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Sample records for central asian grapevines

  1. The powdery mildew resistance gene REN1 co-segregates with an NBS-LRR gene cluster in two Central Asian grapevines

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    Morgante Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape powdery mildew is caused by the North American native pathogen Erysiphe necator. Eurasian Vitis vinifera varieties were all believed to be susceptible. REN1 is the first resistance gene naturally found in cultivated plants of Vitis vinifera. Results REN1 is present in 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara', two grapevines documented in Central Asia since the 1920's. These cultivars have a second-degree relationship (half sibs, grandparent-grandchild, or avuncular, and share by descent the chromosome on which the resistance allele REN1 is located. The REN1 interval was restricted to 1.4 cM using 38 SSR markers distributed across the locus and the segregation of the resistance phenotype in two progenies of collectively 461 offspring, derived from either resistant parent. The boundary markers delimit a 1.4-Mbp sequence in the PN40024 reference genome, which contains 27 genes with known functions, 2 full-length coiled-coil NBS-LRR genes, and 9 NBS-LRR pseudogenes. In the REN1 locus of PN40024, NBS genes have proliferated through a mixture of segmental duplications, tandem gene duplications, and intragenic recombination between paralogues, indicating that the REN1 locus has been inherently prone to producing genetic variation. Three SSR markers co-segregate with REN1, the outer ones confining the 908-kb array of NBS-LRR genes. Kinship and clustering analyses based on genetic distances with susceptible cultivars representative of Central Asian Vitis vinifera indicated that 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara' fit well into local germplasm. 'Kishmish vatkana' also has a parent-offspring relationship with the seedless table grape 'Sultanina'. In addition, the distant genetic relatedness to rootstocks, some of which are derived from North American species resistant to powdery mildew and have been used worldwide to guard against phylloxera since the late 1800's, argues against REN1 being infused into Vitis vinifera from a

  2. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  3. Identification of mildew resistance in wild and cultivated Central Asian grape germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz, Summaira; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; Dangl, Gerald; Lacombe, Thierry; Laucou, Valerie; Tenscher, Alan C; Walker, M. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cultivated grapevines, Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa, evolved from their wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris. They were domesticated in Central Asia in the absence of the powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, which is thought to have originated in North America. However, powdery mildew resistance has previously been discovered in two Central Asian cultivars and in Chinese Vitis species. ...

  4. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  5. Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations

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    Elena Marushiakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations During recent years the topic of Gypsy/Roma migration and identities became burning topic of pan-EUropean public discourse. Much less attention is paid to the Gypsy migrations outside the borders of European Union. The present article has ambitious goal to fulfill this gap and to present contemporary Gypsy migrations in Post-soviet Central Asian in order to see how this “burning” topic looks outside European space. After breakdown of Soviet Union and establishing of new independent republics in Central Asia and in connection to economical difficulties, wars and social unrest, in order to make their living, the communities of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’ revitalised their former nomadic traditions and migrate towards Russian Federation and in frames of Central Asia towards Kazakhstan. There they are earning their living through begging and sporadic work in construction and scrap collection. A central point of this article is the impact of these contemporary migrations on the development of identities and well being of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’. The multilevel, hierarchically structured identities of Central-Asian ‘Gypsies' are analysed as demonstrated in different historical contexts – as former “Soviet people”, member of former ruling class of agricultural proletariat, and as declassed community today; as Central-Asian ‘Gypsies’ or as citizens of respective Central Asian Republics during migrations in Russian Federation in front of Russian majority society and in front of Roma; and in context of the Central Asian region during the migrations to Kazakhstan and in their home countries.     Cyganie środkowoazjatyccy – tożsamości i migracje W ostatnich latach tematyka migracji i tożsamości Cyganów (Romów stała się tematem palącym w unijnoeuropejskim dyskursie publicznym. O wiele mniej uwagi poświęca się w nim migracjom Cyganów, które mają miejsce poza granicami

  6. Central Asian Students' Adjustment Experiences at a "Globalized" Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Yejin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the academic and cultural experiences of undergraduate Central Asian students at a university in Ulsan, South Korea. The study was designed to examine the experiences of Central Asian students both in their adjustment to academic work, and to the cultural environment created by the internationalization policy of the…

  7. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

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    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  8. Ethnic Conflict and CENTCOM Policy for the Central Asian Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    than half of the 14 basic conclusions apply to the US view of Central Asia: • Rapid advances in info/ biotechnology will create new vulnerabilities for...security, economic conditions, and growing world demand for illegal drugs. This demand takes Central/South Asian cannabis , opium, and heroin and

  9. Intercultural Competence of Tatarstan Central-Asian Diasporas

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    Nargiza I. Omorova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines intercultural competence of Tatarstan Central- Asian diasporas as an important communicative quality, concludes that the high level of intercultural competence of these diasporas contributes to their socio-cultural adaptation and intercultural communication in the country

  10. Notes on Central Asian dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl Jr., J.W.

    2000-01-01

    New and old material from Central Asia is published. In total 38 species are recorded from various locations in this region. For the more interesting species notes and figures are provided. One probably new Ischnura species is briefly described, but not formally named. For a, possibly new, subspecie

  11. Notes on Central Asian dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Schoorl Jr., J.W.

    2000-01-01

    New and old material from Central Asia is published. In total 38 species are recorded from various locations in this region. For the more interesting species notes and figures are provided. One probably new Ischnura species is briefly described, but not formally named. For a, possibly new, subspecies of Sympetrum sinaiticum Dumont, 1977, a short diagnosis with figures is provided.

  12. I. KARIMOV’S ROLE IN CENTRAL ASIAN SECURITY SUPPORTING

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    E. G. Garbuzarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the place and role of the first President of Uzbekistan I. Karimov in the system of Central Asian security. Central Asia is an unstable region with political conflicts and activity of Islamic extremists. The leading superpowers pay attention to the region. The diversity of problems in the region requires the participation of each regional actor in strengthening Central Asian security. The attention is focused on the personal factor in the political system of Uzbekistan. The personalistic approach to the analysis of political system of Uzbekistan proves Karimov’s substantial role in regional security issues. There are indicators such as the efforts to maintain the geopolitical balance in Central Asia, the strategy and tactics of the struggle against Islamic radicalism, a call for fair solution of water-energy and territorial issues. The events of 2005 in Andijan had tested the regime of Islam Karimov. Moreover it could have destabilized the whole region and changed the configuration of powers. Despite the warlike rhetoric of Islam Karimov the author comes to the conclusion that the first president of Uzbekistan played the constructive role in ensuring stability in the Central Asian region. Experts associated Karimov’s death with drastic regional changes due to lack of experience of the transit authority. The transit of power is taking place in a calm political atmosphere. The question remains about political strategy and tactics which will adhere to his successor in the solution of regional problems.

  13. NATO AND CENTRAL ASIAN STATES: THE PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION

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    A. M. Akmataliyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cooperation between NATO and Central Asian countries dates back to the 1990s, significant presence of the Alliance in the region is visible throughout the last decade only. The cooperation advanced due to the NATO-led operation in Afghanistan. However, its planned conclusion in 2012 will not lead to the withdrawal of the Alliance from Central Asia. Throughout the last decade NATO developed a network of diversified partnerships with countries of the region. In this process Kazakhstan emerged as its most promising and active partner.

  14. Ethnic Conflict and US Central Command Policy for the Central Asian Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    US view of Central Asia: • Rapid advances in information/ biotechnology will cre­ ate new vulnerabilities for US security. 10 ETHNIC CONFLICT • New...South Asian cannabis , opium, and heroin and distributes it into Russia/Western Europe.51 Since de­ vout Muslims do not use drugs, CAS drugs are

  15. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

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    M. M. Buslov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The terrain analysis concept envisages primarily a possibility of approximation of fragments / terrains of various geodynamic settings which belong to different plates. The terrain analysis can supplement the theory of plate tectonics in solving problems of geodynamics and tectonics of regions of the crust with complex structures. The Central Asian belt is among such complicated regions. Terrain structures occurred as a result of combined movements in the system of 'frontal' and/or oblique subduction – collision. In studies of geological objects, it is required first of all to prove their (vertical and horizontal autochthony in relations to each other and then proceed to paleogeodynamic, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. Obviously, such a complex approach needs data to be obtained by a variety of research methods, including those applied to study geologic structures, stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, lithothlogy, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetism etc. Only by correlating such data collected from inter-disciplinary studies of the regions, it is possible to establish reliable characteristics of the geological settings and avoid mistakes and misinterpretations that may be associated with the 'stratigraphic' approach to solutions of both regional and global problems of geodynamics and tectonics of folded areas. The terrain analysis of the Central Asian folded belt suggests that its tectonic structure combines marginal continental rock complexes that were formed by the evolution of two major oceanic plates. One of them is the plate of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. As the analogue of the current Indo-Atlantic segment of Earth, it is characterised by the presence of continental blocks in the composition of the oceanic crust and the formation of oceanic basins resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and Gondvana. In the course of its evolution, super-continents disintegrated, and the blocks were reunited into the Kazakhstan

  16. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

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    Silvia Venuti

    Full Text Available The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.. A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3 only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+ has an additive effect with Rpv3(+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+ plants.

