accumulated in the northern and southern mountain regions. Intensive melting of the glaciers during the transition time provided effective replenishment of the aquifers and lakes in the and zone by fresh water. (author)

  8. Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk Pedersen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark......Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark...

  9. Long-range atmospheric transport of volatile monocarboxylic acids with Asian dust over a high mountain snow site, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mochizuki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the long-range transport of monocarboxylic acids from the Asian continent to the Japanese islands, we collected snowpack samples from a pit sequence (depth ca. 6 m at the Murodo-Daira snowfield near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, in 2009 and 2011. Snow samples (n = 16 were analyzed for normal (C1–C10, branched chain (iC4–iC6, aromatic (benzoic and toluic acid isomers, and hydroxyl (glycolic and lactic monocarboxylic acids, together with inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Acetic acid (C2 was found to be a dominant species (average 125 ng g−1, followed by formic acid (C1 (85.7 ng g−1 and isopentanoic acid (iC5 (20.0 ng g−1. We found a strong correlation (r =  0.88 between formic plus acetic acids and non-sea-salt Ca2+ that is a proxy of Asian dust. Contributions of total monocarboxylic acids to DOC in 2009 (21.2 ± 11.6 % were higher than that in 2011 (3.75 ± 2.62 %, being consistent with higher intensity of Asian dust in 2009 than in 2011. Formic plus acetic acids also showed a positive correlation (r =  0.90 with benzoic acid that is a tracer of automobile exhaust, indicating that monocarboxylic acids and their precursors are largely emitted from anthropogenic sources in China and/or secondarily produced in the atmosphere by photochemical processing. In addition, the ratio of formic plus acetic acids to nss–Ca2+ (0.27 was significantly higher than those (0.00036–0.0018 obtained for reference dust materials of Chinese loess deposits from the Tengger and Gobi deserts. This result suggests that volatile and semi-volatile organic acids are adsorbed on the alkaline dust particles during long-range atmospheric transport. Entrainment of organic acids by dusts is supported by a good correlation (r = 0.87 between formic plus acetic acids and pH of melt snow samples. Our study suggests that Asian alkaline dusts may be a carrier of volatile monocarboxylic

  10. HIV among female sex workers in the Central Asian Republics, Afghanistan, and Mongolia: contexts and convergence with drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan; Todd, Catherine S; Aumakhan, Bulbul; Lloyd, Jennifer; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Sabin, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Central Asia is culturally and demographically diverse, both between and within its respective countries. That diversity is represented in the range of individual, network, community, and structural risks for female sex workers (FSWs) regionally. FSWs have several risk factors for HIV acquisition and transmission including behavioral, biological, and structural risk factors. Across Central Asia, sexual risks have become conflated with risks associated with injection and non-injection illicit drug use. Peer-reviewed literature databases and gray literature were searched for articles on sex work in Central Asia. The medial subject heading (MeSH) of "sex work" was cross-referenced with terms associated with Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Afghanistan. HIV prevalence data for FSWs suggest sustained or increasing prevalence in the region. There are increasing data directly linking HIV among FSWs to injection drug use; odds of HIV are up to 20 times higher among FSWs reporting injecting drug use. Though injecting drug use among FSWs is rare in some settings, recreational drugs and alcohol use limits other risk reduction behaviors, such as condom use. The Central Asian HIV epidemic has traditionally been assumed to be driven nearly exclusively by drug use, resulting in surveillance systems focused on parenteral transmission. The reviewed data highlight limited attention to characterizing the burden of HIV and risk factors for HIV acquisition and transmission among FSWs who use drugs. Moving forward will require enhanced HIV surveillance and research to inform HIV prevention approaches to address all levels of HIV risks affecting FSWs in Central Asia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Climate instability and tipping points in the Late Devonian: Detection of the Hangenberg Event in an open oceanic island arc in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carmichael, A.; Waters, J. A.; Batchelor, C. J.; Coleman, D. M.; Suttner, T. J.; Kido, E.; Moore, L. M.; Chadimová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1 April (2016), s. 213-231 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Central Asian Orogenic Belt * chemostratigraphy * Devonian-Carboniferous * Hangenberg Event * West Junggar Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  12. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Coman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  14. Pollen spectrum, a cornerstone for tracing the evolution of the eastern Central Asian desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai-Qing; Xie, Gan; Li, Min; Li, Jin-Feng; Trivedi, Anjali; Ferguson, David K.; Yao, Yi-Feng; Wang, Yu-Fei

    2018-04-01

    The temperate desert in arid Central Asia (ACA) has acted as a thoroughfare for the ancient Silk Road and today's Belt and Road, linking economic and cultural exchanges between East and West. The interaction between human sustainable development and the dynamic change in the desert ecosystem in this region is an area of concern for governments and scientific communities. Nevertheless, the lack of a pollen spectrum of the dominant taxa within the temperate desert vegetation and a corresponding relation between pollen assemblages and specific desert vegetation types is an obstacle to further understanding the formation and maintenance of this desert ecosystem. In this work, we link pollen assemblages to specific desert vegetation types with a new pollen spectrum with specific pollen grains, specific plant taxa and related habitats, providing a solid foundation for further tracing the evolution of the desert ecosystem in eastern arid Central Asia.

  15. Central Asian integration as a way of guaranteeing regional security, economic growth, feasibility and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Najmitdinov, Ahadhon

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, CA countries are facing serious challenges. Their industries are slowly recovering from the disruption of “supplier-producer” ties among former Soviet republics and East European states. The transformation from centrally-planned economies into market oriented ones requires absolute reconsideration of political and economic values. The focus towards industrialization has been implemented. For instance, Uzbekistan is among the very few former USSR countries which have developed motor-...

  16. Manuscript of Marc Popovski about Tolstoyan movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolupaev Vladimir Evgen'yevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Publication of archival documents, i.e. manuscripts of Marc Popovski, a famous writer, journalist, human rights activist, dissident, and vice president of the organization “Writers in Exile” American branch of PEN. The manuscript is dedicated to the fate of Russian religious philosophical sect, Tolstoyan movement, in the Soviet period, its repressions and its eventual destruction.

  17. Timbuktu Rare Manuscripts Project: Promoting African partnerships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the Timbuktu Rare Manuscripts Project. The project is concerned with providing assistance to Mali in the conservation and preservation of the rich trove of manuscripts to be found in and around the immediate environs of Timbuktu. The project is a result of a bilateral agreement concluded between the ...

  18. Modulation of snow reflectance and snowmelt from Central Asian glaciers by anthropogenic black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Schwikowski, Margit; Farinotti, Daniel

    2017-01-12

    Deposited mineral dust and black carbon are known to reduce the albedo of snow and enhance melt. Here we estimate the contribution of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) to snowmelt in glacier accumulation zones of Central Asia based on in-situ measurements and modelling. Source apportionment suggests that more than 94% of the BC is emitted from mostly regional anthropogenic sources while the remaining contribution comes from natural biomass burning. Even though the annual deposition flux of mineral dust can be up to 20 times higher than that of BC, we find that anthropogenic BC causes the majority (60% on average) of snow darkening. This leads to summer snowmelt rate increases of up to 6.3% (7 cm a -1 ) on glaciers in three different mountain environments in Kyrgyzstan, based on albedo reduction and snowmelt models.

  19. Dust, Elemental Carbon and Other Impurities on Central Asian Glaciers: Origin and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, J.; Flanner, M.; Kang, S.; Sprenger, M.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Y.; Guo, J.; Schwikowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    In Central Asia, more than 60 % of the population depends on water stored in glaciers and mountain snow. While temperature, precipitation and dynamic processes are key drivers of glacial change, deposition of light absorbing impurities such as mineral dust and black carbon can lead to accelerated melting through surface albedo reduction. Here, we discuss the origin of deposited mineral dust and black carbon and their impacts on albedo change and radiative forcing (RF). 218 snow samples were taken from 13 snow pits on 4 glaciers, Abramov (Pamir), Suek, Glacier No. 354 and Golubin (Tien Shan), representing deposition between summer 2012 and 2014. They were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon by a thermo-optical method, mineral dust by gravimetry, and iron by ICP-MS. Back trajectory ensembles were released every 6 hours with the Lagranto model for the covered period at all sites. Boundary layer "footprints" were calculated to estimate general source regions and combined with MODIS fire counts for potential fire contributions. Albedo reduction due to black carbon and mineral dust was calculated with the Snow-Ice-Aerosol-Radiative model (SNICAR), and surface spectral irradiances were derived from atmospheric radiative transfer calculations to determine the RF under clear-sky and all sky conditions using local radiation measurements. Dust contributions came from Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Sahara and partly the Taklimakan. Fire contributions were higher in 2014 and generally came from the West and North. We find that EC exerts roughly 3 times more RF than mineral dust in fresh and relatively fresh snow (~5 W/m2) and up to 6 times more in snow that experienced melting (> 10 W/m2) even though EC concentrations (average per snow pit from 90 to 700 ng/g) were up to two orders of magnitude lower than mineral dust (10 to 140 μg/g).

  20. A Paleozoic Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Tian, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    Magmatic arcs ascribed to oceanic lithosphere subduction played a dominant role in the construction of the accretionary Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan orogenic collage, situated between the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Inner Mongolia Orogen to the east, is a key area to understanding the subduction and accretionary processes of the southern CAOB. However, the nature of magmatic arcs in the Beishan and the correlation among different tectonic units along the southern CAOB are highly ambiguous. In order to investigate the subduction-accretion history of the Beishan and put a better spatial and temporal relationship among the tectonic belts along the southern CAOB, we carried out detailed field-based structural geology and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological as well as geochemical studies along four cross-sections across crucial litho-tectonic units in the central segment of the Beishan, mainly focusing on the metamorphic assemblages and associated plutons and volcanic rocks. The results show that both the plutonic and volcanic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to those of subduction-related rocks, which favors a volcanic arc setting. Zircons from all the plutonic rocks yield Phanerozoic ages and the plutons have crystallization ages ranging from 464 ± 2 Ma to 398 ± 3 Ma. Two volcanic-sedimentary rocks yield zircons with a wide age range from Phanerozoic to Precambrian with the youngest age peaks at 441 Ma and 446 Ma, estimated to be the time of formation of the volcanic rocks. These new results, combined with published data on ophiolitic mélanges from the central segment of the Beishan, favor a Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Cambrian to Carboniferous in this part of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Xichangjing-Niujuanzi ophiolite probably represents a major suture zone separating different tectonic units across the Beishan orogenic collage, while the Xiaohuangshan-Jijitaizi ophiolitic mélange may represent a

  1. What Prevents Central Asian Migrant Workers from Accessing HIV Testing? Implications for Increasing HIV Testing Uptake in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Terloyeva, Dina; Primbetova, Sholpan; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    Several barriers prevent key populations, such as migrant workers, from accessing HIV testing. Using data from a cross-sectional study among Central Asian migrant workers (n = 623) in Kazakhstan, we examined factors associated with HIV testing. Overall, 48% of participants had ever received an HIV test. Having temporary registration (AOR 1.69; (95% CI [1.12-2.56]), having an employment contract (AOR 2.59; (95% CI [1.58-4.23]), being able to afford health care services (AOR 3.61; (95% CI [1.86-7.03]) having a medical check-up in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85; 95% CI [1.18-2.89]), and having a regular doctor (AOR 2.37; 95% CI [1.20-4.70]) were associated with having an HIV test. HIV testing uptake among migrants in Kazakhstan falls far short of UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Intervention strategies to increase HIV testing among this population may include initiatives that focus on improving outreach to undocumented migrants, making health care services more affordable, and linking migrants to health care.

  2. Missing Millions and Measuring Progress towards the Millenium Development Goals with a focus on Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Carr-Hill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In developing countries, population estimates and assessments of progress towards the Millenium Development Goals are based increasingly on household surveys.  It is not recognised that they are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor..  This is because they, typically, omit by design: those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations.  In addition, in practice, because they are difficult to reach, household surveys will typically under-represent: those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; those in urban slums, and may omit certain areas of a country deemed to pose a security risk. Those six sub-groups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the ‘poorest of the poor’. Methods This paper documents these omissions in general, drawing on worldwide literature about the theory and practice fo implementing censuses and household surveys; and shows how substantial proportions are missing from both censuses and the sample frames of surveys. Results This paper suggests that between 300 and 350 million will effectively be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of such surveys and from most censuses.  The impact on the health MDGs is illustrated for the five republics of the former Soviet Union making up Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan Conclusions It is impossible to assess progress towards or away from the MDGS in both the Central Asian Republics and worldwide.  It is urgent to find solutions to the problem of the ‘missing ‘ poor population sub-groups.

  3. Accreted seamounts in North Tianshan, NW China: Implications for the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaoxue; Li, Yongjun; Kerr, Andrew C.; Tong, Lili

    2018-03-01

    The Carboniferous Bayingou ophiolitic mélange is exposed in the North Tianshan accretionary complex in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The mélange is mainly composed of serpentinised ultramafic rocks (including harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, dunite and peridotite), pillowed and massive basalts, layered gabbros, radiolarian cherts, pelagic limestones, breccias and tuffs, and displays block-in-matrix structures. The blocks of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, basalts, cherts, and limestones are set in a matrix of serpentinised ultramafic rocks, massive basalts and tuffs. The basaltic rocks in the mélange show significant geochemical heterogeneity, and two compositional groups, one ocean island basalt-like, and the other mid-ocean ridge-like, can be distinguished on the basis of their isotopic compositions and immobile trace element contents (such as light rare earth element enrichment in the former, but depletion in the latter). The more-enriched basaltic rocks are interpreted as remnants/fragments of seamounts, derived from a deep mantle reservoir with low degrees (2-3%) of garnet lherzolite mantle melting. The depleted basalts most likely formed by melting of a shallower spinel lherzolite mantle source with ∼15% partial melting. It is probable that both groups owe their origin to melting of a mixture between plume and depleted MORB mantle. The results from this study, when integrated with previous work, indicate that the Junggar Ocean crust (comprising a significant number of seamounts) was likely to have been subducted southward beneath the Yili-Central Tianshan block in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous. The seamounts were scraped-off and accreted along with the oceanic crust in an accretionary wedge to form the Bayingou ophiolitic mélange. We present a model for the tectonomagmatic evolution of this portion of the CAOB involving prolonged intra-oceanic subduction with seamount accretion.

  4. Central Asian supra-glacier snow melt enhanced by anthropogenic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Farinotti, Daniel; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Lawrence, Mark; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    In Central Asia, more than 60 % of the population depends on water stored in glaciers and mountain snow. Densely populated areas near lower-lying mountain ranges are particularly vulnerable and a recent study showed that the region might lose 50 % of its glacier mass by 2050. While temperature, precipitation and dynamic processes are key drivers of glacial change, deposition of light absorbing impurities such as mineral dust and black carbon can lead to accelerated melting through surface albedo reduction. Here, we discuss the origin of deposited mineral dust and black carbon and their impacts on albedo change and snow melt. 218 snow samples were taken on 4 glaciers, Abramov (Pamir), Suek, Glacier No. 354 and Golubin (Tien Shan), representing deposition between summer 2012 and 2014. They were analyzed for elemental carbon, mineral dust and iron among other parameters. We find the elemental carbon concentration to be at the higher end of the range reported for neighboring mountain ranges between 70 and 502 ng g-1 (interquartile range). To investigate the origin of the snow impurities, we used a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, LAGRANTO. Back trajectory ensembles of 40 members with varied starting points to capture the meteorological spread were released every 6 hours for the covered period at all sites. "Footprints" were calculated and combined with emission inventories to estimate the relative contribution of anthropogenic and natural BC to deposited aerosol on the glaciers. We find that more than 94 % of BC is of anthropogenic origin and the major source region is Central Asia followed by the Middle East. Further exploring the implications of mineral dust and BC deposition, we calculate the snow albedo reduction with the Snow-Ice-Aerosol-Radiative model (SNICAR). Even though mineral dust concentrations were up to a factor of 50 higher than BC concentrations, BC dominates the albedo reduction. Using these results we calculate the snow melt induced by

  5. Preparing and Publishing a Scientific Manuscript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma R Jirge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Publishing original research in a peer-reviewed and indexed journal is an important milestone for a scientist or a clinician. It is an important parameter to assess academic achievements. However, technical and language barriers may prevent many enthusiasts from ever publishing. This review highlights the important preparatory steps for creating a good manuscript and the most widely used IMRaD (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion method for writing a good manuscript. It also provides a brief overview of the submission and review process of a manuscript for publishing in a biomedical journal.

  6. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.

  7. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  8. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  9. Cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasian and Central Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: On the first call for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and became the member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in the same year. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with other countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides building cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with related institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. The joint activities carried out mainly are given as follows: Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Application - First Conference organized in the year 2000 in Turkey, Second Conference at Almaty? in

  10. source files for manuscript in tex format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Source tex files used to create the manuscript including original figure files and raw data used in tables and inline text. This dataset is associated with the...

  11. Astronomical knowledge transmission through illustrated Aratea manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This carefully researched monograph is a historical investigation of the illustrated Aratea astronomical manuscript and its many interpretations over the centuries. Aratus' 270 B.C.E. Greek poem describing the constellations and astrological phenomena was translated and copied over 800 years into illuminated manuscripts that preserved and illustrated these ancient stories about the constellations. The Aratea survives in its entirety due to multiple translations from Greek to Latin and even to Arabic, with many illuminated versions being commissioned over the ages. The survey encompasses four interrelated disciplines: history of literature, history of myth, history of science, and history of art. Aratea manuscripts by their nature are a meeting place of these distinct branches, and the culling of information from historical literature and from the manuscripts themselves focuses on a wider, holistic view; a narrow approach could not provide a proper prospective. What is most essential to know about this work is...

  12. Geochemical evidence for Paleozoic crustal growth and tectonic conversion in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Zong, Keqing; He, Zhenyu; Klemd, Reiner; Jiang, Hongying; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Zeming

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan Orogenic Belt is located in the central southernmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of the CAOB. Granitoids are the documents of crustal and tectonic evolution in orogenic belts. However, little is known regarding the petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of the widely distributed Paleozoic granitoids in the Northern Beishan Orogenic Belt (NBOB). The present study reveals significant differences concerning the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of early and late Paleozoic granitoids from the NBOB. The early Paleozoic granitoids from the 446-430 Ma Hongliuxia granite complex of the Mazongshan unit and the 466-428 Ma Shibanjing complex of the Hanshan unit show classic I-type granite affinities as revealed by the relative enrichment of LILEs and LREEs, pronounced depletions of Nb, Ta and Ti and the abundant presence of hornblende. Furthermore, they are characterized by strongly variable zircon εHf(t) values between - 16.7 and + 12.8 and evolved plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7145-0.7253, indicating the involvement of both juvenile and ancient continental crust in the magma source. Thus, we propose that the early Paleozoic granitoids in the NBOB were generated in a subduction-related continental arc setting. In contrast, the late Paleozoic 330-281 Ma granitoids from the Shuangjingzi complex of the Hanshan unit exhibit positive zircon εHf(t) values between + 5.8 and + 13.2 and relatively depleted plagioclase Sr isotopic compositions of 0.7037-0.7072, indicating that they were mainly formed by remelting of juvenile crust. Thus, an intra-plate extensional setting is proposed to have occurred during formation of the late Paleozoic granitoids. Therefore, between the early and late Paleozoic, the magma sources of the NBOB granitoids converted from the reworking of both juvenile and ancient crusts during a subduction-induced compressional setting to the remelting of

  13. Manuscript Transcription by Crowdsourcing: Transcribe Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Moyle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcribe Bentham is testing the feasibility of outsourcing the work of manuscript transcription to members of the public. UCL Library Services holds 60,000 folios of manuscripts of the philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832. Transcribe Bentham will digitise 12,500 Bentham folios, and, through a wiki-based interface, allow volunteer transcribers to take temporary ownership of manuscript images and to create TEI-encoded transcription text for final approval by UCL experts. Approved transcripts will be stored and preserved, with the manuscript images, in UCL’s public Digital Collections repository. The project makes innovative use of traditional library material. It will stimulate public engagement with UCL’s scholarly archive collections and the challenges of palaeography and manuscript transcription; it will raise the profile of the work and thought of Jeremy Bentham; and it will create new digital resources for future use by professional researchers. Towards the end of the project, the transcription tool will be made available to other projects and services. This paper is based on a presentation given by the lead author at LIBER’s 39th Annual General Conference in Aarhus, Denmark, 2010.

  14. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  15. Sedimentary records on the subduction-accretion history of the Russian Altai, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2017-04-01

    The Russian Altai, comprising the northern segment of the Altai-Mongolian terrane (AM) in the south, the Gorny Altai terrane (GA) in the north and the intervening Charysh-Terekta-Ulagan-Sayan suture zone, is a key area of the northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). A combined geochemical and detrital zircon study was conducted on the (meta-)sedimentary sequences from the Russian Altai to reveal the tectono-magmatic history of these two terranes and their amalgamation history, which in turn place constraints on the accretionary orogenesis and crustal growth in the CAOB. The Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern AM are dominated by immature sediments possibly sourced from intermediate-felsic igneous rocks. Geochemical data show that the sediments were likely deposited in a continental arc-related setting. Zircons separated from these rocks are mainly 566-475 Ma and 1015-600 Ma old, comparable to the magmatic records of the Tuva-Mongolian terrane and surrounding island arcs in the western Mongolia. The similar source nature, provenance and depositional setting of these rocks to the counterparts from the Chinese Altai (i.e., the southern AM) imply that the whole AM possibly represents a coherent accretionary prism of the western Mongolia in the early Paleozoic rather than a Precambrian continental block with passive marginal deposition as previously thought. In contrast, the Cambrian to Silurian (meta-)sedimentary rocks from the GA are characterized by a unitary zircon population with ages of 640-470 Ma, which were potentially sourced from the Kuznetsk-Altai intra-oceanic island arc in the east of this terrane. The low abundance of 640-540 Ma zircons (5%) may attest that this arc was under a primitive stage in the late Neoproterozoic, when mafic igneous rocks dominated. However, the voluminous 530-470 Ma zircons (95%) suggest that this arc possibly evolved toward a mature one in the Cambrian to early Ordovician with increasing amount of

  16. The manuscript of Kartoteka (Card Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Władysław Solski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 70s Tadeusz Różewicz presented the manuscript of Card Index to Professor Józef Kelera. It might have stayed a secret of friendship of the dramatist and the critic, however, Różewicz revealed the initials of his friend when in a commenatry to the play, he posed a question, whether there was a full stop after the last word in the manuscript or not? Posing this question, the author claimed the integrality of his masterpiece which was threatened by the widespread interpretations of Card Index as a play of a loose and dispersed structure. Appreciating the value of this question, I turned to Professor Kelera. This way I have had an access to the autograph of the play. In this manuscript has been preserved the play from before its final editing, which its author must surely have made during typing the text. Handwritten notes contain two unknown versions of the play with fragments which would not have been passed by the censors in the then Polish People’s Republic. In the reading of the manuscript the functions of the word and its graphic shape appeared of equal importance, so this version of Card Index can be recognised as a masterpiece of literature.

  17. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  18. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since AD 1300, involving: (1) a well-dated, 1.5-year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China (2) links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet conditions, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China (3) correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variation. We present a highly precise, 230Th / U-dated, 1.5-year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in the Wuling Mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents indicates that (1) the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions in the Wuling Mountain area. (2) A stronger East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) enhances the tropical monsoon trough controlled by ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), which produces higher spring quarter rainfall and isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the central China. (3) The summer quarter/spring quarter rainfall ratio in central China can be a potential indicator of the EASM strength: a lower ratio corresponds to stronger EASM and higher spring rainfall. The ratio changed from 1 after 1950, reflecting that the summer quarter rainfall of the study area became dominant under stronger influence of the Northwestern Pacific High. Eastern China temperatures varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperatures under stronger solar irradiation, which produced stronger summer monsoons. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating a weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal timescales. On an interannual timescale, dry conditions in the study area prevailed under El Niño conditions, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record

  19. The Kalatongke magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China: product of slab window magmatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chusi; Zhang, Mingjie; Fu, Piaoer; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    The Permian Kalatongke Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt are among the most important Ni-Cu deposits in northern Xinjiang, western China. The deposits are hosted by three small mafic intrusions comprising mainly norite and diorite. Its tectonic context, petrogenesis, and ore genesis have been highly contested. In this paper, we present a new model involving slab window magmatism for the Kalatongke intrusions. The origin of the associated sulfide ores is explained in the context of this new model. Minor amounts of olivine in the intrusions have Fo contents varying between 71 and 81.5 mol%, which are similar to the predicted values for olivine crystallizing from coeval basalts in the region. Analytic modeling based on major element concentrations suggests that the parental magma of the Kalatongke intrusions and the coeval basalts represent fractionated liquids produced by ˜15% of olivine crystallization from a primary magma, itself produced by 7-8% partial melting of depleted mantle peridotite. Positive ɛ Nd values (+4 to +10) and significant negative Nb anomalies for both intrusive and extrusive rocks can be explained by the mixing of magma derived from depleted mantle with 6-18% of a partial melt derived from the lower part of a juvenile arc crust with a composition similar to coeval A-type granites in the region, plus up to 10% contamination with the upper continental crust. Our model suggests that a slab window was created due to slab break-off during a transition from oceanic subduction to arc-arc or arc-continent collision in the region in the Early Permian. Decompression melting in the upwelling oceanic asthenosphere produced the primary magma. When this magma ascended to pond in the lower parts of a juvenile arc crust, it underwent olivine crystallization and at the same time triggered partial melting of the arc crust. Mixing between these two magmas followed by contamination with the upper crust after the magma ascended to higher crustal

  20. `The Iranian connection`: the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran; La geoeconomia delle esportazioni asiatiche: `l`iranian connection`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1998-03-01

    Of the possible routes to connect Caucasian and Central Asian oil to market, the `Iranian connection` is the most interesting. The economic attraction of the Iranian route is clear: large transport capacities exist in the various pieces of Iran`s existing network, large refining centers are located near the Caspian and there ate unutilized export terminals. [Italiano] Tra le vie possibili per assicurare uno sbocco ai mercati al petrolio caucasico e dell`Asia centrale, la `via iraniana` e` la piu` interessante. L`attrazione economica di questa via e` chiara: nel sistema di oleodotti dell`Iran sussistono ampie capacita` di trasporto, grandi centri de raffinazione sono localizzati vicino al Caspio e ci sono terminali di esportazione non utilizzati.

  1. Central Asian ‘Characteristics’ on China’s New Silk Road: The Role of Landscape and the Politics of Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Sternberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available China’s $1 trillion One Belt, One Road (OBOR infrastructure project has significant landscape, socio-economic, and political implications in recipient countries. To date, investigation has focused on Chinese motivation and plans rather than OBOR impact in host nations. This paper examines the programme from the perspective of two Central Asian states—Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan—that are at the heart of OBOR. We identify geographical factors that constrain infrastructure, recognise geopolitical contestation between Russia and China, address historical and cultural factors, and consider issues of institutional capacity and marginality that may be impediments to China’s initiative. The discussion then focuses on how OBOR may play out in Central Asian landscapes and suggests how to conceive and address the unprecedented transformation in the region’s built environment. Critical issues are that OBOR has not been grounded in the physical geography, practical understanding of OBOR’s impacts is missing, and the state-citizen-China nexus remains unexplored. As pivot nations, OBOR implementation in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan will showcase the Chinese programme’s strengths and highlight its weaknesses.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  3. Improving the efficiency of manuscript selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abrain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Science relies strongly on the publication of articles in scientific journals and it is clear that decisions concer¬ning which papers merit publishing should be based on a process of manuscript selection that is as objective, repeatable, reliable and transparent as possible. Manuscript selection, however, has many practical downfalls. There is considerable controversy concerning issues such as whether or not the process should be blind both for authors and reviewers in order to prevent biased selection in relation to country of origin (Budden et al., 2008, sex (Young et al. 2008 or research topic (Michaels, 2008. Another critical point is the imbalance between supply and demand of manuscripts as this likely leads to biased selection (Young et al., 2008. Also important is the issue that following rejection, the editor and reviewers of the new journal selected for would-be publication by the authors start the process from scratch, as if the opus had not already passed through a thorough process of peer review. Such rules of play seem to promote the role of sheer luck in the process of manuscript selection. Authors of a rejected paper have the growing hope of "greater luck" the next time regarding reviewer assignment as they believe in the quality of their work. For the correct advancement of science I consider there should be a common global database available to editors, where each manuscript which has been subjected to an SCI journal is recorded. It should include a copy of the editor’s and reviewers’ comments, and also the authors’ replies. Hochberg et al. (2009 recently expressed their concern regarding the fact that authors usually think that manuscript submittal is a stochastic process, whereas in fact reviewers usually focus on the same set of criticisms. To solve this problem they suggest a having colleagues reviewing a manuscript before submission, and b requiring authors to state in a cover letter that reviewer comments from the

  4. Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers, the underappreciated contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Lucy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers We and the Editorial Board acknowledge and thank all reviewers for their active participation and contribution during 2012. We greatly appreciate their dedication and behind the scenes contribution. It is largely due to their support and expertise that we have been able to publish high-standard manuscripts. We would also like to thank authors for choosing Nutrition & Metabolism and contributing their cherished work.

  5. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet condition since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    Highlight: this paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since 1300 AD, involving: 1. A well-dated, 1.5 year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China; 2. Links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet condition, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China; 3. Correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO index. We present a highly precisely 230Th/U dated, 1.5 year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in Wuling mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents exhibits at least 15 drought events in the Wuling mountain and adjacent areas during the Little Ice Age, in which some of them were corresponding to megadrought events in the broad Asian monsoonal region of China. Thus, the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon precipitation and dry-wet condition in Wuling mountain area. The eastern China temperature varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperature under stronger solar irradiation which produces stronger summer monsoon. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal time scales. On interannual time scale, dry conditions in the studying area were prevailing under El Niño condition, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record illustrates the linkage of Asian summer monsoon precipitation to solar irradiation and ENSO: wetter condition under stronger summer monsoon during warm periods and vice versa; During cold periods, the Walker circulation will shift toward central Pacific under El Niño condition, resulting further weakening of Asian summer monsoon. However, the δ18O of LHD1 record is positively correlated with temperature after ~1940 AD which is opposite to the

  6. Comparison of climate change signals in CMIP3 and CMIP5 multi-model ensembles and implications for Central Asian glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Lutz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian water resources largely depend on melt water generated in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges. To estimate future water availability in this region, it is necessary to use climate projections to estimate the future glacier extent and volume. In this study, we evaluate the impact of uncertainty in climate change projections on the future glacier extent in the Amu and Syr Darya river basins. To this end we use the latest climate change projections generated for the upcoming IPCC report (CMIP5 and, for comparison, projections used in the fourth IPCC assessment (CMIP3. With these projections we force a regionalized glacier mass balance model, and estimate changes in the basins' glacier extent as a function of the glacier size distribution in the basins and projected temperature and precipitation. This glacier mass balance model is specifically developed for implementation in large scale hydrological models, where the spatial resolution does not allow for simulating individual glaciers and data scarcity is an issue. Although the CMIP5 ensemble results in greater regional warming than the CMIP3 ensemble and the range in projections for temperature as well as precipitation is wider for the CMIP5 than for the CMIP3, the spread in projections of future glacier extent in Central Asia is similar for both ensembles. This is because differences in temperature rise are small during periods of maximum melt (July–September while differences in precipitation change are small during the period of maximum accumulation (October–February. However, the model uncertainty due to parameter uncertainty is high, and has roughly the same importance as uncertainty in the climate projections. Uncertainty about the size of the decline in glacier extent remains large, making estimates of future Central Asian glacier evolution and downstream water availability uncertain.