  17. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

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    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics. PMID:24453557

  18. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

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    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  19. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaguo QI; Temirbek S.BOBUSHEV; Rashid KULMATOV; Pavel GROISMAN; Garik GUTMAN

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change,depending on very fragile natural resources.The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan,Tajikistan,Kyrgyzstan,Turkmenistan,and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources.With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region,food and water security issues become even more crucial now and,if not addressed properly,could affect the regional stability.The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements,food and water,are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives.As a feedback,changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses,food production,and lifestyles of the rural community in the region.Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause,extent,rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region.Much of these have been understood,or under investigation by various projects,but solutions or research effort to develop solutions,to these urgent regional issues are lacking.This article,serves as an introduction to the special issue,provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  20. WHITHER DEVELOPMENT? THE EFFECTS OF THE EURASIAN UNION ON THE CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLICS

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    Adelin Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the impact of the Eurasian Union on the Central Asian republics, with a focus on remittances trends. To this end I review at first the literature regarding the effects of the Customs Union on its members. Then, I assess the current state of the economies most likely to be affected by membership in the Eurasian Union, i.e. Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, whose specificity is their dependency on remittances. Secondly, I present a plausible scenario in regard to the influence of the formalization of this regional organization on the emerging Central Asian regional security subcomplex. I argue that the EEU is a hindrance towards the five Central Asian Republics’ evolving towards a regional security complex. Not only has it already distorted trade in the region, but it can also turn some presently frozen conflicts into security hotspots. I hold that the only way to spur development in the region is, internally, to diversify the economy, and, externally, to bring the five republics closer. I try to show that the Central Asian Republics should simultaneously pursue a switch from a balance of threat to regional integration and sustainable national development. Nonetheless, the EEU will have at best mixed effects when it comes to these necessities. Alternatively, China and the New Silk Road initiative that it endorses might contribute to de-securitizing some of the existing issues.

  1. Climate contributions to vegetation variations in Central Asian drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Li; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia comprises a large fraction of the world's drylands, known to be vulnerable to climate change. We analyzed the inter-annual trends and the impact of climate variability in the vegetation greenness for Central Asia from 1982 to 2011 using GIMMS3g normalized difference vegetation index...... (NDVI) data. In our study, most areas showed an increasing trend during 1982-1991, but experienced a significantly decreasing trend for 1992-2011. Vegetation changes were closely coupled to climate variables (precipitation and temperature) during 1982-1991 and 1992-2011, but the response trajectories...... differed between these two periods. The warming trend in Central Asia initially enhanced the vegetation greenness before 1991, but the continued warming trend subsequently became a suppressant of further gains in greenness afterwards. Precipitation expanded its influence on larger vegetated areas in 1992...

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION IS READJUSTING ITS CENTRAL ASIAN STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat

    2011-01-01

    As soon as the Soviet Union fell apart, Central Asia, together with the rest of the post-Soviet expanse, became part of so-called political Europe, that is, it was drawn into the EU’s sphere of interests on the strength of the OSCE membership of all the post-Soviet states. The European Union’s strategy and policy in Central Asia are not directly related to the region’s military-strategic security, although they can indirectly affect it through (1) European institutions such as the OSCE, the E...

  3. Climate risk management in Central Asian agriculture. A situation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlowski, Ira

    2012-03-15

    The region of Central Asia, and in particularly the agricultural sector, is extremely vulnerable to climate change risks. The countries have started to develop adaptation strategies and climate risk management strategies, most of them described in the National Communications on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. These and other efforts are presented and commented in this paper.

  4. Comparative Analysis of China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asian States

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    Mina Poshtich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of the energy factor on formulating China’s political and economic strategy towards Central Asia. Therefore, the article provides the profound analysis of the PRC energy strategy in the region, namely its principles, goals, objectives and mechanisms. The article also examines the key areas of energy cooperation between China and the five Central Asian states, as well as the major joint energy projects. Moreover, the article takes a close look at the Silk Road Economic Belt as one of the largest and most ambitious Chinese economic projects, for it is directly relevant to the development of energy cooperation in the region. The author also analyses the prospects as well as possible problems of further energy cooperation between China and Central Asian states. 

  5. The Central Asian Journal of Global Health to Increase Scientific Productivity

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    Kyle Freese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO Collaborating Center at the University of Pittsburgh, USA partnering with Nazarbayev University, developed the Central Asian Journal of Global Health (CAJGH, cajgh.pitt.edu in order to increase scientific productivity in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Scientists in this region often have difficulty publishing in upper tier English language scientific journals due to language barriers, high publication fees, and a lack of access to mentoring services. CAJGH seeks to help scientists overcome these challenges by providing peer-reviewed publication free of change with English and research mentoring services available to selected authors. CAJGH began as a way to expand the Supercourse scientific network (www.pitt.edu/~super1 in the Central Asian region in order to rapidly disseminate educational materials. The network began with approximately 60 individuals in five Central Asian countries and has grown to over 1,300 in a few short years. The CAJGH website receives nearly 900 visits per month. The University of Pittsburgh's “open access publishing system” was utilized to create CAJGH in 2012. There are two branches of the CAJGH editorial board: Astana (at the Center for Life Sciences, Nazarbayev University and Pittsburgh (WHO Collaborating Center. Both are comprised of leading scientists and expert staff who work together throughout the review and publication process. Two complete issues have been published since 2012 and a third is now underway. Even though CAJGH is a new journal, the editorial board uses a rigorous review process; fewer than 50% of all submitted articles are forwarded to peer review or accepted for publication. Furthermore, in 2014, CAJGH will apply to be cross referenced in PubMed and Scopes. CAJGH is one of the first English language journals in the Central Asian region that reaches a large number of scientists. This journal fills a unique niche that will assist scientists in Kazakhstan and Central Asia publish their

  6. New developments in Central Asian mass media research

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The end of the Cold War represented an apparent victory for NATO, capitalism, free enterprise, and democracy over the Warsaw Pact, Marxism-Leninist communism, and the Russian-Soviet empire. In 1991, five newly independent republics of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) emerged from the wreckage of that watershed event. Each new government proclaimed its commitment to free enterprise economic systems and democratic governance. Western democracies, n...

  7. In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne

    2011-02-01

    Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern, Turkic-speaking groups during historical times, into a long-lasting group of settled populations, which may be represented nowadays by Tajiks and Turkmen. Contrary to what is generally thought, our results suggest that the recurrent expansions of eastern nomadic groups did not result in the complete replacement of local populations, but rather into partial admixture.

  8. Alternatives for Mobilizing Soviet Central Asian Labor: Outmigration and Regional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    settle in Central Asian cities will be at a competive disadvantage with inmigrant Europeans because of their underdeveloped technical skills, lower...reclassification for 16 percent, and net inmigration for 32 percent. All but 10 percent of this inmigration to Uzbek urban areas originated outside of...Uzbekistan, however. In Tadzhikistan and Kirgizia, net inmigration from outside the republics actually exceeded rural-urban movement within the republics

  9. Foreign Direct Investments in Central Asian Energy: A CGE Model

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    Michael P. BARRY

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan have adopted significant legislative changes since the fall of the former Soviet Union in an effort to attract foreign direct investment into their energy sectors. Of the three republics, Kazakhstan has been the most successful in attracting foreign interest, but all three republics face significant challenges in further development of oil and gas infrastructure. Even if these countries are completely successful in bringing in foreign investment, a question will remain: who wins and who loses in these countries. Using updated data, this paper will use a computable general equilibrium model to measure the effects of FDI into Central Asia. Results of the model suggest that the region would be better off overall from foreign investment in its natural gas sector, due mostly to improvements in overall production efficiency and its overall terms of trade. However, the gain in the natural gas sector would come at the expense of production and net exports of non-petroleum related industries.

  10. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

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    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae, which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  11. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  12. From Dungans to Xinyimin: China, Chinese Migration and the Changing Sociopolitical Fabric of Central Asian Republics

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    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the issue of ethnic identity of the Dungans – descendants of early Chinese migrants in Central Asia – and its change and preservation in the context of the fragile social fabric of the Central Asian states that were born from the shadow of the now-defunct Soviet Union, the arduous processes of nation-building plagued by often violent, competing emergent nationalisms as well as political and economic turbulence, and the impact brought by the emergence of the xinyimin (Chinese new migrants. These Chinese-speaking Dungans staying in compact communities mostly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are descendants of political and war refugees from China’s provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu who moved across the border into the territory of Czarist Russia in the later part of the nineteenth century after the crushing of the Northwest Uprising by the Imperial Ch’ing (the Manchu dynasty army which bordered on genocide and ethnic cleansing. This paper analyses how a new ethnic identity has since emerged due partly to the geographical isolation imposed by the formidable natural barrier of the Tianshan (“Heavenly Mountains” However, their Chinese language in the form of a mixture of the Shaanxi and Gansu regionalects, remarkably written today not in Chinese characters but in the Cyrillic alphabet, and Chinese traditions of the Shaanxi and Gansu varieties have been fiercely preserved through the generations until today, including nineteenth-century vocabulary and traditions which are no longer found in modern China, due both to the cohesiveness of communal life and an aversion to marriage outside the community. After analysing the community’s dilemmas of identity preservation and identity creation, this paper then proceeds to look at the impact of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulting in the birth of the post-Soviet independent Central Asian republics, and the influx of the xinyimin from China since the

  13. The Effects of FDI on Human Capital Stock in Central Asian Turkic Republics

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    Durmuş Çağrı YILDIRIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment contributes to the education level of a country through many channels. On the other hand, educated labor increases foreign direct investment inflows. The subject of this paper is to investigate the contribution of foreign direct investment to the level of education in Central Asian Turkic Republics. In this study, the contribution of FDI to level of education is examined by Panel OLS methodology for 1999-2011 periods in Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz Republic, except Turkmenistan. As a result of the study, there is not a significant relationship between FDI stock and level of education which is used as an indicator for human capital investment.