  7. A geochemical record of the link between chemical weathering and the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Holocene preserved in lacustrine sediments from Poyang Lake, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Wei, Gangjian; Li, Wuxian; Liu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents relatively high-resolution geochemical records spanning the past 4000 cal yr BP obtained from the lacustrine sediments of Poyang Lake in central China. The variations in the intensity of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are traced using the K/Na, Ti/Na, Al/K, kaolinite/illite and clay/feldspar ratios, together with the chemical index of alteration (CIA), as indicators of chemical weathering. During the last 4000 years, the proxy records of chemical weathering from Poyang Lake exhibit an overall enhanced trend, consistent with regional hydrological changes in previous independent records. Further comparisons and analyses demonstrate that regional moisture variations in central China is inversely correlated with the EASM intensity, with weak EASM generating high precipitation in central China. Our data reveal three intervals of dramatically dry climatic conditions (i.e., ca. 4000-3200 cal yr BP, ca. 2800-2400 cal yr BP, and ca. 500-200 cal yr BP). A period of weak chemical weathering, related to cold and dry climatic conditions, occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), whereas more intense chemical weathering, reflecting warm and humid climatic conditions, was recorded during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Besides, an intensification of chemical weathering in Poyang Lake during the late Holocene agrees well with strong ENSO activity, suggesting that moisture variations in central China may be predominantly driven by ENSO variability.

  8. The early mathematical manuscripts of Leibniz

    CERN Document Server

    Leibniz, G W

    2005-01-01

    The manuscripts and correspondence of Leibniz possess a special interest: they are invaluable as aids to the study of their author's part in the invention and development of the infinitesimal calculus. In addition, the main ideas behind Leibniz's philosophical theories lay here, in his mathematical work.This volume consists of two sections. The first part features Leibniz's own accounts of his work, and the second section comprises critical and historical notes and essays. An informative Introduction leads to the ""postscript"" to Leibniz's 1703 letter to James Bernoulli, his ""Historia et Ori

  9. D'Nealian Manuscript--An Aid to Reading Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Donald N.

    A new method of continuous stroke manuscript print called D'Nealian Manuscript is challenging the traditional circle-stick method of teaching children how to write. The circle-stick uses component or splinter parts to form whole letters. Children are forced to form all writing with verticle lines and to learn a manuscript print that goes nowhere.…

  10. Árni Magnússon's rearrangement of paper manuscripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Beeke

    Árni Magnússon’s rearrangement of paper manuscripts draws attention to the early history of Árni Magnússon’s (1663-1730) manuscript collection. The thesis examines Árni’s extensive rearrangement of paper manuscripts, showing that he repeatedly altered the physical composition of codices in his...

  11. A guide for digitising manuscript climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brönnimann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand-written or printed manuscript data are an important source for paleo-climatological studies, but bringing them into a suitable format can be a time consuming adventure with uncertain success. Before digitising such data (e.g., in the context a specific research project, it is worthwhile spending a few thoughts on the characteristics of the data, the scientific requirements with respect to quality and coverage, the metadata, and technical aspects such as reproduction techniques, digitising techniques, and quality control strategies. Here we briefly discuss the most important considerations according to our own experience and describe different methods for digitising numeric or text data (optical character recognition, speech recognition, and key entry. We present a tentative guide that is intended to help others compiling the necessary information and making the right decisions.

  12. Manuscripts on foundation of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-01

    It is comprised of the manuscripts and recollections on foundation of Korea nuclear power, which includes conversation with Yoon, Se Won, conversation with Choe, Paeng Seop, conversation with Lee, Dong Jip, conversation with Lee, Sang Su, conversation with Kim, Jong Ju, conversation with Lee, Jong Hun, conversation with Youn, Yong Ryeok, conversation with Han, Pil Sun, recollection of my nuclear power by Lee, Chang Gun, recollection of safety regulation in early nuclear power by An, Yeong Ju, recollection of nuclear business in early nuclear power by Lee, Min Ha, recollection of non destructive examination by Je, Hauk, extra story related nuclear power in early period by Heo, Nam and nuclear power and I by Park,Ik Su.

  13. Long-term profiling of mineral dust and pollution aerosol with multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar at the Central Asian site of Dushanbe, Tajikistan: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hofer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, continuous vertically resolved aerosol measurements were performed by lidar in Tajikistan, Central Asia. Observations with the multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar PollyXT were conducted during CADEX (Central Asian Dust EXperiment in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, from March 2015 to August 2016. Co-located with the lidar, a sun photometer was also operated. The goal of CADEX is to provide an unprecedented data set on vertically resolved aerosol optical properties in Central Asia, an area highly affected by climate change but largely missing vertically resolved aerosol measurements. During the 18-month measurement campaign, mineral dust was detected frequently from ground to the cirrus level height. In this study, an overview of the measurement period is given and four typical but different example measurement cases are discussed in detail. Three of them are dust cases and one is a contrasting pollution aerosol case. Vertical profiles of the measured optical properties and the calculated dust and non-dust mass concentrations are presented. Dust source regions were identified by means of backward trajectory analyses. A lofted layer of Middle Eastern dust with an aerosol optical thickness (AOT of 0.4 and an extinction-related Ångström exponent of 0.41 was measured. In comparison, two near-ground dust cases have Central Asian sources. One is an extreme dust event with an AOT of 1.5 and Ångström exponent of 0.12 and the other one is a most extreme dust event with an AOT of above 4 (measured by sun photometer and an Ångström exponent of −0.08. The observed lidar ratios (and particle linear depolarization ratios in the presented dust cases range from 40.3 to 46.9 sr (and 0.18–0.29 at 355 nm and from 35.7 to 42.9 sr (0.31–0.35 at 532 nm wavelength. The particle linear depolarization ratios indicate almost unpolluted dust in the case of a lofted dust layer and pure dust in the near-ground dust cases. The lidar ratio

  14. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  15. Tertiary montane origin of the Central Asian flora, evidence inferred from cpDNA sequences of Atraphaxis (Polygonaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Yan-Xia Sun; Byalt V. Vyacheslav; Xiao-Li Hao

    2014-01-01

    Atraphaxis has approximately 25 species and a distribution center in Central Asia. It has been previously used to hypothesize an origin from montane forest. We sampled 18 species covering three sections within the genus and sequenced five cpDNA spacers, atpB-rbcL, psbK-psbI, psbAtrnH, rbcL, and trnL-trnF. BEAST was used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationship and time...

  16. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  17. Irish Culinary Manuscripts and Printed Books:a Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Cashman, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of Irish Culinary Manuscripts and Printed Cookbooks. It covers Gaelic hospitality and aristocratic hospitality, setting the background for the Anglo-Irish households from which many manuscripts emerge. It charts the growing sources of information on Irish culinary history. It outlines Barbara Wheaton's framework for reading historic cookbooks and discusses the growing manuscript cookbook collection in the National Library of Ireland.

  18. Conservation Action Based on Threatened Species Capture Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Richness in Breeding and Wintering Populations of Central Asian Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Manuel; Ayé, Raffael; Kashkarov, Roman; Roth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetic diversity has been suggested to be relevant from a conservation point of view, its role is still limited in applied nature conservation. Recently, the practice of investing conservation resources based on threatened species was identified as a reason for the slow integration of phylogenetic diversity in nature conservation planning. One of the main arguments is based on the observation that threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree. However this argument seems to dismiss the fact that conservation action is a spatially explicit process, and even if threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree, the occurrence of threatened species could still indicate areas with above average phylogenetic diversity and consequently could protect phylogenetic diversity. Here we aim to study the selection of important bird areas in Central Asia, which were nominated largely based on the presence of threatened bird species. We show that although threatened species occurring in Central Asia do not capture phylogenetically more distinct species than expected by chance, the current spatially explicit conservation approach of selecting important bird areas covers above average taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of breeding and wintering birds. We conclude that the spatially explicit processes of conservation actions need to be considered in the current discussion of whether new prioritization methods are needed to complement conservation action based on threatened species. PMID:25337861

  19. Preparing a scientific manuscript in Linux: Today's possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Schmitto, Jan D

    2011-10-22

    Increasing number of scientists are enthusiastic about using free, open source software for their research purposes. Authors' specific goal was to examine whether a Linux-based operating system with open source software packages would allow to prepare a submission-ready scientific manuscript without the need to use the proprietary software. Preparation and editing of scientific manuscripts is possible using Linux and open source software. This letter to the editor describes key steps for preparation of a publication-ready scientific manuscript in a Linux-based operating system, as well as discusses the necessary software components. This manuscript was created using Linux and open source programs for Linux.

  20. Movements of Wild Ruddy Shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and Their Spatial Relationship to Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott H. Newman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea, a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease.

  1. Movements of wild ruddy shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and their spatial relationship to outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Collins, Bridget M.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Baoping, Yan; Luo, Ze; Hou, Yuansheng; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Li, Yongdong; Newman, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease.

  2. Alcohol and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Male Central Asian Labor Migrants and Non-migrants in Kazakhstan: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Marotta, Phillip L

    2017-11-01

    This paper examines the association between alcohol consumption and sexual risk behaviors (unprotected sex, multiple sex partners, sex under influence of drugs or alcohol and commercial sex) in a sample of Central Asian migrant and non-migrant laborers in the largest marketplace in Kazakhstan. We used data from The Silk Road Health Project, conducted from 2010 to 2013 with 1342 male migrant and non-migrant market workers. Participants were selected through respondent driven sampling at the Baraholka Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan. We used regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior. We found that hazardous drinking was associated with an increase in the odds of sex under the influence of drugs (aOR = 6.09, 95% CI 3.48, 10.65; p < .001) and purchasing commercial sex (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.02, 4.02; p < .05). We identified potential targets for HIV interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors among this key population.

  3. Paleomagnetic data for Siberia and Baltica in the context of testing some geodynamic models of the formation of the Central Asian Mobile Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatsillo, A. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Dronov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The synthesis of the paleomagnetic data for the Siberian (Siberia) and East European (Baltica) platforms shows that since the Early Paleozoic they could have experienced coherent movements as a part of consolidated continental agglomeration (a composite continent), which also includes the Arctida continent. Based on the paleomagnetic data, the relative positions of the Siberia and Baltica during the Ordovician is reconstructed, and a series of paleogeographical reconstructions describing the drift of the composite continent is suggested. The results of the lithologic-facial analysis of the sedimentation settings within the Ordovician basins of the Siberian and East European platforms and paleoclimatic markers are consistent with the suggested configuration and paleogeographical position of the composite continent. The suggested reconstructions and the ages of detrital zircons from the Early Paleozoic complexes of the platform margins and some objects of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (CAMB) reasonably well agree with the hypothesis (Sengör et al., 1993) which interprets the formation of the structure of CAMB Paleozoides as a result of the evolution of the island arc stretching along the margins of Siberia and Baltica.

  4. Eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites in the Anrakhai complex, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Southern Kazakhstan: P-T evolution, protoliths and some geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilitsyna, Anfisa V.; Tretyakov, Andrey A.; Degtyarev, Kirill E.; Cuthbert, Simon J.; Batanova, Valentina G.; Kovalchuk, Elena V.

    2018-03-01

    The Anrakhai Metamorphic Complex (AMC), located in the SE part of the Chu-Ili Mountains of Southern Kazakhstan in the western part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt, exhibits occurrences of HP metamorphic rocks in the form of eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites with peak metamorphic conditions of 750-850° and 15-19 kbar estimated with both conventional geothermobarometric methods and phase diagram modeling. P-T estimates as well as intimate field relations evidently imply a common metamorphic history for eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites of the AMC. These high-pressure, medium temperature eclogite facies P-T conditions are indicative of a collision or subduction tectonic setting. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that they probably had a common magmatic origin as part of a suite of differentiated tholeiitic intrusions. Furthermore, distinctive mineral and chemical compositions of these eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites correspond to the Fe-Ti type of ultramafic rocks suggesting that they may have been derivatives of intraplate tholeiitic melts, introduced into continental crust before HP metamorphism.

  5. Tok-Algoma magmatic complex of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain in the Central Asian fold belt: Age and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A. B.; Larin, A. M.; Salnikova, E. B.; Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Anisimova, I. V.; Tolmacheva, E. V.

    2012-05-01

    According to the results of U-Pb geochronological investigations, the hornblende subalkali diorite rocks making up the Tok-Algoma Complex in the eastern part of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain of the Central Asian fold belt were formed in the Middle Jurassic rather than in the Middle Archean as was suggested previously. Thus, the age of the regional amphibolite facies metamorphism manifested itself in the Ust'-Gilyui rock sequence of the Stanovoi Complex and that superimposed on granitoids of the Tok-Algoma Complex is Mesozoic rather than Early Precambrian. The geochemical features of the Tok-Algoma granitoids are indicative of the fact that they were formed in the geodynamic setting of the active continental margin or a mature island arc. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the subduction processes along the southern boundary between the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain and the Mongolian-Okhotsk ocean basin in the Middle Jurassic resulted in the formation of a magmatic belt of over 500 km in length.

  6. Main types and metallogenetic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in central asian mobile belt and its neighbouring area, and the study on prospecting direction of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Chengming

    2007-01-01

    Based on the study of geotectonic setting, formation evolution model and metallogenic characteristics of uranium productive basins, important sandstone-type uranium deposits in Central Asian mobile belt and neighbouring area are divided into five types. The statial distribution pattern of different sandstone-type uranium deposits is analyzed in detail. Geotectonic setting and metallogenetic characteristics are discussed. Finally, the characteristics of basin geodynamics, prospecting type and ore-bearing stratigraphy in Northwest China have been proposed. (authors)

  7. HOW TO DEVELOP A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION PLAN (SEAP) IN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP AND CENTRAL ASIAN CITIES ─ GUIDEBOOK. PART I - THE SEAP PROCESS, STEP-BY-STEP TOWARDS THE -20% TARGET BY 2020

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; MELICA GIULIA; PAINA FEDERICA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO; PANEV STRAHIL; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present guidebook is to help the Covenant of Mayors signatories in Eastern Partnership countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) and five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) to reach the commitments they have taken by signing the Covenant, and in particular to prepare within the year following their official adhesion a Baseline Emission Inventory (BEI) and a Sustainable Energy Act...

  8. Organising a manuscript reporting quality improvement or patient safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmueller, Christine G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Peer-reviewed publication plays important roles in disseminating research findings, developing generalisable knowledge and garnering recognition for authors and institutions. Nonetheless, many bemoan the whole manuscript writing process, intimidated by the arbitrary and somewhat opaque conventions. This paper offers practical advice about organising and writing a manuscript reporting quality improvement or patient safety research for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Each section of the paper discusses a specific manuscript component-from title, abstract and each section of the manuscript body, through to reference list and tables and figures-explaining key principles, offering content organisation tips and providing an example of how this section may read. The paper also offers a checklist of common mistakes to avoid in a manuscript.

  9. Elucidating tectonic events and processes from variably tectonized conglomerate clast detrital geochronology: examples from the Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleven, Nathan; Lin, Shoufa; Davis, Donald; Xiao, Wenjiao; Guilmette, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work expands upon detrital zircon geochronology with a sampling and analysis strategy dating granitoid conglomerate clasts that exhibit differing degrees of internal ductile deformation. As deformation textures within clastic material reflect the variation and history of tectonization in the source region of a deposit, we outline a dating methodology that can provide details of the provenance's tectonomagmatic history from deformation-relative age distributions. The method involves bulk samples of solely granitoid clasts, as they are representative of the magmatic framework within the provenance. The clasts are classified and sorted into three subsets: undeformed, slightly deformed, and deformed. LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is performed on zircon separates of each subset. Our case study, involving the Permian Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, analyzes each of the three clast subsets, as well as sandstone detrital samples, at three stratigraphic levels to yield a profile of the unroofed provenance. The age spectra of the clast samples exhibit different, wider distributions than sandstone samples, considered an effect of proximity to the respective provenance. Comparisons of clast data to sandstone data, as well as comparisons between stratigraphic levels, yield indications of key tectonic processes, in addition to the typical characteristics provided by detrital geochronology. The clast data indicates a minimal lag time, implying rapid exhumation rates, whereas sandstone data alone would indicate a 90 m.y. lag time. Early Paleozoic arc building episodes appear as Ordovician peaks in sandstone data, and Silurian-Devonian peaks in clast data, indicating a younging of magmatism towards the proximal provenance. A magmatic hiatus starts in the Devonian, correlating with the latest age of deformed clasts, interpreted as timing of collisional tectonics. Provenance interpretation using the correlations seen between the clast and sandstone

  10. The first evidence for vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] in a litter of Central Asian Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J Mierzejewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Tick-borne infections constitute an increasing health problem in dogs and may lead to death, especially in young or elderly individuals. Canine babesiosis constitutes a serious health problem in dogs worldwide. The aim of the study was to verify the probability of vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] between the bitch and the pups. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In Autumn 2011, cases of babesiosis were diagnosed in a litter of 6-week-old puppies of a Central Asian Shepherd dog. Immediately following the first case of infection, blood samples were collected from all the pups in the litter (n=10 and from the female. Detection of Babesia infection was performed by molecular and microscopical techniques. [b]Results.[/b] The presence of[i] B. canis [/i]DNA was detected using PCR in three pups, presenting at the time or 24–48 hours later with babesiosis symptoms, and in their asymptomatic mother. The isolates derived from the pups and the female – 520 bp 18S rRNA gene fragment – were compared and analyzed. All isolates from the pups and their mother were identical and showed 100% homology with [i]B. canis[/i] group B (EU622793, supporting the same source of infection. Additionally, the USG of the peritoneal cavity was performed in the female, presenting evidence for splenomegaly. [b]Conclusions.[/b] On the basis of (1 the same timing of three pup cases; (2 the identical [i]B. canis[/i] sequences derived from all positive dogs; (3 evident splenomegaly in the asymptomatic female, this provides the first evidence of the vertical transmission of this piroplasm in dogs.

  11. Folded Basinal Compartments of the Southern Mongolian Borderland: A Structural Archive of the Final Consolidation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Cunningham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB records multiple Phanerozoic tectonic events involving consolidation of disparate terranes and cratonic blocks and subsequent reactivation of Eurasia’s continental interior. The final amalgamation of the CAOB terrane collage involved diachronous closure of the Permian-Triassic Solonker suture in northernmost China and the Jurassic Mongol-Okhotsk suture in northeast Mongolia and eastern Siberia. The distribution, style, and kinematics of deformation associated with these two terminal collision events is poorly documented in southern Mongolia and northernmost China because these regions were later tectonically overprinted by widespread Cretaceous basin and range-style crustal extension and Miocene-recent sinistral transpressional mountain building. These younger events structurally compartmentalized the crust into uplifted crystalline basement blocks and intermontane basins. Consequently, widespread Cretaceous and Late Cenozoic clastic sedimentary deposits overlie older Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks in most basinal areas and obscure the deformation record associated with Permian-Triassic Solonker and Jurassic Mongol-Okhotsk collisional suturing. In this report, satellite image mapping of basinal compartments that expose folded Permian-Jurassic sedimentary successions that are unconformably overlapped by Cretaceous-Quaternary clastic sediments is presented for remote and poorly studied regions of southern Mongolia and two areas of the Beishan. The largest folds are tens of kilometers in strike length, east-west trending, and reveal north-south Late Jurassic shortening (present coordinates. Late Jurassic fold vergence is dominantly northerly in the southern Gobi Altai within a regional-scale fold-and-thrust belt. Local refolding of older Permian north-south trending folds is also evident in some areas. The folds identified and mapped in this study provide new evidence for the regional distribution and

  12. Correlates between Models of Virulence for Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Isolates of the Central Asian Lineage: a Case for Lysozyme Resistance Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Nicola; Clark, Simon O.; Hooper, Richard; Williams, Ann; Velji, Preya; Gonzalo, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    Virulence factors (VFs) contribute to the emergence of new human Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, are lineage dependent, and are relevant to the development of M. tuberculosis drugs/vaccines. VFs were sought within M. tuberculosis lineage 3, which has the Central Asian (CAS) spoligotype. Three isolates were selected from clusters previously identified as dominant in London, United Kingdom. Strain-associated virulence was studied in guinea pig, monocyte-derived macrophage, and lysozyme resistance assays. Whole-genome sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and a literature review contributed to the identification of SNPs of interest. The animal model revealed borderline differences in strain-associated pathogenicity. Ex vivo, isolate C72 exhibited statistically significant differences in intracellular growth relative to C6 and C14. SNP candidates inducing lower fitness levels included 123 unique nonsynonymous SNPs, including three located in genes (lysX, caeA, and ponA2) previously identified as VFs in the laboratory-adapted reference strain H37Rv and shown to confer lysozyme resistance. C72 growth was most affected by lysozyme in vitro. A BLAST search revealed that all three SNPs of interest (C35F, P76Q, and P780R) also occurred in Tiruvallur, India, and in Uganda. Unlike C72, however, no single isolate identified through BLAST carried all three SNPs simultaneously. CAS isolates representative of three medium-sized human clusters demonstrated differential outcomes in models commonly used to estimate strain-associated virulence, supporting the idea that virulence varies within, not just across, M. tuberculosis lineages. Three VF SNPs of interest were identified in two additional locations worldwide, which suggested independent selection and supported a role for these SNPs in virulence. The relevance of lysozyme resistance to strain virulence remains to be established. PMID:25776753

  13. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  14. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is

  15. Towards the implementation of a system for manuscript editor certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Style and format are important criteria for evaluating a journal and indexing it in major databases. In Korean science, technology, and medical journals, interest in manuscript editing has increased over the past seven to eight years, and the responsibilities of manuscript editors have expanded as well. However, since no clear standards for the roles and qualifications for manuscript editors are yet available, a formal certification system is needed to establish appropriate standards and to provide professional training. To identify ways of developing a manuscript editor certification program in Korea, this study investigated similar certification programs in and outside the country and surveyed 195 Korean editors, manuscript editors, publishers, and medical librarians. The survey revealed that manuscript editors were necessary (mean score of 4.38 on a five-point Likert scale, with a score of 5 indicating strong agreement, and that their main contributions were efficiently managing the editorial board, improving the accuracy of references, and accelerating the editing process. The respondents were also positive about the possibility of implementing a manuscript editor certification; 45.1% showed interest in becoming certified, and 47.1% reported interest in hiring a certified manuscript editor. Regarding the system for issuing certification, respondents favored a professional training course (53.1%, validation of work experience (27.1%, or an examination (16.8%. This study concludes that it is essential to establish a formal certification program to train manuscript editors properly, and an examination system is the most efficient and suitable method for managing the certification process.

  16. Writing biomedical manuscripts part I: fundamentals and general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwovoriole, A E

    2011-01-01

    It is a professional obligation for health researchers to investigate and communicate their findings to the medical community. The writing of a publishable scientific manuscript can be a daunting task for the beginner and to even some established researchers. Many manuscripts fail to get off the ground and/or are rejected. The writing task can be made easier and the quality improved by using and following simple rules and leads that apply to general scientific writing .The manuscript should follow a standard structure:(e.g. (Abstract) plus Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion/Conclusion, the IMRAD model. The authors must also follow well established fundamentals of good communication in science and be systematic in approach. The manuscript must move from what is currently known to what was unknown that was investigated using a hypothesis, research question or problem statement. Each section has its own style of structure and language of presentation. The beginning of writing a good manuscript is to do a good study design and to pay attention to details at every stage. Many manuscripts are rejected because of errors that can be avoided if the authors follow simple guidelines and rules. One good way to avoid potential disappointment in manuscript writing is to follow the established general rules along with those of the journal in which the paper is to be published. An important injunction is to make the writing precise, clear, parsimonious, and comprehensible to the intended audience. The purpose of this article is to arm and encourage potential biomedical authors with tools and rules that will enable them to write contemporary manuscripts, which can stand the rigorous peer review process. The expectations of standard journals, and common pitfalls the major elements of a manuscript are covered.

  17. An evolving tectonic environment of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian granitic plutons in the Chinese Altai and Eastern Junggar terranes, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Dongdong; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Zhang, Yunzhao; Zhu, Deyu; Wang, Pengfei; Dai, Quanqi

    2018-06-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) represents one of the most important sites of juvenile crustal growth during the Phanerozoic. Located in the central part of the CAOB, the Chinese Altai and Eastern Junggar terranes record the collisional processes between the peri-Siberian and Kazakhstan orogenic systems. However, the precise timing of collision between the two terranes remains controversial. The Wukuli and Kadelat plutons in the Chinese Altai belt are dated at ∼305 and ∼280 Ma respectively, whereas the Aketas pluton in the Eastern Junggar terrane is dated at ∼308 Ma. Granites from the Wukuli and Kadelat plutons are strongly peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1), and are characterized by low Al2O3, Na2O, MnO, MgO, CaO and heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents, but with high SiO2, K2O and Rb contents as well as high Rb/Sr ratios. Granites from the Wukuli pluton have low εNd(t) and εHf(t) values of -3.7 to -3.4 and -9.7 to +4.9, whereas those from the Kadelat pluton have values of -3.6 to -3.4 and -8.0 to +2.6. These features suggest S-type affinity for the Wukuli and Kadelat plutons with magma derivation through partial melting of Mesoproterozoic metasediments. The Aketas pluton is composed of weakly peraluminous quartz monzonites that have A/CNK values ranging from 0.92 to 1.08, with high Na2O, Sr, and Sr/Y, and low Y, Yb, Nb, and Ta. These rocks display positive εNd(t) (+4.8 to +6.4) and εHf(t) (+9.7 to +14.6) values, and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.703357-0.703868), similar to modern adakites, suggesting that the quartz monzonites were derived from the partial melting of lower crustal material. The geochemical characteristics suggest that the Aketas pluton was formed in a subduction-related setting, the Wukuli pluton in a syn-collisional setting, and the Kadelat pluton in the subsequent post-orogenic strike-slip-related setting. In combination with data from other granitoids in these two terranes, the Aketas pluton represents the youngest record of

  18. Fate of Manuscripts Rejected From the Red Journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Yang, George; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.; Bennett, Katherine Egan; Grace, Calley; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate characteristics associated with higher rates of acceptance for original manuscripts submitted for publication to the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (IJROBP) and describe the fate of rejected manuscripts. Methods and Materials: Manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP from May 1, 2010, to August 31, 2010, and May 1, 2012, to August 31, 2012, were evaluated for author demographics and acceptance status. A PubMed search was performed for each IJROBP-rejected manuscript to ascertain whether the manuscript was ultimately published elsewhere. The Impact Factor of the accepting journal and the number of citations of the published manuscript were also collected. Results: Of the 500 included manuscripts, 172 (34.4%) were accepted and 328 (65.6%) were rejected. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates according to gender or degree of the submitting author, but there were significant differences seen based on the submitting author's country, rank, and h-index. On multivariate analysis, earlier year submitted (P<.0001) and higher author h-index (P=.006) remained significantly associated with acceptance into the IJROBP. Two hundred thirty-five IJROBP-rejected manuscripts (71.7%) were ultimately published in a PubMed-listed journal as of July 2014. There were no significant differences in any submitting author characteristics. Journals accepting IJROBP-rejected manuscripts had a lower median [interquartile range] 2013 impact factor compared with the IJROBP (2.45 [1.53-3.71] vs 4.176). The IJROBP-rejected manuscripts ultimately published elsewhere had a lower median [interquartile range] number of citations (1 [0-4] vs 6 [2-11]; P<.001), which persisted on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The acceptance rate for manuscripts submitted to the IJROBP is approximately one-third, and approximately 70% of rejected manuscripts are ultimately published in other PubMed-listed journals, but these ultimate

  19. Reply to Comment by Xu et al. on "Sr-Nd isotope composition and clay mineral assemblages in eolian dust from the central Philippine Sea over the last 600 kyr: Implications for the transport mechanism of Asian dust" by Seo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Inah; Lee, Yong Il; Yoo, Chan Min; Kim, Hyung Jeek; Hyeong, Kiseong

    2016-12-01

    Against Xu et al. (2016), who argued that East Asian Desert (EAD) dust that traveled on East Asian Winter Monsoon winds dominates over Central Asian Desert (CAD) dust in the Philippine Sea with presentation of additional data, we reconfirm Seo et al.'s (2014) conclusion that CAD dust carried on the Prevailing Westerlies and Trade Winds dominates over EAD dust in overall dust budget of the central Philippine Sea. The relative contribution of dust from EADs and CADs using clay mineral composition should be evaluated with elimination of mineralogical contribution from the volcanic end-member which is enriched in kaolinite and overestimate the contribution of EAD dust.

  20. Central Asian Drug Trafficking Dilemma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGowen, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... There are very few transportation links through the area that gives Tajikistan limited access to neighboring countries, Security problems resulting from the increasing flow of narcotics illegally...

  1. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  2. Virtual museum of manuscripts in teaching humanitarian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нина Леонидовна Панина

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines existing forms of representation of the book in museum's online resources and proposes a new approach for virtual museum of the manuscript, specifically focused on the educational purposes.

  3. THE USE OF DEIXIS IN GLADIATOR MOVIE MANUSCRIPT

    OpenAIRE

    Chuswatul Hasanah; Malikatul Laila; Aryati Prasetyarini

    2015-01-01

    This study is about the forms and references of deixis udes in "Gladiator" movie manuscript. The data, movie discourse are taken from observation and documentation using techniques of reading, indentifying, and noting. The data source is "Gladiator" movie manuscript. To identify the forms of deixis, the writer udes the theory of deixis in Discourse Analysis while to clarifying the references of deixis, the writer used the theory of meaning focusing on both semantic and pragmatic meaning. The ...

  4. ON COPIES OF THE MANUSCRIPT OF THE GLAGOLITIC QUARESIMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Radošević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the linguistic characteristics of a few Glagolitic manuscript versions of Quaresimale, as well as studies about other texts (The Treatise on the Seven Deadly Sins; Greblo's Commentary on the Passion of Christ that were included in the same manuscripts as the Lenten sermons, have already been published. After the structure of the Glagolitic Quaresimale, that has been preserved in the form of five Glagolitic manuscripts (Kolunić Quaresimale, Quaresimale III a 19, Greblo Quaresimale, Oport Quaresimale, Fatević Miscellany, had been studied, the next step in the research of the Glagolitic Quaresimale was to study the relationship between the written sermons and their performance, because the performance, or orality, is one of the main characteristics of sermons as a genre. The results of this study show that the different places in which the copies of the manuscript were kept, the thematic similarity between the sermons and other texts in manuscripts, as well as the attitude of the scribes towards the graphic design of the text, had influenced the performance of the Lenten sermons. The performances of these Glagolitic sermons reflect a great deal more variety than would be expected on the basis of the content of sermons in all five manuscripts which is very similar.

  5. Strategies for effective collaborative manuscript development in interdisciplinary science teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Samantha K.; Fergus, C. Emi; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Wagner, Tyler; Tan, Pang-Ning; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Soranno, Patricia A.

    2018-01-01

    Science is increasingly being conducted in large, interdisciplinary teams. As team size increases, challenges can arise during manuscript development, where achieving one team goal (e.g., inclusivity) may be in direct conflict with other goals (e.g., efficiency). Here, we present strategies for effective collaborative manuscript development that draw from our experiences in an interdisciplinary science team writing collaborative manuscripts for six years. These strategies are rooted in six guiding principles that were important to our team: to create a transparent, inclusive, and accountable research team that promotes and protects team members who have less power to influence decision‐making while fostering creativity and productivity. To help alleviate the conflicts that can arise in collaborative manuscript development, we present the following strategies: understand your team composition, create an authorship policy and discuss authorship early and often, openly announce manuscript ideas, identify and communicate the type of manuscript and lead author management style, and document and describe authorship contributions. These strategies can help reduce the probability of group conflict, uphold individual and team values, achieve fair authorship practices, and increase science productivity.

  6. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Ogrin

    2013-09-01

    ,000 digital facsimiles. The decisive selection criterion for inclusion in the Register was that the majority of the manuscript should be written in Slovenian. The aim of the project was to register manuscripts kept in institutions in the central Slovenian region and gradually add manuscripts from other regions. One of the first was the region of Carinthia with the longest and specific manuscript tradition in Slovenia. As the general methodological framework the TEI Guidelines P5, in particular the Module for Manuscript Description was used. The encoding scheme was built upon XML standards which are typically used by similar projects in other countries. The TEI Guidelines unite several European doctrines on the subject. The TEI guidelines were strictly used without any modifications. A rich subset of TEI descriptions elements was used enabling detailed and systematic description of the materials: the content and history of a manuscript or codicological metadata on the date of the origin for a manuscript and the place of the origin for a manuscript. The XML encoding for each manuscript description was divided into four standard blocks. The XML based application was designed to enable users to access digitised manuscripts on the web. For on-line searching and reading an on-line portal was developed using the Fedora Commons server. Fedora Commons was chosen as it implements an XML-based digital document repository. The Fedora Commons server is based upon open standards and allows for construction of a repository conforming to the concept of an open archival information system. It has been widely used and has become a de-facto standard for digital archives, collections and libraries.