  14. New climate change scenarios reveal uncertain future for Central Asian glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Lutz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian water resources largely depend on (glacier melt water generated in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges, located in the basins of the Amu and Syr Darya rivers, important life lines in Central Asia and the prominent water source of the Aral Sea. To estimate future water availability in the region, it is thus necessary to project the future glacier extent and volume in the Amu and Syr Darya river basins. The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of uncertainty in climate change projections on the future glacier extent in the Amu and Syr Darya river basins. The latest climate change projections provided by the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 generated for the upcoming fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC are used to model future glacier extent in the Central Asian region for the two large river basins. The outcomes are compared to model results obtained with the climate change projections used for the fourth IPCC assessment (CMIP3. We use a regionalized glacier mass balance model to estimate changes in glacier extent as a function of glacier size and projections of temperature and precipitation. The model is developed for implementation in (large scale hydrological models, when the spatial model resolution does not allow for modelling of individual glaciers and data scarcity is an issue. Both CMIP3 and CMIP5 model simulations point towards a strong decline in glacier extent in Central Asia. However, compared to the CMIP3 projections, the CMIP5 projections of future glacier extent in Central Asia provide a wider range of outcomes, mostly owing to greater variability in precipitation projections among the latest suite of climate models. These findings have great impact on projections of the timing and quantity of water availability in glacier melt dominated rivers in the region. Uncertainty about the size of the decline in glacier extent remains large, making

  15. State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

  16. A new node on the SE Asian paleoclimate map: the alkaline crater lakes of central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Chabangborn, Akkaneewut; Thu Aung, Lin; Fritz, Sherilyn; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    SE Asia is climatically a key region where the Asian monsoon system connects with the Indo-Pacific warm pool and from where much (latent) heat gets transported to higher latitudes. We recently obtained sediment cores from four crater lakes located in Central Myanmar, with the aim to further colour the still largely white space on the SE Asian paleoclimate map. The chain of volcanic craters extending northeast to southwest in the vicinity of the lower Chindwin River in central Myanmar have been known for a long time. These craters are aligned west of the Sagaing Fault, which is a continental transform fault between the Indian and Sunda continental plates. Four of the craters still contain lakes, while several of the smaller craters are drained and used for agriculture. The region has a tropical Savannah climate, with warm temperatures throughout the year. Precipitation is almost absent during the dry season but increases to an average monthly precipitation of 100-134 mm per month during the monsoon season (May through October). Three of the four lakes, named Twin Ywa (30 m depth), Twin Taung (60 m), and Twin Pyauk (8m), are highly alkaline (pH 10-11), support extensive cyanobacterial blooms and are anoxic below a few meters water depth. Their sediments are composed of highly organic and laminated algae gyttjas. The shallower (2m), oxic and more neutral (pH 7.5) Lake Leshe contains organic-lean clays but with clear variations in colour and bulk density that likely mark changes in humidity though time. The lake levels of the relatively small crater lakes are solely regulated by precipitation and evaporation, and their limnology and water isotope compositions are therefore sensitive to changes in monsoon intensity. We will present limnological data including water isotopic compositions, and initial bulk sedimentary data as well as preliminary age determinations. These will form the basis for more extensive multi-proxy analyses that should result in an improved insight

  17. The Permanent Exclusion of Asian Pupils in Secondary Schools in Central Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Harish

    1998-01-01

    Examined the permanent exclusion of Asian students from secondary schools in Birmingham (England). City school records show that exclusion of Asian male students, particularly of Muslims, is on the increase. Patterns of racial discrimination and racism were apparent. (SLD)

  18. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate central asian middle eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafélis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  19. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate Central Asian Middle Eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafelis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  20. Nationality or religion?: views of Central Asian Islam (1901-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Paksoy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Como la perspectiva histórica ya ha indicado, la nacionalidad no es necesariamente igual a la religión, o viceversa. Ambas piezas forman atributos de una identidad que define la función considerada necesaria por el sistema de gobierno o la persona en cuestión. Esto es algo casi natural para Asia Central ya que en miles de años la identidad de este territorio ha sido golpeada por numerosos olas políticas y religiosas. Además, aquí se añaden otros elementos, tales como la conciencia de los orígenes, definidos por documentos y afinidades lingüísticas. Este artículo explora los fundamentos de la mezcla que forma a los factores subyacentes.___________ABSTRACT:As the historical vista has already indicated, nationality does not necessarily equal religion, or vice-versa. Both attributes form parts of an identity defining function, as seen fit by the polity or the individual concerned. This is naturally true for Central Asians as well, as they have been buffeted by numerous waves of assaults, political or religious, on their identities over time stretching across millenia. Added to that mix are other elements, such as consciousness of origins as defined by leavening documents and linguistic affinity. This paper explores the basics of the mix that forms the underlying factors. Nationality, religion, Central Asia, literature, politics, anthropology, Soviet Union, ethnography, orientalism, democracy, nation-building, military, fundamentalism, history.

  1. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  2. Crustal Development in the Northeast Asian Orogenic Belt and its comparison with the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Bor-ming

    2016-04-01

    The Northeast Asian Orogenic Belt is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic accretionary orogenic collage, and it constitutes the northern and principal part of the "Nipponides" (Sengor and Natal'in, 1996). The tectonic framework was formed in Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and it continues to evolve along the modern Pacific arc-trench systems. Generally, a oceanward younging of tectonic units may be discerned, but such a simple pattern is disrupted in many places by extensive strike-slip faulting, most of which is left-lateral. In this talk, the issue of crustal development in the sector of Sikhote-Alin and Japanese Islands will be discussed based on the geochemical and isotopic analyses of granitoids that intruded in various tectonostratigraphic terrains. The majority of granitoids in the NE Asian Orogenic Belt formed from Jurassic to late Cenozoic, with Cretaceous as the dominant period of granitic magmatism and tectonothermal events. A few Early Paleozoic granitic rocks (500 to 450 Ma) have been identified in SW Japan (Kurosegawa Belt) as well as in NE Japan (Kitakami Belt), among them the ca. 500 Ma diorites and tonalites of southern Kitakami are the oldest rocks in Japan and interpreted as the first TTG crust of proto-Japan (Isozaki et al., 2015). Cretaceous granitoids are widespread in Sikhote-Alin and in NE and SW Japan. However, granitoids were emplaced only in the Cenozoic in Sakhalin (ca. 44 - 42 Ma) and Hokkaido (45, 37 and 18 Ma). Most granitoids from Sikhote-Alin are of I-type and have ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7083, and ɛNd(T) = +3.0 to -6.0 (mostly 0 to -5). The Sr-Nd isotopic data fall within the range of granitoids from SW Japan (0.704 to 0.712; +5.0 to -13.0), and the data of Cretaceous granitoids from Sikhote-Alin and SW Japan overlap almost completely. The Cenozoic granitoids of Hokkaido are characterized by ISr = 0.7044 - 0.7061, ɛNd(T) = +1.0 to +4.7, and Sm-Nd model-1 ages = 400-1000 Ma. This is remarkably similar to the Sakhalin granitoids with ISr = 0.7047 - 0.7050,

  3. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin.

  4. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  5. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Ulikpan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design: Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings: The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context.The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions: The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more

  6. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  7. An 8.1Ma calcite record of Asian summer monsoon evolution on the Chinese central Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XiuLing; FANG XiaoMin; AN ZhiSheng; HAN WenXia; WANG Xin; BAI Yan; HONG Ye

    2007-01-01

    Carbonates in loess-red clay sequences consist mainly of calcite and dolomite.The EDTA analysis of carbonates in different size fractions and magnetic susceptibility reveal that calcite is a sensitive index of summer monsoon.The chemical analysis of carbonates and calcite from an 8.1 Ma loess-red clay sequence at Chaona on the Chinese central Loess Plateau shows that the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon experienced four stages,namely 8.1-5.5 Ma,5.5-2.8 Ma,2.8-1.5 Ma and 1.5-0 Ma,with increasing intensification and fluctuation,suggesting a possible combining impacts of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global changes on the Asian summer monsoon.

  8. An 8.1Ma calcite record of Asian summer monsoon evolution on the Chinese central Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbonates in loess-red clay sequences consist mainly of calcite and dolomite. The EDTA analysis of carbonates in different size fractions and magnetic susceptibility reveal that calcite is a sensitive index of summer monsoon. The chemical analysis of carbonates and calcite from an 8.1 Ma loess-red clay sequence at Chaona on the Chinese central Loess Plateau shows that the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon experienced four stages, namely 8.1―5.5 Ma, 5.5―2.8 Ma, 2.8―1.5 Ma and 1.5―0 Ma, with increasing intensification and fluctuation, suggesting a possible combining impacts of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global changes on the Asian summer monsoon.

  9. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  10. 浅谈中亚文献在国外的分布情况%Talking about the Distribution of Central Asian Literature in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞娥; 张沛黎

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, along with the rise of Central Asian countries' international strategic position, domestic scholars have intensified the research on political, historical, economic, cultural and other fields of Central Asian countries. Scholars have also paid more and more attention to Central Asian literature. They have the same important guiding significance to understand the distribution and collection status of Central Asian literature in China and to understand the distribution status of Central Asian literature in foreign countries. This paper introduces the distribution of Central Asian literature in foreign countries from two aspects od geographical area and collection system in order to provide a reference for vast scholars' research in this filed.%近年来,随着中亚国家国际战略地位的提升,国内加大了对中亚国家政治、历史、经济、文化等领域的研究力度,学者们对中亚文献的重视程度亦与日俱增,在了解国内中亚文献分布和收藏情况的同时,从宏观上了解中亚文献信息资源在国外的分布情况,同样具有重要的指导意义. 从地理区域和收藏系统两方面介绍了国外中亚文献的分布情况,以期为广大学者在该领域的研究提供参考.