  7. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider before using Asian ginseng. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  8. Coral Geochemical Proxy Records Of The East Asian Winter Monsoon And Hydrological Conditions In The Central Vietnam From 1978-2004 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Shen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chiang, H.; Lam, D. D.; Ngai, N.

    2007-12-01

    Monthly-resolution geochemical proxies, including δ18O, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca, in a living Porites coral head, collected from Son Tra Island, a near-shore island located at the north tip of Vung Da Nang Bay, central Vietnam (16°12'59.4", 108°1'57.1"), was used to quantitatively reconstruct records of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), seasonality of rainfall, and regional terrestrial input during a period of 1978-2004 AD. By comparing the 1/4-century geochemical data, five features are exhibited. (1) The coral Sr/Ca-inferred summer SSTs correspond well with the 1°x1° instrumental data to suggest that the regional SST record can be retrieved from this local coral head. (2) Interannual variation of coral winter SST data does not follow regional instrumental values. The harmonic phenomenon between coral inferred winter SST dynamic and the surface pressure difference, between the southern South China Sea (SCS) (0-10°N, 105-115°E) and the northern SCS (22.5-32.5°N, 112-122°E), indicating that the cold local SST induced by East Asian winter monsoon was addressed in the Son Tra coral. (3) 1‰ seasonal anomaly of δ18O residual (Δδ18O) suggests a 2-4-psu seasonal salinity change between dry and wet seasons. (4) The synchronous intra-annual changes of δ18O and Ba/Ca data suggest that the rainy season is from late summer to winter, which is consistent with the meteorological record. (5) The high Ba/Ca background level of 10 μmol/mol in 1992-2004, 2-3 times larger than the averaged value of 4 μmol/mol in 1978-1992, indicates an enhanced terrestrial sediment discharge into the bay over the past 10 years. Ba records probably reflect an impact of human activity on hydrological change since the Vietnam War.

  9. Peeking out of the basins: looking for the Late Devonian Kellwasser Event in the open ocean in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, southwestern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. M., Jr.; Carmichael, S. K.; Waters, J. A.; Batchelor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two of the top five most devastating mass extinctions in Earth's history occurred during the Late Devonian (419.2 Ma - 358.9 Ma), and are commonly associated with the black shale deposits of the Kellwasser and Hangenberg ocean anoxia events. Our understanding of these extinction events is incomplete partly due to sample bias, as 95% of the field sites studying the Late Devonian are limited to continental shelves and continental marine basins, and 77% of these sites are derived from the Euramerican paleocontinent. The Samnuuruul Formation at the Hoshoot Shiveetiin Gol locality (HSG), located in southwestern Mongolia, offers a unique opportunity to better understand global oceanic conditions during the Late Devonian. The HSG locality shows a continuous sequence of terrestrial to marine sediments on the East Junggar arc; an isolated, open-ocean island arc within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Samples from this near shore locality consist of volcanogenic silts, sands and immature conglomerates as well as calc-alkalic basalt lava flows. Offshore sections contain numerous limestones with Late Devonian fossil assemblages. Preliminary biostratigraphy of the associated marine and terrestrial sequences can only constrain the section to a general Late Devonian age, but TIMS analysis of detrital zircons from volcanogenic sediments from the Samnuuruul Formation in localities 8-50 km from the site suggests a late Frasnian age (375, 376 Ma). To provide a more precise radiometric age of the HSG locality, zircon geochronology using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) will be performed at UNC-Chapel Hill. If the HSG section crosses the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, geochemical, mineralogical, and ichnological signatures of the Kellwasser Event are expected to be preserved, if the Kellwasser Event was indeed global in scope (as suggested by Carmichael et al. (2014) for analogous sites on the West Junggar arc in the CAOB). Black shale

  10. PubMed Central: An Essential Resource for Information Professionals and Researchers. A Review of: Cornell, A., Bushman, B., & Womack, K. (2011. Analysis of journals that did not meet selection criteria for inclusion in the National Library of Medicine collection but have manuscripts in PubMed Central. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99, 168-170.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – A review of the journals containing research listed in PubMed Central (PMC, but not selected for inclusion in the National Library of Medicine (NLM collection. The authors identified reasons why journals had not been included in the collection and if any met the NLM selection criteria and were appropriate for inclusion.Design – Descriptive study.Setting – National Library of Medicine, United States.Subjects – 571 journals that were not included in the NLM collection but had research articles in PMC.Methods – In October 2009, a report was produced from the NLM library system listing journals tagged as having articles in PMC and not being in the NLM collection. Information was gathered on the journals identified and these were checked against the Collection Development Manual of the NLM and the NLM checklist used for selecting electronic journals. The reason for non-selection of the journal was recorded and the subject category, according to the Library of Congress Classification, was noted. Recorded reasons why journals were not selected:• Less than 15% of articles were within scope of NLM collection• Not enough articles published• Coverage (lacking original research or not for a scholarly audience• Insufficient information to determine reasonFor journals where the criteria seemed to be met, the decision on selection to the NLM collection was reviewed.Main Results – The authors identified 571 journals that had articles in PMC but did not meet the criteria for inclusion in the NLM journal collection. The majority of these journals (73% were outside the NLM scope and a further 10% had not published a sufficient number of articles to be considered. A further 3% were assessed as not intended for a scholarly audience or lacked original research and another 3% could not be reviewed due to lack of information available. There were 65 journals (11% that were referred for further review as the selection criteria seemed to

  11. Manuscript Architect: a Web application for scientific writing in virtual interdisciplinary groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Andreia P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although scientific writing plays a central role in the communication of clinical research findings and consumes a significant amount of time from clinical researchers, few Web applications have been designed to systematically improve the writing process. This application had as its main objective the separation of the multiple tasks associated with scientific writing into smaller components. It was also aimed at providing a mechanism where sections of the manuscript (text blocks could be assigned to different specialists. Manuscript Architect was built using Java language in conjunction with the classic lifecycle development method. The interface was designed for simplicity and economy of movements. Manuscripts are divided into multiple text blocks that can be assigned to different co-authors by the first author. Each text block contains notes to guide co-authors regarding the central focus of each text block, previous examples, and an additional field for translation when the initial text is written in a language different from the one used by the target journal. Usability was evaluated using formal usability tests and field observations. Results The application presented excellent usability and integration with the regular writing habits of experienced researchers. Workshops were developed to train novice researchers, presenting an accelerated learning curve. The application has been used in over 20 different scientific articles and grant proposals. Conclusion The current version of Manuscript Architect has proven to be very useful in the writing of multiple scientific texts, suggesting that virtual writing by interdisciplinary groups is an effective manner of scientific writing when interdisciplinary work is required.

  12. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  13. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  14. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvish M Parikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps.

  15. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  16. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2016-04-01

    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  17. Pigment identification on medieval manuscripts, paintings and other artefacts by Raman microscopy: applications to the study of three German manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Lucia; Ciomartan, Dan A.; Clark, Robin J. H.

    1997-03-01

    The identification of the pigments used to illuminate medieval manuscripts, paintings and other artefacts has received a major boost recently through perceptive studies carried out by Raman microscopy. A brief summary of the background of the technique is given. The results of studies on three illuminated German manuscripts are presented. The pigments vermilion HgS, iron oxide Fe 2O 3, azurite 2CuCO 3.Cu(OH) 2, malachite CuCo 3.Cu(OH) 2, lampblack (essentially carbon), white lead 2PbCO 3.Pb(OH) 2, lead tin yellow type I Pb 2SnO 4, and lazurite Na 8[Al 6Si 6O 24]S n (but only in admixture with Pb 2SnO 4, whereby it forms a green pigment), have been identified on these manuscripts on the basis of Raman microscopy and the results discussed.

  18. Manuscript style and packaging | Ibrahim | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the writing commences, it is worth thinking about the type of manuscript to write and where the proposed paper is to be published as these affect not only the writing style but also the ease of publication. Ideally, the target publisher should be the one in which similar work has been published. It is also worth considering an ...

  19. The internet and academic manuscript processing in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet is growing at a rapid rate and has broken the territorial and geographical barriers that characterized traditional practices of editorial review process. Thus, a study on online manuscript review process and its utilization by academic staff became a necessity. This study examines the effect of the Internet on traditional ...

  20. Timbuktu's Scientific Manuscript Heritage: The Reopening of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article maps a brief history of Timbuktu and provides some insight into its manuscript collections, before discussing the Timbuktu scientific heritage in light of contemporary debates on the history of science in Islamic societies. It is argued that the pre-modern Islamic legacy currently being unearthed in Timbuktu ...

  1. Timbuktu manuscript expressing the mystical thoughts of Yusuf-Ibn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The context addresses a reciprocal relationship between God and humanity and how humanity can experience the highest form of happiness in this world and the hereafter. Therefore this manuscript is not only a mystical text but also contributes to Islamic ethics. In the exegesis of the translated work, Qur'anic verses were ...

  2. Management of Arabic and Ajami Manuscript Resources In Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arabic manuscripts are not new phenomena in Nigeria, Africa and the world over. Their importance to the educational development and societal reconstruction along moral, ethics, spiritual, social, economic, political and what have you, is yet to be known, due to the poor understanding of where they can be found and ...

  3. Sundanese ancient manuscripts search engine using probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Mira; Hadi, Setiawan; Paulus, Erick; Nurma Yulita, Intan; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2017-10-01

    Today, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a regular thing for every aspect of live include cultural and heritage aspect. Sundanese ancient manuscripts as Sundanese heritage are in damage condition and also the information that containing on it. So in order to preserve the information in Sundanese ancient manuscripts and make them easier to search, a search engine has been developed. The search engine must has good computing ability. In order to get the best computation in developed search engine, three types of probabilistic approaches: Bayesian Networks Model, Divergence from Randomness with PL2 distribution, and DFR-PL2F as derivative form DFR-PL2 have been compared in this study. The three probabilistic approaches supported by index of documents and three different weighting methods: term occurrence, term frequency, and TF-IDF. The experiment involved 12 Sundanese ancient manuscripts. From 12 manuscripts there are 474 distinct terms. The developed search engine tested by 50 random queries for three types of query. The experiment results showed that for the single query and multiple query, the best searching performance given by the combination of PL2F approach and TF-IDF weighting method. The performance has been evaluated using average time responds with value about 0.08 second and Mean Average Precision (MAP) about 0.33.

  4. Writing Biomedical Manuscripts Part II: Standard Elements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several reasons account for rejection or delay of manuscripts submitted to ... You need to have results sorted out early as the rest of what you will write is largely ... follow the universal rules of writing and those of the target journal rules while ...

  5. Manuscripts and Rare Books in an Undergraduate Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Ruth

    1983-01-01

    Description of Smith College Library's Rare Book Room notes printed book and manuscript collections including the Sylvia Plath collection, Ernest Hemingway collection, and collection of modern press books. Related undergraduate courses in typography and the history of printing, student exhibitions, and student publications are highlighted. (EJS)

  6. Review Article: Writing Biomedical Manuscripts Part I: Fundamentals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The writing task can be made easier and the quality improved by using and following simple rules and leads that apply to general scientific writing .The manuscript should follow a standard structure:(e.g. (Abstract) plus Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion/Conclusion, the IMRAD model. The authors must

  7. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  8. Sharing Your Practice Expertise: Writing Clinical Manuscripts for Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jacqueline M; Brandon, Debra

    2015-08-01

    Please do not be afraid of the writing process; we are here to help you through this journey. If you need mentorship through the process, consider looking to an expert or mentor on your unit or at a nearby university. If you do not find the mentorship you are seeking nearby, please let us know. We will put you in contact with 1 of our editorial board members to help guide you through the writing process. We want you to be successful so please have an outline of your idea and the type of manuscript you are planning to write developed. When you contact us, please share your questions openly—there are no “dumb” questions. Please refer often to our author guidelines during the writing process. Details for how best to submit a manuscript for the Clinical Issues in Neonatal Care section are outlined within the author guidelines. Finally, it is important to remember that ANC is a 4-color journal, so please submit full-color tables, graphs, and pictures to enhance the readability of your manuscript. During the editorial process we will do everything we can to facilitate and enhance your work. We will make recommendations that we believe will increase its scholarly application to improving neonatal care and outcomes. Revisions are often requested. After peer review, the section editor and coeditors will review the manuscript well in advance of the production deadline and provide additional feedback as needed. The end goal is excellent presentation of materials for our readers. If you are a reviewer for ANC , the next time you are asked to review a Clinical Issues in Neonatal Care manuscript, please consider the quality of the manuscript in relationship to guiding clinical care at the bedside and make recommendations to improve the manuscript so that staff nurses will best relate to the content. Do not be afraid to make recommendations about missing content or suggestions about ways to enhance the content and make it easier for clinicians to understand. Help us and the

  9. Jawi Writing in Malay Archipelago Manuscript: A General Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Harun Makmur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jawi writing is the main form of writing in various manuscripts recovered around the Archipelago, especially during the early arrival of Islam. These manuscripts are found to record history, art, culture, language, social, as well as ancient knowledge. The usage of Jawi writings had covered a number of calligraphy which are high in value with deep philosophical meaning, are full with creative notion as well as countless of patterns that went along with the call to Islam around the Archipelago in a relatively short period of time. The development of Jawi writing had been immortalized in various genres such as books, manuscripts and letters written by individual writers and in groups as a local way of living. This writing was also introduced through a long process using certain methods of writing and reading, and kept as individual as well as institutional collections all around the Archipelago. This article is focused in various manuscripts that not only were exclusively used as learning and teaching aids, but were also garnished as beautiful symbols and philosophical Islamic art that deserves a high degree of honour. This article’s objective is to deeply analyze the usage of this writing from manuscripts found around the Archipelago as a proof on the importance of this form of writing. The methodology of this article is library study, through a number of theories and methods. The implication of this article is hoped to form a certain standard as well as its own identity for the local society through their acceptance of this writing form, especially during the early arrival of Islam in the Archipelago thus deemed as a national treasure.

  10. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  11. Non-destructive study of iron gall inks in manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Jelena; Krstić, Dragica; Desnica, Vladan; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to establish an effective procedure of iron gall ink characterization using complementary non-destructive methods. By this, it is possible to better understand correlation of chemical composition of the inks and the state of preservation of iron gall ink manuscripts, as well as the effects of conservation treatment performed upon them. This study was undertaken on a bound 16th century manuscript comprised of different types of paper and ink from the National and University Library in Zagreb. Analytical methods used included Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Paper fibers were identified by optical microscopy and the degradation state, as well as ink differentiation, transit metal migrations and detection of stains, with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) photography. The techniques applied on original writing materials gave important information about paper and ink composition, its preservation state and efficiency of conservation treatment performed upon them.

  12. On the identification of folium and orchil on illuminated manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Calà, Elisa; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Porter, Cheryl; Gulmini, Monica

    2017-01-15

    The identification of the two purple dyes folium and orchil has rarely been reported in the analysis of painted artworks, especially when analysing illuminated manuscripts. This is not consistent with the fact that ancient literary sources suggested their use as substitutes for the more expensive Tyrian purple dye. By employing non-invasive spectroscopic techniques, the present work demonstrates that these dyes were actually widely used in the production of ancient manuscripts. By employing UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS) and spectrofluorimetry, the abundant identification of both dyes on medieval manuscripts was performed by comparing the spectra recorded on ancient codices with those obtained on accurate replicas of dyed or painted parchment. Moreover, examples are also reported whereby the considered purple dyes were used in mixtures with other colourants. The overall information obtained here allowed us to define new boundaries for the time range in which orchil and folium dyes were used which is wider than previously thought, and to focus on their particular uses in the decoration of books. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  14. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  15. THE USE OF DEIXIS IN GLADIATOR MOVIE MANUSCRIPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuswatul Hasanah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the forms and references of deixis udes in "Gladiator" movie manuscript. The data, movie discourse are taken from observation and documentation using techniques of reading, indentifying, and noting. The data source is "Gladiator" movie manuscript. To identify the forms of deixis, the writer udes the theory of deixis in Discourse Analysis while to clarifying the references of deixis, the writer used the theory of meaning focusing on both semantic and pragmatic meaning. The result of study shows that the forms of deixis are person deixis, place dixis, time deixis, discourse deixis, and social deixis. Person dixis consists of first person, second person, and thrid person singular and plural. It is also distinguished based on its function in the sentence as subject and object personal pronoun, subject in possesive personal pronoun, object ini possesive personal pronoun and reflexive personal pronoun. The reference of deixis bades on semantic meaning refers to lexical meaning while based on pragmatic meaning refers to the meaning covered in the discourse, such as referring to the interlocutors, the war, the time process during the war, and the social relationship among the participants in the war.   Key words: deixis, deictic, proximal, and distal

  16. Contributing to research: the basic elements of a scientific manuscript

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The changing focus within medical and allied health disciplines towards evidence-based practice has resulted in an increasing acceptance of research and professional researchers. Despite the shift towards tertiary degree-based training for medical imaging and allied specialty streams, with many teaching institutions now incorporating compulsory research components into their final year curriculum, the level of active involvement in research among graduates remains low. In addition to this, many of those who completed their training before the introduction of university degree courses have had little or no exposure to hands-on research. While not overtly difficult, the process of 'writing up' the findings of a research endeavour for presentation to peers can often seem a somewhat daunting task, especially for novice researchers. The structure of a scientific manuscript however follows a relatively basic and universally accepted pattern, adherence to which can greatly simplify the writing process. To contribute to a wider understanding of research, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the basic elements of a scientific research paper for journal publication. The outline provided, while not intended to be a recipe for manuscript construction, will provide a fundamental framework to assist student, junior or inexperienced researchers in their writings

  17. Blood Services in Central Asian Health Systems : A Clear and Present Danger of Spreading HIV/AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The report discusses inter-related parts of blood transfusions systems, and presents an overview of the parts that need to be strengthened in Central Asia. Numerous parts are in serious need of organizational restructuring, new investment and increased budgetary support for operation and maintenance. This report sets them out such that each can be addressed in turn and some simultaneously....

  18. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic pulses in the Uliastai continental margin linked to slab rollback: Implications for evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hui; Wang, Qingfei; Tao, Jixiong; Santosh, M.; Ma, Tengfei; Zhao, Rui

    2018-05-01

    The Paleo Asian Ocean underwent a protracted closure history during Late Paleozoic. Here we investigate the magmatic evolution during this process based on a detailed study in the Baiyinwula region along the Uliastai continental margin. The major rock types in this area are Late Carboniferous-Early Permian volcanic sequences and coeval intrusions. We identified four stages of magmatic evolution based on the diverse assemblages and their precise isotopic ages. The first stage is represented by andesites with a zircon 206Pb/238U age of ca. 326 ± 12 Ma. These rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline, and possess high Na2O/K2O ratios in the range of 1.23 to 2.45. They also display enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), with markedly positive zircon εHf (t) varying from 8.1 to 15.6.The geochemical features of these andesites are similar to those of typical arc volcanic rocks. The second stage includes granodiorites emplaced at 318.6 + 1.8 Ma. The rocks are high-K calc-alkaline with A/CNK values ranging from 0.95 to 1.06, and show enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. They show geochemical affinities to adakites, with high Sr and low Y and Yb contents, indicating magma derivation from thickened lower crust. Zircon grains from these rocks display positive initial εHf (t) values ranging from 11.1 to 14.6 with corresponding two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 394-622 Ma. The third stage consists of syenogranite together with a volcanic suite ranging in composition from rhyolite todacite, which formed during 303.4 ± 1.2 to 285.1 ± 2.2 Ma. They possess elevated silica and alkali contents, high FeOt/MgO and Ga/Al ratios, low Al2O3, MgO and CaO contents, and high Rb, Y, Nb, Ce, Zr, Y, and Ga contents, strong negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies, showing I- to A-type granitic affinities. Zircons in these rocks show elevated Hf isotopic compositions (εHf (t) = 9.9 to 14.6) with TDM2

  19. AAS Publishing News: Preparing Your Manuscript Just Got Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Watermarking using the command watermark{DRAFT, v2}.Are you an astronomer considering submitting a paper to an AAS journal (i.e., AJ, ApJ, ApJ Letters, or ApJ Supplements)? If so, this post is for you! Read on to find out about the exciting new things you can do with the AASs newest LaTeX class file, available for download now.Why the Update?AAS publishing has maintained a consistent class file for LaTeX manuscript preparation for the past decade. But academic publishing is changing rapidly in todays era of electronic journals! Since its journals went fully electronic, the AAS has been continuously adding new publishing capabilities based on the recommendations of the Journals Task Force and the needs and requests of AAS authors. The AASs manuscript preparation tools are now being updated accordingly.Whats New in AASTex 6.0?There are many exciting new features and capabilities in AASTex 6.0. Here are just a few:Tracking options for author revisions include added{text}, deleted{text}, replaced{old}{new}, and explain{text}.Based on emulateapjDo you use the popular class file emulateapj to prepare your manuscripts? AASTex 6.0 is based on emulateapj, rather than on the older AASTex 5.2 (though 5.2 is still supported). This means that it is easy to produce a double-columned, single-spaced, and astro-ph-ready manuscript. Since two thirds of the AAS journals authors use emulateapj, this transition was designed to make manuscript preparation and sharing an easier and more seamless process.Tools for collaborationsDo you work in a large collaboration? AASTex now includes new tools to make preparing a manuscript within a collaboration easier. Drafts can now be watermarked to differentiate between versions. New markup for large author lists streamlines the display so that readers can access article information immediately, yet they can still access the full author list and affiliations at the end of the paper. And author revision markup allows members of a collaboration to

  20. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  1. Survey on Inadequate and Omitted Citations in Manuscripts: A Precursory Study in Identification of Tasks for a Literature Review and Manuscript Writing Assistive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raamkumar, Aravind Sesagiri; Foo, Schubert; Pang, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper looks at the issue of inadequate and omitted citations in manuscripts by collecting the experiential opinions of researchers from the dual perspectives of manuscript reviewers and authors. Method: An online survey was conducted with participation from 207 respondents who had experience of reviewing and authoring research…

  2. [Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him.

  3. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  4. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sacred History for a Central Asian TownSaints, Shrines, and Legends of Origin inHistories of Sayrām, 18th-19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin DeWeese

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie les mythes historiques concernant Sayrām, une petite ville du sud de l'actuel Kazakhstan, cas exemplaire de concepts indigènes d'identité communautaire en Asie centrale pré-soviétique. Ces traditions sont conservées dans un ensemble de travaux en turc, sous le titre générique de « Histoire de Sayrām », qui combine une « histoire sacrée » de la ville avec une « géographie sacrée » sous la forme d'un catalogue de mausolées locaux ; ces deux composantes situent ainsi Sayrām à la fois dans le temps et dans l'espace, à l'intérieur d'un univers sacré défini en tant qu'islamique. Elles offrent une vision de la participation de cette ville à un cadre historique déterminé par l'hommage sanctificateur du Prophète Muhammad à Sayrām, et une affirmation de la présence continue et de la protection, à travers leurs mausolées, d'une multitude de saints musulmans (comprenant aussi bien des personnages purement locaux que d'autres bien connus dans le folklore islamique. Ces ouvrages, compilés vraisemblablement au XVIIIe siècle et répandus très largement dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, reflètent souvent d'anciennes traditions narratives évocatrices du rôle de Sayrām au début de l'islamisation de l'Asie centrale. Mais elles montrent également l'importance capitale de la définition par la religion des identités locales et régionales, au sein de la population sédentaire d'Asie centrale, avant les changements induits par la conquête russe, l'établissement du pouvoir soviétique et la formulation des nouvelles identités « nationales » qui perdurent aujourd'hui.

  6. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  7. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...

  8. Integration of μ-XRF, and u-Raman techniques to study ancient Islamic manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, N M; Alawadhi, H; Jisrawi, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematic characterizations of inks used in three ancient Arabic manuscripts were performed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and RAMAN spectroscopy. Spatially resolved element distributions obtained by area scans in addition to spot analysis provided detailed information about the manuscripts. RAMAN spectroscopy, on the other hand provided decisive information about the compounds used in various color pigments. Different compounds were found in the red ink in each manuscript: HgS (cinnabar) in one manuscript, red lead Pb 3 0 4 (minium) in the second, and a mixture of the two in the third manuscript. The green pigment was Cu based and it is probably malachite (Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2 ), while the black ink pigment in the three manuscripts is iron gall (Fe 2 SO 4 plus gallottanic acid). Analytical results and the context of the manuscripts were used to extract information about the authenticity and origin of the manuscripts. For example, the use of cinnabar as a red ink pigment found in the third manuscript reveals that this manuscript attributed to Al-Gazali (11 th century) is probably a copy from a later period, because cinnabar was first introduced in the 16th century.

  9. Riding the Asian Wave....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses strategies U.S. universities are using to deal with declining enrollments by Asian students, brought on by the Asian financial crisis. Strategies include recruiting students from other countries. (Author/VWL)

  10. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  11. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  12. Eco-virological approach for assessing the role of wild birds in the spread of avian influenza H5N1 along the central Asian flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations.

  13. Eco-Virological Approach for Assessing the Role of Wild Birds in the Spread of Avian Influenza H5N1 along the Central Asian Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations. PMID:22347393

  14. Manuscript 101: A Data-Driven Writing Exercise For Beginning Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Amy; Halbisen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Learning to write a scientific manuscript is one of the most important and rewarding scientific training experiences, yet most young scientists only embark on this experience relatively late in graduate school, after gathering sufficient data in the lab. Yet, familiarity with the process of writing a scientific manuscript and receiving peer reviews, often leads to a more focused and driven experimental approach. To jump-start this training, we developed a protocol for teaching manuscript writ...

  15. Acceptance rate and reasons for rejection of manuscripts submitted to Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound during 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Christopher R; Mai, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of the reasons why manuscripts are rejected, and recognition of the most frequent manuscript flaws identified by reviewers, should help submitting authors to avoid these pitfalls. Of 219 manuscripts submitted to Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound in 2012, none (0%) was accepted without revision, four (2%) were withdrawn by the authors, 99 (45%) were accepted after revision, and 116 (53%) were rejected. All manuscripts for which minor revision was requested, and 73/86 (85%) manuscripts for which major revision was requested, were ultimately accepted. Acceptance rate was greater for retrospective studies and for manuscripts submitted from countries in which English was the primary language. The prevalences of flaws in manuscripts were poor writing (62%), deficiencies in data (60%), logical or methodological errors (28%), content not suitable for Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (26%), and lack of new or useful knowledge (25%). Likelihood of manuscript rejection was greater for lack of new or useful knowledge and content not suitable than for other manuscript flaws. The lower acceptance rate for manuscripts from countries in which English was not the primary language was associated with content not suitable and not poor writing. Submitting authors are encouraged to do more to recognize and address manuscript flaws before submission, for example by internal review. Specifically, submitting authors should express clearly the potential added value of their study in the introduction section of their manuscript, describe completely their methods and results, and consult the Editor-in-Chief if they are uncertain whether their subject matter would be suitable for the journal. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Wehmas et al. 94-04 Toxicol Sci: Datasets for manuscript

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset includes overview text document (accepted version of manuscript) and tables, figures, and supplementary materials. Supplementary tables provide summary data...

  17. Should copyright be transferred before a manuscript is accepted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2017-10-01

    Academic journals that undergo a process of academic scrutiny often pass a stage of peer review and subsequent editorial approval. In a process that can take weeks or months (in some cases, even years), an author aims to satisfy the requirements of peer reviewer and editorial scrutiny that would merit publication of their work. It is customary to, in traditional, non-open access journals, to then sign over copyright to the publisher, upon which the publisher then issues a proof, and the manuscript is then published. Even though it is obvious that an author would not submit to a journal with the objective of having it rejected, the issue of the timing of copyright transfer is one which does not appear to have been discussed in the literature, possibly because the order of transfer, i.e., after acceptance of a paper for publication, seems naturally logical. With the modernization of online submission systems, the transfer of copyright tends to occur online, after acceptance. However, on occasion, some journals request the transfer of copyright before peer review and editorial processing occurs, i.e., upon the act of submission. This letter examines three cases of Springer Nature plant science journals that demand the transfer of copyright to the journal's society upon submission, in direct violation of their instructions for authors. Authors have no right to challenge this discrepancy, nor can they complete submission in accordance with the instructions for authors because they are forced to submit copyright upon submission. Not only does transfer of copyright at such an early stage of the publishing process constitute a waste of authors' time-a precious commodity in a cut-throat field of science-in the three cases indicated in this paper, they may constitute a violation of authors' rights. The ethics of this request by the journals and publisher need to be debated.

  18. Skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites in the Harlik arc at Kalatage, E. Tianshan (NW China): Slab melting in the Devonian-early Carboniferous in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qigui; Yu, Mingjie; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Yuechen; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jiangjian; Lü, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    The geodynamic control of mineralization in the accretionary evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has long been controversial. Here we report new field, geochemical and geochronological data on recently defined porphyry and skarn-type ore deposits (Devonian-Early Carboniferous) in the Kalatage area in the middle of the Harlik-Dananhu arc, Eastern Tianshan, NW China in the southern CAOB, with the aim of better understanding the accretionary tectonics and genesis of porphyry and skarn-type mineralization. The Yudai porphyry Cu-(Au) deposits and the Xierqu skarn Cu-Fe-(Au) deposits are closely associated with Middle Devonian adakitic diorite porphyries (382-390 Ma), which are calc-alkaline and characterized by high Na2O/K2O ratios and Sr contents (310-1020 ppm), strong depletion of HREE (e.g., Yb = 0.80-1.44 ppm) and Y (7.68-14.50 ppm), and all enriched in Rb, Sr, Ba, K and depleted in Nb and Ti. They are characterized by distinctive Eu positive anomalies, high Na2O contents and MORB-like Sr and Nd isotope signatures (high εNd(t) = +6.1 to +7.0 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70412-0.70462). These adakites most likely formed by melting of a young/hot subducted oceanic slab, and adakites in general are important carriers of porphyry Cu ± (Au) deposits. Early Carboniferous adakites in the Tuwu area south of Kalatage are known to have similar features. Therefore, skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites get younger from north to south, suggesting southward migration of the Harlik-Dananhu arc from 390 Ma to 322 Ma. These data indicate that partial melting of hot (and/or young) oceanic crustal slabs were an important mechanism of accretionary crustal growth and mineralization in the southern CAOB.

  19. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  20. On medieval manuscript production in the Latin West, explorations with a global database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buringh, E.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to present detailed information on the production and uses of manuscripts in eleven geographical areas, together comprising the Latin West. We estimated the absolute production (in numbers of manuscripts copied per century) in Europe between 500 and 1500. In total some eleven

  1. Authorial or Scribal? : spelling variation in the Hengwrt and Ellesmere manuscripts of The Canterbury Tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caon, Luigina Marina Domenica

    2009-01-01

    Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales has come down to us in about 80 fifteenth-century manuscripts, none of which is in his own hand. What is conventionally referred to as ‘Chaucer’s language’ is the language found in two early texts of The Canterbury Tales, the Hengwrt and the Ellesmere manuscripts. Despite

  2. Image-based historical manuscript dating using contour and stroke fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng; Samara, Petros; Burgers, Jan; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2016-01-01

    Historical manuscript dating has always been an important challenge for historians but since countless manuscripts have become digitally available recently, the pattern recognition community has started addressing the dating problem as well. In this paper, we present a family of local contour

  3. Quantifying the effect of editor-author relations on manuscript handling times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigöl, Emre; Garcia, David; Scholtes, Ingo; Schweitzer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study to what extent the academic peer review process is influenced by social relations between the authors of a manuscript and the editor handling the manuscript. Taking the open access journal PlosOne as a case study, our analysis is based on a data set of more than 100,000 articles published between 2007 and 2015. Using available data on handling editor, submission and acceptance time of manuscripts, we study the question whether co-authorship relations between authors and the handling editor affect the manuscript handling time , i.e. the time taken between the submission and acceptance of a manuscript. Our analysis reveals (1) that editors handle papers co-authored by previous collaborators significantly more often than expected at random, and (2) that such prior co-author relations are significantly related to faster manuscript handling. Addressing the question whether these shorter manuscript handling times can be explained by the quality of publications, we study the number of citations and downloads which accepted papers eventually accumulate. Moreover, we consider the influence of additional (social) factors, such as the editor's experience, the topical similarity between authors and editors, as well as reciprocal citation relations between authors and editors. Our findings show that, even when correcting for other factors like time, experience, and performance, prior co-authorship relations have a large and significant influence on manuscript handling times, speeding up the editorial decision on average by 19 days.