  11. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  12. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  13. Paleogeography of the Central Asian proto-Paratethys Sea in the Eocene: Controlling mechanisms and paleoenvironmental impacts (Utrecht Studies in Earth Sciences 038)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments of the Central Asian basins include remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. Before this sea retreated westward and eventually separated as the Paratethys Sea, it extended across Eurasia from the Mediterranean Tethys to the Tarim Basin

  14. Networking for Overcoming on Viral Hepatitis in Middle East and Central Asia: Asian Hepatitis Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease is an important health challenge in the world, where hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are the main causes of liver insufficiency. HBV infection is a serious global health problem, with two billion people infected worldwide, and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB affects more than 400 million people globally, of whom 75% are Asians (1. Hepatitis B infection is the 10th leading cause of death worldwide, and results in 500,000 to 1.2 million deaths per year caused by chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. HCC accounts for 320,000 deaths per year (2. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence (3.In the Middle East, HBV prevalence has altered from high to intermediate or low prevalence, but HBV infection is a problem of public health, and a major cause of mortality and morbidity particularly in developing countries. Most countries in the Middle East region are still in intermediate to high endemicity for HBV infection. Insufficient coverage of HBV vaccination, blood-contaminated equipment sharing between injection drug users, unsafe blood transfusion, and inadequate health precautions are major risk factors of HBV infection in this region. Screening of HBV infection during pregnancy, and follow-up of infants with HBV infected mothers will reduce rates of perinatal HBV infection in these countries. Implementing local strategies for hepatitis B screening will reduce the infection rate (4, 5. The socioeconomic and sanitary changes, expanded program on immunization of infants and all high risk populations have changed the epidemiologic profile of HBV infection in Iran.Universal vaccination significantly decreased the carrier rate among young children. More studies on the impact of vaccine types, environment, ethnicity and other contributing factors that can impede

  15. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  17. Clinical course, management and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Central Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshanbek Kurbanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes features history, risk factors and hospital management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS in women of the Central Asia (829 ACS patients are included, and also comparison of hospital outcomes of ACS in groups of men and women.ACS in women in the Central Asia comprises features as more non Q-wave myocardial infarction frequency, smaller adherence to treatment of dyslipidemia, more obesity degrees. Women arrive to hospital average in 4 hours after men; have more percent of the atypical form. In-hospital outcomes in men and women significantly did not differ because of general tendency to late arriving to the hospital and small quantity of revascularization procedures. The reasons of differences between men and women in the region are mostly connected to social sphere (late arriving, non-treated dyslipidemia than to physiological peculiarities.

  18. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

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    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  19. Stepwise onset of the Icehouse world and its impact on Oligo-Miocene Central Asian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; López-Guerrero, Paloma; Maridet, Olivier; Oliver, Adriana; Piller, Werner E.; Richoz, Sylvain; Erbajeva, Margarita A.; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Göhlich, Ursula B.

    2016-11-01

    Central Asia is a key area to study the impact of Cenozoic climate cooling on continental ecosystems. One of the best places to search for rather continuous paleontological records is the Valley of Lakes in Mongolia with its outstandingly fossil-rich Oligocene and Miocene terrestrial sediments. Here, we investigate the response by mammal communities during the early stage of Earth’s icehouse climate in Central Asia. Based on statistical analyses of occurrence and abundance data of 18608 specimens representing 175 mammal species and geochemical (carbon isotopes) and geophysical (magnetic susceptibility) data we link shifts in diversities with major climatic variations. Our data document for the first time that the post-Eocene aridification of Central Asia happened in several steps, was interrupted by short episodes of increased precipitation, and was not a gradual process. We show that the timing of the major turnovers in Oligocene mammal communities is tightly linked with global climate events rather than slow tectonics processes. The most severe decline of up 48% of total diversity is related to aridification during the maximum of the Late Oligocene Warming at 25 Ma. Its magnitude was distinctly larger than the community turnover linked to the mid-Oligocene Glacial Maximum.

  20. Current status and countermeasures of Central Asian Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) conservation and research%四爪陆龟保护研究现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志国

    2016-01-01

    四爪陆龟(Testudo horsfieldii)栖居于半荒漠草原地带,属国家Ⅰ级重点保护物种,IUCN将其列为易危(VU)等级。目前仅分布于新疆霍城县天山支脉阿克拉斯山山前四爪陆龟自然保护区范围内。由于农牧业活动加剧和偷猎捕杀,四爪陆龟种群数量锐减,分布区范围日益缩小。为加强该物种的保护与管理,国内外学者开展了大量的研究工作。本文通过对四爪陆龟保护研究现状及胁迫因子分析,探讨生物多样性保护的有效途径与对策,为今后更好地对四爪陆龟进行保护提供科学依据。%Central Asian Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) is inhabiting in the semi-desert grasslands areas,ranked as a grade Ⅰ key protected wildlife species in China and defined as Vulnerable (VU)in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Central asian tortoiseis endemic to Huocheng Central asian tortoise National Nature Reserve,Xinjiang Uygur Au-tonomous Region.During the last several decades,the distribution area and number of Central Asian Tortoise have de-clined drastically,and this species has disappeared in many parts of its former vast natural habitat due to the land-use changes,negative impact of land privatization,over-hunting and poaching.Scientists from different countries have con-ducted numerous researches and published a lot of papers devoted to Central Asian Tortoise’s distribution,population number,diet,habitat selection,reproduction ecology and behavior.The present paper briefly reviews the current status of Central Asian Tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) conservation and researches,analyzes the main threats,and introduces the achievements obtained in conservation and researches in China.Protection countermeasures for this endangered species have been given in this paper.

  1. Root-associated bacteria promote grapevine growth: from the laboratory to the field

    KAUST Repository

    Rolli, Eleonora

    2016-08-18

    Background and Aims: Laboratory and greenhouse experiments have shown that root-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on grapevine growth; however, these effects have not been tested in the field. Here, we aimed to demonstrate whether bacteria of different geographical origins derived from different crop plants can colonize grapevine to gain a beneficial outcome for the plant leading to promote growth at the field scale. Methods: To link the ecological functions of bacteria to the promotion of plant growth, we sorted fifteen bacterial strains from a larger isolate collection to study in vitro Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits. We analysed the ability of these strains to colonise the root tissues of grapevine and Arabidopsis using green-fluorescent-protein-labelled strain derivatives and a cultivation independent approach. We assessed the ability of two subsets randomly chosen from the 15 selected strains to promote grapevine growth in two field-scale experiments in north and central Italy over two years. Parameters of plant vigour were measured during the vegetative season in de novo grafted vine cuttings and adult productive plants inoculated with the bacterial strains. Results: Beneficial bacteria rapidly and intimately colonized the rhizoplane and the root system of grapevine. In the field, plants inoculated with bacteria isolated from grapevine roots out-performed untreated plants. In both the tested vineyards, bacteria-promotion effects largely rely in the formation of an extended epigeal system endowed of longer shoots with larger diameters and more nodes than non-inoculated plants. Conclusions: PGP bacteria isolated in the laboratory can be successfully used to promote growth of grapevines in the field. The resulting larger canopy potentially increased the photosynthetic surface of the grapevine, promoting growth.

  2. The NQO1 allelic frequency in hindu population of central India varies from that of other Asian populations

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    Parihar Sher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The enzymes encoded by the polymorphic genes NAD (P H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 play an important role in the activation and inactivation of xenobiotics. This enzyme has been associated with xenobiotic related diseases, such as cancer, therapeutic failure and abnormal effects of drugs. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of NQO Hinf I polymorphisms in a Hindu population of Central India. Settings and Design: Polymorphisms of NQO1 were determined in 311 unrelated Hindu individuals. Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in peripheral blood DNA for NQO1 Hinf I polymorphism was used in 311 unrelated Hindu individuals. Statistical Analysis: Allele frequencies were calculated by direct counting. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium was evaluated using a Chi-square goodness of fit test. Results: The observed allelic frequency was 81% for C (wild and 19% for T (mutant in the total sample. Conclusions: The allelic frequency of "C" was higher than in other Asians (57%, but similar to Caucasians (81%. The genotype distributions for Hinf I polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  3. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and concentrated mineralization in Balkhash and West Junggar, western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Chen, Xuanhua; Chen, Zhengle

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is an important area with significant growth of the crust and metallogeny in the Late Paleozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt consists of the Balkhash, the West Junggar, and the East Junggar tectono-metallogenic belts in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). According to the structural geological relationship, the East Junggar, the West Junggar, and the Balkhash belts are considered to be once a continuous E-W-trending tectono-metallogenic belt in Late Carboniferous. The West Junggar belt is featured with NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting tectonic system (WJTS), while the left-lateral strike-slip faults are E-W-trending in the Balkhash belt. The WJTS consists of the Darabut, the Mayile, and the Baerluke faults, and the blocks among them. All these left-lateral strike-slip faults are forming due to the transition of tectonic settings from syn-collisional orogeny to post-collisional extension during the closure of the ocean (the Junggar Sea) in Late Carboniferous, with significant intrusion of batholiths and crust growth occurred in this period. These faults are truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Chingiz-Junggar fault, and the Central Balkhash fault in Mesozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt is important for the occurrence of many well-known super-large and large porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (such as the Kounrad, the Aktogai, the Borly, and the Baogutu deposits), large skarn Cu deposits (in the Sayak ore-filed), large rare metal deposits (such as the East Kounrad, the Zhanet, and the Akshatau deposits), and large gold deposits (such as the Hatu deposit). Zircon U-Pb ages, Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenites, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of hornblendes, muscovites, biotites, and K-feldspars, and zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and (U-Th)/He dating and thermal history modeling, provide a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the whole

  4. Modulation of snow reflectance and snowmelt from Central Asian glaciers by anthropogenic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Schwikowski, Margit; Farinotti, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Deposited mineral dust and black carbon are known to reduce the albedo of snow and enhance melt. Here we estimate the contribution of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) to snowmelt in glacier accumulation zones of Central Asia based on in-situ measurements and modelling. Source apportionment suggests that more than 94% of the BC is emitted from mostly regional anthropogenic sources while the remaining contribution comes from natural biomass burning. Even though the annual deposition flux of mineral dust can be up to 20 times higher than that of BC, we find that anthropogenic BC causes the majority (60% on average) of snow darkening. This leads to summer snowmelt rate increases of up to 6.3% (7 cm a‑1) on glaciers in three different mountain environments in Kyrgyzstan, based on albedo reduction and snowmelt models.

  5. Dust, Elemental Carbon and Other Impurities on Central Asian Glaciers: Origin and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, J.; Flanner, M.; Kang, S.; Sprenger, M.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Y.; Guo, J.; Schwikowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    In Central Asia, more than 60 % of the population depends on water stored in glaciers and mountain snow. While temperature, precipitation and dynamic processes are key drivers of glacial change, deposition of light absorbing impurities such as mineral dust and black carbon can lead to accelerated melting through surface albedo reduction. Here, we discuss the origin of deposited mineral dust and black carbon and their impacts on albedo change and radiative forcing (RF). 218 snow samples were taken from 13 snow pits on 4 glaciers, Abramov (Pamir), Suek, Glacier No. 354 and Golubin (Tien Shan), representing deposition between summer 2012 and 2014. They were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon by a thermo-optical method, mineral dust by gravimetry, and iron by ICP-MS. Back trajectory ensembles were released every 6 hours with the Lagranto model for the covered period at all sites. Boundary layer "footprints" were calculated to estimate general source regions and combined with MODIS fire counts for potential fire contributions. Albedo reduction due to black carbon and mineral dust was calculated with the Snow-Ice-Aerosol-Radiative model (SNICAR), and surface spectral irradiances were derived from atmospheric radiative transfer calculations to determine the RF under clear-sky and all sky conditions using local radiation measurements. Dust contributions came from Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Sahara and partly the Taklimakan. Fire contributions were higher in 2014 and generally came from the West and North. We find that EC exerts roughly 3 times more RF than mineral dust in fresh and relatively fresh snow (~5 W/m2) and up to 6 times more in snow that experienced melting (> 10 W/m2) even though EC concentrations (average per snow pit from 90 to 700 ng/g) were up to two orders of magnitude lower than mineral dust (10 to 140 μg/g).

  6. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  7. Central Asian supra-glacier snow melt enhanced by anthropogenic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Farinotti, Daniel; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Lawrence, Mark; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    In Central Asia, more than 60 % of the population depends on water stored in glaciers and mountain snow. Densely populated areas near lower-lying mountain ranges are particularly vulnerable and a recent study showed that the region might lose 50 % of its glacier mass by 2050. While temperature, precipitation and dynamic processes are key drivers of glacial change, deposition of light absorbing impurities such as mineral dust and black carbon can lead to accelerated melting through surface albedo reduction. Here, we discuss the origin of deposited mineral dust and black carbon and their impacts on albedo change and snow melt. 218 snow samples were taken on 4 glaciers, Abramov (Pamir), Suek, Glacier No. 354 and Golubin (Tien Shan), representing deposition between summer 2012 and 2014. They were analyzed for elemental carbon, mineral dust and iron among other parameters. We find the elemental carbon concentration to be at the higher end of the range reported for neighboring mountain ranges between 70 and 502 ng g-1 (interquartile range). To investigate the origin of the snow impurities, we used a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, LAGRANTO. Back trajectory ensembles of 40 members with varied starting points to capture the meteorological spread were released every 6 hours for the covered period at all sites. "Footprints" were calculated and combined with emission inventories to estimate the relative contribution of anthropogenic and natural BC to deposited aerosol on the glaciers. We find that more than 94 % of BC is of anthropogenic origin and the major source region is Central Asia followed by the Middle East. Further exploring the implications of mineral dust and BC deposition, we calculate the snow albedo reduction with the Snow-Ice-Aerosol-Radiative model (SNICAR). Even though mineral dust concentrations were up to a factor of 50 higher than BC concentrations, BC dominates the albedo reduction. Using these results we calculate the snow melt induced by

  8. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  9. Mesoproterozoic continental arc magmatism and crustal growth in the eastern Central Tianshan Arc Terrane of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Geochronological and geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen-Yu; Klemd, Reiner; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Zong, Ke-Qing; Sun, Li-Xin; Tian, Zuo-Lin; Huang, Bo-Tao

    2015-11-01

    Numerous microcontinents are known to occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), one of the largest accretionary orogens and the most significant area of Paleozoic crustal growth in the world. The evolution of the Precambrian crust in these microcontinents is central to understanding the accretionary and collisional tectonics of the CAOB. Here, we present systematic zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope studies of Mesoproterozoic gneissic granitoids from the eastern Central Tianshan Arc Terrane (CTA) of the southern CAOB. The investigated intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 60.48-78.92 wt.%) granitoids belong to the calcic- to calc-alkaline series and usually have pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, relative enrichments of light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) while heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs) are depleted, revealing typical active continental margin magmatic arc geochemical characteristics. These spatially-distant rocks show consistent zircon U-Pb crystallization ages from ca. 1.45 to 1.40 Ga and thus constitute a previously unknown Mesoproterozoic continental magmatic arc covering hundreds of kilometers in the eastern segment of the CTA. Furthermore the high and mainly positive zircon εHf(t) values between - 1.0 and + 8.6 and the zircon Hf model ages of 1.95 to 1.55 Ga, which are slightly older than their crystallization ages, suggest that they were mainly derived from rapid reworking of juvenile material with a limited input of an ancient crustal component. Therefore, the formation of these granitoids defines an extensive Mesoproterozoic intermediate to felsic, subduction-related intrusive magmatic arc activity that was active from at least 1.45 to 1.40 Ga, involving significant juvenile continental growth in the eastern segment of the CTA. Furthermore the zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data challenge the common belief that the CTA was part of the Tarim Craton during Paleo

  10. How many sutures in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt:Insights from East XinjiangeWest Gansu (NW China)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjiao Xiao; Jun Luo; Chunming Han; Wei Liu; Bo Wan; Ji’en Zhang; Songjian Ao; Zhiyong Zhang; Dongfang Song; Zhonghua Tian

    2014-01-01

    How ophiolitic mélanges can be defined as sutures is controversial with regard to accretionary orogenesis and continental growth. The Chinese Altay, East Junggar, Tianshan, and Beishan belts of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northwest China, offer a special natural laboratory to resolve this puzzle. In the Chinese Altay, the Erqis unit consists of ophiolitic mélanges and coherent assemblages, forming a Paleozoic accretionary complex. At least two ophiolitic mélanges (Armantai, and Kelameili) in East Junggar, characterized by imbricated ophiolitic mélanges, Nb-enriched basalts, adakitic rocks and volcanic rocks, belong to a DevonianeCarboniferous intra-oceanic island arc with some Paleozoic ophiolites, superimposed by Permian arc volcanism. In the Tianshan, ophiolitic mélanges like Kanggurtag, North Tianshan, and South Tianshan occur as part of some Paleozoic accretionary complexes related to amalgamation of arc terranes. In the Beishan there are also several ophiolitic mélanges, including the Hongshishan, XingxingxiaeShibangjing, HongliuheeXichangjing, and Liuyuan ophiolitic units. Most ophiolitic mélanges in the study area are characterized by ultramafic, mafic and other components, which are juxtaposed, or even emplaced as lenses and knockers in a matrix of some coherent units. The tectonic settings of various components are different, and some adjacent units in the same mélange show contrasting different tectonic settings. The formation ages of these various com-ponents are in a wide spectrum, varying from Neoproterozoic to Permian. Therefore we cannot assume that these ophiolitic mélanges always form in linear sutures as a result of the closure of specific oceans. Often the ophiolitic components formed either as the substrate of intra-oceanic arcs, or were accreted as lenses or knockers in subduction-accretion complexes. Using published age and paleogeographic con-straints, we propose the presence of (1) a major early Paleozoic

  11. How many sutures in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Insights from East Xinjiang–West Gansu (NW China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How ophiolitic mélanges can be defined as sutures is controversial with regard to accretionary orogenesis and continental growth. The Chinese Altay, East Junggar, Tianshan, and Beishan belts of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB in Northwest China, offer a special natural laboratory to resolve this puzzle. In the Chinese Altay, the Erqis unit consists of ophiolitic mélanges and coherent assemblages, forming a Paleozoic accretionary complex. At least two ophiolitic mélanges (Armantai, and Kelameili in East Junggar, characterized by imbricated ophiolitic mélanges, Nb-enriched basalts, adakitic rocks and volcanic rocks, belong to a Devonian–Carboniferous intra-oceanic island arc with some Paleozoic ophiolites, superimposed by Permian arc volcanism. In the Tianshan, ophiolitic mélanges like Kanggurtag, North Tianshan, and South Tianshan occur as part of some Paleozoic accretionary complexes related to amalgamation of arc terranes. In the Beishan there are also several ophiolitic mélanges, including the Hongshishan, Xingxingxia–Shibangjing, Hongliuhe–Xichangjing, and Liuyuan ophiolitic units. Most ophiolitic mélanges in the study area are characterized by ultramafic, mafic and other components, which are juxtaposed, or even emplaced as lenses and knockers in a matrix of some coherent units. The tectonic settings of various components are different, and some adjacent units in the same mélange show contrasting different tectonic settings. The formation ages of these various components are in a wide spectrum, varying from Neoproterozoic to Permian. Therefore we cannot assume that these ophiolitic mélanges always form in linear sutures as a result of the closure of specific oceans. Often the ophiolitic components formed either as the substrate of intra-oceanic arcs, or were accreted as lenses or knockers in subduction-accretion complexes. Using published age and paleogeographic constraints, we propose the presence of (1 a major

  12. PLEADING FOR THE GRAPEVINE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cătălina Guţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The grapevine is cultivated with good results on hilly terrain, on sand and sandy soils, thus ensuring high recovery of these categories of agricultural land considered unsuitable for other crops. Vineyards, so related to people existence everywhere, became something more than just places of economic interest. What makes the viticulture to be so important is that it refers to the food value, therapeutic, recreational of grapes, must and wine, wine derived products and residues from wine, the great extent of the area occupied by vineyards, to good natural conditions (pedo-climatic existing in our country and also to the aesthetic value of the land planted with vines worldwide. The fitting of the gardens of the house, both in the countryside and in urban areas, includes in most cases the presence of grapevine plants cut in different art forms, their care being an exciting job. In general, by the presence of vines are valued the spaces next to existing buildings (house, yard, various outbuildings, along fences and roads. Grapevines location, cutting types chosen, besides beautifying the yard, must make a harmonious aspect of the whole surrounding. Chosen forms of management (arches, halfarches can protect the strong sunlight places. By the kiosks or other artistic realized forms are created spaces for rest, shade.