  4. Hindrance of conservation biology by delays in the submission of manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P; Supp, Sarah R; Cobbold, Stephanie M

    2010-04-01

    Timely dissemination of scientific findings depends not only on rapid publication of submitted manuscripts, a topic which has received much discussion, but also on rapid submission of research after the research is completed. We measured submission delay (time from the last date of data collection to the submission of a manuscript) for every paper from 14 journals in 2007 and compared these submission delays among four fields of biology (conservation, taxonomy, behavior, and evolution). Manuscripts published in leading journals in the field of conservation biology have the longest delays in publication of accepted manuscripts and the longest intervals between completion of research and submission of the manuscript. Delay in manuscript submission accounts for more than half of the total time from last date of data collection to publication. Across fields, the number of authors was significantly negatively correlated with submission delay, but conservation journals had the second highest number of authors and the greatest submission delay, so submission of conservation manuscripts was not hindered by a shortage of collaboration relative to other fields. Rejection rates were greater in conservation journals than in behavior and evolution, but rejection times were faster; thus, there were no obvious net differences among fields in the time papers spent waiting to be rejected. Publication delay has been reduced significantly in the last 7 years, but was still greater in conservation journals than in any of the other three fields we studied. Thus, the urgent field of conservation biology is hindered in both preparation and publication of manuscripts.

  5. The Constabulus manuscript in Durham Cathedral Library: A Forgotten Treasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson, Maureen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Hispalensis (John of Seville, working from Limia in Portugal and then Toledo in twelfth century Spain, translated mostly mathematical treatises from Arabic into Latin. His early work began in Limia with three medical translations c. 1118. One, the De differentia spiritus et animae originally bore the signature 'Johannes Hispalensis et Limiensis'. Not all scholars agree that this translator was Johannes Hispalensis. However, evidence supporting the theory that there was only one translator is provided by the De differentia, which resurfaced years later in a revised version dedicated to Raymond, Archbishop of Toledo from 1125 to 1152. It bore the shortened name: Johannes Hispalensis. An unknown copy of this revised version has been discovered in Durham Cathedral where it has lain dormant for 800 years. It contains a plethora of scribal mistakes, helping to prove that many of the inconsistencies between different copies of the same Latin manuscripts are due to human error rather than multiple identities working on the same translation.

    Johannes Hispalensis (Juan de Sevilla, que trabajó en Limia (Portugal y más tarde en Toledo, en la España del siglo XII, tradujo sobre todo tratados matemáticos del árabe al latín. Sus primeras obras comenzaron en Limia con tres traducciones sobre medicina alrededor del año 1118. Una de ellas, De differentia spiritus et animae, llevó originalmente la firma 'Johannes Hispalensis et Limiensis'. No todos los especialistas en esta época están de acuerdo en que este traductor fuera Johannes Hispalensis, Sin embargo, la obra De differentia aporta pruebas que apoyan la teoría de que hubo un único traductor. Dicha obra reapareció unos años más tarde en una versión revisada y dedicada a Raimundo, el Arzobispo de Toledo, entre 1125 y 1152. Llevaba el nombre abreviado: Johannes Hispalensis. Una copia desconocida de esta versión revisada fue hallada en la catedral de

  6. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  7. Abstracts of Manuscripts Submitted in 1988 for Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Brian E. Tucholke and Elazar Uchupi ....................... GG-1 Tide Gauges of India K.O. Emery and D.G. Aubrey...GG-15 Radiolarian Biostratigraphy in the Central Indian Ocean, Ocean Drilling Project Leg 115 David A. Johnson...GG-16 PETROLOGY Abyssal Peridotites, Very-slow Spreading Ridges and Ocean Ridge Magmatism Henry

  8. Central Asia's Raging Waters: The Prospects of Water Conflict in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, William B

    2007-01-01

    .... The thesis analyzes these three political eras of Central Asian history using indicators of water conflict, including water quality, water quantity, water management for multiple uses, political...

  9. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals...... published in English. Design Manuscripts rejected during a 4-year period were searched for in PubMed and Embase in order to assess the percentage of manuscripts subsequently published in other journals. In addition, characteristics of both the published manuscripts and the journals in which they were...... evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0...

  10. ["A" or ... "The" precious manuscript of the "Long life Elixir" just discovered].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelaud, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    This study relates, describes, analyzes & comments the content of a recently discovered old manuscript, written probably at the beginning of the 18th century, and compares it with the well known "Long life Elixir, or Swedish Elixir", manuscript found on a Swedish doctor who died at 104 years old as a result of a fall from his horse... The origin of this new manuscript can be established from 1700 to 1710, and seems to be probably anterior to the well known Swedish manuscript, meanwhile the text is almost similar,... and also is more complete than this one! We learn that the "Manna" is synonymic here of "fine Rhubarb". Another recipe, unknown on the other manuscript and titled "Dalibour Water" is also published: By similar way, this formula brings some new details, in particular in the exact composition, the preparation and the use of the "Long Life Elixir".

  11. Analysis of the results of the first implementation of the Korea Manuscript Editors Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Yi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of international scholarly journal publishing, manuscript editing has been established as an essential component of the publication process. As the necessity of this process has increased, the Korean Council of Science Editors has consistently provided education for training professional manuscript editors, and has worked to implement a manuscript editor certification system. Starting in 2014, the Korean Council of Science Editors thoroughly conducted background research and advanced analysis in preparation for such a system. Subsequently, a committee of experts was formed to develop and simulate an examination for this certification. This process culminated in the first manuscript editor certification examination, which was held in November 2016 and resulted in 40 initial Korea Manuscript Editors Certification holders. Examinations for the Korea Manuscript Editors Certification are scheduled to be held annually. The establishment of this certification system will contribute to strengthening individual capacities and further developing science journal publication in Korea by expanding the field of manuscript editing. Ultimately, this system will contribute to the promotion of Korean scientific journals to the level of prominent international journals.

  12. Implementation and Outcomes of a Faculty-Based, Peer Review Manuscript Writing Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulage, Kristine M; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-01-01

    The publication of scholarly work and research findings is an important expectation for nursing faculty; however, academic writing is often neglected, leaving dissemination through manuscript writing an area of concern for the nursing profession. Writing initiatives have been utilized to promote scholarly dissemination in schools of nursing, but those described in the literature have been primarily non-United States based and student focused. This article describes a faculty-based manuscript writing workshop, assesses participants' impressions, and describes its impact on scholarly output. The workshop is a collaborative learning process utilizing peer review to improve manuscript quality and model behaviors for improving writing and peer-reviewing skills. Seventeen workshop participants including three predoctoral students, 6 postdoctoral fellows, and 8 faculty members completed an anonymous workshop survey (81% response rate). All but 1 of 17 manuscripts reviewed in the workshop are published, accepted, or in the review process. All participants indicated that the workshop was a valuable use of time and would recommend it to colleagues. The greatest reported workshop benefit was its function as an impetus to complete and submit manuscripts. We recommend the manuscript writing workshop model for other schools of nursing seeking ways to expand their scholarly output and create accountability for dissemination through manuscript writing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  14. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  15. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  16. The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids

    OpenAIRE

    Sano-Franchini, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids, I examine representations of East Asian blepharoplasty in online video in order to gain a sense of how cultural values change over time. Drawing on scholarship in and around rhetorical theory, cultural rhetorics, Asian American rhetoric, cultural studies, Asian American studies, and postcolonial theory alongside qualitative data analysis of approximately fifty videos and the numerous viewer comments ...

  17. The Idea of an Old Qur'an Manuscript: On the Commercialization of the Indonesian Islamic Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Wieringa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A Qur’an manuscript, now in the possession of the University of Cologne, Germany (call number Cod. Malaiologie 001/2012, can be regarded as a “fake” in the sense of having a misleading appearance. This manuscript is a fairly recent bricolage which aims to represent the idea of an old Qur’an manuscript, thereby catering to the increased demand on the international market for old manuscripts from insular Southeast Asia.

  18. The clinical application of linagliptin in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao CQ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chu-qing Cao, Yu-fei Xiang, Zhi-guang Zhou Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Asia has a growing diabetic population. Linagliptin, a member of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor class, is unique in its nonlinear pharmacokinetics with the characteristics of rapid attainment of steady state, little accumulation, predominantly nonrenal route of elimination, prolonged terminal half-life, and sustained inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme. No clinically relevant difference in pharmacokinetics was observed between Asians and non-Asians. The management of type 2 diabetes is increasingly challenging with the progression of disease, especially with the requirements of minimal hypoglycemia, weight gain, fluid retention, and other adverse effects. Linagliptin was efficacious and well-tolerated in Asian type 2 diabetes patients with or without renal or hepatic dysfunctions, comparable to that in Caucasians. This review will focus on the usage of linagliptin in clinical studies in Asians. Keywords: linagliptin, Asians, type 2 diabetes

  19. Late Paleozoic closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean along the Irtysh/Chara shear zone and implications for arc amalgamation and oroclinal bending in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The Irtysh/Chara Shear Zone is one of the largest strike-slip systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It records collisional processes of the peri-Siberian orogenic system with the West Junggar-Kazakhstan-Tianshan orogenic system following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean, but the exact timing of these events remains enigmatic. We conducted detailed structural analysis along the Irtysh Shear Zone (NW China), which together with new geochronological data allows us to reconstruct the tectonic evolution during the final closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean. Our results showed that subduction-accretion processes lasted at least until the Late Carboniferous in the Chinese Altai and the East/West Junggar. The subsequent arc amalgamation is characterized by a cycle of crustal thickening, orogenic collapse and transpressional thickening. On a larger scale, the West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system defines a U-shape oroclinal structure (e.g. Xiao et al., 2010). A major phase of oroclinal bending that involved ~110° rotation may have occurred during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous (Levashova et al., 2012). Previous authors have linked oroclinal bending with the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the western CAOB, and proposed that a quasi-linear West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system was buckled during the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean (in the north) and the South Tianshan Ocean (in the south) (e.g. Abrajevitch et al., 2008). This model, however, is not supported by our new data that constrain the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean to the Late Carboniferous. Alternatively, we propose that oroclinal bending may have involved two phases of bending, with the ~110° rotation in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous possibly associated with trench retreat. Further tightening may have occurred in response to the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons during the Late

  20. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  1. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  2. Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and Integration into the world economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pomfret

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements which the Central Asian countries have signed have had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for the Central Asian countries of Chinese and Russian WTO membership and the consequences of the current Central Asian applicants’ (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbeki...

  3. The Asian methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  4. Recognition for old Arabic manuscripts using spatial gray level dependence (SGLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Abd Al-Aziz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis forms the basis of object recognition and classification in several domains, one of these domains is historical document manuscripts because the manuscripts hold our culture heritage and also large numbers of undated manuscripts exist. This paper presents results for historical document classification of old Arabic manuscripts using texture analysis and a segmentation free approach. The main objective is to discriminate between historical documents of different writing styles to three different ages: Contemporary (Modern Age, Ottoman Age and Mamluk Age. This classification depends on a Spatial Gray-level Dependence (SGLD technique which provides eight distinct texture features for each sample document. We applied Stepwise Discriminant Analysis and Multiple discriminant analysis methods to decrease the dimensionality of features and extract training vector features from samples. To classify historical documents into three main historical age classes the decision tree classification is applied. The system has been tested on 48 Arabic historical manuscripts documents from the Dar Al-Kotob Al-Masria Library. Our results so far yield 95.83% correct classification for the historical Arabic documents.

  5. [Medical manuscripts in the library of the Deontology Department of the Ankara University Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, B

    1998-01-01

    At every academical platform on medical history and its instruction, lack of Turkish medical historiography is mainly emphasized. There are two main factors determining the situation: 1-There isn't any comprehensive Turkish medical history textbook. 2-There are difficulties in reaching the primary sources in this field. Everybody agrees with the importance of reaching medical manuscripts easily and reading and evaluating them in medical history. For this reason, it is important to know where we can find them. In this article, medical manuscripts which are available in the library of the Deontology Department of Ankara University Medical School are introduced. The manuscripts have been listed in alphabetical order of the authors' name. The bibliographic items, such as the size, writing style, and type of paper used, are mentioned.

  6. An empirical analysis of overlap publication in Chinese language and English research manuscripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Tucker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are a number of sound justifications for publishing nearly identical information in Chinese and English medical journals, assuming several conditions are met. Although overlap publication is perceived as undesirable and ethically questionable in Europe and North America, it may serve an important function in some regions where English is not the native tongue. There is no empirical data on the nature and degree of overlap publication in English and Chinese language journals. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A random sample of 100 English manuscripts from Chinese institutions was selected from PubMed. Key words and institutions were searched in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, a comprehensive Chinese language research database. Unacknowledged overlap was a priori defined according to International Committee of Medical Journal Editor (ICMJE guidelines following examination by two individuals. 19% (95% CI 11-27 of English manuscripts from Chinese institutions were found to have substantial overlap with Chinese published work based on full text examination. None of the manuscripts met all of the criteria established by the ICMJE for an acknowledged overlap publication. Individual-level, journal-level, and institutional factors seem to influence overlap publication. Manuscripts associated with an institution outside of China and with more than one institution were significantly less likely to have substantial overlap (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overlap publication was common in this context, but instances of standard ICMJE notations to acknowledge this practice were rare. This research did not cite the identified overlap manuscripts with the hope that these empirical data will inform journal policy changes and structural initiatives to promote clearer policies and manuscripts.

  7. Non-destructive analysis for the inspection and control of metalic monuments and historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Heissler, S.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Willin, E.

    2003-01-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage of historical bronze monuments exposed to atmospheric corrosion as well as historical books and manuscripts non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of novel non-destructive analytical methods based on the photoacoustic and photothermal deflection spectroscopy allowed to investigate the state of bronze patina as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. (orig.)

  8. An introduction to the edition of two Lemaître’s original manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maere Catherine de

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain the contributions of G. Lemaître to Spinor Theory. At the end of the paper, we edited also, for the first time two short manuscripts: Spineurs et Quanta and Les spineurs et la physique quantique, written by Lemaître in December 1955 and in January 1956. This edition is a way of honouring Professor Michael Heller because he was the first, with Professor Odon Godart, who discovered, classified and published unedited manuscripts of G. Lemaître.

  9. The Asian petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwa, Christopher.

    1996-03-01

    The Asian Petrochemical Industry brings you up to date with the latest developments in this dynamic region and covers all the key issues, giving detailed analysis and comment on: the general economic outlook; demand and production trends for basic petrochemicals and specialities in individual countries; political stability and how with affects growth and investment opportunities; security of supply; the import of petrochemicals and the aim of the region to become a net exporter by 2000; capacity increases - the relative merits of new plant construction versus expanding existing plants; the financing of petrochemical projects; the use of appropriate projects; the use of appropriate technology and patent provision in the Gatt treaty; increasing environmental concerns and the 'responsible care' initiative. The Asian Petrochemical Industry presents an overview of each Asian player in the petrochemical and associated industries, comparing and contrasting the countries within the region. (Author)

  10. Cultural Patterns of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    An overview of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans is discussed to aid teachers in understanding behaviors exhibited by Asian students. Culture influences in the following areas are explored: family relationships, respect for age, social interaction, communication style, family expectations, humility, school situations, decision making, and…

  11. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  12. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Asian American Health - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  13. Asian/American Bodies in Extremis: Gendering Power, Pleasure, and Nation through "Spectacular" Excess

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Melissa Garcia

    2012-01-01

    As a cross-genre study, this project centralizes performances of physical excess, putting genre theory in conversation with Asian/American critical race discourses to articulate the specific knowledges produced by film, stand-up comedy, theatre, and sports. Considering figures such as Annabel Chong, Margaret Cho, and Manny Pacquiao from within the discourses of gender and nation, I investigate how the Asian/American body in extremis speaks and is spoken, and how Asian/American subjects use b...

  14. Scientific composition and review of manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed dental journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Stephen C; McGivney, Glen P; Mazer, Sarah C

    2003-02-01

    This article provides an extensive tutorial for writers and reviewers involved with the preparation and evaluation of manuscripts submitted for publication in dental journals. The contents were compiled from the Instructions for Authors printed in various peer-reviewed dental journals and from feedback from 10 workshops conducted for the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. The 10 major sections of a scientific manuscript are reviewed in detail in terms of content, format, and common errors; examples of good content are provided. The review process is described, and instructions on conducting fair and expeditious manuscript evaluations are provided for reviewers. In addition, a number of special topics are addressed, including potential conflicts of interest for an author, institutional review of experiments that involve human subjects or animals, and the reproduction of photographs and other images in color versus black and white. In summary, this article presents key guidelines to ensure compliance with the principles of sound scientific writing and the expeditious review of manuscripts prepared for publication in peer-reviewed dental journals.

  15. Reproducing crucible steel: a practical guide and a comparative analysis to persian manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshtagh Khorasani, Manouchehr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different terms are used in old Persian manuscripts, such as Ta’id Besârat, to define and refer to crucible or watered steel and different types of swords. However, there are few manuscripts that describe the way crucible steel cakes and blades were made such as the manuscript Gŏharnâme. The present article deals with the making of crucible steel as described in Persian manuscripts and also with a new reproduction process of making crucible steel as conducted by the Finnish smith Niko Hynninen.Los antiguos manuscritos persas, tales como Ta’id Besârat, emplean diversos términos para definir y referirse al acero de crisol o acero de Damasco y a diversos tipos de espada. Sin embargo, existen pocos manuscritos que describan el modo en que se elaboraban los lingotes y hojas de acero de crisol, entre ellos el manuscrito Gŏharnâme. El presente artículo describe el proceso de elaboración del acero de crisol tal y como lo refieren los manuscritos persas, así como una moderna reproducción del mismo realizada por el forjador finlandés Niko Hynninen.

  16. Teaching How to Prepare a Manuscript by Means of Rewriting Published Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaska, Lubomir

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the course described here is to train undergraduate students to write a scientific manuscript. The students participate in selection of a current topic in contemporary genetics or molecular biology by choosing the most interesting paper of a given year. After the teacher provides all essential background about the selected subject, he or she selects a recent article from the corresponding field and presents the students with all the necessary information contained in the paper without revealing its title and author. The data presented in the paper are reviewed by the class so that each student understands every experiment and the main points of the work. Simultaneously, the students are informed about the basic rules of writing the individual sections of a scientific paper. They are then asked to write and formally submit a manuscript summarizing the data. Finally, the students act as reviewers of their colleagues' manuscripts and compare their papers with the original published articles. This enables them to identify both the strengths and the weaknesses of their manuscripts and to gain confidence in the writing skills that will be so critical for their future scientific activities. PMID:17110479

  17. Purbo Baldanzhapov’s unpublished manuscript "Tuva under the yoke of the Manchu invaders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria A. Vasilenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the characteristics for the manuscript "Tuva under the yoke of the Manchu invaders” by the prominent Buryat scientist  P.B. Baldanzhapov (approximate creation time – late 1940’s–early 1950’s.

  18. Illuminating Chaucer through Poetry, Manuscript Illuminations, and a Critical Rap Album

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tom Liam

    2007-01-01

    Drawing connections between Chaucer, Eminem, and social issues, New York City high school teacher Tom Liam Lynch helped students become familiar with "The Canterbury Tales." Students wrote poems of rhymed couplets about today's social and political issues, created illuminated manuscripts, and recorded a rap CD. A book and album were…

  19. Household Scribes and the Production of Literary Manuscripts in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. North

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In early modern English households, literate servants such as tutors, chaplains, stewards, secretaries, and ladies in waiting were well positioned to assist their employers in the assembly and copying of verse miscellanies, anthologies, and other literary manuscripts. Looking at several literary manuscripts, some with known servant contributions and others that suggest the participation of household retainers, the essay explores the likelihood that literate servants often performed scribal tasks above and beyond their formal job descriptions, even serving as scribe for their employers’ hobbies and leisure activities. Although copying was an arduous task, servants appear to have viewed these duties not simply as part of their job but also as gift exchanges, as appeals for promotion or patronage, and as a means by which they might gain access to manuscript literature and literary circles. Studies of early modern letter writing have called attention to many of the copy tasks of literate household servants, but the integral role of literate servants in the collection, copying, and preservation of literary manuscripts deserves much more attention.

  20. Watermarks within the Middle Eastern Manuscript Collection of the Baillieu Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewincamp, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The University of Melbourne's Middle Eastern Manuscript collection housed at the Baillieu Library was acquired by Professor John Bowman in the 1950s as part of a teaching collection to promote greater learning of Middle Eastern culture and civilisation (Pryde 2007, 3). The collection is a rare example within Australia and represents many different…

  1. On exemplary scientific conduct regarding submission of manuscripts to biomedical informatics journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, R. A.; Groth, T.; Hasman, A.; Safran, C.; Shortliffe, E. H.; Haux, R.; McCray, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    As the Editors of leading international biomedical informatics journals, the authors report on a recent pattern of improper manuscript submissions to journals in our field. As a guide for future authors, we describe ethical and pragmatic issues related to submitting work for peer-reviewed journal

  2. Intentionally Flawed Manuscripts as Means for Teaching Students to Critically Evaluate Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Jaroslav; Cervenák, Filip; Bircák, Erik; Juríková, Katarína; Goffová, Ivana; Gorilák, Peter; Huraiová, Barbora; Plavá, Jana; Demecsová, Loriana; Duríková, Nikola; Galisová, Veronika; Gazdarica, Matej; Puškár, Marek; Nagy, Tibor; Nagyová, Sona; Mentelová, Lucia; Slaninová, Miroslava; Ševcovicová, Andrea; Tomáška, Lubomír

    2018-01-01

    As future scientists, university students need to learn how to avoid making errors in their own manuscripts, as well as how to identify flaws in papers published by their peers. Here we describe a novel approach on how to promote students' ability to critically evaluate scientific articles. The exercise is based on instructing teams of students to…

  3. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  4. Formatting Open Science: agilely creating multiple document formats for academic manuscripts with Pandoc Scholar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Krewinkel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The timely publication of scientific results is essential for dynamic advances in science. The ubiquitous availability of computers which are connected to a global network made the rapid and low-cost distribution of information through electronic channels possible. New concepts, such as Open Access publishing and preprint servers are currently changing the traditional print media business towards a community-driven peer production. However, the cost of scientific literature generation, which is either charged to readers, authors or sponsors, is still high. The main active participants in the authoring and evaluation of scientific manuscripts are volunteers, and the cost for online publishing infrastructure is close to negligible. A major time and cost factor is the formatting of manuscripts in the production stage. In this article we demonstrate the feasibility of writing scientific manuscripts in plain markdown (MD text files, which can be easily converted into common publication formats, such as PDF, HTML or EPUB, using Pandoc. The simple syntax of Markdown assures the long-term readability of raw files and the development of software and workflows. We show the implementation of typical elements of scientific manuscripts—formulas, tables, code blocks and citations—and present tools for editing, collaborative writing and version control. We give an example on how to prepare a manuscript with distinct output formats, a DOCX file for submission to a journal, and a LATEX/PDF version for deposition as a PeerJ preprint. Further, we implemented new features for supporting ‘semantic web’ applications, such as the ‘journal article tag suite’—JATS, and the ‘citation typing ontology’—CiTO standard. Reducing the work spent on manuscript formatting translates directly to time and cost savings for writers, publishers, readers and sponsors. Therefore, the adoption of the MD format contributes to the agile production of open science

  5. Cross-cultural comparison of neurobehavioral performance in Asian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong-Hak; Sakong, Joon; Kang, Pock-Soo; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Jeon, Man-Joong; Sung, Nak-Jung; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Won, Kyu-Chang

    2003-08-01

    Widely-used neurobehavioral tests have been developed and standardized on Western populations, but studies on subject factors for Asian populations have been very limited. For the effective application and interpretation of neurobehavioral tests in Asian populations, an evaluation of the effects of subject factors, including cultural background, is necessary. A cross-cultural study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural background and the interaction between cultural background and education on neurobehavioral tests in Asian populations. The Korean version of the Swedish Performance Evaluation System (Simple Reaction Time, Symbol Digit, and Finger Tapping Speed) and a pegboard test were administered to 537 workers who were not exposed to chemicals at work from Fareast (Korea and Chinese), Central (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), and South Asia (Sri Lanka and Indonesia). The Fareast Asian group exhibited better performance in adjusted test scores than other Asian groups, achieving significance for Symbol Digit and Finger Tapping Speed in both genders. The magnitude of the effect of cultural background on Symbol Digit was comparable to the effect of about 10 years of education. Cultural background did not modify the relation between years of education and Symbol Digit in either males or females. This study may provide the first evidence that cultural background has a large impact on neurobehavioral test performance, even within Asian populations, and suggests that cultural background is a critical confounding factor that must be controlled in epidemiologic studies which include Asian populations in the sample.

  6. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  7. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  8. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  9. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  10. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  11. Asian Americans and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The communities that constitute the racialized category of Asian Americans consist of approximately 20 million people in the United States, or about 5% of the total population. About 20% or 4 million are of primary or secondary school age, and over 1.1 million are in higher education. Both in popular and academic discourse, "Asian…

  12. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  13. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.; Tan, E.S.H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In

  14. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. A Long Time Ago in a Library Far, Far Away ... The Adventures of the Gladiatoria Manuscript from New Haven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedorn Dierk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will describe the adventurous history of an important late medieval German fechtbuch—a fighting manual—that belongs to a number of manuscripts known as the Gladiatoria group. In the beginning, the extent and the characteristics of this group of codices are explained; later on I will deal with one specific specimen that formerly belonged to a library in Germany—the Herzogliche Bibliothek in Gotha—from where it vanished during or after World War II. Until quite recently this manuscript was believed to be lost. I was able to identify a Gladiatoria manuscript from the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven, Connecticut, as that missing manuscript. The article presents a detailed description of the manuscript; it follows the path of the many places the codex passed through from the days of its creation until the present time; it offers a thorough line of argument that proves on one hand that the manuscript from New Haven is in fact identical to the one that disappeared from Gotha, and that verifies on the other hand an assumption by the renowned researcher Hans-Peter Hils that it is identical to yet another believed-to-be-lost manuscript that was sold by auction in Heidelberg in the 1950s and 1960s as single leaves; and finally it makes an attempt to reconstruct the original structure of the manuscript after it had been pulled apart.

  16. Hidden library : Visualizing fragments of medieval manuscripts in early-modern bookbindings with mobile macro-XRF scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Jorien R.; Käyhkö, Anna; Kwakkel, Erik; Dik, J.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the large potential of macro-XRF imaging for the visualization of fragments of medieval manuscripts hidden in early-modern bookbindings. The invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century made manuscripts obsolete and bookbinders started recycling their

  17. Young hands, old books: Drawings by children in a fourteenth-century manuscript, LJS MS. 361.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Deborah Ellen

    This article scrutinises three marginal drawings in LJS 361, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania Libraries. It first considers the provenance of the manuscript, questioning how it got into the hands of children. Then, it combines developmental psychology with close examination of the material evidence to develop a list of criteria to attribute the drawings to children. There is consideration of the features that help us estimate the age of the artists, and which indicate that one drawing was a collaborative effort between two children. A potential relationship is identified between the doodles and the subject matter of the text, prompting questions about pre-modern child education and literacy. Finally, the article considers the implications of this finding in both codicology and social history since these marginal illustrations demonstrate that children were active in the material life of medieval books.

  18. "The Sky's Things", |xam Bushman 'Astrological Mythology' as recorded in the Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    The Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts are an extraordinary resource that comprises some 12 000 pages of |xam Bushman beliefs collected in the 1870s in Cape Town, South Africa. About 17% of the collection concerns beliefs and observations of celestial bodies. This paper summarises |xam knowledge about the origins of the celestial bodies as recorded in the manuscripts and situates this within the larger context of the |xam worldview. The stars and planets originate from a mythological past in which they lived as 'people' who hunted and gathered as the |xam did in the past, but who also had characteristics that were to make them the entities that we recognise today. Certain astronomical bodies have consciousness and supernatural potency. They exert an influence over people's everyday lives.

  19. Strategies for Using Plagiarism Software in the Screening of Incoming Journal Manuscripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several online tools have appeared capable of identifying potential plagiarism in science. While such tools may help to maintain or even increase the originality and ethical quality of the scientific literature, no apparent consensus exists among editors on the degree of plagiarism...... or self-plagiarism necessary to reject or retract manuscripts. In this study, two entire volumes of published original papers and reviews from Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology were retrospectively scanned for similarity in anonymized form using iThenticate software to explore measures...... to predictively identify true plagiarism and self-plagiarism and to potentially provide guidelines for future screening of incoming manuscripts. Several filters were applied, all of which appeared to lower the noise from irrelevant hits. The main conclusions were that plagiarism software offers a unique...

  20. Fate of manuscripts rejected by a non-English-language general medical journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether, where and when manuscripts were published following rejection by the Journal of the Danish Medical Association, a general medical journal published in Danish. Similar previous studies have focused on specialty/subspecialty journals...... evaluated. Results Of 198 rejected manuscripts, 21 (10.6%) were eventually published after a median of 685 days (range 209-1463). The majority of these were original research, published in English-language specialty/subspecialty journals. The median number of citations per article was 2-3 (IQR 0...... translation could be a barrier for resubmitting to English-language journals with larger readerships, thus hindering the dissemination of knowledge to the international community....

  1. Young hands, old books: Drawings by children in a fourteenth-century manuscript, LJS MS. 361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Deborah Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article scrutinises three marginal drawings in LJS 361, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania Libraries. It first considers the provenance of the manuscript, questioning how it got into the hands of children. Then, it combines developmental psychology with close examination of the material evidence to develop a list of criteria to attribute the drawings to children. There is consideration of the features that help us estimate the age of the artists, and which indicate that one drawing was a collaborative effort between two children. A potential relationship is identified between the doodles and the subject matter of the text, prompting questions about pre-modern child education and literacy. Finally, the article considers the implications of this finding in both codicology and social history since these marginal illustrations demonstrate that children were active in the material life of medieval books. PMID:27517059

  2. A practical guide to manuscript writing with particular relevance to the field of pediatric hospital medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Ronald J; Andrews, Anne L; Williams, Derek J

    2014-11-01

    Publishing manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals, such as Hospital Pediatrics, is critical for both the academic development of practitioners in pediatric hospital medicine and the scientific advancement of our field. Understanding the purpose of scientific writing and developing a structured approach to the writing process is essential. Doing so will improve the clarity of your work and likely the ease at which your research is published and disseminated throughout the scientific community. The purposes of this article are to detail the structure of a scientific manuscript, to highlight specific writing strategies, and to provide writing tips that may help or hinder publication. Our ultimate goal is to advance the field of pediatric hospital medicine and its growing membership by promoting the dissemination of high-quality research. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  4. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  5. A propaganda index for reviewing problem framing in articles and manuscripts: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen; Reiman, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an index in increasing recognition of misleading problem framing in articles and manuscripts. A propaganda index consisting of 32 items was developed drawing on related literature. Seventeen subjects who review manuscripts for possible publication were requested to read five recent published reports of randomized controlled trials concerning social anxiety and to identify indicators of propaganda (defined as encouraging beliefs and actions with the least thought possible). They then re-read the same five articles using a propaganda index to note instances of propaganda. Convenience sample of individuals who review manuscripts for possible publication and sample of recent published reports of randomized controlled trials regarding social anxiety in five different journals by different authors, blinded by author and journal. Data showed that there was a high rate of propagandistic problem framing in reports of RCTs regarding social anxiety such as hiding well argued alternative views and vagueness. This occurred in 117 out of 160 opportunities over five research reports. A convenience sample of 17 academics spotted only 4.5 percent of propaganda indicators. This increased to 64 percent with use of the 32 item propaganda index. Use of a propaganda index increased recognition of related indicators. However many instances remained undetected. This propaganda index warrants further exploration as a complement to reporting guidelines such as CONSORT and PRISMA.

  6. Gender trends of urology manuscript authors in the United States: a 35-year progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dana A; Kovshilovskaya, Bogdana; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2012-01-01

    The presence of women in urology has gradually increased in the last 35 years with an accelerated rate in the last decade. We evaluated manuscript authorship trends by gender. Manuscript authorship is a metric that has been used as a marker of academic productivity. We hypothesized that the number of first and last author publications by women has increased proportionately to the number of women in the field during the last 35 years. We performed a bibliometric study to examine authorship gender in The Journal of Urology® and Urology®. We reviewed all original articles published from American institutions in 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2009. Of the 8,313 articles reviewed 5,461 were from American institutions, including 97.5% for which we determined author gender. There were 767 articles with female authors, including 440 first and 327 last authors. First and last female authorship increased from 2.7% of all authors in 1979 to 26.5% in 2009 (test for trend p authorship rate surpasses the rate of growth of women in urology, which increased from 0.24% in 1975 to 6.2% in 2008. Based on authorship gender analysis women urologists produce manuscripts at a rate that exceeds their number in the field. Findings show that women in urology are productive, active members of the academic community. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Probing the statistical properties of unknown texts: application to the Voynich Manuscript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R; Altmann, Eduardo G; Rybski, Diego; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2013-01-01

    While the use of statistical physics methods to analyze large corpora has been useful to unveil many patterns in texts, no comprehensive investigation has been performed on the interdependence between syntactic and semantic factors. In this study we propose a framework for determining whether a text (e.g., written in an unknown alphabet) is compatible with a natural language and to which language it could belong. The approach is based on three types of statistical measurements, i.e. obtained from first-order statistics of word properties in a text, from the topology of complex networks representing texts, and from intermittency concepts where text is treated as a time series. Comparative experiments were performed with the New Testament in 15 different languages and with distinct books in English and Portuguese in order to quantify the dependency of the different measurements on the language and on the story being told in the book. The metrics found to be informative in distinguishing real texts from their shuffled versions include assortativity, degree and selectivity of words. As an illustration, we analyze an undeciphered medieval manuscript known as the Voynich Manuscript. We show that it is mostly compatible with natural languages and incompatible with random texts. We also obtain candidates for keywords of the Voynich Manuscript which could be helpful in the effort of deciphering it. Because we were able to identify statistical measurements that are more dependent on the syntax than on the semantics, the framework may also serve for text analysis in language-dependent applications.

  8. [Illustrations of of alchemy vessels in a manuscript of Pseudo-Geber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Manuscript ric. 933 "Geber de investigatione perfectionis magisterii", kept in the Libreria Riccardiana in Florence, is a 13th century Latin version of the "Book of the Secret of the Secrets" ("kitab sirr al-asrar") by the Arabian alchemist al-Razi (865-925). The manuscript shows on page 25r a series of drawings of alchemistic vessels and apparatus which do not figure in the Arabian original but which are of particular interest as they date from as early as the 13th century and are numbered amongst the earliest drawings of this kind which we possess. The publication of the manuscript by Julius Ruska in 1935 shows only copied drawings with his interpretations of the legends. There was considerable interest in the publication of the original page 25r and in the course of further study it became clear that these interpretations had to be revised. These new interpretations presented in detail in this paper are justified and put into an alchemistic context. In some cases they give a new understanding and differ considerably from Ruska's versions.

  9. The Appreciation and Study of Qur’an Manuscripts from Southeast Asia: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Teh Gallop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is not on theological aspects of the Qur’an, or on the study of the Qur’anic sciences in Southeast Asia over the past centuries, but rather to attempt to trace the path of the appreciation of old copies of the Qur’an in Southeast Asia as part of the historical record of the Islamic heritage of the region.  In this light, Qur’an manuscripts are viewed as objects of material culture which can cast light on the societies which produced them, and as works of art which testify to the heights of artistic creativity in the region, for illuminated Qur’an manuscripts represent the pinnacle of achievements in the arts of the book in Southeast Asia. This historical record can be measured through a survey of how, where, when and by whom Qur’an manuscripts in Southeast Asia were collected, documented, studied and published, both in Southeast Asia itself and in the west.

  10. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  11. Objects of Worship in South Asian Religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Objects of worship are an aspect of the material dimension of lived religion in South Asia. The omnipresence of these objects and their use is a theme which cuts across the religious traditions in the pluralistic religious culture of the region. Divine power becomes manifest in the objects and fo...... objects of worship, the book contributes to an understanding of the central significance of these objects in the religious and social life of South Asia. It will be of interest to students and scholars of Religious Studies and South Asian Religion, Culture and Society....

  12. Erica Marat, The Military and the State in Central Asia: From Red Army to Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Petric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Erica Marat is a one of the United States’ most brilliant Central Asian political scientists. She has offered numerous analyses of political transformations as presented by different think tanks and American foundations. In this book, Marat focuses on the role of the army in building state processes in contemporary Central Asian states. The book offers a wide panorama of Central Asian armies, compiling sources already published (books, reports in Russian and English etc. and some original da...

  13. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  14. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  15. Internal and external dynamics of regional cooperation in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzokhid Rakhimov

    2010-07-01

    Challenges of the 21-century require a broader partnership and cooperation. Future prospects of multilateral regional and international cooperation in Central Asia will depend on correlations of national, regional and global interests. It is necessary first of all strong dialogs between Central Asian republics itself. Central Asian geopolitical, economic and security challenges are connected and solution could come jointly. Future regional cooperation, strong international partnership would promote more stability, economic reforms and democratization to region and beyond.

  16. BIBLICAL MOTIFS IN THE UNDERSTANDING THE MANUSCRIPTS OF A SCRIBE FROM PECHORA I. S. MYANDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Fedorovna Volkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper off ers a survey of manuscripts of a peasant, Old Believer and knizhnik I. S. Miandin (1823–1894, Ust’-Tsilma, Komi Republic from the Old Manuscript Division of the IRLI (Institute of Russian Literature of the Russian Academy of Science or Pushkinskiy Dom. Knizhnik, in the Russian tradition, is a scribe, who also can recite from memory the Scripture texts and the patristic tradition. Miandin left his recapitulations of the Old Believers literary tradition. He left few compilations, transcribed a number of Old Russian texts of various genres. In four convolutes, he collected Biblical stories taken from chronographs. Most of Miandin’s stories recapitulate the Old Testament texts, but there are also legends from the early Christian history (e. g., The Story of Emperor Constantine and His Mother Helen. His major source was, in all probability, the copy of the Chronograph from the Old Believers tradition which he had in his possession (he lent it to a writer S. V. Maksimov and never received it back. The whereabouts of the Chronographer are not known. Some of the stories were signifi cantly reworked by Miandin in comparison with the chronographic version. Among those the are the stories of Joseph the Beautiful, King Solomon and Judith. Th e study of Miandin’s manuscripts demosntrates that the fi rst stage of his work is refl ected in the IRLI reduction (Ust’-Tsil’ma collection #267, the second – idem, #66, the third – RNB NSRK О.100. The Biblical protagonists were interpreted according to the understanding of life by Pechora peasants. The peripeteias were taken with empathy as if they were concerned people next-door. This attitude compelled the narrator to seek, from one version to another, the most convincing motivations for the action of the heroes.

  17. Early Portuguese lexicographic tradition: equivalents and loans in Caetano de Lima’s dictionary manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Silvestre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The exhaustive comparison between Portuguese and the main modern languages is a late phenomenon. Only at the end of seventeenth century, did Portugal feel the need for a methodical learning of foreign languages and for didactic tools with a marked lexical component, in which we include the essential bilingual dictionaries. Nevertheless, it is in the first half of the eighteenth century that the first glossaries are published, while the first bilingual dictionaries with alphabetical order and an extensive nomenclature will appear only in the second half of the century. In order to overcome this lag, Vernacular-Latin dictionaries were imported and handwritten dictionaries were compiled and adapted according to the needs of each user. Research on the origins of Portuguese-Italian lexicography has provided important information on the development of the techniques used to compile dictionaries and the contrastive analysis of languages. The first printed dictionary is an addition to Caetano de Lima’s Grammatica Italiana (1734 and it contains an appendix of hard words (where semantic peculiarities and idiomatic expressions are explained and an onomasiologic dictionary of common words. It has been described as a basic albeit functional lexicographic tool, suitable for beginners’ needs. Recently, a manuscript version of this dictionary has been identified (Diccionario de Nomes Portuguezes e Italianos Dispostos por Materias, Biblioteca Pública de Évora, CXIII-1-33, as well as the manuscript of a larger general dictionary (Diccionario Italiano-Portuguez, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, cod. 3342. This impressive lexicographic corpus is compiled about fifty years before the first printed Italian-Portuguese dictionary. The analysis demonstrates that the author tried to compile a much wider dictionary than the version that was actually published. In the manuscript, we can identify problems in some areas, such as the definition of lexical domains (due

  18. Application of spectroscopic techniques to the study of illuminated manuscripts: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, S.; Manso, M.; Carvalho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This work focused on the application of the most relevant spectroscopic techniques used for the characterization of illuminated manuscripts. The historical value of these unique and invaluable artworks, together with the increased awareness concerning the conservation of cultural heritage, prompted the application of analytical techniques to the study of these illuminations. This is essential for the understanding of the artist's working methods, which aids conservation–restoration. The characterization of the pigments may also help assign a probable date to the manuscript. For these purposes, the spectroscopic techniques used so far include those that provide information on the elemental content: X-ray fluorescence, total reflection X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Complementary techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, reveal information regarding the compounds present in the samples. The techniques, suitability, technological evolution and development of high-performance detectors, as well as the possibility of microanalysis and the higher sensitivity of the equipment, will also be discussed. Furthermore, issues such as the necessity of sampling, the portability of the equipment and the overall advantages and disadvantages of different techniques will be analyzed. - Highlights: ► The techniques used for studying illuminated manuscripts are described and compared. ► For in situ, non-destructive analysis the most suitable technique is EDXRF. ► For quantitative analysis TXRF is more appropriate. ► Raman spectroscopy is mostly used for pigments identification. ► FTIR was used for the characterization of binders and parchment.

  19. Conversion of Plastic Surgery meeting abstract presentations to full manuscripts: a brazilian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Pinho, André Silveira; Samartine, Hugo; Denadai, Rodrigo; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    to assess the conversion rate of Plastic Surgery meeting abstract presentations to full manuscript publications and examine factors associated with this conversion. we assessed the abstracts presented at the 47th and 48th Brazilian Congresses of Plastic Surgery by cross-referencing with multiple databases. We analyzed the Abstracts' characteristics associated with full manuscript publications. of the 200 abstracts presented, 50 abstracts were subsequently published in full, giving the conference a conversion rate of 25%. The mean time to publish was 15.00±13.75 months. In total, there were 4.93±1.63 authors per abstract and 67.8±163 subjects per abstract; 43.5% of the abstracts were of retrospective studies; 69% comprised the plastic surgery topics head and neck, and chest and trunk, and 88.5% had no statistical analysis. Overall, 80% of the manuscripts were published in plastic surgery journals, 76% had no impact factor and 52% had no citations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed the presence of statistical analysis to be the most significant (previstas de Cirurgia Plástica, 76% não exibiam fator de impacto e 52% não possuíam citações. As análises bivariada e multivariada revelaram que a presença de análise estatística foi o fator preditivo significativo (p<0,05) para a conversão de resumos em manuscritos completos. a taxa de conversão deste estudo bibliométrico foi inferior à tendência de conversão descrita em congressos internacionais de Cirurgia Plástica, e a presença de análise estatística foi um determinante para o sucesso de conversão.

  20. PIXE analysis of remaining bromine in fumigated old manuscripts and books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, M.; Yoshida, K.; Moritani, K.; Naito, M.; Enami, K.; Kasajima, H.; Takada, J.; Matsushita, R.

    1999-01-01

    Buddhist scriptures in Reeky University Library have been fumigated regularly for protecting them from vermin. Methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) had been used there till 1985. In order to examine whether the chemical remains on the fumigated objects or not, paper fragments of old manuscripts and books, modern paper placed together with them, and non-fumigated ones were analyzed by PIXE. The bromine concentration of fumigated paper was more than from several tens to several hundreds times higher than non-fumigated ones. (author)

  1. From Archimedean Hydrostatics to Post-Aristotelian Mechanics: Galileo's Early Manuscripts De motu antiquiora (ca. 1590)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    Galileo's early inquiries on motion and free fall in Pisa (1588-1592) can be regarded as a case study of multiple knowledge transfer at the very basic roots of modern mechanics. The treatise De motu, unpublished until 1890, is an original but unsuccessful attempt to go beyond Aristotelian physics by extending Archimedean hydrostatics to the dynamics of natural motion and reappraising the late-medieval impetus theory to account for violent motion and acceleration. I will discuss in particular why Galileo was forced to abandon his project before moving to Padua and how the manuscripts De motu provided him with a "research agenda" for further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  2. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  3. Reconsidering Asian American Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the applicability of student development theories in light of empirical research on Asian American college students through a twofold approach: (a) revisiting the relevance of Kodama, McEwen, Liang, and Lee's (2001, 2002) theoretical work on Asian American student development; and (b) using Jones' and Stewart's (2016)…

  4. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  5. The Bibliophilic value of a manuscript from Ştefan Ciobanu's library (Ph. Wieghel, Observations on the present state of affairs in Bessarabia, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Danilov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For almost five years Philip Philipovich Wieghel (Russified Finnish Estonian, 1786-1856, writer, famous memoirist of the time, member of the Arzamas Society, was the Bessarabian vice-governor and a member from the Crown in the Supreme Council for the Administration of Bessarabia (1823-1828. During his stay in Bessarabia, Wiegel wrote his famous essay “Observations on the present state of affairs in Bessarabia” (1823, which was nothing more than a pamphlet, a sarcastic satire on the Bessarabian society containing allusions to many representatives of local authorities who for various reasons were unpleasant to the author. Moreover, the notes are full of slander and contempt towards the natives. Apparently, Wigel intended to keep his pamphlet in secret, but could not resist distributing several copies among friends – a mistake that brought him a lot of misery later on in life. Wieghel’s memoirs are vast and can serve as a source of information for those wishing to know the atmosphere that prevailed at the beginning of the 19th century in the newly annexed province of the Russian Empire. Our study aims to determine the bibliophilic value of the manuscript relative to other valuable books stored in the Central Scientific Library of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. The manuscript entered the library of Ştefan Ciobanu in 1931, from the books of the passionate Bessarabian bibliophile Paul Gore. Thus, books often speak of other books.

  6. Datasets used in the manuscript titled "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms and organic aerosol"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data used in the manuscript "Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds: oxidation, mechanisms, and organic...

  7. "On-screen" writing and composing: two years experience with Manuscript Manager, Apple II and IBM-PC versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerhaus, L

    1989-06-01

    The problems of the direct composition of a biomedical manuscript on a personal computer are discussed. Most word processing software is unsuitable because literature references, once stored, cannot be rearranged if major changes are necessary. These obstacles have been overcome in Manuscript Manager, a combination of word processing and database software. As it follows Council of Biology Editors and Vancouver rules, the printouts should be technically acceptable to most leading biomedical journals.

  8. Navigating manuscript assessment: The new practitioner's guide to primary literature peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Devlin V; Stokes, Laura B; Marx, Kayleigh; Aitken, Samuel L

    2018-01-01

    For pharmacists, the first years after graduation are spent developing their knowledge base, advancing as a practitioner, and honing their abilities as healthcare providers and drug information experts. New practitioners encounter many challenges during this time, which for many include publishing original research or reviewing manuscripts for colleagues and medical journals. Inexperience navigating the publication process, from submission to receipt of (and response to) peer review commentary, is often cited as a major barrier to timely publication of resident and new practitioner research. Serving as a peer reviewer in turn provides the new practitioner with insight on this process and can be an enlightening experience used to garner confidence in subsequently submitting their own formal manuscripts. A number of publications describing steps for peer review are available, however, many of these articles address more experienced reviewers or critique the peer review process itself. No definitive resource exists for new pharmacy practitioners interested in developing their peer review skills. The information presented in this summative guide should be used in conjunction with practice opportunities to help new practitioners develop proficiency at peer review.

  9. Bibliometric Analysis of Manuscript Characteristics That Influence Citations: A Comparison of Six Major Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhani, Haris Naseem; Shariff, Shoaib; Bhulani, Nizar; Khosa, Faisal; Hanna, Tarek Noel

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate radiology manuscript characteristics that influence citation rate, capturing features of manuscript construction that are discrete from study design. Consecutive articles published from January 2004 to June 2004 were collected from the six major radiology journals with the highest impact factors: Radiology (impact factor, 5.076), Investigative Radiology (2.320), American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) (2.384), RadioGraphics (2.494), European Radiology (2.364), and American Journal of Roentgenology (2.406). The citation count for these articles was retrieved from the Web of Science, and 29 article characteristics were tabulated manually. A point-biserial correlation, Spearman rank-order correlation, and multiple regression model were performed to predict citation number from the collected variables. A total of 703 articles-211 published in Radiology, 48 in Investigative Radiology, 106 in AJNR, 52 in RadioGraphics, 129 in European Radiology, and 157 in AJR-were evaluated. Punctuation was included in the title in 55% of the articles and had the highest statistically significant positive correlation to citation rate (point-biserial correlation coefficient [r pb ] = 0.85, p radiology. Using bibliometric knowledge, authors can craft a title, abstract, and text that may enhance visibility and citation count over what they would otherwise experience.

  10. SharedCanvas: A Collaborative Model for Medieval Manuscript Layout Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albritton, Benjamin [Stanford University; Schwemmer, Rafael [e-codices; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model based on the principles of Linked Data that can be used to describe the interrelationships of images, texts and other resources to facilitate the interoperability of repositories of medieval manuscripts or other culturally important handwritten documents. The model is designed from a set of requirements derived from the real world use cases of some of the largest digitized medieval content holders, and instantiations of the model are intended as the input to collection-independent page turning and scholarly presentation interfaces. A canvas painting paradigm, such as in PDF and SVG, was selected based on the lack of a one to one correlation between image and page, and to fulfill complex requirements such as when the full text of a page is known, but only fragments of the physical object remain. The model is implemented using technologies such as OAI-ORE Aggregations and OAC Annotations, as the fundamental building blocks of emerging Linked Digital Libraries. The model and implementation are evaluated through prototypes of both content providing and consuming applications. Although the system was designed from requirements drawn from the medieval manuscript domain, it is applicable to any layout-oriented presentation of images of text.

  11. The role of food in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: introduction to a manuscript series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chey, William D

    2013-05-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by the presence of chronic or recurrent symptoms that are felt to originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which cannot be attributed to an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Food is associated with symptom onset or exacerbation in a significant proportion of FGID patients. Despite this, the role of food in the pathogenesis of the FGIDs has remained poorly understood. For this reason, diet has largely played an adjunctive rather than a primary role in the management of FGID patients. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the role of food in GI function and sensation and how food relates to GI symptoms in FGID patients. In a series of evidence-based manuscripts produced by the Rome Foundation Working Group on the role of food in FGIDs, comprehensive reviews of the physiological changes associated with nutrient intake, and the respective roles of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and fats are provided. The series concludes with a manuscript that provides guidance on proper clinical trial design when considering the role of food in FGIDs.

  12. Trace element analysis of the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, M.; Yoshida, K.; Moritani, K.; Norizawa, K.; Enami, K.; Kasajima, H.; Ueyama, D.; Takada, J.; Matsushita, R.

    1999-01-01

    In order to classify the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts, their trace elements were analyzed by PIXE. The paper samples of these manuscripts were fallen off when they were photographed for a CD-ROM catalog. These samples were very small and their size was less than several millimeters. In addition, some paper fragments dating from the late Edo-era of Japan and the late Qing Dynasty of China, and modern Japanese handmade paper were analyzed using PIXE and NAA. Quite interesting results were obtained when analyzing the trace elements - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Ba, Pb, La, Sm. It was found that Dunhuang and Turfan papers of the Otani Collection were characterized by its highest iron and bromine content. The reason of the highest iron content probably originates in their making process and/or depends on their preservative environment. On the other hand, it became clear as for the highest bromine content that the origin is from fumigation of methyl bromide. (author)

  13. Submission of scientifically sound and ethical manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals - a reviewer's personal perspective on bioanalytical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Naidong

    2012-11-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, bioanalysis is very dynamic and is probably one of the few fields of research covering the entire drug discovery, development and post-marketing process. Important decisions on drug safety can partially rely on bioanalytical data, which therefore can be subject to regulatory scrutiny. Bioanalytical scientists have historically contributed significant numbers of scientific manuscripts in many peer-reviewed analytical journals. All of these journals provide some high-level instructions, but they also leave sufficient flexibility for reviewers to perform independent critique and offer recommendations for each submitted manuscript. Reviewers play a pivotal role in the process of bioanalytical publication to ensure the publication of high-quality manuscripts in a timely fashion. Their efforts usually lead to improved manuscripts. However, it has to be a joint effort among authors, reviewers and editors to promote scientifically sound and ethically fair bioanalytical publications. Most of the submitted manuscripts were well written with only minor or moderate revisions required for further improvement. Nevertheless, there were small numbers of submitted manuscripts that did not meet the requirements for publications because of scientific or ethical deficiencies, which are discussed in this Letter to the Editor. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Plagiarism in submitted manuscripts: incidence, characteristics and optimization of screening-case study in a major specialty medical journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Janet R; Lin, Feng-Chang; Evans, James P

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is common and threatens the integrity of the scientific literature. However, its detection is time consuming and difficult, presenting challenges to editors and publishers who are entrusted with ensuring the integrity of published literature. In this study, the extent of plagiarism in manuscripts submitted to a major specialty medical journal was documented. We manually curated submitted manuscripts and deemed an article contained plagiarism if one sentence had 80 % of the words copied from another published paper. Commercial plagiarism detection software was utilized and its use was optimized. In 400 consecutively submitted manuscripts, 17 % of submissions contained unacceptable levels of plagiarized material with 82 % of plagiarized manuscripts submitted from countries where English was not an official language. Using the most commonly employed commercial plagiarism detection software, sensitivity and specificity were studied with regard to the generated plagiarism score. The cutoff score maximizing both sensitivity and specificity was 15 % (sensitivity 84.8 % and specificity 80.5 %). Plagiarism was a common occurrence among manuscripts submitted for publication to a major American specialty medical journal and most manuscripts with plagiarized material were submitted from countries in which English was not an official language. The use of commercial plagiarism detection software can be optimized by selecting a cutoff score that reflects desired sensitivity and specificity.

  15. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  16. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  17. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5%–10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:26187060

  18. The relationship between manuscript title structure and success: editorial decisions and citation performance for an ecological journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles W; Burns, C Sean

    2015-05-01

    A poorly chosen article title may make a paper difficult to discover or discourage readership when discovered, reducing an article's impact. Yet, it is unclear how the structure of a manuscript's title influences readership and impact. We used manuscript tracking data for all manuscripts submitted to the journal Functional Ecology from 2004 to 2013 and citation data for papers published in this journal from 1987 to 2011 to examine how title features changed and whether a manuscript's title structure was predictive of success during the manuscript review process and/or impact (citation) after publication. Titles of manuscripts submitted to Functional Ecology became marginally longer (after controlling for other variables), broader in focus (less frequent inclusion of genus and species names), and included more humor and subtitles over the period of the study. Papers with subtitles were less likely to be rejected by editors both pre- and post-peer review, although both effects were small and the presence of subtitles in published papers was not predictive of citations. Papers with specific names of study organisms in their titles fared poorly during editorial (but not peer) review and, if published, were less well cited than papers whose titles did not include specific names. Papers with intermediate length titles were more successful during editorial review, although the effect was small and title word count was not predictive of citations. No features of titles were predictive of reviewer willingness to review papers or the length of time a paper was in peer review. We conclude that titles have changed in structure over time, but features of title structure have only small or no relationship with success during editorial review and post-publication impact. The title feature that was most predictive of manuscript success: papers whose titles emphasize broader conceptual or comparative issues fare better both pre- and post-publication than do papers with organism

  19. A National Survey Examining Manuscript Dissertation Formats Among Nursing PhD Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Postma, Julie; Katz, Janet R; Kehoe, Leanne; Swalling, Eileen; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2018-03-08

    Among research-focused nursing doctoral (PhD) programs in the United States, the traditional dissertation format has recently given way to a series of publication-ready manuscripts, often bookended by introduction and conclusion chapters. To help programs make decisions about the use of these formats, this study undertook a national survey of programs offering PhDs in nursing. The purpose of this study was to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional format versus manuscript option for dissertations among nursing PhD programs in the United States. Cross-sectional census survey of U.S. nursing PhD programs. A web-based survey was administered to all U.S. nursing PhD programs. Respondents indicated formats offered, factors contributing to decisions of which formats to offer, and lessons learned. Descriptive statistics and inductive content analyses were used for analysis. Of 121 eligible institutions, 79 provided eligible responses (66.7%). The majority (59%) offered both formats; 11% offered the manuscript option only, and 24% offered the traditional format only. Faculty support (or lack thereof) contributed to adoption (or not) of the manuscript option. Respondents' approaches to the manuscript option (e.g., number of papers) and advice are summarized. Manuscript option dissertations are commonly offered and provide benefits to students and faculty; however, thoughtful implementation is critical. Programs need to agree upon clear expectations and have graduate school support (e.g., formatting). Faculty need mentorship in advising manuscript option students who choose to use this format, and the time and support. Finally, students need additional writing skills that could be provided through coursework or via individual work with mentors. As nursing education continues to expand further into doctoral research, programs must examine dissertation formats in order to both prepare future nurse scholars and disseminate nursing research that is critical

  20. The Slavic books in the 16th century: between manuscripts and printings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neža Zajc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The article explores the Slavic typography in the Renaissance with special emphasis on the Cyrillic incunabula and on the complex process of building national languages in the Slavic regions, which are also related to the position of Christian theology (Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant of that time.Methodology/approach: The analysis of primary resources i.e. manuscripts and incunabula was used for the presentation of the complexity position of the Slavic languages in the 16th century.Results: It was difficult to separate the orthodox texts from the apocryphal contents of Christian texts.Research limitation: This study presents the general review and analysis of specific cases and as such it represents a basic introduction in to a more sophisticated research.Originality/practical implications: The study shows that the language disunity (the instability of the linguistic forms could be one the reasons for difficulties in printing the Slavic texts in 16th century.

  1. Low-cost near-infrared imaging device for inspection of historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) or sometimes called black light is a waveform beyond visible light and it is not detectable by human eyes. However electronic sensors such as the type used in digital cameras are able to detect signals in the infrared band. To avoid distortion in the pictures obtained near-infrared is blocked by optical filters inserted in digital cameras. By carrying out minor modification allowing near-infrared signal to be imaged while blocking the visible signal, the camera is turned into a low-cost NIR imaging instrument. NIR imaging can be a useful tool in historical manuscript study or restoration. A few applications have been successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiment using the instrument available in MINT. However, due to unavailability of historical items, easily available texts and paintings are used in the demonstrations. This paper reports achievements of early work on the application of digital camera in the detection of damaged prints or writings. (Author)

  2. Application of image processing technology to problems in manuscript encapsulation. [Codex Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Korsmo, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    The long term effects of encapsulation individual sheets of the Codex Hammer were investigated. The manuscript was simulated with similar sheets of paper which were photographed under repeatable raking light conditions to enhance their surface texture, encapsulated in plexiglas, cycled in an environmental test chamber, and rephotographed at selected intervals. The film images were digitized, contrast enhanced, geometrically registered, and apodized. An FFT analysis of a control sheet and two experimental sheets indicates no micro-burnishing, but reveals that the ""mesoscale'' deformations with sizes 8mm are degrading monotonically, which is of no concern. Difference image analysis indicates that the sheets were increasingly stressed with time and that the plexiglas did not provide a sufficient environmental barrier under the simulation conditions. The relationship of these results to the Codex itself is to be determined.

  3. Military Equipment in the Byzantine Manuscript of Scylitzes in Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruhn Hoffmeyer, Ada

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the military equipment of the Second Golden Age of the Byzantine empire as represented not by the text of Scylitzes but by the illuminators of this marvellous manuscript, the relations of the illuminations to the actual weapons and their chronology.

    El propósito de este trabajo es proporcionar una introducción al equipamiento militar durante la Segunda Edad de Oro del Imperio Bizantino, tal y como se representa no a través del texto, sino de las iluminaciones, del manuscrito Scylitzes de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, y la comparación de las iluminaciones con el armamento auténtico y su cronología. [traducción para esta edición electrónica

  4. Caveats in the proficient preparation of an APA-style research manuscript for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    Writing a scientific research paper for submission to a peer-reviewed journal requires compositional skill and attention to details. In evaluating submitted manuscripts, journal editors and reviewers often encounter recurrent mistakes in composition and in compliance with the stylistic requirements of the particular publication. This editorial article identifies core tenets of effective scientific writing in the social and behavioral sciences, and it delineates commonly committed errors in violation of the style prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA). The editor organizes his advice in a user-friendly checklist to assist both authors and reviewers associated with this journal (Body Image: An International Journal of Research), as well as other journals that adhere to APA style. This advisory article may also assist research supervisors and instructors in academic training contexts.

  5. and Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEX

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... crossing Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.) by ... Extensive culture of H. fossilis is prevalent in India, but with less growth, when ..... Kligerman AD, Bloom SE (1977).

  6. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  7. Lupus among Asians and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...

  8. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  9. Outlining and dictating scientific manuscripts is a useful method for health researchers: A focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Young researchers may experience difficulties when writing scientific articles for publication in biomedical journals. Various methods may facilitate the writing process including outlining the paper before the actual writing and using dictation instead of writing the first draft. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences and difficulties for young, experienced researchers when writing articles using a detailed outline and dictation of the first draft. We used qualitative focus group interviews and the study was reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guideline. Participants were sampled from a group of researchers participating in a writing retreat/course. The interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed. The text was analyzed according to content analysis and coded and condensed into themes and subthemes. Groups of participants were added until data saturation was reached. A total of 14 researchers participated (9 women and 5 men). Their clinical experience was median (range) of 6 (1-11) years since graduation from medical school. Two themes arose during the analyses of the data: "Process guidance with the outline as the map" and "arrival at dictation." The outline was used in the preparation phase leading up to the day of dictation and was used in collaboration with co-authors and supervisors. The participants found it to be a useful tool for preparing the manuscript and dictating their initial first full draft. Experienced young researchers found beneficial effects of using a structured outline to prepare for dictation of scientific articles. The outline was a tool that would develop in close collaboration with co-authors and mentors. With dictation, a full first draft of a manuscript can be produced in a few hours. Participants positively evaluated this structured and reproducible way of producing scientific articles.

  10. "On the job" learning: A bioinformatics course incorporating undergraduates in actual research projects and manuscript submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T; Harris, Justine C; Lopez, Oscar J; Valverde, Laura; Borchert, Glen M

    2015-01-01

    The sequencing of whole genomes and the analysis of genetic information continues to fundamentally change biological and medical research. Unfortunately, the people best suited to interpret this data (biologically trained researchers) are commonly discouraged by their own perceived computational limitations. To address this, we developed a course to help alleviate this constraint. Remarkably, in addition to equipping our undergraduates with an informatic toolset, we found our course design helped prepare our students for collaborative research careers in unexpected ways. Instead of simply offering a traditional lecture- or laboratory-based course, we chose a guided inquiry method, where an instructor-selected research question is examined by students in a collaborative analysis with students contributing to experimental design, data collection, and manuscript reporting. While students learn the skills needed to conduct bioinformatic research throughout all sections of the course, importantly, students also gain experience in working as a team and develop important communication skills through working with their partner and the class as a whole, and by contributing to an original research article. Remarkably, in its first three semesters, this novel computational genetics course has generated 45 undergraduate authorships across three peer-reviewed articles. More importantly, the students that took this course acquired a positive research experience, newfound informatics technical proficiency, unprecedented familiarity with manuscript preparation, and an earned sense of achievement. Although this course deals with analyses of genetic systems, we suggest the basic concept of integrating actual research projects into a 16-week undergraduate course could be applied to numerous other research-active academic fields. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Asian FTAs: Trends and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Masahiro; Wignaraja, Ganeshan

    2009-01-01

    Although a latecomer, economically important Asia has emerged at the forefront of global free trade agreement (FTA) activity. This has sparked concerns about the negative effects of Asian FTAs, including the noodle bowl problem. Amid slow progress in the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha negotiations and the global financial crisis, however, Asian regionalism seems to be here to stay and the focus for policymakers should be how best to minimize the costs of FTAs while maximizing their ben...