  13. Procedure for collecting and packaging grapevine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine yellows (GY) is a term that is used to refer to any of several diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) that are caused by phytoplasmas. Around the globe, diverse ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species cause indistinguishable disease symptoms in V. vinifera and are spread by different species of ...

  14. Reassessment of Phomopsis species on grapevines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van J.M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Farr, D.F.; Fourie, P.H.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Ten species of Phomopsis have previously been identified from grapevines. Of these, P. viticola, the causal agent of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, and P. vitimegaspora, the causal agent of swelling arm of grapevines, have been confirmed as severe pathogens of this host. Earlier taxonomic treatments

  15. Short episodes of crust generation during protracted accretionary processes: Evidence from Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gong-Jian; Chung, Sun-Lin; Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Cawood, P. A.; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zhao, Zhen-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are major sites of generation of continental crust but the spatial and temporal distribution of crust generation within individual orogens remains poorly constrained. Paleozoic (∼540-270 Ma) granitic rocks from the Alati, Junggar and Chinese Tianshan segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have markedly bimodal age frequency distributions with peaks of ages at ∼400 Ma and 280 Ma for the Altai segment, and ∼430 Ma and 300 Ma for the Junggar and Chinese Tianshan segments. Most of the magma was generated in short time intervals (∼20-40 Ma), and variations in magma volumes and in Nd-Hf isotope ratios are taken to reflect variable rates of new crust generation within a long-lived convergent plate setting. The Junggar segment is characterized by high and uniform Nd-Hf isotope ratios (εNd (t) = + 5 to + 8; zircon εHf (t) = + 10 to + 16) and it appears to have formed in an intra-oceanic arc system. In the Altai and Chinese Tianshan segments, the Nd-Hf isotope ratios (εNd (t) = - 7 to + 8; zircon εHf (t) = - 16 to + 16) are lower, although they increase with decreasing age of the rock units. The introduction of a juvenile component into the Chinese Tianshan and Altai granitic rocks appears to have occurred in continental arc settings and it reflects a progressive reduction in the contributions from old continental lower crust and lithospheric mantle. Within the long-lived convergent margin setting (over ∼200 Ma), higher volumes of magma, and greater contributions of juvenile material, were typically emplaced over short time intervals of ∼20-40 Ma. These intervals were associated with higher Nb/La ratios, coupled with lower La/Yb ratios, in both the mafic and granitic rocks, and these episodes of increased magmatism from intraplate-like sources are therefore thought to have been in response to lithospheric extension. The trace element and Nd-Hf isotope data, in combination with estimates of granitic magma volumes, highlight

  16. A METHOD OF SUPERIMPOSED TRIANGULATIONS FOR CALCULATION OF VELOCITY GRADIENT OF HORIZONTAL MOVEMENTS: APPLICATION TO THE CENTRAL ASIAN GPS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Zubovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to define piecewise continuous fields of velocity gradients of recent horizontal movements of the Earth’s crust from spatially discrete data on horizontal velocities of such movements. The method is designed to identify spatial inhomogeneities in the field of horizontal strain rates (e.g., zones of localized deformation and boundaries between areas with different strain rates in considerable detail. It is applied to determine the field of horizontal velocity gradient in the region of the Central Asian GPS network which covers vast territories of the Kyrgyz Tien-Shan and Pamirs mountain ranges, the T arim depression, and the Kazakh Shield (Fig. 1. Calculations are based on GPS survey data obtained at 308 sites from 1995 to 2006 (Fig. 4. The resolution of the proposed method is increased by using a triangulation grid which is much denser than a conventional one (Fig. 2 and 3. As a result, point x on the surface under study is covered by several triangles rather than one (Fig. 5. Strain characteristics at point x are calculated by weighted summation of corresponding characteristics in the cover triangles. Thus, for each point we estimate spin tensor W, which defines angular velocity ω, and components of horizontal strain rate tensor E. These components provide for direct calculation of orientation of principal axes and invariants of E, i.e. maximum stretching E1, maximum shortening E2, velocity divergence E=E1+E2, and maximum shear rates Γ=⎪E1−E2⎪/2 (Fig. 6 to 11. The calculated values are presented in maps which demonstrate that spatial distribution of such values is highly inhomogeneous. Regions with increased values of kinematic characteristics mentioned above stand out sharply against the background. At the same time, spatial distribution of the kinematical characteristics in the Tien Shan region is quite regular: zones of increased absolute values of E2 are mainly oriented in the ENE direction, while the NNW

  17. Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the Tien Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton

  18. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  19. `The Iranian connection`: the geo-economics of exporting Central Asian energy via Iran; La geoeconomia delle esportazioni asiatiche: `l`iranian connection`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1998-03-01

    Of the possible routes to connect Caucasian and Central Asian oil to market, the `Iranian connection` is the most interesting. The economic attraction of the Iranian route is clear: large transport capacities exist in the various pieces of Iran`s existing network, large refining centers are located near the Caspian and there ate unutilized export terminals. [Italiano] Tra le vie possibili per assicurare uno sbocco ai mercati al petrolio caucasico e dell`Asia centrale, la `via iraniana` e` la piu` interessante. L`attrazione economica di questa via e` chiara: nel sistema di oleodotti dell`Iran sussistono ampie capacita` di trasporto, grandi centri de raffinazione sono localizzati vicino al Caspio e ci sono terminali di esportazione non utilizzati.

  20. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  2. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases.

  3. A Study of the Location Selection of Central Asian Financial Center%中亚金融中心区位选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽华

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, based on the consideration of the regional economic and financial development, provinces and cities actively build financial centers of different levels in China, especially with the construction of “the Silk Road Economic Belt”, Central Asian financial center construction has been setting off a new round of hot discussion.Then, what kind of city has inter-national financial center conditions?This paper make a summary after researching the related literature and respecting the history of the famous international financial center, economic strength, financial agglomeration, location and policy support are the most core factors for contributing to the formation of international financial center.In early twenty-first Century, Urumqi proposed to build the Central Asian financial center, Xi’ an proposed to build the western regional financial center, but the essence of Xi’ an’ s western financial center is taking Xi’ an as the core, covering the western, Central Asia, West Asia and South Asia finan-cial center.Through a comparative analysis of economic strength, financial agglomeration, the geographical position and the gov-ernment support of Urumqi and Xi’ an,we find that, Urumqi relatively has a more comprehensive advantages than Xi’ an in con-struction of Central Asian financial center.Urumqi use the opportunity of “the Silk Road Economic Belt” construction, taking Urumqi as the core, speeding up the establishment of financial center, financial settlement center, financial market center and foreign exchange trading center of Central Asian, in order to achieve the goal of Central Asia financial center.%近年来,基于对本地区经济、金融发展的考虑,全国30多个省市积极筹建不同层次的金融中心,特别是“新丝绸之路经济带”的建设更是掀起了新一轮中亚金融中心建设的热议。究竟什么样的城市具有国际金融中心的条件,本文通过对国内外有关国际金

  4. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; King, Roy; Mehdi, S Q; Edmonds, Christopher A; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Lin, Alice A; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K; Ramesh, A; Usha Rani, M V; Thakur, Chitra M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Majumder, Partha P; Underhill, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000-15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era--not Indo-European--expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.

  5. A functional EDS1 ortholog is differentially regulated in powdery mildew resistant and susceptible grapevines and complements an Arabidopsis eds1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Shu, Xiaomei; Ali, Mohammad Babar; Howard, Susanne; Li, Nan; Winterhagen, Patrick; Qiu, Wenping; Gassmann, Walter

    2010-04-01

    Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is the most economically important deciduous fruit crop, but cultivated grapevine varieties lack adequate innate immunity to a range of devastating diseases. To identify genetic resources for grapevine innate immunity and understand pathogen defense pathways in a woody perennial plant, we focus in this study on orthologs of the central Arabidopsis thaliana defense regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). The family of EDS1-like genes is expanded in grapevine, and members of this family were previously found to be constitutively upregulated in the resistant variety 'Norton' of the North American grapevine species Vitis aestivalis, while they were induced by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of grapevine powdery mildew (PM), in the susceptible V. vinifera variety 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Here, we determine the responsiveness of individual EDS1-like genes in grapevine to PM and salicylic acid, and find that EDS1-like paralogs are differentially regulated in 'Cabernet Sauvignon', while two are constitutively upregulated in 'Norton'. Sequencing of VvEDS1 and VaEDS1 cDNA and genomic clones revealed high conservation in the protein-encoding sequence and some divergence of the promoter sequence in the two grapevine varieties. Complementation of the Arabidopsis eds1-1 mutant showed that the EDS1-like gene with highest predicted amino acid sequence similarity to AtEDS1 from either grapevine varieties is a functional ortholog of AtEDS1. Together, our analyses show that differential susceptibility to PM is correlated with differences in EDS1 expression, not differences in EDS1 function, between resistant 'Norton' and susceptible 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  6. Plant protection products in organic grapevine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Branislava V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pests and grapevine diseases in organic production are suppressed by preventive measures with a view to reducing the impact of the attack. Allowed substances acting on patogenous fungi, insects, mites and other harmful organisms are used, if appropriate. Insecticides of plant origin are used in the organic production of grapevine, as well as vegetable oils, powders and insecticidal soaps that are selective, with a narrow range of effects and of lower toxicity, as well as biological products. As a rule, such plant protection products require a more frequent application. Copper-based and sulphur-based fungicides are still leading products in suppressing grapevine diseases. Researches are directed to decrease the quantity of application and to find their replacement by also efficient fungicides. A special emphasis is put on researching the efficient fungicides for suppressing Botrytis bunch rot and factors causing grapevine wood diseases (Esca and Eutypa in organic production. Along with copper and sulphur, different substances such as bicarbonates, plant extracts and oils, biological products being parasites, patogenous or diseases agent antagonists, and natural products such as milk and whey are applied in the organic production of grapevine.