  12. A new approach towards the enhancement of northeast Asian economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jae Lee

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the formation of the Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation Council (NAECC to discuss comprehensive economic cooperation and major economic issues between Korea, Japan and China. In order to meet the challenge of risign regionalism and to prevent another Asian economic crisis, it is imperative for the central governments of the region to involve themselves more actively in Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation. Given the diversity of Northeast Asian countries, it seems to be more realistic to vegin with the central governments of the three major countries in terms of economic size. However, even amongst these three countries, the prospects for reaching a regional trade agreement such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, let alone a more advanced economic integration type like the EU, are quite dim in the foreseeable future. Thus, Korea, Japan and China must try to get as many benefits of economic integration as possible through a non-traditional approach.

  13. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  14. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  15. Morphological variability and distribution of the exotic Asian Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: in the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From a series of biological samples collected from different freshwater environments in Costa Rica, Central America, the exotic Asian cyclopoid Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides Harada, 1931 was identified. We analyzed the morphology and appendage ornamentation of different Neotropical populations of this species, including specimens from Honduras, southeastern Mexico, and Costa Rica. We also examined Asian specimens from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand, and performed a comparison of the Neotropical and Asian populations including a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The Neotropical and Asian specimens show subtle morphological variations in the antennules, antennae, mandibles, swimming legs 1-4, and fifth legs. Some characters in the Neotropical group appear to diverge from the Asian pattern and the PCA indicated that intercontinental populations of M. thermocyclopoides are far from being homogeneous. These intra-specific differences are described to expand the known morphological range of this species and to provide the first comparative analysis of an exotic copepod in the Americas. Our analysis suggests that the geographic isolation of the American populations and the subtle morphological divergences with respect to the Asian patterns could be related to speciation processes in the Neotropical region, but also intra-Asian differences are reported. In the Neotropical region this species appears to be restricted to southeastern Mexico, Central America, and one Caribbean island; its potential as biological control of mosquito might enhance its spread in the region.

  16. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  17. For the study of the manuscript biblical tradition: a new proposal for the analysis of codex 2437

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Oliveira Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article submitted to Horizonte Journal proposes a new way to study the codex 2437, a manuscript written in Greek between the centuries XII and XIII that brings the four Gospels of the canonical New Testament. The interest in this document is growing and it can be justified because it is part of the collection of the National Library of Rio de Janeiro, being considered the oldest manuscript in Latin America. The manuscript is, therefore, a cultural and material heritage that we need to preserve and study more. Our suggestion for the research aims to complement the traditional studies of textual criticism with a methodological framework that was extracted from the History of Writing Culture and contemporary literary studies, fields of knowledge that encourage us to take books not to deal only with its contents, but also to consider some aspects of materiality, paratexts and the history of their uses and readings.

  18. Raman microscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis of pigments on medieval and Renaissance Italian manuscript cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Lucia; Clark, Robin J H; Hark, Richard R

    2010-03-30

    Italian medieval and Renaissance manuscript cuttings and miniatures from the Victoria and Albert Museum were analyzed by Raman microscopy to compile a database of pigments used in different periods and different Italian regions. The palette identified in most manuscripts and cuttings was found to include lead white, gypsum, azurite, lazurite, indigo, malachite, vermilion, red lead, lead tin yellow (I), goethite, carbon, and iron gall ink. A few of the miniatures, such as the historiated capital "M" painted by Gerolamo da Cremona and the Petrarca manuscript by Bartolomeo Sanvito, are of exceptional quality and were analyzed extensively; some contained unusual materials. The widespread usage of iron oxides such as goethite and hematite as minor components of mixtures with azurite is particularly notable. The use of a needle-shaped form of iron gall ink as a pigment rather than a writing material was established by both Raman microscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the Madonna and Child by Franco de' Russi.

  19. Mentored peer review of standardized manuscripts as a teaching tool for residents: a pilot randomized controlled multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Victoria S S; Strowd, Roy E; Aragón-García, Rebeca; Moon, Yeseon Park; Ford, Blair; Haut, Sheryl R; Kass, Joseph S; London, Zachary N; Mays, MaryAnn; Milligan, Tracey A; Price, Raymond S; Reynolds, Patrick S; Selwa, Linda M; Spencer, David C; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing need for peer reviewers as the scientific literature grows. Formal education in biostatistics and research methodology during residency training is lacking. In this pilot study, we addressed these issues by evaluating a novel method of teaching residents about biostatistics and research methodology using peer review of standardized manuscripts. We hypothesized that mentored peer review would improve resident knowledge and perception of these concepts more than non-mentored peer review, while improving review quality. A partially blinded, randomized, controlled multi-center study was performed. Seventy-eight neurology residents from nine US neurology programs were randomized to receive mentoring from a local faculty member or not. Within a year, residents reviewed a baseline manuscript and four subsequent manuscripts, all with introduced errors designed to teach fundamental review concepts. In the mentored group, mentors discussed completed reviews with residents. Primary outcome measure was change in knowledge score between pre- and post-tests, measuring epidemiology and biostatistics knowledge. Secondary outcome measures included level of confidence in the use and interpretation of statistical concepts before and after intervention, and RQI score for baseline and final manuscripts. Sixty-four residents (82%) completed initial review with gradual decline in completion on subsequent reviews. Change in primary outcome, the difference between pre- and post-test knowledge scores, did not differ between mentored (-8.5%) and non-mentored (-13.9%) residents ( p  = 0.48). Significant differences in secondary outcomes (using 5-point Likert scale, 5 = strongly agree) included mentored residents reporting enhanced understanding of research methodology (3.69 vs 2.61; p  = 0.001), understanding of manuscripts (3.73 vs 2.87; p  = 0.006), and application of study results to clinical practice (3.65 vs 2.78; p  = 0.005) compared to non

  20. The art of scientific storytelling transform your research manuscript using a step-by-step formula

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Rafael E

    2013-01-01

    We all want our research to have an impact and to be cited by others. There are thousands of research articles published in our respective fields. How do we get someone to read our publications? This book shows you how to put your Title and Abstract into a story, along with the rest of your manuscript. Your research will stand out in a sea of peer-review publications, since it will be forged into a Scientific Story. As a research fellow in the laboratory of Professor Gerhard Wagner at Harvard Medical School, Dr. Luna was collaborating with four other top-notch laboratories in an interdisciplinary research effort to understand the end of the scanning mechanism required for protein synthesis in cells. They were sitting on a mound of research data collected by the various laboratories with varying expertise. This super-collaboration consisted of Physicists, Biologists, Structural Biologists, Biochemists, Chemists, a Computer Scientist, and a Chemical Engineer. There was so much data; yet they struggled to fashio...

  1. An explorative chemometric approach applied to hyperspectral images for the study of illuminated manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Emilio; Randeberg, Lise Lyngsnes; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre; Gebremariam, Kidane Fanta; Bracci, Silvano

    2017-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a fast non-invasive imaging technology recently applied in the field of art conservation. With the help of chemometrics, important information about the spectral properties and spatial distribution of pigments can be extracted from HSI data. With the intent of expanding the applications of chemometrics to the interpretation of hyperspectral images of historical documents, and, at the same time, to study the colorants and their spatial distribution on ancient illuminated manuscripts, an explorative chemometric approach is here presented. The method makes use of chemometric tools for spectral de-noising (minimum noise fraction (MNF)) and image analysis (multivariate image analysis (MIA) and iterative key set factor analysis (IKSFA)/spectral angle mapper (SAM)) which have given an efficient separation, classification and mapping of colorants from visible-near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images of an ancient illuminated fragment. The identification of colorants was achieved by extracting and interpreting the VNIR spectra as well as by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer.

  2. [A brief history of time: 1945-2008--studies, manuscripts, and publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadahiko

    2009-01-01

    I (the author), Tadahiko Matsumoto, who is a winner of the 2008 Japanese Society for Medical Mycology (JSMM) Award, was born in 1945 and graduated in 1969 from Kyushu University in Fukuoka, Japan with an M.D. degree. At the Department of Dermatology, Kyushu University I studied dermatology and medical mycology. In Tokyo (1970-1971) at the Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences I learned general mycology. During the period from 1981 to 1983 I further studied medical mycology at the Division of Mycotic Diseases (Director: Dr. Libero Ajello), Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States. During the period from 1991 to 2005 while working as Director of Dermatology of Toshiba Hospital in Tokyo I was affiliated with several medical schools as a clinical and adjunct professor. Being a unique physician-scientist eager to publish my manuscripts in highly-regarded mycology journals, my studies were accurately reported as to description, taxonomy, and identification. My articles were published in journals carefully chosen for my purposes. As I became better known, I was frequently invited to contribute review articles in leading journals and chapters in authoritative textbooks of dermatology, infectious diseases, and microbiology. I was also invited to be a member and/or chairperson of various symposia in international congresses and one of the lecturers in seminars. I have established many friendly personal relationships among scientists, and we are always ready to help each other whenever necessary.

  3. [On the astrology and computation in the 12th century: new unpublished manuscripts ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Irene

    2012-01-01

    This article examines three so far unknown lemmatic commentaries on computus and on astrolabe topics, which are to be found in MS Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. math. 4 degrees 33 (second half of the twelfth-century). The commentaries are on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus, on the 'De mensura astrolabii' by Hermann of Reichenau, and on the 'De utilitatibus astrolabii', which is sometimes attributed to Gerbert of Aurillac. No commentaries on the respective treatises have previously been identified as such. The commentaries of the Stuttgart manuscript are of special interest in that they allow us to understand how a twelfth-century scholar read works on computus and the astrolabe, namely works that date back to the eleventh century. Their author remains anonymous, but in all probability he wrote his commentary on the 'Compotus' by Gerlandus either in 1143 or in 1150. An appendix to the article includes transcriptions of the introductory texts on the computus and on the astrolabe as well as the beginnings of the commentaries.

  4. Distributing Images and Information over the Web - a Case Study of the Pont Manuscript Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleet

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological changes in recent years have encouraged many libraries to deliver digital images of their materials over the Internet. For larger items, including maps, high resolution images of research quality can now be obtained from steadily cheaper equipment, computers can process larger images more comfortably, and newer compression formats have allowed these images to be viewed interactively online. The exponential growth of the Internet has also created a large body of users who wish to access these images from their homes or desktops. Within this context, this paper describes the scanning of the Pont manuscript maps of Scotland, the technology used to make these maps available over the Internet, and the initial stages of the construction of a website of associated information. This case study is not presented as a prescriptive example of best practice, but rather as an illustration of some of the main practical issues involved, using these to present arguments for and against current map digitisation and Web delivery work.

  5. Archeographical and historical artifact of the Jesuits of Saint Jan collegium in Jaroslav in the late XVII century in the fonds of the Manuscript Institute of VNLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatova S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication treats a manuscript inventory of the late XVII century, unknown for historians, which contains the descriptions of landed estates of the Jesuit collegium of Saint Jan in Jaroslav. The paper covers the archeographical aspect of research of the manuscript artifact of Subcarpathian land, which is currently deposited in the fonds of the Manuscript Institute of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. The author-originator of the manuscript states explicit historical-archival data on Jesuit and szlachta landed estates in Subcarpathian region in XVI-XVII centuries, in particular the possessions of Jaroslav landed holdings. In the publication we consider the historical information on the original sources of various antiquariums and archives of Rich Pospolyta, primarily the archive of the Jesuit collegium in Jaroslav, which are stated in the manuscript inventory. The archeographical analysis of the manuscript, performed in the article, contributes to the historical reconstruction of the Jesuit collegium of Saint Jan in Jaroslav.

  6. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  7. Manuscripts as Evidence for the use of Classics in Education, c. 800–1200: Estimating the Randomness of Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Tahkokallio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Are the surviving copies of schooltexts representative of what was popularly used in schools in the medieval period? In other words, was the survival of these manuscripts a random or selective process? To approach this question, this article presents a series of comparisons between the numbers of manuscripts of different schooltexts. It demonstrates that the most popular schooltexts all survive in very similar numbers from each century, and that the typical number of copies varies from one century to another. The easiest explanation for such a survival pattern is to assume that the texts were produced in equal numbers and passed through a relatively random filter of losses. The article seeks to test this intuitive explanation by using a simple probability mathematical experiment. In addition, the article analyses how the numbers of surviving manuscripts relate to entries in medieval book lists and medieval library catalogues. This examination supports the interpretation that the survival of schooltexts was a relatively random process. In addition, comparison between medieval book lists and extant manuscripts advocates caution in using the book lists as evidence for the popularity of texts in the medieval centuries. Even though the catalogues provide snapshots of specific historical situations, this paper concludes that the mass of extant books is more likely to give us a realistic picture of the contemporary popularity of texts.

  8. Hesitating progress - the slow development toward algebraic symbolization in abbacus- and related manuscripts, c.1300 to c.1550

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    From the early fourteenth century onward, some Italian Abbacus manuscripts begin to use particular abbreviations for algebraic operations and objects and, to be distinguished from that, examples of symbolic operation. The algebraic abbreviations and symbolic operations we find in German Rechenmei...

  9. The Old Saxon Leipzig "Heliand" Manuscript Fragment (MS L): New Evidence Concerning Luther, the Poet, and Ottonian Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Timothy Blaine

    2010-01-01

    Begun as an investigation of the linguistic and paleographic evidence on the Old Saxon Leipzig "Heliand" fragment, the dissertation encompasses three analyses spanning over a millennium of that manuscript's existence. First, a direct analysis clarifies errors in the published transcription (4.2). The corrections result from digital…

  10. Keats’s sonnet on Chapman’s translation of Homer: manuscript of early draft and initial publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Franklin Head

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the earliest known manuscript of Keats's sonnet to Chapman’s translation of the Iliad (1611, in comparison with the first publication of the poem by Keats (1816. A comparative reading is provided, along with related philological and literary comments.

  11. There Was a Crooked Man(uscript): A Not-so-Serious Look at the Serious Subject of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kevin T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism by political scientists has not received much attention. The incidence of plagiarism, however, may be greater than one would think. In this article, I offer a humorous look at what happened when a manuscript of mine was plagiarized. Based on my experience, I offer some suggestions on how scholars might detect and prevent…

  12. The Duke, the Soldier of Fortune, and a Rosicrucian Legacy: Exploring the Roles of Manuscripts in Early-Modern Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Mike A

    2018-05-19

    By the time it was published in 1705, the Speculum Sapientiae claimed to have had a long history going back to 1672. However, the fact that exaggerated stories were commonplace in alchemical literature leads us to question its credibility. This paper explores the secret lives of this alchemical text prior to its print publication to clarify the roles of manuscripts in early-modern alchemy. Specifically, I argue that there were three aspects that could distinguish manuscript from print: provenance, materiality, and exclusivity. These can be seen at work in the fate of Johann Heinrich Vierordt, an itinerant alchemist and cavalry captain whose career is inextricably linked to the scribal dissemination of the Speculum Sapientiae. In addition to manuscript copies of that text at libraries across Europe, a significant cache of correspondence preserved in Gotha documents Vierordt's dealings with Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha. The verisimilitudinous provenance of Vierordt's alchemical secrets and tincture played a crucial role in allowing him to gain Friedrich's trust. Yet it was only after Vierordt presented him with a precious parchment manuscript of the Speculum Sapientiae that he truly succeeded in gaining the duke's patronage. Subsequently, reports of multiple conflicting copies surfacing in Amsterdam sealed Vierordt's fall from favour.

  13. Mammographic compression in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35-80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pAsian women. The median compression force should be about 8.1 daN compared to the current 12.0 daN. Decreasing compression force from 12.0 daN to 9.0 daN increased CBT by 3.3±1.4 mm, MGD by 6.2-11.0%, and caused no significant effects on image quality (p>0.05). Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD.

  14. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  15. Asian and Australian power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a 1995 Summer Meeting panel session summary on infrastructure, interconnections, and electricity exchanges in Asia and Australia. Panelists focused on the present and future state of the electric power sector, future expansion of Asian and Australian power systems, interconnections and power exchanges, cooperation, new capacity, direction of reforming the industry, interstate relations in the fuel and energy complex, and the impact of privatization on electric supply. They addressed electricity and energy issues in both developing and developed Asian countries and in Australia as seen by the United Nations (UN), the World Energy Council (WEC), The World Bank, Japan, Australia, India, China, East Russia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

  16. Trans Asian Railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petr, Petr; Schramm, Hans-Joachim; Prockl, Günter

    -structured in depth interviews of key actors in the Czech Republic, the paper examines the perception of container inland transport chains of a diverse range of market players that are active in such a landlocked market in Central and East Europe (CEE). The research questions whether competitive pricing, service time...... reliability and transit time determine changes in service supply by freight forwarders. It investigates the position taken by their customers and shipping lines in regard to TAR links. Although the empirical evidence is limited to a sample of market players in the Czech Republic, the results support valuable...

  17. The Early Impact of an Administrative Processing Fee on Manuscript Submissions at The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Schairer, William W; So, Conan; Bernstein, Jaime L; Herndon, James; Dodwell, Emily R

    2016-10-05

    There was a dramatic increase in the volume of manuscripts submitted to The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (JBJS) between 2009 and 2012. This resulted in increased journal administrative costs. To offset this financial burden, in May 2013, JBJS started charging authors an administrative processing fee at the time of submission. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the administrative fee on the volume and characteristics of manuscripts submitted to JBJS. Our analysis included 866 manuscripts submitted to JBJS between November 2012 and November 2013. We compared manuscripts submitted 6 months prior to fee implementation and prior to the announcement (denoted as the baseline group), in the several months prior to fee implementation but after the fee implementation announcement (denoted as the fee announcement group), and in the 6 months after fee implementation (denoted as the fee implementation group). Manuscripts were reviewed for institutional and author demographic characteristics, as well as for general study characteristics. In the first full calendar year (2014) after the implementation of the fee, the annual volume of submissions to JBJS declined by 33.5% compared with the annual submission volume in 2010 to 2012. In a comparative analysis, the geographical region of origin (p = 0.003), level of evidence (p Reporting of funding information improved significantly between the baseline and fee implementation groups; in the post-fee implementation period, studies were more likely to have declared no external funding source (p = 0.001). The administrative processing fee at JBJS has been associated with a decrease in submission volume, but, overall, there has not been a change in the characteristics of studies submitted. However, decreased overall volume implies a decrease in the absolute number of high-level studies submitted to the journal. Administrative processing fees at high-volume journals may be a financially viable way to offset high

  18. JOURNAL CLUB: Plagiarism in Manuscripts Submitted to the AJR: Development of an Optimal Screening Algorithm and Management Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donna B

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of plagiarism in a sample of manuscripts submitted to the AJR using CrossCheck, develop an algorithm to identify significant plagiarism, and formulate management pathways. A sample of 110 of 1610 (6.8%) manuscripts submitted to AJR in 2014 in the categories of Original Research or Review were analyzed using CrossCheck and manual assessment. The overall similarity index (OSI), highest similarity score from a single source, whether duplication was from single or multiple origins, journal section, and presence or absence of referencing the source were recorded. The criteria outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors were the reference standard for identifying manuscripts containing plagiarism. Statistical analysis was used to develop a screening algorithm to maximize sensitivity and specificity for the detection of plagiarism. Criteria for defining the severity of plagiarism and management pathways based on the severity of the plagiarism were determined. Twelve manuscripts (10.9%) contained plagiarism. Nine had an OSI excluding quotations and references of less than 20%. In seven, the highest similarity score from a single source was less than 10%. The highest similarity score from a single source was the work of the same author or authors in nine. Common sections for duplication were the Materials and Methods, Discussion, and abstract. Referencing the original source was lacking in 11. Plagiarism was undetected at submission in five of these 12 articles; two had been accepted for publication. The most effective screening algorithm was to average the OSI including quotations and references and the highest similarity score from a single source and to submit manuscripts with an average value of more than 12% for further review. The current methods for detecting plagiarism are suboptimal. A new screening algorithm is proposed.

  19. Procurement Opportunitites in: Afghanistan and the Central Asian States (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    barriers) Furniture (office and household) Prefabricated Structures (CONEXs, containerized housing units, re-locatable buildings) Office Supplies... Concrete Foundation and Structure Road Support Activities Minor Building Renovation Water and Sewer Line and Related Construction Heavy and Civil

  20. The Soviet Central Asian Challenge: A Neo-Gramscian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    ecclesiastics ). Traditional intellectuals tend to function autonomously and are not organically linked to their class or group of origin. Nevertheless, the...Emperor Timur (Tamerlane). 56 AJ- ,. s; Russianness of Soviet society49- Russian language, Russian identity, and even Russian architecture . 50 Hence

  1. Chinese Policy Toward Russia and the Central Asian Republics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burles, Mark

    1999-01-01

    ...: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. In addition, it discusses what factors will determine the evolution of China's relationships with these countries and how they might affect U.S...

  2. Russification Efforts in Central Asian and Baltic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Tsar Alexander II implemented the “Great Reforms,” which abolished serfdom and released fifty-two million people from bondage . 20 Meanwhile, to...the highest debt burden; however, they were among the first republics to press for political and economic sovereignty when the Soviet Union

  3. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  4. Culture in Southeast Asian Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    A view of the status of Southeast Asian language programs in American schools leads the author to comment on five interrelated issues. They include: (1) the importance of Southeast Asian language and culture teaching and learning, (2) integrating culture in Southeast Asian language classes, (3) teaching techniques, (4) staffing, and (5)…

  5. Central Asia in Asia: Charting growing trans-regional linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola P. Contessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the so-called ‘Asian Century’ unfolds, Central Asian countries are increasingly directing their foreign relations eastward. Meanwhile, Asian states are equally turning to Central Asia in their search for energy resources and new markets. This dual dynamic is giving rise to closer and deeper ties in three key areas. As far as infrastructures are concerned, various Asian powers have adopted Silk Road policies that see Central Asia as a fundamental transit route for their long-haul connectivity projects. In the field of trade, Central Asia's exchanges with other Asian countries have been growing steadily since the 1990s, in some cases even coming to rival, in comparative terms, exchanges with the West. Lastly, in terms of multilateralism, Central Asia is increasingly enmeshed in a web of overlapping institutions with a strong Asian identity, coexisting with the region's Western institutional references. The article then problematizes this emerging pattern by sketching out some of the possible ramifications that could stem from the sustainment and consolidation of these trends for the international order and the global balance of power.

  6. The Heritage of Medieval Errors in the Latin Manuscripts of Johannes Hispalensis (John of Seville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson, Maureen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Christian reconquest of Islamic-held territory, many Arabic texts had to be translated into Latin in twelfth century Spain. Johannes Hispalensis (John of Seville knew both Arabic and Latin and worked alone, whereas others needed collaborators to complete the process. The duplication of Latin texts became popular and quickly spread. Over the following centuries, the medieval scribes involved made multiple copies of the manuscripts and during the reproduction process, many errors occurred. These contributed to confusion between the correct version of the translator's name and his identity. Consequently, Hispalensis appeared in later copies of his work with various titles such as “Master” or “Bishop”, or was coupled with a collaborator. Modern-day historians added to the complexities by creating one personality out of two diverse translators. At times, the ownership of some of the manuscripts rested solely on the names appearing in them, when only scribal errors had contributed them. An attempt is made to clarify the translations accredited to Johannes Hispalensis, working alone, and those working with collaborators.

    Después de la Reconquista, se tuvieron que traducir al latín muchos textos árabes en la España del siglo XII. La mayoría de los copistas necesitaban colaboradores para concluir el proceso, sin embargo, Johannes Hispalensis (Juan de Sevilla conocía tanto la lengua árabe como el latín, por lo que podía trabajar solo. La duplicación de textos latinos se popularizó y divulgó rápidamente. Durante los siglos siguientes, los copistas medievales hicieron múltiples copias, y durante el proceso de reproducción cometieron muchos errores que contribuyeron a la confusión entre la versión correcta del nombre del traductor y su identidad.  Por consiguiente, Hispalensis apareció en copias

  7. Factoring Central Asia into China's Afghanistan policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Dhaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China's footprints in Afghanistan are vied by many, both, friends and rivals as it cautiously reveals its geostrategic goals. It would like to emulate the African and Central Asian success story in Afghanistan as well, which is not terra incognito. Afghanistan has been the fulcrum of geopolitical balance of power during the Cold war days. China's Afghanistan policy (CAP is marked by its insecurities of terrorism, extremism and separatism in Xinjiang province. It has heavily invested in procuring Central Asian energy resources. Both, the concerns go well in formulation of CAP. However, the presence of the US and Russia make the scenario competitive, where its ‘Peaceful Rise’ may be contested. Besides, China sees South Asian Region as its new Geoeconomic Frontier. All these concerns get factored into CAP. It remains to be seen what options partake in CAP, as China prepares for durable presence in Afghanistan in the long run.

  8. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  9. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  10. Branding trends in Asian markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Diederich; Segers, Rien

    This chapter examines current branding trends in significant Asian markets, namely Japan, South Korea, and India, with a special focus on one emerging branding nation, China. No generalizations towards the whole of Asia can be drawn from this research. However, research identified some aspects in

  11. Asian Values, Education and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, William K.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that many issues and questions concerning the relationship between Asian values and education have never been addressed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Outlines four broad areas of inquiry: origins of culture, savings/investment effect, quality effect, and stability effect. Includes statistical information on education and…

  12. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  13. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Riti; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars) manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks) production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  14. Organizational Life and Political Incorporation of Two Asian Immigrant Groups: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekar, Sofya

    2009-10-14

    Civil society is the foundation of a healthy democracy but its immigrant element has received little attention. This paper is a case study of immigrant organizations of highly-skilled Asian Indians and Chinese immigrants in a suburban town of Edison, New Jersey. I find that civic participation of Asian Indian immigrants spills over into political incorporation while Chinese immigrant organizations remain marginalized. I argue the local processes of racialization are central in explaining differences in political incorporation of immigrants. In the local context, the Chinese are seen as successful but conformist model minorities and Asian Indians as invaders and troublemakers. The racialization of Asian Indians has resulted in more political activity and higher levels of political visibility of their organizations. The results highlight shortcomings of current assimilation theories, which give little space to civic and political incorporation and view human capital in an unqualifiedly positive light.

  15. Representations of desires in some recent gay Asian-American writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stephen O

    2003-01-01

    This article explores conceptions of same-sex sexual behavior and desires by American gay males who grew up in Pacific Island or Asian societies. In the absence of systematic survey data, representations, which are not assumed to be autobiographical, by two South Asian émigrés to Canada (Badruddin Khan and Shyam Selvadurai), two second generation Filipino-Americans (Joël Tan and Ricardo Ramos), a second generation Chinese-Hawaiian (Norman Wong) and three men of Chinese descent born and raised in Southeast Asia (Lawrence Chua, Justin Chin, and T. C. Huo) are examined. The unsatisfying script of sexual submission of Asians to whites is particularly central, except for the South Asians. These books provide recurrent evidence of role distance, of switching roles (often without rewriting a dominance-submission conception of insertion-reception) and of some degree of reconceiving the (sexual) self.

  16. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: An analytical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT With 30% of the world’s smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. The article discusses the core questions to be addressed and presents an analytical framework for assessing the globalisation strategies of Asian tobacco firms. The article also discusses the selection of the five case studies, namely as independent companies in Asia which have demonstrated concerted ambitions to be a major player in the world market. PMID:27884083

  17. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    With 30% of the world’s smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. The article discusses the core questions to be addressed and presents an analytical framework for assessing the globalisation strategies of Asian tobacco firms. The article also discusses the selection of the five case studies, namely as independent companies in Asia which have demonstrated concerted ambitions to be a major player in the world market.

  18. Asian Creativity: A Response to Satoshi Kanazawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to Satoshi Kanazawa's thoughtful and entertaining comments about my article concerning the Asian future of evolutionary psychology. Contra Kanazawa's argument that Asian cultural traditions and/or character inhibit Asian scientific creativity, I review historical evidence of high Asian creativity, and psychometric evidence of high Asian intelligence (a cognitive trait and openness to experience (a personality trait — two key components of creativity. Contra Kanazawa's concern that political correctness is a bigger threat to American evolutionary psychology than religious fundamentalism, I review evidence from research funding patterns and student attitudes suggesting that fundamentalism is more harmful and pervasive. Finally, in response to Kanazawa's focus on tall buildings as indexes of national wealth and creativity, I find that 13 of the world's tallest 25 buildings are in China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan — of which 11 were built in the last decade. Asian creativity, secularism, and architectural prominence point to a bright future for Asian science.

  19. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  20. Prototyping an Electronic Edition of William Blake’s Manuscript of Vala, or the Four Zoas: A Progress Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Eaves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the recent experiments undertaken by the 'William Blake Archive' in preparing a digital edition of 'Vala, or the Four Zoas', one of Blake’s most materially challenging works. The aim is to provide users with multiple tools for analysing Blake’s messy and mysterious manuscript: a high-quality image of the manuscript page paired with a dynamic transcription that allows readers to choose the level of detail they want for understanding what it is, precisely, they are looking at. However, the existing encoding standards and display were revealed to be totally inadequate by the complexity of 'The Four Zoas', and early models were almost impossible to read and understand. The article traces the journey towards the latest prototype as the team try to strike a balance between detail and accessibility, description and interpretation, readability and reliability, and established conventions and new approaches. ' ''

  1. [Textual research on relationship between traditional Chinese medicine and medical prescriptions in the Sanskrit formulary Bower Manuscript excavated in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyi

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces the Bower Manuscript in Sanskrit written on birch bark excavated in Xinjiang, which was bought in Kuqa by a British India army lieutenant Bower, hence its title. Then, it was researched, annotated, and published in 7 volumes by a German British lieutenant and orientalist Honer. The first three volumes are devoted to medical prescriptions. It is first verified that its "Dazi Xiangye San" is the "Dujuan Dachen San" in Tibetan medicine. By comparing it with other traditional medical systems, such as Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Uyghur medical systems, we found that Bower Manuscript is closer to Tibetan medicine and Mongolian medicine, while it has less relation with Chinese medicine and Uyghur medicine. However, it also exerts some influence on TCM.

  2. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Application of Native Speaker Models for Identifying Deviations in Rhetorical Moves in Non-Native Speaker Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Explicit teaching of generic conventions of a text genre, usually extracted from native-speaker (NS manuscripts, has long been emphasized in the teaching of Academic Writing inEnglish for Specific Purposes (henceforthESP classes, both in theory and practice. While consciousness-raising about rhetorical structure can be instrumental to non-native speakers(NNS, it has to be admitted that most works done in the field of ESP have tended to focus almost exclusively on native-speaker (NS productions, giving scant attention to non-native speaker (NNS manuscripts. That is, having outlined established norms for good writing on the basis of NS productions, few have been inclined to provide a descriptive account of NNS attempts at trying to produce a research article (RA in English. That is what we have tried to do in the present research. Methods: We randomly selected 20 RAs in dentistry and used two well-established models for results and discussion sections to try to describe the move structure of these articles and show the points of divergence from the established norms. Results: The results pointed to significant divergences that could seriously compromise the quality of an RA. Conclusion: It is believed that the insights gained on the deviations in NNS manuscripts could prove very useful in designing syllabi for ESP classes.

  4. Strategies for Using Plagiarism Software in the Screening of Incoming Journal Manuscripts: Recommendations Based on a Recent Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, several online tools have appeared capable of identifying potential plagiarism in science. While such tools may help to maintain or even increase the originality and ethical quality of the scientific literature, no apparent consensus exists among editors on the degree of plagiarism or self-plagiarism necessary to reject or retract manuscripts. In this study, two entire volumes of published original papers and reviews from Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology were retrospectively scanned for similarity in anonymized form using iThenticate software to explore measures to predictively identify true plagiarism and self-plagiarism and to potentially provide guidelines for future screening of incoming manuscripts. Several filters were applied, all of which appeared to lower the noise from irrelevant hits. The main conclusions were that plagiarism software offers a unique opportunity to screen for plagiarism easily but also that it has to be employed with caution as automated or uncritical use is far too unreliable to allow a fair basis for judging the degree of plagiarism in a manuscript. This remains the job of senior editors. Whereas a few cases of self-plagiarism that would not likely have been accepted with today's guidelines were indeed identified, no cases of fraud or serious plagiarism were found. Potential guidelines are discussed. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  6. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... like forming relationships across ethnic borders, youth organisations, and media consumption. Intergenerational relationships indicate negotiations for most, combining individualization with interdependency, but with serious conflicts for some. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian...

  7. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, Felix X.

    2004-01-01

    The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. Aims of ASNM: 1. To foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed ones. 2. To promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies. 3. To assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes. 4. To work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognized universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. The ASNM works toward a formal training courses leading to the award of a certificate in the long term. The most fundamental job of the ASNM remains the transfer of knowledge from the more developed countries to the less developed ones in the Asian region. The ASNM could award credit hours to the participants of training courses conducted in the various countries and conduct electronic courses and examinations. CME programmes may also be conducted as part of the regular ARCCNM meetings and the ASNM will award CME credit points for such activities

  8. If At First You Don't Succeed: The Fate of Manuscripts Rejected by Academic Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William D; Cone, David C

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the publication fate of a recent 2-year sample of manuscripts declined by Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM), the journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. This was a retrospective analysis of manuscripts submitted to AEM in 2010 and 2011 that were declined by the AEM editorial review process. An online search was conducted for each declined paper, to determine whether or not it was published in another clinical/scientific journal after being declined by AEM. The investigators used Scopus and Google Scholar, using the submitting author's name, the verbatim title, and key words and phrases from the title, to search for subsequent publication of each paper. Of 1,542 manuscript submissions to the journal in 2010 and 2011, 1,052 papers were declined. Of these, 693 (65.9%) were subsequently published elsewhere, in a total of 229 journals: 362 papers in 22 different EM journals, 81 in 14 EM subspecialty journals, 237 in 185 non-EM journals, and 13 in eight nursing journals. Papers were published a median of 16.7 months (interquartile range [IQR] = 11.8 to 22.0 months) after being declined at AEM. Of the 229 journals, 19 do not have h-indices. The median h-index of the remaining 210 journals is 36 (IQR = 17 to 64; maximum = 229; AEM's h-index is 78). Thirty of these 210 journals, publishing 43 papers, have higher h-indices than AEM; the other 650 papers were published in journals either with lower h-indices than AEM's (n = 180 journals) or in journals without h-indices (n = 19 journals). U.S. and non-U.S. authors had similar rates of subsequent publication (65.3% vs 66.6%, p = 0.69) for papers initially declined by AEM. Papers in the educational advances category were less likely to be subsequently published than those in the original contributions (p journal are eventually published elsewhere, in a large number and wide variety of both EM and non-EM journals, in a median of 16.7 months. Authors of manuscripts

  9. Coronary heart disease in South Asian immigrants: synthesis of research and implications for health promotion and prevention in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Zachariah, Rachel

    2008-07-01

    Although the literature reflects that Asian Indians in the United States and globally have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality because of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes, few studies have described the clinical implications in the United States. Traditional risk factors dictate practice, yet these risk factors do not fully explain the rates. Central obesity, lipoprotein (a), and insulin resistance may have a strong role. The literature suggests that proactive nursing using culturally specific clinical measures are necessary to reduce risk factors for CHD and diabetes in South Asians. Additional research and prevention strategies focused on immigrant South Asians in the United States are recommended.

  10. Perinatal outcomes among Asian-white interracial couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Michael J; Caughey, Aaron B; Lyell, Deirdre J; Druzin, Maurice L; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2008-10-01

    To investigate whether perinatal outcomes among interracial Asian-white couples are different than among Asian-Asian and white-white couples. This was a retrospective study of Asian, white, and Asian-white couples delivered at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 2000-2005. Asian-white couples were subdivided into white-mother/Asian-father or Asian-mother/white-father. Perinatal outcomes included gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, birth weight >4000 g and interracial Asian-white couples.

  11. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, F.X.

    2007-01-01

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  12. Game over: Asian Americans and video game representation [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien-bao Thuc Phi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Even video games by Asian creators tend to depict primarily white characters or reference Asian stereotypes such as kung fu fighters or yakuza thugs. Games depicting the Vietnam war are particularly troubling for Asian players expected to identify with white characters. As the game industry continues to expand, its representation of Asians and Asian Americans must change.

  13. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  14. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  15. [Tri-phalā (Three Myrobalans) as Described in the Second Part of the Bower Manuscript, the Nāvanītaka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Yohko

    2015-01-01

    In India, since ancient times Tri-phalā (meaning "three fruits" in Sanskrit) has been considered to be a combination of the following fruits: -Harītakī (Terminalia chebula, Retz.), Āmalaka (Embelica officinalis Gaertn), and Vibhītaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.). These plants are also listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Harītakī and Āmalaka have also been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times in Japan under the Japanese names of (see text) (Kariroku) and (see text) (Annmaroku), respectively. Both have been carefully preserved as treasured drugs in the nationally important Shosoin treasure storehouse. This study attempts to clarify the description of Tri-phalā in the Nāvanītaka, which is the second part of the Bower Manuscript (Bower Ms.), and examines the reasons why these plants were combined. This paper begins with a summary description of Tri-phalā in the context of traditional Asian medicine, followed by the delineation of drug selection principles in Ayurveda. Tri-phalā formulas in the Nāvanītaka are then examined. The Carakasamhitā (CS) treats Tri-phalā as a purifier and tonic (rasāyana), describing it as a formula for rejuvenation and longevity. On the other hand, the Susrutasamhitd (SS) regards Tri-phalā as having the efficacy of balancing kapha (phlegm) and pitta (bile), and also as being a medicine to promote excretion and enhance digestive functions for better nutritional intake. It is described to have an effect of curing diseases by keeping the tridhāu (theree element) valance. Tri-phalā is thus used as an ingredient of laxatives for diseases that result from kapha imbalance and tonic. The Aşţāngahŗdayasamhitā (AHS) considers Tri-phalā to have a particular superiority among cure-all medicines with the power to dispel illness. It controls kapha and overcomes blood diseases. Tri-phalā formulas found in the Nāvanītaka were prescribed for the treatment of abdominal tumors induced by vāyu (wind) disorder

  16. Acculturation, Skin Tone Preferences, and Tanning Behaviours Among Young Adult Asian Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K; Wilson, Carlene J; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Roberts, Rachel M

    2016-10-01

    Australia has a significant proportion of residents of Asian heritage. Although the incidence of skin cancer is lower in those of Asian heritage than Caucasians, their prognosis is often worse. Sociocultural variables are central to the tanning behaviours of individuals from Western cultures. We examined the role of sociocultural variables in the tanning behaviours (outdoor tanning, indoor/solarium and fake tan use) among Asian Australians. A sample of 399 young adults identifying either as a person of Asian heritage or as Asian Australian participated in an online survey. Our results suggest that Asian Australians are at risk of skin cancer; over 35 % of the sample reported engaging in outdoor tanning and over 10 % in solarium tanning. After controlling for demographic factors and skin cancer knowledge, preferring a darker skin tone and being acculturated to Australia were significantly associated with tanning behaviour. Participants' low levels of skin cancer knowledge are of concern, and possibilities for improving knowledge levels in this group are considered. Further, we recommended that future research studies investigate sociocultural and appearance-related beliefs associated with tanning behaviours in this population, in order to determine best avenues for intervention.

  17. Beyond 'Asian Values': Rationales For Australian-Japan Cooperation In Asian Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Go Ito

    2010-01-01

    In the past, the experience of the ‘East Asian Miracle’ and the sufferings from the ‘East Asian Meltdown’ were the impetus to generate and develop East Asian regional identity. The situation, however, is changing drastically. The future of East Asia regionalism has become amorphous because of complicated new trends. Japan, one of the important actors that constitute triangular relationships in East Asia, has been encouraging development of East Asian regionalism in the economic arena. Austral...

  18. East Asian Financial Cycles: Asian vs. Global Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Kohsaka; Jun-ichi Shinkai

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of financial shocks in business cycles in general and in financial crises in particular in East Asia (Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand) since the 1990s. Estimating a Financial Conditions Index, we found that financial shocks explain most of business downturns in all the economies in the Asian Financial Crisis (AFC) in 1997-98, but that the effects of financial shocks are diverse across economies in the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2008-09. In the GFC, the financ...

  19. ETHNICITY AND TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ASIAN INDIAN MIGRANTS IN AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowitt Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to present ethnic differences in body size and body composition in Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand, associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, through the comparison with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation. About 74 studies out of 128 publications were selected to ensure relevance to the topic of the review. Seven research projects were presented for the body size and body composition of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes of 8.6% in Asian Indians in New Zealand is still higher than in their homeland, owing to their ethnicity, genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle and altered nutrition, and other psychosocial factors related to migration and living conditions like stress at work and depression. For the same body mass index, in comparison with people of other ethnic groups in New Zealand Asian Indians had more total body fat, higher percent body fat, more central fat, less lean mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Central obesity was associated with insulin resistance and low grade systemic inflammation. Considering the evidence that type 2 diabetes develops ten years earlier in Asian Indians than in other populations, further studies are warranted to shed some light on the still incompletely understood metabolic syndrome and “thin-fat” Indian phenotype.

  20. Esp Research Trends in Asian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Jantaravipark, Arpawan; Sa-ngiamwibool, Amporn

    2015-01-01

    Due to the influence of global and regional economic changes, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) plays a more vital role in English language studies worldwide, including in Asian context. A look at any issues relat-ing to Asian ESP will shed light to the needs of English in this content. This present study therefore sur-veyed recent trends of ESP research in this context, with the purpose of the study which aimed to explore recent trends in Asian ESP research from 2005 to 2013. The Asian ESP...

  1. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  2. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  3. ‘Communicating Manuscripts’: Third Conference of LIBER's Manuscript Librarians Group, Berlin, 28-30 November 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Weber

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available LIBER's Manuscript Librarians Group held its third conference, entitled 'Communicating Manuscripts' in Berlin from 28-30 November 2007. More than 70 participants from all over Europe came to discuss their experiences and opinions concerning manuscripts (ranging from medieval codices to modern papers and letter collections — in response to a series of papers delivered by a number of specialists from European research libraries and archival institutions. For the Staatsbibliothek it was a pleasure to welcome them and to make the days in Berlin comfortable and successful.

  4. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  5. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  6. Publication Rates for Oral Manuscript and Poster Presentations From the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons: 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Calvin J; Galan, Gabriel P; Ivankiv, Roman; Oxios, Adam J; Rathnayake, Viraj R; Ramil, Madelin C; Chussid, Fredric; Spinner, Steven M

    2018-04-26

    The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) annual conference has served as a premiere platform to disseminate the latest innovations and research in the field of foot and ankle surgery. The quality of national society conferences is often assessed indirectly by analyzing the the journal publication rate of the abstracts presented. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the journal publication rate for abstracts (oral manuscripts and posters) accepted for presentation at the ACFAS conference from 2010 to 2014. All accepted abstracts from this period were compiled by the ACFAS office. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus searches were performed using abstract titles and author names. Overall, the journal publication rate was 76.9% (83 of 108) for oral manuscripts and 23.2% (258 of 1113) for poster abstracts. The mean time to publication was 9.6 (range 0 to 44) months and 19.8 (range 0 to 66) months for oral and poster abstracts, respectively. The most common journal for abstract publication was The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Notably, the ACFAS oral manuscript publication rate from 2010 to 2014 (76.9%) exceeded its previously reported rate from 1999 to 2008 (67.5%) and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society podium publication rate from 2008 to 2012 (73.7%). To the best of our knowledge, the publication incidence for oral abstracts presented at the ACFAS conference is now the highest reported of any national foot and ankle society conference to date. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. South Asian Labour and Employment Report: Promoting Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Asian workers, especially women and lower caste workers, face ... Asian Employment Report will present policy options to promote growth and employment. ... IHD will work with the South Asian offices of the United Nations Economic ...

  8. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  9. “Secret Language” in Oral and Graphic Form: Religious-Magic Discourse in Aztec Speeches and Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mikulska Dąbrowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze a particular linguistic register of the Nahua (Aztec people that has been classified as “magical-religious” because it was used for communication with the sacred realm. A hypothesis is developed that in the Mesoamerican pictographic calendar-religious manuscripts, which treat matters strictly linked to the supernatural world, a similar register should be evident. Far from considering the information presented in these resources as resulting from the direct transcription of oral language, the idea is that the graphic form represents elements emblematic of orality, although adapted to this particular context and mode for expression.

  10. Soma, food of the immortals according to the Bower Manuscript (Kashmir, 6th century A.D.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2014-08-08

    Food is medicine and vice versa. In Hindu and Ayurvedic medicine, and among human cultures of the Indian subcontinent in general, the perception of the food-medicine continuum is especially well established. The preparation of the exhilarating, gold-coloured Soma, Amrita or Ambrosia, the elixir and food of the 'immortals'-the Hindu pantheon-by the ancient Indo-Aryans, is described in the Rigveda in poetic hymns. Different theories regarding the botanical identity of Soma circulate, but no pharmacologically and historically convincing theory exists to date. We intend to contribute to the botanical, chemical and pharmacological characterisation of Soma through an analysis of two historical Amrita recipes recorded in the Bower Manuscript. The recipes are referred therein as panaceas (clarified butter) and also as a medicine to treat nervous diseases (oil), while no exhilarating properties are mentioned. Notwithstanding this, we hypothesise, that these recipes are related to the ca. 1800 years older Rigvedic Soma. We suppose that the psychoactive Soma ingredient(s) are among the components, possibly in smaller proportions, of the Amrita recipes preserved in the Bower Manuscript. The Bower Manuscript is a medical treatise recorded in the 6th century A.D. in Sanskrit on birch bark leaves, probably by Buddhist monks, and unearthed towards the end of the 19th century in Chinese Turkestan. We analysed two Amrita recipes from the Bower Manuscript, which was translated by Rudolf Hoernle into English during the early 20th century. A database search with the updated Latin binomials of the herbal ingredients was used to gather quantitative phytochemical and pharmacological information. Together, both Amrita recipes contain around 100 herbal ingredients. Psychoactive alkaloid containing species still important in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Thai medicine and mentioned in the recipe for 'Amrita-Prâsa clarified butter' and 'Amrita Oil' are: Tinospora cordifolia (Amrita, Guduchi), three

  11. Data for manuscript titled "Historical trends in PM2.5 related premature mortality during 1990-2010 across the northern hemisphere"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This manuscript has 6 figures: Figure 1 shows the modeling domain and includes a map with the different analysis sub-regions. Shapefiles to be used with ArcGIS for...

  12. Data used in the analysis presented in the manuscript "Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of WRF-CMAQ Ozone Simulations over the Contiguous United States"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Files containing daily maximum 8-hr ozone mixing ratio observations and WRF/CMAQ simulations used in the analysis presented in the manuscript “Dynamic Evaluation of...

  13. EPA Contribution to Manuscript "Evaluation and Error Apportionment of an Ensemble of Atmospheric Chemistry Transport Modelling Systems: Multi-variable Temporal and Spatial Breakdown"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the data contributed by EPA/ORD/NERL/CED researchers to the manuscript "Evaluation and Error Apportionment of an Ensemble of Atmospheric...

  14. A Robust Function to Return the Cumulative Density of Non-Central F Distributions in Microsoft Office Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents a Visual Basic[superscript R] for Applications function that operates within Microsoft Office Excel[superscript R] to return the area below the curve for a given F within a specified non-central F distribution. The function will be of use to Excel users without programming experience wherever a non-central F distribution is…

  15. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Jim

    2004-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE...

  16. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  17. Asian Economic Integration Monitor July 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Economic Integration Monitor is a semiannual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers 48 regional member countries of the Asian Development Bank. This issue includes a special section—Regional Integration: A Balanced View.

  18. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  19. Asians in Higher Education: Conflicts over Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth; Brown, Cynthia L.

    1989-01-01

    Many Asian Americans believe that the admissions policies of many selective colleges are unfair to them. Demographic trends and the resultant political activity are discussed. The admissions policies and practices that Asian Americans consider objectionable are examined and some policy options are offered. (MLW)

  20. Profiles of Asians in Sacramento. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ivy

    This project was undertaken to provide more information on the condition of Asians. More specifically, it sought to: (1) obtain descriptive and demographic data on Asians; (2) determine the extent of usage of existing social services. Structural and attitudinal factors which facilitate or inhibit usage were examined; (3) identify what Asians…

  1. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  2. Asian Educational Discourse: Construction of Ontological Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalina, Natalya V.; Kovaleva, Alla V.; Voronin, Maksim S.; Anikin, Denis V.; Valyulina, Ekaterina V.

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the problem of ontology security through Asian educational discourse, which is structurally determined by the process of moral self-improvement. Considered are trends in improving the management of educational system by developing the culture of quality, which is considered as the next stage of the Asian education systems…

  3. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  4. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  5. Asian Values: Basic Contentions And Possible Counterarguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кирилл Вадимович Батыгин

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article provides a retrospective of the “Asian values” debate which can be traced to the late 20 th century with the contemporary topical statements from Southeast Asian political actors, most notably those of Singapore and Malaysia, acting as a starting point. The declamatory proclamations of Southeast Asian political leaders and the numerous articles by esteemed scholars provide a fascinating literary landscape which the author attempts to traverse in the aim of producing what could be considered the concept's most important principals. Still, it is the contention of the author that “Asian values” represent the reaction of a select number of political leaders and thinkers in light of the so-called "Southeast Asian economic miracle". Consequently, a review of various critical statements dealing with the viability of the concept provides the highlight of the article.

  6. ALLUSION AND REMINISCENCE IN THE MANUSCRIPT OF FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE RAW YOUTH" (VASILY ZHUKOVSKY'S ELEGY "A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alexandrovna Tarasova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the intertextual relations in the manuscript and in the printed text of Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s novel The Raw Youth, using an example of the allusion to the Vasily Zhukovsky’s elegy A Country Churchyard and analyzing the specifics of its functioning in the context of the novel’s narration. The main objective of the work was to establish the internal trends of the author’s ideas’ development in the novel. The tasks were to investigate the problem of studying intertextual relations in the works of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (since the theoretical aspects of the problem were not specifically addressed in previous studies and to analyze the literary material using the textual approach. The source text, which is important for the formation of intertextual relations, is examined not as an individual piece of writing but in the context of the The Raw Youth manuscripts that helps to clarify the nature of its artistic interpretation and the conjunction of folkloristic and biblical concepts in the novel.

  7. Anatomical Terms in J. Basanavičius’ Manuscript Anatomijos ir medicinos vardyno medžiaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Litevkienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical evolution of anatomical terms dates to antiquity, to the writings of Hippocrates. The historical development of Lithuanian anatomical terminology goes back to the seventeenth century. Anatomical terminology, as a comprehensive system of the names of human body parts is being compiled gradually. The originator of Lithuanian medical terminology was J. Basanavičius. The research paper aims to analyze anatomical terms used in J. Basanavičius’ manuscript Anatomijos ir medicinos vardyno medžiaga (further BM and to compare them with the terms in the Dictionary of Medical Terms ( Medicinos terminų žodynas 1980. The research focuses on the analysis of some aspects of differentiation and congruity of simple and multi-word anatomical terms of the manuscript and the dictionary. About 270 Lithuanian anatomical terms with Russian and Latin equivalents were collected by J. Basanavičius. The results show that the major part of the terms are different, the lesser part of the terms are identical.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese calligraphy sheets and the discovery of 45 letters of a lost manuscript

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Center for Chronological Research; Yasu, H. [Taga High School, Hitachi, Ibaragi (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Letters; Sakamoto, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura, Chiba (Japan); Yoshizawa, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The Miidera-gire is an ancient paper sheet with different, elegant calligraphy on both sides. One side contains a part of a Buddhist scripture from around the ninth to the twelfth century and written in cursive hand, while the other side contains a part of Monzen (an anthology of Chinese literary works). The paleographical style of this Monzen seems to be older than that of the Buddhist scripture and is similar to some Chinese manuscripts written in the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907). However, amid these elegant calligraphic writings, there exist many copies and counterfeits that were written several centuries later. We, therefore, measured the radiocarbon age of the Miidera-gire by using accelerator mass spectrometry. The calibrated radiocarbon age indicated 666-776 [cal AD] (2{sigma} error), thus leading to the conclusion that the Monzen was first written on the obverse side, and long afterwards, the Buddhist scripture was written on the reverse side. Since only a few incomplete books of Monzen were written before the ninth century, this calligraphy is one of the oldest of the existing Monzen manuscripts. (orig.)

  9. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese calligraphy sheets and the discovery of 45 letters of a lost manuscript

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Yoshizawa, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Miidera-gire is an ancient paper sheet with different, elegant calligraphy on both sides. One side contains a part of a Buddhist scripture from around the ninth to the twelfth century and written in cursive hand, while the other side contains a part of Monzen (an anthology of Chinese literary works). The paleographical style of this Monzen seems to be older than that of the Buddhist scripture and is similar to some Chinese manuscripts written in the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907). However, amid these elegant calligraphic writings, there exist many copies and counterfeits that were written several centuries later. We, therefore, measured the radiocarbon age of the Miidera-gire by using accelerator mass spectrometry. The calibrated radiocarbon age indicated 666-776 [cal AD] (2σ error), thus leading to the conclusion that the Monzen was first written on the obverse side, and long afterwards, the Buddhist scripture was written on the reverse side. Since only a few incomplete books of Monzen were written before the ninth century, this calligraphy is one of the oldest of the existing Monzen manuscripts. (orig.)

  10. TH-C-204-02: Improving Manuscript Quality Via Structured Reviews, Enhanced Scientific Category Taxonomy, and Outreach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.

    2016-01-01

    topics and solicit high profile authors to submit review manuscripts. To submit an article, authors will need to work with an assigned Co-Editor to develop a mutually acceptable outline and abstract. 5) A new and exciting class of articles: Medical Physics Dataset Articles (MPDAs) MPDAs describe scientifically or clinically valuable open-access datasets with high potential for contributing to the research of medical physicists working on related problems. In contrast to Research Articles, MPDAs should not include hypothesis testing; or data analyses supporting generalizable conclusions. The publically accessible dataset must be permanently archived before the MPDA can be published. This initiative is being led by Joe Deasy. Update on new publisher transition: The transition of AAPM scientific publishing operations to a major publishing house is a major opportunity to expand Medical Physics readership and its scholarly impact. The advantages include: (a) common manuscript management and web hosting platforms for Medical Physics and its sister journal, JACMP; (b) greater than 4-fold expansion of subscribing institutions; and (c) resources to mount data-driven, highly targeted marketing campaigns to enhance citation and download rates. A transition update of this epochal development, which has only begun as of this writing (3/31/16), will be given. Improving manuscript quality via structured reviews, enhanced scientific category taxonomy, and outreach: Shiva Das, Therapy Physics Editor Medical Physics is committed to continuous improvement with the ultimate goal of improving the potential impact of accepted manuscripts. In order to do so, Medical Physics must be able to tap into important/emerging areas and be able to select high quality contributions consistently via discerning reviews. Improving the quality of reviews is crucial to selecting high quality manuscripts and also to improving manuscript impact via feedback in the review process. With this in mind, Medical

  11. TH-C-204-02: Improving Manuscript Quality Via Structured Reviews, Enhanced Scientific Category Taxonomy, and Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [University of North Carolina (United States)

    2016-06-15

    topics and solicit high profile authors to submit review manuscripts. To submit an article, authors will need to work with an assigned Co-Editor to develop a mutually acceptable outline and abstract. 5) A new and exciting class of articles: Medical Physics Dataset Articles (MPDAs) MPDAs describe scientifically or clinically valuable open-access datasets with high potential for contributing to the research of medical physicists working on related problems. In contrast to Research Articles, MPDAs should not include hypothesis testing; or data analyses supporting generalizable conclusions. The publically accessible dataset must be permanently archived before the MPDA can be published. This initiative is being led by Joe Deasy. Update on new publisher transition: The transition of AAPM scientific publishing operations to a major publishing house is a major opportunity to expand Medical Physics readership and its scholarly impact. The advantages include: (a) common manuscript management and web hosting platforms for Medical Physics and its sister journal, JACMP; (b) greater than 4-fold expansion of subscribing institutions; and (c) resources to mount data-driven, highly targeted marketing campaigns to enhance citation and download rates. A transition update of this epochal development, which has only begun as of this writing (3/31/16), will be given. Improving manuscript quality via structured reviews, enhanced scientific category taxonomy, and outreach: Shiva Das, Therapy Physics Editor Medical Physics is committed to continuous improvement with the ultimate goal of improving the potential impact of accepted manuscripts. In order to do so, Medical Physics must be able to tap into important/emerging areas and be able to select high quality contributions consistently via discerning reviews. Improving the quality of reviews is crucial to selecting high quality manuscripts and also to improving manuscript impact via feedback in the review process. With this in mind, Medical

  12. Understanding the Southeast Asian haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Karthik K. R.; Baikie, T.; T, Mohan Dass E.; Huang, Y. Z.; Guet, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Southeast Asian region had been subjected to a drastic reduction in air quality from the biomass burnings that occurred in 2013 and 2015. The smoke from the biomass burnings covered the entire region including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, with haze particulate matter (PM) reducing the air quality to hazardous levels. Here we report a comprehensive size-composition-morphology characterization of the PM collected from an urban site in Singapore during the two haze events. The two haze events were a result of biomass burning and occurred in two different geographical source regions. We show the similarities and variations of particle size distribution during hazy and clear days during the two haze events. Sub-micron particles (method is used to determine the fractal dimensions of the PM, and the dimensionality varied for every classification from 1.79 to 1.88. We also report the complexities of particles and inconsistencies in the existing approaches to understand them.

  13. Betel-quid dependence and oral potentially malignant disorders in six Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chu, Koung-Shing; Gao, Yi-Jun; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Sunarjo; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Patrick, Walter K; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is scant. To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions. The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. 'Time spent chewing' and 'craving' were the central dependence domains endorsed by the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas the Nepalese samples endorsed 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal'. Dependency was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking, tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the six Asian populations. By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian communities.

  14. Explaining Asian Americans' academic advantage over whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-06-10

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans' advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian-white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success.

  15. 6th Asian Physics Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Preface: The 6th Asian Physics Symposium 2015 (APS 2015) The 6th Asian Physics Symposium 2015 (APS 2015) is organized by the Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, in collaboration with HFI (Indonesian Physical Society), PAPSI (Physics and Applied Physics Society of Indonesia), HANI (Indonesian Nuclear Scientist Society), HRMI (Indonesian Material Research Society), HAGI (Indonesian Geophysicist Society) - West Java Chapter, and HFMBI (Indonesian Medical Physicist and Biophysicist Society). APS 2015 is aimed at providing a forum of scientific communication and interaction among distinguished scientists working in physics and its related fields. In this scientific event the latest research will be presented, and state-of-the-art developments in the field discussed, to help to guide our future research directions. It is also designed to offer the opportunity for young Indonesian scientists and students to make direct contacts with well-known scientists abroad and thereby foster the existing research collaborations and extend international research networking for the future. The scope of research presented and discussed in this symposium covers theoretical high energy physics, materials sciences and technology, biophysics and medical physics, nuclear science and engineering, earth and planetary sciences, computational physics, instrumentation and measurement, physics education, and interdisciplinary physics. The program of APS 2016 features 6 invited talks and 208 contributed oral presentations, which come from 7 different countries: Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Iraq, Ethiopia, and Indonesia. All papers have been reviewed after they are presented in this event. Selected papers are published in this Institute of Physics (IoP) Conference Series. Finally, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to all of authors for their valuable contributions and also to the members of the committee for

  16. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  17. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  18. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  19. Asset mapping for an Asian American community: Informal and formal resources for community building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie S. Weng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the Asian American population in the Southern region of the United States, mainstream and Asian American community must be aware of both informal and formal supports that are available for the population in order to effectively address needs and allocate resources. This community-based project identified informal and mainstream support that is available to an Asian American community using asset mapping. The asset-based community development framework was used in which the capacities of the local people and their associations are recognized to be essential in building a more powerful community, to helping a community be more self-sustaining, and to developing better relationships among entities. This study provides an inventory of community assets that otherwise may have been ignored and thus has the potential to contribute to a better functioning Asian American community in Jacksonville, Florida. 719 assets were identified as available potential resources for members of the Asian American community with a majority as formal resources. Of the informal assets, a majority are organizations. In general, formal resources are centralized, whereas informal resources are more evenly distributed throughout the city. These results can contribute to the establishment of more culturally accessible services and utilization of services.

  20. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  1. Spanish Mystic Women of the Golden Century within the Ottoman Empire: Seven Arabic Manuscripts Found in Aleppo (Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernando del Río Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the existence of seven manuscripts conserved in three different collections of Aleppo (Syria: the Greek-Catholic/Melkite, the Georges and Mathilde Salem Foundation and the Maronite libraries. These seven co­pies contain the Arabic translations of some mystical works written by two mystic women of the Spanish Golden Century, Teresa de Ávila and María de Ágreda. The history of these Arabic versions, translated right in the heart of the Ottoman Arabic provinces, constitutes an interesting object of study that is directly linked with the manner in which many  European Western works passed to the Mediterranean Levant during the 16th and 17th centuries.

  2. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  3. USE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AS A COMPONENT OF TUSK FRACTURE MANAGEMENT IN AN ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) AND AN AFRICAN ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Stringer, Elizabeth; Donovan, Dennis; Chappell, Rachael; Flora, Pat; Hall, Jon; Pillay, Selvum; Willis, Benjamin G; McCain, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Tusk fractures in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) can result in damage to the distal end or to longitudinal cracks, potentially progressing to pulpitis. With pulp exposure, endodontic therapy is the treatment of choice, but conservative therapy has sufficed for some elephants. This manuscript describes the use of composite materials as a component of tusk fracture management. A 7-yr-old male Asian elephant fractured the distal end of both tusks with pulp exposure in one. Capping of each tusk with a Kevlar/fiberglass composite prevented further damage, and a modification allowed care of the exposed pulp tissue. A 34-yr-old male African elephant with a longitudinal crack received a carbon fiber/fiberglass composite circumferential wrap to potentially stabilize the crack. Compression of the crack was achieved, but follow-up was truncated due to bacterial pulpitis. Both cases show that composite material allows for lightweight, durable management of tusk fractures with continued radiographic monitoring.

  4. Central vein perforation during tunneled dialysis catheter insertion: principles of acute management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Uei

    2014-10-01

    Central venous perforation during dialysis catheter insertion is a potentially fatal complication. Prompt recognition and judicious initial steps are important in optimizing the outcome. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the imaging features and steps in initial management. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Evolution of Asian Interior Arid-Zone Biota: Evidence from the Diversification of Asian Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Lei; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Lin-Jing; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Asian interior arid zone is the largest desert landform system in the Northern Hemisphere, and has high biodiversity. Little is currently known about the evolutionary history of its biota. In this study, we used Zygophyllum, an important and characteristic component of the Asian interior arid zone, to provide new insights into the evolution of this biota. By greatly enlarged taxon sampling, we present the phylogenetic analysis of Asian Zygophyllum based on two plastid and one nuclear markers. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Asian Zygophyllum and Sarcozygium form a clade and Sarcozygium is further embedded within the shrub subclade. An integration of phylogenetic, biogeographic, and molecular dating methods indicates that Zygophyllum successfully colonized the Asian interior from Africa in the early Oligocene, and Asian Zygophyllum became differentiated in the early Miocene and underwent a burst of diversification in the late Miocene associated with the expansion of Asian interior arid lands due to orogenetic and climatic changes. Combining diversification patterns of other important components of the Asian interior arid zone, we propose a multi-stage evolution model for this biota: the late Eocene–early Oligocene origin, the early Miocene expansion, and the middle-late Miocene rapid expansion to the whole Asian interior arid zone. This study also demonstrates that, for Zygophyllum and perhaps other arid-adapted organisms, arid biomes are evolutionary cradles of diversity. PMID:26393796

  6. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Mullett, Ruth; Ferri, Laurent; Woll, Arthur R.