  7. The Evaluation of Investment Environment in Banking among Five Central Asian Countries%中亚五国银行业投资环境评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛迪; 宋吟秋

    2015-01-01

    截至2014年末,中国对中亚五国的对外直接投资存量达到100亿美元,双边贸易额约370亿美元。“一带一路”战略的提出,将使未来中国与中亚的经贸合作释放出更大的潜力。随着全球金融格局的不断变化、上合组织框架下的经济金融合作及人民币国际化进程的推进,银行业金融机构在中亚的业务与机构拓展面临着历史性的发展机遇。本文从银行国际化的研究角度出发,通过构建银行业投资环境的评价体系对中亚五国的政治、经济、金融、银行等宏观、中观与微观银行业投资环境分层次对比分析,为金融机构在中亚的国际化发展和布局提供决策依据和建议。%By the end of 2014, China’s stock of foreign direct investment to ifve Central Asian countries had reached US$10 billion and bilateral trade rose to US$37 billion. As the government put forwarded the strategy--“One Belt and One Road”, huge potential will be released for the economic and trade cooperation between China and Central Asia in the future. At the same time, as the profound changes has happened in the global ifnancial structure, the advancement of economical and financial cooperation under the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, as well as the on-going process of RMB internalization, China’s ifnancial institutions now are facing a historical opportunity in deepening the business expansion and institutional development. This paper, from the perspective of research in bank internalization, compares and analyzes banking investment environment among the ifve Central Asian countries through political, economical, banking and other macro level, meso level and micro level separately, by building the evaluation system. Thus to provide some reference for the internalization and development of ifnancial institutions in Central Asia.

  8. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  9. GFLV replication in electroporated grapevine protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat; Toutain; Courtois; Gaire; Decout; Pinck; Mauro; Burrus

    2000-06-29

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), responsible for the economically important court-noué disease, is exclusively transmitted to its natural host in the vineyards through Xiphinema nematodes. We have developed direct inoculation of GFLV into grapevine through protoplast electroporation. Protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll of in vitro-grown plants and from embryogenic cell suspensions. Permeation conditions were determined by monitoring calcein uptake. Low salt poration medium was selected. Electrical conditions leading to strong transient gene expression were also tested for GFLV inoculation (isolate F13). GFLV replication was detected with either virus particles (2 µg) or viral RNA (10 ng) in both protoplast populations, as shown by anti-P38 Western blotting. Direct inoculation and replication were also observed with Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), a closely related nepovirus, as well as with another GFLV isolate. These results will be valuable in grapevine biotechnology, for GFLV replication studies, transgenic plant screening for GFLV resistance, and biorisk evaluation.

  10. A Multi-Perspective Reading of Language Policies in the Central Asian Countries%多元视角下中亚国家的语言政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮

    2015-01-01

    苏联解体后中亚各国强行推广主体民族语言,限制包括俄语在内少数民族语言的使用,这给国内民族关系带来了负面影响. 同时,由于中亚各国具有独特的地缘政治特点,其语言政策受到突厥语国家和俄罗斯的影响.%Since the disintegration of the former USSR, the Central Asian countries have made a point of promoting their mainstream n-ative languages while limiting the usage of minority languages including Russia.Such policies have created a negative effect on the rela-tionship between different ethnic groups within those countries.Meanwhile, with special geopolitical characteristics, the language poli-cies of the five countries in Central Asia are subject to influences of Turkic-speaking countries and Russia.

  11. Rugose corals at the Tournaisian-Viséan transition in the Central Taurides (S Turkey) - Palaeobiogeography and palaeoceanography of the Asian Gondwana margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayer, Julien

    2015-02-01

    This paper gives the first taxonomic description of the Upper Tournaisian-Lower Viséan rugose coral fauna of the Yaricak Formation (Aladag Unit, Central Taurides, South Turkey). Fifteen species belonging to twelve genera were identified, one species is newly described: Eokoninckocarinia gemmina. The corals are stratigraphically distributed in four assemblages. The two typical assemblages of the Upper Tournaisian are composed of widely distributed taxa (Uralinia, Caninia, Proheterelasma, Zaphrentites). The assemblage crossing the Tournaisian-Viséan boundary is characterized by Eurasian and cosmopolitan and widely distributed taxa (Calmiussiphyllum, Siphonophyllia, Bifossularia Amygdalophyllum, Caninophyllum, Keyserlingophyllum) and Asian taxa (Kueichouphyllum). The youngest assemblage, dominated by Eokoninckocarinia gemmina sp. nov., has yielded foraminifers Moliniacian (Lower Viséan) in age. These assemblages form a low diversity level-bottom community which is typical of the South Palaeotethys 'Kueichouphyllum Zone' extending along the Asian margin of Gondwana (Cimmerian Terrane) during Lower Carboniferous times. As in the other Cimmerian blocks, all the corals are solitary and colonial taxa are virtually absent. This absence is tentatively explained by the high palaeolatitude (c. 50°S) position of the Cimmerian Terrane in the southern part of the Palaeotethys Ocean for this time slice. A cold-water palaeo-current running eastward along the Gondwana margin might also be considered as it possibly could explain the wide distribution of the Kueichouphyllum fauna, restricted east of Africa in the southern coast of the Palaeotethys. Palaeoceanography, palaeoclimate and facies issues are discussed as possible causes of the diversity gradient observed between the eastern (Australia, Malaya) and the western (North Africa) margin of the Gondwana.

  12. The First paleomagnetic study from Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia, China and its implication for the evolution of Paleo-Asian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block (NCB) and Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue and geodynamical models remain speculative. As an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on Paleozoic formations in Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia (China). Despite the indigent outcrop conditions to collect reliable samples over a three-year period, we present the first paleomagnetic data for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanoclastic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. AMS measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for IMB at: λ=46.8°N, φ=349.1°E, dp=14.6°, dm=27.3° with N=3 and λ=49.5°N, φ=0.0°E, dp=6.2°, dm=11.0° with N=5, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB and Siberia indicates that (1) paleolatitude of IMB, NCB and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity; (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  13. Did the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block and Mongolia Block exist during the late Paleozoic? First paleomagnetic evidence from central-eastern Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-05-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the North China Block (NCB) and the Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue, and geodynamic models remain speculative. In an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Silurian to Permian formations in central-eastern Inner Mongolia (China). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the majority of study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB) at λ = 46.8°N, φ = 349.1°E, dp = 14.6°, dm = 27.3° with N = 3 and λ = 48.7°N, φ = 3.7°E, dp = 5.2°, dm = 9.1° with N = 6, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB, and Siberia indicates that (1) the paleolatitudes of IMB, NCB, and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity and (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which are due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  14. Diabetic nephropathy in Surinamese South Asian subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chandieshaw, Prataap Kalap; Chandie Shaw, Prataap Kalap

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the incidence and risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic and non-diabetic Surinamese South Asians. The Surinamese South Asians, originally descended from the North-East India. Due to the former colonial bounds with the Netherlands, a relatively young South Asian migrant population settled in the Netherlands. South Asians have a high prevalence of central obesity and an eight-fold higher prevalence for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found the following conclusions: 1.Sur...

  15. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  16. Detrital zircon provenance constraints on the initial uplift and denudation of the Chinese western Tianshan after the assembly of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yigui; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Hou, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data of detrital zircons from late Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata along the southern flank of the Chinese western Tianshan enable to identify provenance changes and reconstruct early stage uplift and denudation history of the Tianshan range. Detrital zircons from Permian and Early-Middle Triassic siliciclastic rocks show two prominent age populations at 500-390 Ma and 310-260 Ma, and subordinate Precambrian ages at ~ 2.5 Ga, 2.0-1.7 Ga, 1.2-0.9 Ga and 900-600 Ma, with rare ages between 390 and 310 Ma. These characteristics and zircon εHf(t) data consistently suggest a sediment source predominantly from the Tarim Craton, rather than the Central Tianshan-Yili Block. In contrast, Late Triassic to Cretaceous strata additionally contain abundant 390-310 Ma and 260-220 Ma detrital zircons, implying multiple source regions from the Central Tianshan-Yili Block, Tarim Craton, and Western Kunlun Orogen. A significant switch of sedimentary provenances occurred in the mid-Triassic and is consistent with contemporaneous change of paleocurrent directions and the onset of intense tectonothermal events in the broad region of the Chinese western Tianshan and Kyrgyz Tianshan. These data collectively indicate that the significant surface uplift and denudation of the Tianshan range were probably initiated in the mid-Triassic (~ 240 Ma) after the assembly of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. This uplifting event represents an intracontinental orogeny most likely in response to the collision between the Qiangtang Block and southern Eurasia, following the closure of the western part of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  17. Structure of the present-day velocity field of the crust in the area of the Central-Asian GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzikov, S. I.; Mukhamediev, Sh. A.