    2017-07-01

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment.

  7. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Woll, Arthur R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mullett, Ruth [Cornell University, Medieval Studies Program, Ithaca, NY (United States); Ferri, Laurent [Cornell University, Cornell Library Rare and Manuscript Collections, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment. (orig.)

  8. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  9. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. ... "dragons" of East Asia have emerged among the world's leading economic powers. ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  10. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; Hill, D J

    1986-01-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  11. The taming of the Asian Tigers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, J.

    1998-01-01

    Equipment manufacturers with investments in Asia are feeling the pinch from the region's ongoing financial crisis. But Asian demand for power is still huge and with China opening its doors to foreign capital, the outlook is not all bad. (author)

  12. Asian American Evangelicals in Multiracial Church Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Garces-Foley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, evangelical efforts to create multiracial churches (MRCs have grown exponentially. This article analyzes the experiences of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs. Through interviews we explore how Asian American evangelicals came to be involved in MRC-ministry and how they approach issues of racial diversity in this context. We compare the racial attitudes of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs with those of White and Black evangelicals delineated in Emerson and Smith’s Divide by Faith. Rather than conform to the colorblind approach of many White evangelicals, the majority of our respondents utilize structural explanations for social inequality and promote a colorconscious approach to diversity. We conclude that Asian American evangelicals utilize a unique framework for MRC-ministry, what we call a ‘racialized multiculturalism,’ that has much to offer American evangelicalism.

  13. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  14. Contextualizing Asian American College Student Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Liu, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Song, Ge

    2017-01-01

    With attention to race, culture, and gender, this chapter contextualizes the help-seeking behaviors and psychological aspects of health facing Asian American college students. Recommendations are provided to student affairs professionals and counselors.

  15. The rise of Asian sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This Asia Focus provides an overview of sovereign wealth funds, evaluates the structure and activities of major funds in Asia, and compares the transparency of Asian funds relative to international best practices.

  16. Asian Perspectives on the Challenges of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) held its annual Pacific symposium on Asian Perspectives on the Challenges of China" at the National Defense University in Washington on March 7 and 8, 2000...

  17. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  18. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  19. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Real Estate and the Asian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests that activities in the real estate markets in Southeast and East Asian economies were an important contributing force to the financial crises of 1997 in the Asian economies. The analysis relies upon unpublished data reported contemporaneously by financial institutions and market watchers to document the extent of the imbalances in the real property market that were evident to informed observers at the time of the financial collapse. The analysis argues that a series of ref...

  1. Asian Consensus Report on Functional Dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hiroto; Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Chang, Full-Young; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hongo, Michio; Hou, Xiaohua; Kachintorn, Udom; Ke, Meiyun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Miura, Soichiro; Park, Hyojin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sugano, Kentaro; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wong, Benjamin CY

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. Methods Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. Results Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. Conclusions This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians. PMID:22523724

  2. Characteristics of Androgenetic Alopecia in Asian

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Hae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or pattern hair loss, is a common disorder in Asian men and women, with a reported incidence of up to 73% among general population. There are several descriptions regarding the characteristics of AGA in patients of European descent. Asian patients with AGA have different types of hair loss and family histories from Europeans, which may affect treatment response. Therefore, in this review, prevalence, hair loss patterns, familial factors, androgen receptor gene pol...

  3. Asian students excel in science testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Asian countries claimed four of the five top spots in science achievement for eighth grade students, according to a December 5 report on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study - Repeat (TIMSS-R). The top five are: Chinese Taipei, Singapore, Hungary, Japan, and the Republic of Korea.In mathematics, Asian countries scored a clean sweep. The top five are: Singapore, the Republic of Korea, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong SAR,and Japan.

  4. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  5. An Asian perspective on global financial reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter J.; Pontines, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the likely impact on Asian economies and financial institutions of various recent global financial reforms, including Basel III capital adequacy and liquidity rules. Part one reviews the lessons of the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2007–09 and their relevance for Asian economies. Part two describes the major regulatory reforms that have been announced and possible concerns about their impacts on emerging economies. Part three reviews the ...

  6. Cardiovascular disease mortality in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Powell O; Frank, Ariel T H; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Eggleston, Karen; Hastings, Katherine G; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-12-16

    Asian Americans are a rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Our current understanding of Asian-American cardiovascular disease mortality patterns is distorted by the aggregation of distinct subgroups. The purpose of the study was to examine heart disease and stroke mortality rates in Asian-American subgroups to determine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality within the United States. We examined heart disease and stroke mortality rates for the 6 largest Asian-American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) from 2003 to 2010. U.S. death records were used to identify race/ethnicity and cause of death by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision coding. Using both U.S. Census data and death record data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), relative SMRs (rSMRs), and proportional mortality ratios were calculated for each sex and ethnic group relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). In this study, 10,442,034 death records were examined. Whereas NHW men and women had the highest overall mortality rates, Asian Indian men and women and Filipino men had greater proportionate mortality burden from ischemic heart disease. The proportionate mortality burden of hypertensive heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, especially hemorrhagic stroke, was higher in every Asian-American subgroup compared with NHWs. The heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease mortality patterns among diverse Asian-American subgroups calls attention to the need for more research to help direct more specific treatment and prevention efforts, in particular with hypertension and stroke, to reduce health disparities for this growing population. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  8. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide in recent years. The GLOBOCAN project showed that prostate cancer was the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among men worldwide in 2012. This trend has been growing even in Asian countries, where the incidence had previously been low. However, the accuracy of data about incidence and mortality as a result of prostate cancer in some Asian countries is limited. The cause of this increasing trend is multifactorial. One possible explanation is changes in lifestyles due to more Westernized diets. The incidence is also statistically biased by the wide implementation of early detection systems and the accuracy of national cancer registration systems, which are still immature in most Asian countries. Mortality rate decreases in Australia, New Zealand and Japan since the 1990s are possibly due to the improvements in treatment and/or early detection efforts employed. However, this rate is increasing in the majority of other Asian countries. Studies of latent and incidental prostate cancer provide less biased information. The prevalence of latent and incidental prostate cancer in contemporary Japan and Korea is similar to those in Western countries, suggesting the influence of lifestyle changes on carcinogenesis. Many studies reported evidence of both congenital and acquired risk factors for carcinogenesis of prostate cancer. Recent changes in the acquired risk factors might be associated with the increasing occurrence of prostate cancer in Asian countries. This trend could continue, especially in developing Asian countries. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Asian motility studies in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-04-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotility in Asian IBS patients were reviewed. MEDLINE search work was performed including following terms, 'IBS,' 'motility,' 'transit time,' 'esophageal motility,' 'gastric motility,' 'small intestinal motility,' 'colonic motility,' 'anorectal function,' and 'gallbladder motility' and over 100 articles were categorized under 'esophagus,' 'stomach,' 'small intestine,' 'colon,' 'anorectum,' 'gallbladder,' 'transit,' 'motor pattern,' and 'effect of stressors.' Delayed gastric emptying, slow tansit in constipation predominant IBS patients, rapid transit in diarrhea predominant IBS patients, accelerated motility responses to various stressors such as meals, mental stress, or corticotrophin releasing hormones, and altered rectal compliance and altered rectal accomodation were reported in many Asian studies regarding IBS. Many conflicting results were found among these studies and there are still controversies to conclude these as unique features of Asian IBS patients. Multinational and multicenter studies are needed to be performed vigorously in order to elaborate characteristics as well as differences of altered motililty in Asian patients with IBS.

  10. Explaining Asian Americans’ academic advantage over whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans’ advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian–white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success. PMID:24799702

  11. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  12. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  13. 12th meeting of Asian Parliamentarians on Population and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the 12th annual Asian Parliamentarians Meeting on Population and Development, co-sponsored by the Asian Population and Development Association (APDA) of Japan and the Philippine Legislative Committee on Population and Development (PLCPD), the adverse effect of population growth on economic development and the importance of improvements in women's status were central themes. Fukusaburo Maeda, President of APDA Japan, noted that an understanding of women's issues is key to solving global population problems. Numerous participants urged rapid implementation of plans outlined at recent conferences in Cairo and Beijing to empower women and involve them in all stages of the development process. Even issues of food security are linked to women's issues, since women are generally responsible for feeding their families. Participants voted to adopt the "Manila Resolution on Women, Gender, Population, and Development"--a call for social and economic empowerment of women and resources for gender-related programs. Dr. Patricia Licuanan, Chair of the UN Committee on the Status of Women, noted that men should not feel threatened by women holding positions of power; rather, they should welcome an equal partnership between men and women. In her closing address, Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani, Chair of PLCPD, stressed the importance of placing women's empowerment on various parliamentary agendas and commended APDA for its research and population-based surveys in Asia.

  14. Vertex Accentuation in Female Pattern Hair Loss in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavalit Supsrisunjai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common cause of hair loss seen in women is female pattern hair loss (FPHL, also known as female androgenetic alopecia. It affects the central part of the scalp, but spares the frontal hairline. Frontal accentuation was also described by Olsen. In Asian women, vertex thinning patterns are frequently developed, but there has been no report about vertex thinning pattern in female pattern hair loss. Objective: To find prevalence of vertex accentuation in female pattern hair loss (FPHL in Asian women. Methods: Scalp hair counting (n/cm2 were measured at 3 different areas; vertex, mid scalp and frontal area respectively by digital dermoscope (Dino digital AM-413T. Visual counting and photography were performed. Outcomes were evaluated by gross appearance of vertex thinning and/or hair density <120 /cm2 in any of 3 areas. Results: 143 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 45.54 years. Of the hair loss type, 36.4% were mid-scalp, 33.6% were vertex accentuation and 30.1% were frontal accentuation, respectively. Age was not significantly different among the 3 types of hair loss (P- value 0.859. Conclusion: Although the most common female pattern hair loss type is diffuse type (Ludwig type, vertex accentuation pattern is the second most common pattern in this study. This study is the first to mention “Vertex accentuation” to be another pattern for FPHL.

  15. M_Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Roberts; Semran K. Mann; Susanne B. Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local rel...

  16. Habitat, abundance and productivity of the Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii in Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkin, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    For a species threatened with exploitation, before embarking on ex situ measures such as population reinforcement through captive breeding, it is important to explore potential in situ measures that could be used to mitigate species off-take by supporting breeding productivity of wild populations. Asian houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii is a globally threatened bird, with continuing declines across Central Asia, mainly due to unregulated hunting and trapping during migration and in winter. This ...

  17. Origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana in the Center Asian Highlands and Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lili; Sun, Yongshuai; Zou, Jiabin; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary history of current species diversity, especially trees with large effective population sizes and long generation times, is a complicated exercise confounded by gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. In the present study, we aim to determine the origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana using population genetic data from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt), and nuclear (nr) genomes. These two species occur in the Central Asian Highlands and...

  18. Priorities and approaches to investigating Asian youth health: perspectives of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Agnes; Peiris-John, Roshini; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of young people in New Zealand identifying with Asian ethnicities has increased considerably. Despite some prevalent health concerns, Asian youth are less likely than non-Asian peers to seek help. As preparatory research towards a more nuanced approach to service delivery and public policy, this qualitative study aimed to identify young Asian New Zealanders' perspectives on best approaches to investigate health issues of priority concern to them. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 15 Asian youth leaders aged 18-24 years. Using an inductive approach for thematic analysis, key themes were identified and analysed. Study participants considered ethno-cultural identity, racism and challenges in integration to play significant roles influencing the health of Asian youth (especially mental health) and their access to health services. While emphasising the importance of engaging young Asians in research and service development so that their needs and aspirations are met, participants also highlighted the need for approaches that are cognisant of the cultural, contextual and intergenerational dimensions of issues involved in promoting youth participation. Research that engages Asian youth as key agents using methods that are sensitive to their cultural and sociological contexts can inform more responsive health services and public policy. This is of particular relevance in primary health care where culturally competent services can mitigate risks of unmet health needs and social isolation.

  19. Asian Students' Voices: An Empirical Study of Asian Students' Learning Experiences at a New Zealand University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacqui; Li, Mingsheng

    2008-01-01

    More than 85% of the international students in New Zealand are Asian in origin. The level of satisfaction of Asian international students with their learning experiences in New Zealand has been of enormous concern for the New Zealand export education industry. The results of this current research, based on a qualitative research study conducted at…

  20. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  1. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  2. Artemisia communities in arid zones of Uzbekistan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov A. Kapustina; Montserrat Torrell; Joan Valles

    2001-01-01

    Central Asia, and particularly the former Soviet Middle Asian countries, with more than 180 taxa (45 endemics), is one of the centers of origin and speciation of the genus Artemisia L. (Asteraceae, Anthemideae). Several species of this genus, mainly belonging to subgenus Seriphidium (Besser) Rouy, are shrubs that dominate the landscape and form large communities in...

  3. Agroforestry for landscape restoration and livelihood development in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U. Djanibekov; Klara Dzhakypbekova; James Chamberlain; Horst Weyerhaeuser; Robert Zomer; G. Villamor; J. Xu

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how the adoption of agroforestry for ecosystem and livelihood improvement in Central Asian countries can be enhanced. First, it describes how previous and current developments lead to changing environmental conditions, and how these changing conditions consequently affected the welfare of people. Environmental issues on a global level, such as...

  4. In-situ Damage Assessment of Collagen within Ancient Manuscripts Written on Parchment: A Polarized Raman Spectroscopy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, R.; Rabin, I.; Hahn, O.; Fratzl, P.; Masic, A.

    2010-08-01

    The collection generally known as Qumran scrolls or Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) comprises some 900 highly fragmented manuscripts (mainly written on parchment) from the Second Temple period. In the years since their manufacture the writing materials have undergone serious deterioration due to a combination of natural ageing and environmental effects. Therefore, understanding quantitatively state of conservation of such manuscripts is a challenging task and a deep knowledge of damage pathways on all hierarchical levels (from molecular up to macroscopic) results of fundamental importance for a correct protection and conservation strategy. However, the degradation of parchments is very complex and not well understood process. Parchment is a final product of processing of animal skin and consist mainly of type I collagen, which is the most abundant constituent of the dermal matrix. Collagen molecule is built by folding of three polypeptide α-chains into a right-handed triple helix. Every α-chain is made by a repetitive sequence of (Gly-X-Y)n, where X and Y are often proline and hydroxyproline. Parallel and staggered collagen triple helices associate into fibrils, which than assemble into fibers. Deterioration of parchment is caused by chemical changes due to gelatinization, oxidation and hydrolysis of the collagen chains, promoted by several factors, summarized as biological and microbiological (bacteria, fungi etc.), heat, light, humidity and pollutants (1, 2). In this work we have focused on studying the collagen within parchments on two different levels of organization (molecular and fibrilar) by applying polarized Raman spectroscopic technique. Beside spectral information related to chemical bonding, polarization anisotropy of some collagen bands (i.e. amide I) has been used to explore organization of collagen on higher levels (three-dimensional arrangement of the triple-helix molecules and their alignment within a fibril of collagen). To this aim we have compared

  5. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  6. Manuscript Dejene Mamo JBAS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    are found to influence taxpayers' (non)compliance decision in so far as those ... payment of taxes becoming more and more obligatory, until finally coercive ... policy of the country as a result of the structural changes. ..... From the focus group discussion we understood that tax officials also ..... Implications for Tax Policy.

  7. Sylwan manuscript revised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    이영준

    mature adipocytes and accumulate lipids, as an obesity model with cytotoxicity and ... 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide; NAC = N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NADPH = Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; OD = ..... ovariectomized rats.

  8. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro OTA

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (authors)

  9. Hydrogen Programs of Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-ichiro Ota

    2006-01-01

    The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to the earth and also to human beings. Considering the limit of resources, the materials recycling would be very important. Considering the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy production through any processes would be the final problems for the sustainable growth. We have to think how to dispose the increasing entropy outside earth in the clean energy system. At present, the global carbon cycle is changing by the emission of CO 2 with the large consumption of fossil fuels. The global environment including human society should stand on harmonizing with the earth, where the global recycles of materials are important. Thinking about the global recycles of carbon and water quantitatively, the existence of water is 27,000 times larger than that of carbon. The transportation of water is 3,160 times faster than that of carbon. These figures show that the hydrogen from water is a superior energy carrier, compared to the carbon. The environmental impact factor was defined as the ratio of annual quantity of materials produced by energy consumption of mankind to a natural movement on earth. The influence of human activities on the global environment can be evaluated quantitatively by this environmental impact factor. The environmental impact factor of water on the earth, 0.0001, is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of carbon, 0.036. This means the hydrogen/water cycle is superior to the carbon cycle as material circulation for energy system of mankind. The energy consumption will increase tremendously in Asian countries due to their population increase and economic growth. We need a clean energy system for the sustainable growth. The hydrogen energy system is the most suitable energy system. In this paper the recent hydrogen energy programs of Japan, China and Korea will be introduced. (author)

  10. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  11. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  12. Grammatical norm problem in diachronies (on the material of the manuscript of the XVII century “Jesus Christ passions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryakova Elina Valerievna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the study in terms of the implementation of the grammatical rules of the text of the apocryphal writings of «Jesus Christ Passion», forming the bulk of convolutes of the XVII century, which is stored in the Mordovian regional museum and has not been introduced in the scientific sphere. It is given the definition of the grammatical norm, summarized the point of view of well-known scientists who study the evolution of the norms of book-Slavic language at different stages of its development and in the establishment and description of the main characteristics of the «strict» and reduced norm of the Church Slavonic language. It is use/disuse of a complicated system of past tenses of verbs, the dual number, principles in the use of participle forms, formation of imperative, causal, conditional and temporary relations and other features. An analysis of the graphic-orthographic and grammatical features of the manuscript concluded that the language of the monument is in the center of the Church Slavonic language of the reduced standard of the XVII century with the appearance of dialectal features inherent to the southern Russian dialects.

  13. Scientists and scientific associations in Catalonia (Spain in the early 20th century: manuscript vs. published research in earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Batlló

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available


    Culture in Catalonia and, specifically, science had an important rebirth in the second half of the 19th century. But, due to the lack of State support, development of earth physical sciences in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century was almost a private enterprise. This situation caused dispersion of the efforts that, in any case, were extensive. The study of the evolution of earth sciences and the recovery and study of the accumulated data in such circumstances requires relying heavily on manuscript information. The present study deals with the problems and possibilities of this situation, shows some study cases and extracts some conclusions of general interest from them.


  14. Hepatitis B ESL education for Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicky M; Gregory Hislop, T; Bajdik, Christopher; Teh, Chong; Lam, Wendy; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Yasui, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Asian communities in North America include large numbers of immigrants with limited English proficiency. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in most Asian countries and, therefore, Asian immigrant groups have high rates of chronic HBV infection. We conducted a group-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B English as a second language (ESL) educational curriculum for Asian immigrants. Eighty ESL classes were randomized to experimental (hepatitis B education) or control (physical activity education) status. Students who reported they had not received a HBV test (at baseline) completed a follow-up survey 6 months after randomization. The follow-up survey assessed recent HBV testing and HBV-related knowledge. Provider reports were used to verify self-reported HBV tests. The study group included 218 students who reported they had not been tested for HBV. Follow-up surveys were completed by 180 (83%) of these students. Provider records verified HBV testing for 6% of the experimental group students and 0% of the control group students (P = 0.02). Experimental group students were significantly (P ESL curriculum had a meaningful impact on HBV-related knowledge and a limited impact on HBV testing levels. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of ESL curricula for other immigrant groups and other health topics, as well as other intervention approaches to increasing levels of HBV testing in Asian immigrant communities.

  15. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement.

  16. Asian educational discourse: construction of ontological security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Khalina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of ontology security through Asian educational discourse, which is structurally determined by the process of moral self-improvement. Considered are trends in improving the management of educational system by developing the culture of quality, which is considered as the next stage of the Asian education systems development after the “quality of education” stage. We suggest an approach for assessing the vitality of educational process and its product based on monitoring trainees’ aptitudes system and school capabilities in developing and maintaining this system. In this study we refer to the concept of vitality and viability when describing the general theory of viability in connection with the core principles of Asian educational discourse. We outline main trends in the development of modern educational system in Asian university given the process of globalization and its impact on educational reforms in the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, the category of education quality in Asian system of higher education and narrative monitoring of Chinese students’ cognitive structures viability at Altai State University are introduced.

  17. A Review of Recent Developments in the Study of Regional Lithospheric Electrical Structure of the Asian Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Letian

    2017-09-01

    The Asian continent was formed through the amalgamation of several major continental blocks that were formerly separated by the Paleo-Asian and Tethyan Oceans. During this process, the Asian continent underwent a long period of continental crustal growth and tectonic deformation, making it the largest and youngest continent on Earth. This paper presents a review of the application of geophysical electromagnetic methods, mainly the magnetotelluric (MT) method, in recent investigations of the diverse tectonic features across the Asian continent. The case studies cover the major continental blocks of Asia, the Central Asian orogenic system, the Tethyan orogenic system, as well as the western Pacific subduction system. In summary, most of the major continental blocks of Asia exhibit a three-layer structure with a resistive upper crust and upper mantle and a relatively conductive mid-lower crust. Large-scale conductors in the upper mantle were interpreted as an indication of lithospheric modification at the craton margins. The electrical structure of the Central Asian orogenic system is generally more resistive than the bordering continental blocks, whereas the Tethyan orogenic system displays more conductive, with pervasive conductors in the lower crust and upper mantle. The western Pacific subduction system shows increasing complexity in its electrical structure from its northern extent to its southern extent. In general, the following areas of the Asian continent have increasingly conductive lithospheric electrical structures, which correspond to a transition from the most stable areas to the most active tectonic areas of Asia: the major continental blocks, the accretionary Central Asian orogenic system, the collisional Tethyan orogenic system, and the western Pacific subduction system. As a key part of this review, a three-dimensional (3-D) model of the lithospheric electrical structure of a large portion of the Tibetan Plateau is presented and discussed in detail

  18. A Note on the Analysis of Two Early Rājasthānī Dādūpanthī Manuscripts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2016), s. 545-569 ISSN 2235-5871 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Rājasthān * medieval manuscripts * textual criticism * Dādūpanth * Kabīr Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  19. Variants, Layers of Authorial Intervention, and Texts in Lope de Vega’s La buena guarda and La encomienda bien guardada autograph manuscript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Capoia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I study, analyze and classify the variant readings and the different layers of authorial intervention that appear in Lope de Vega’s La buena guarda and La encomienda bien guardada manuscript. I contend that the second version of the work should be edited, a possibility thus far neglected by modern editors.

  20. A Book as a Gift for Ferdinand I of Habsburg. An unknown Bohemical manuscript from the collections of the Austrian National Library in Vienna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2015), s. 236-246 ISSN 1804-1132 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Fabián Puléř * Johannes Cavalerius * Ferdinand I of Habsburg * illuminated manuscripts * prayer books * Turkish threat Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  1. A Response to Reviewer Comments Regarding the Manuscript, "Rule-Governed Behavior and Self-Control in Children with ADHD: A Theoretical Interpretation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Leasha M.; Kelly, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors appreciate the opportunity to respond to the issues raised in a review of the manuscript, "Rule-Governed Behavior and Self-Control in Children with ADHD: A Theoretical Interpretation" submitted by Leasha M. Barry and Melissa A. Kelly. Many of the points brought to light in the review are indeed useful for discussion and provide…

  2. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  3. The Politics of Deception and the French Lais in the Roman de Fauvel, Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, R.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    The interpolated version of the French allegorical satire, the Roman de Fauvel, transmitted in manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146 (produced in Paris ca. 1317), targets the corruption within the French royal court in the last years of the rule of King Philip IV of

  4. Personality over Policy: A Comparative History of the Founding and Early Development of Four Significant American Manuscript Repositories of Business, Industry, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Erik C.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation compares and contrasts the founding and early manuscript collecting activities of four publicly accessible American archival repositories known for their extensive holdings in business, industrial, and technological history: the Baker Library at Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts; the Hagley Library and Museum in…

  5. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population

  6. Translating 'Asian' Modes of Healing and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This review article discusses the 'translation of Asian modes of healing and medicine' in six recently published books by raising seven questions. They serve both to review the volumes and to ask how we have moved from understanding systems of healing in terms of tradition and modernity, science and nonscience, globalization and locality, innovation and cultural heritage, to translating them in terms of assemblages, products, modes of resistance, social (dis-)harmony, and ecological balance. The questions span subjects ranging from the meaning of 'Asian' in Asian modes of healing, the object of healing and classifications of systems of healing to their relation with 'biomedicine,' modernization and the state, the extents to which communities share healing tradition, and their existential meaning in context.

  7. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  8. Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Pradeep, P V; Aggarwal, Vivek; Yip, Cheng-Har; Cheung, Polly S Y

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Asia, and in recent years is emerging as the commonest female malignancy in the developing Asian countries, overtaking cancer of the uterine cervix. There have been no studies objectively comparing data and facts relating to breast cancer in the developed, newly developed, and developing Asian countries thus far. This multi-national collaborative study retrospectively compared the demographic, clinical, pathological and outcomes data in breast cancer patients managed at participating breast cancer centers in India, Malaysia and Hong Kong. Data, including those on the availability of breast screening, treatment facilities and outcomes from other major cancer centers and cancer registries of these countries and from other Asian countries were also reviewed. Despite an increasing trend, the incidence of breast cancer is lower, yet the cause-specific mortality is significantly higher in developing Asian countries compared with developed countries in Asia and the rest of the world. Patients are about one decade younger in developing countries than their counterparts in developed nations. The proportions of young patients (women and the clinical picture are different from those of average patients managed elsewhere in the world. Owing to lack of awareness, lack of funding, lack of infrastructure, and low priority in public health schemes, breast cancer screening and early detection have not caught up in these under-privileged societies. The inadequacies of health care infrastructures and standards, sociocultural barriers, economic realities, illiteracy, and the differences in the clinical and pathological attributes of this disease in Asian women compared with the rest of the world together result in a different spectrum of the disease. Better socioeconomic conditions, health awareness, and availability of breast cancer screening in developed Asian countries seem to be the major causes of a favorable clinical

  9. Risk Factors for Glaucoma Suspicion in Healthy Young Asian and Caucasian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lauren Doss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence of certain risk factors for glaucoma in a healthy, young population and to compare these risk factors between Asian Americans and Caucasians. Methods. 120 healthy graduate students (mean age 24.8±3.0 years underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, and refraction, comparing glaucoma risk factors in Asians (n=54 and Caucasians (n=41, were performed. Outcome variables included family history, intraocular pressure (IOP, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness (CCT, mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD, and disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters. Results. 61% of subjects were female; the mean spherical equivalent was -3.81±3.2 D; and the mean axial length (AL was 25.1±1.7 mm. Regression analysis showed race affected spherical equivalent (P0.05. In this study, we found Asian Americans, compared to Caucasians, had 2.95±0.64 D greater myopia; greater IOP by 2.74±0.62 mmHg; and larger CDAR by 0.12±0.046. Conclusions. In our study population, young, healthy Asian Americans had greater myopia, IOP, and CDAR as compared to Caucasians, suggesting that racial variations can be important when diagnosing glaucoma.

  10. Development of an Asian American parental racial-ethnic socialization scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    To develop a measure of parental racial-ethnic socialization that is appropriate for Asian American families. To test the reliability and validity of this new measure, we surveyed 575 Asian American emerging adults (49% female, 79% U.S. born). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the results show 7 reliable subscales: maintenance of heritage culture, becoming American, awareness of discrimination, avoidance of other groups, minimization of race, promotion of equality, and cultural pluralism. Tests of factorial invariance show that overall, the subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial metric invariance across gender, age, nativity, educational attainment, parent educational attainment, geographic region of residence, and Asian-heritage region. Thus, the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different subgroups. The subscales also correlated with ethnic identity, ethnic centrality, perceptions of discrimination, and pluralistic orientation, demonstrating construct validity. In an increasingly complex and diverse social world, our scale will be useful for gaining a better understanding of how Asian American parents socialize their children regarding issues of race, discrimination, culture, and diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  12. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  13. Asian American Student Engagement in Student Leadership and Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Lester J.; Poon, OiYan A.; Na, Vanessa S.

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual models for understanding the ways in which Asian American students engage in leadership and activism are interrogated. The chapter provides a discussion of implications for student affairs professionals working with Asian American student leaders and activists.

  14. Institutions for Asian Integration : Innovation and Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Capannelli; See Seng Tan

    2012-01-01

    The formation of regional production networks in East Asia has occurred mainly through market forces, without much help from regional institutions in promoting the creation of a single Asian market. While this approach has served the region well in the past, the drastic changes experienced since the 2008–2009 financial crisis and the challenges Asian countries are facing—growing inequalities and competition, on the one hand, and enhanced threats to the environment and people’s health on...

  15. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  16. Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Furutachi, Naoya; Kato, Kiyoshi; Makinaga, Ayano; Devi, Vidya; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Tsubakihara, Kohsuke; Katayama, Toshiyuki; Otuka, Naohiko

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reaction data are essential for research and development in nuclear engineering, radiation therapy, nuclear physics and astrophysics. Experimental data must be compiled in a database and be accessible to nuclear data users. One of the nuclear reaction databases is the EXFOR database maintained by the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Recently, collaboration among the Asian NRDC members is being further developed under the support of the Asia-Africa Science Platform Program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We report the activity for three years to develop the Asian collaboration on nuclear reaction data compilation. (author)

  17. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  18. GROWTH AFTER THE ASIAN CRISIS: WHAT REMAINS OF THE EAST ASIAN MODEL?

    OpenAIRE

    JOMO K.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the prospects for sustained development in the four East Asian economies most adversely affected by the crises of 1997/98. These include all three second-tier South-East Asian newly industrializing countries (NICs) – Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand – as well as the Republic of Korea, the most adversely affected of the first-generation newly industrialized economies (NIEs). The first section critically examines the East Asian model presented by the World Bank’s “East Asi...

  19. Is Pan-Asian Economic Integration Moving Forward?: Evidence from Pan-Asian Trade Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Jeet Bahadur; Shuto, Motoko

    2016-01-01

    Asia is growing economically faster than any other region in the world; this led to the shift of the center of gravity of the global economy from the West to the East. However, it is not clear whether the Asian economy is integrating regionally or globally. In the context of the growing efforts of regional or sub-regional pan-Asian integration, it is worthwhile to explore the pan-Asian trade flows regionally as well as globally. Thus, this paper examines the trend and determinants of economic...

  20. A scoping review protocol on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers in the manuscript review process in biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonti, Ketevan; Cauchi, Daniel; Cobo, Erik; Boutron, Isabelle; Moher, David; Hren, Darko

    2017-10-22

    The primary functions of peer reviewers are poorly defined. Thus far no body of literature has systematically identified the roles and tasks of peer reviewers of biomedical journals. A clear establishment of these can lead to improvements in the peer review process. The purpose of this scoping review is to determine what is known on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers. We will use the methodological framework first proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and subsequently adapted by Levac et al and the Joanna Briggs Institute. The scoping review will include all study designs, as well as editorials, commentaries and grey literature. The following eight electronic databases will be searched (from inception to May 2017): Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Two reviewers will use inclusion and exclusion criteria based on the 'Population-Concept-Context' framework to independently screen titles and abstracts of articles considered for inclusion. Full-text screening of relevant eligible articles will also be carried out by two reviewers. The search strategy for grey literature will include searching in websites of existing networks, biomedical journal publishers and organisations that offer resources for peer reviewers. In addition we will review journal guidelines to peer reviewers on how to perform the manuscript review. Journals will be selected using the 2016 journal impact factor. We will identify and assess the top five, middle five and lowest-ranking five journals across all medical specialties. This scoping review will undertake a secondary analysis of data already collected and does not require ethical approval. The results will be disseminated through journals and conferences targeting stakeholders involved in peer review in biomedical research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the