    2010-07-01

    The structure of the vector field of present-day horizontal velocities on the Earth’s surface is investigated with the use of the territory covered by the Central-Asian GPS network as an example. A method of identification of groups of GPS points (statistically rigid clusters), for which the rate of change in distances between them is virtually zero, is proposed and realized. Sites of the Earth’s surface (regions) containing such groups of GPS points, within the required measurement accuracy, move in the horizontal plane as two-dimensional rigid bodies. The clustering algorithm, which is based on the Student t statistics in determining the so-called statistical “sample cost,” is developed and carefully tested. The results of identification of regions take into account possible random errors in velocity measurements and do not depend on the chosen frame of reference. The method of identification of regions is sufficiently stable with respect to variations in the number of GPS sites used for clustering. Of all the sites of the Central-Asian GPS network, 323 points were selected for clustering. These sites were measured from 3 to 11 times over an 11-year interval of observations (1995-2005). The estimates of errors of velocity measurement for these sites must not exceed 1.0 mm/yr. As a result, 29 statistically rigid clusters, containing from 3 to 17 GPS sites, were identified, and the kinematic regimes of motion of regions corresponding to these clusters were determined with respect to the stable part of Eurasia. With the general direction of the translatory motion of regions toward the north, the majority of them rotate counterclockwise. Nearly one third of GPS sites do not participate in the formation of clusters; these points fall into the interregional space (IRS), which is characterized by increased strain rates. The IRS structure is partitioned into zones with four directions, of which two directions virtually coincide with directions of the principal

  18. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines.

  19. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Pinto

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines.

  20. Sanitary Status of Croatian Native Grapevine Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Many grapevine cultivars are grown in Croatia, most of which are considered to be autochthonous. Mass positive selection together with sanitary selection of 15 economically important cultivars was initiated. To this aim, visual observations were made for the presence of virus-induced symptoms. Samples of dormant canes were collected from vines with positive agronomic traits and no visible symptoms of virus infection. The presence of four economically important viruses was evaluated using ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: two nepoviruses, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV and two closteroviruses Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1 and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3. The Survey of virus diseases in commercial vineyards of different vinegrowing regions of Croatia disclosed a widespread presence of viruses and a low occurrence of non-infected vines. Th is is true especially for the coastal region where not a single healthy plant could be found for certain cultivars. Although no visible symptoms were observed, it was not rare to detect multiple infections by two or even three viruses. The most widespread virus in Dalmatia was GFLaV- 3 with approximately 80 % of vines infected. In the northern regions almost half of the analysed plants were negative in ELISA and the most represented virus was GLRaV-1. The presence of both nepoviruses is rather low, especially ArMV (only 1 % of vines infected.

  1. A Correlative Analysis on the Foreign Trade of Xinjiang-Five Central Asian Countries and Economic Growth of Xinjiang%中亚五国对外贸易与新疆经济增长的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骥; 王志远

    2015-01-01

    新疆对中亚五国的外贸在新疆对外贸易中的比重达到70%以上,对新疆经济增长具有重要作用。文章以1999-2013年为样本期,利用统计数据,对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易进行了统计分析,并对新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与新疆经济增长的关系进行了实证研究。研究结果显示:新疆-中亚五国的对外贸易与经济增长之间存在长期动态均衡关系;新疆对中亚五国的出口是经济增长的Granger因,新疆地区GDP的增长是新疆对中亚五国进口的Granger因。因此,加强中国新疆与中亚五国的双边贸易有益于双方经济增长。%Astract: Foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries accounts for more than 70% of the total volume of foreign trade of Xinjiang, and has played an important role in the economic growth of Xinjiang. This paper analyzes the features of foreign trade of Xinjiang and the relationship of the foreign trade between Xinjiang and five central Asian countries based on statistics from 1999 to 2013. It shows that there lies the relationship of long-term dynamic equilibrium between the foreign trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries and the economic growth of Xinjiang, export trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is the Granger cause of the economic growth of Xinjiang, and the economic growth of Xinjiang is the Granger cause of import trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries. Therefore, the strengthening bilateral trade of Xinjiang and five central Asian countries is beneficial to the economic growth of both sides.

  2. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  3. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  4. Long-term trend and abrupt events of the Holocene Asian monsoon inferred from a stalagmite δ18O record from Shennongjia in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xiaohua; WANG Yongjin; CHENG Hai; KONG Xinggong; WU Jiangying; EDWARDS R. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    A high-resolution oxygen-isotope record from a thorium-uranium-dated stalagmite from Shanbao Cave at Shennongjia reflects variations in the amount of monsoon precipitation for the period from 11.5 to 2.1 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal aBP). Between 11.5 and 9.3 ka, a sharp decrease in δ18O indicates a rapid increase in monsoon precipitation. An interval of generally high monsoon precipitation is observed between 9.3 and 4.4 ka. An arid period has prevailed between 4.4 and 2.1 ka. The long-term trend of Shanbao record appears to follow summer insolation at 33°N latitude. An abrupt decrease in monsoon precipitation around 4.3 ka is synchronous with the collapse of Neolithic culture in central China. This abrupt change could have resulted from the amplification of the gradually decreased summer insolation by the positive vegetation-atmosphere-aerosol feedback. The weakened Asian monsoon events were in concert with decreased Greenland temperature during the early Holocene, centered at 8.2, 8.6, 9.3, 10.2 and 11.0 ka. This correlation suggests that changes in low-latitude monsoon are connected with climate change in high-latitude polar region.

  5. Movements of wild ruddy shelducks in the Central Asian Flyway and their spatial relationship to outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Collins, Bridget M.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Baoping, Yan; Luo, Ze; Hou, Yuansheng; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Li, Yongdong; Newman, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results. However, timing of outbreaks suggested that outbreaks in the flyway began during the winter in poultry with spillover to wild birds during the spring migration. Thus, studies of the movement ecology of wild birds in areas with persistent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks may contribute to understanding their role in transmission of this disease.

  6. Detection of Nepovirus Vector and Nonvector Xiphinema Species in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ghelder, C; Reid, A; Kenyon, D; Esmenjaud, D

    2015-01-01

    Fanleaf degeneration is considered the most damaging viral disease of grapevine. The two major nepoviruses involved are Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) which are respectively and specifically transmitted by the dagger nematodes Xiphinema index and X. diversicaudatum. The methods described below are aimed at detecting four prevalent grapevine Xiphinema species: the vector species previously mentioned and two nonvector species X. vuittenezi and X. italiae.

  7. Asian Heroes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China,South Korea and Japan keep Olympic flag flying Atotal of 19 countries and regions of Asia competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, winning 86 gold, 54 silver and 72 bronze medals. Their gold medal haul accounted for 28.5 percent of the total 302 gold medals awarded. Of the Asian medal winners, China, Japan and South Korea were the top three accounting for 73 gold medals, and 84.9 percent of all medals won by Asian countries.

  8. Antennal and behavioral responses of grapevine moth Lobesia botrana females to volatiles from grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Carlin, Silvia; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Schmidt, Silvia; Bengtsson, Marie; Versini, Giuseppe; Witzgall, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is the economically most important insect of grapevine Vitis vinifera in Europe. Flower buds, flowers, and green berries of Chardonnay grapevine are known to attract L. botrana for oviposition. The volatile compounds collected from these phenological stages were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the antennal response of L. botrana females to these headspace collections was recorded by gas chromatography-electroantennography. The compounds found in all phenological stages, which consistently elicited a strong antennal response, were pentadecane, nonanal, and alpha-farnesene. In a wind tunnel, gravid L. botrana females flew upwind to green grapes, as well as to headspace collections from these berries released by a piezoelectric sprayer release device. However, no females landed at the source of headspace volatiles, possibly due to inappropriate concentrations or biased ratios of compounds in the headspace extracts.

  9. Specific adjustments in grapevine leaf proteome discriminating resistant and susceptible grapevine genotypes to Plasmopara viticola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Andreia; Martins, Joana; Sebastiana, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine downy mildew is an important disease affecting crop production leading to severe yield losses. This study aims to identify the grapevine cultivar-specific adjustments of leaf proteome that allow the discrimination between resistance and susceptibility towards P. viticola (constitutive (0h...... to photosynthesis and metabolism allowed the discrimination of resistant and susceptible grapevine cultivars prior to P. viticola inoculation. Following inoculation increase of hydrogen peroxide levels, cellular redox regulation, establishment of ROS signalling and plant cell death seem to be key points...... differentiating the resistant genotype. Lipid associated signalling events, particularly related to jasmonates appear also to play a major role in the establishment of resistance. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of genotype-specific differences that account for a successful...

  10. 新世纪中亚国家能源地位变化的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis of Energy Status Changes of Central Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴利; 史小康

    2012-01-01

    鉴于中亚国家在世界能源市场中竞争地位的凸显,本文采用聚类分析法,选取了12个主要经济体作为样本,对新世纪中亚国家的能源生产、消费及出口在世界能源市场中的地位予以分析。分析得出:从生产地位来看,中亚国家与世界主要能源生产国同属一类;从消费地位来看,中亚国家不属于世界主要的能源消费国;从出口地位来看,其生产地位和消费地位共同决定了中亚国家在世界能源市场中的出口地位越来越重要;综合能源生产、消费和出口地位来看,中亚国家在世界能源市场中的竞争地位凸显,与美国、俄罗斯、伊朗、埃及和印度同属一类。同时,分析还显示,与拥有丰富能源资源的中亚国家开展合作应该有利于解决我国能源短缺问题。%In view of the highlights of the Central Asian country's competitive position in world energy markets, in this paper, we select Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan which has rich energy resources, such as oil and gas, to he central Asian coun- tries, and choose 12 major economies which be of important position in the world energy production or consumption market, such as US, Venezuela, Russia, Great Britain, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Egypt, China, India and Japan, to be samples cluste- ring of analysis. Firstly, we analyze the energy status changes of Central Asian Countries in the world energy production, con- sumption and export markets in new century; then, based on the economic development speed, we analyze the energy status changes of central Asian countries. In short, to a certain extent, cooperation with Central Asian countries with rich energy re- sources should be conducive to solve energy shortage in China.

  11. Unravelling the Diversity of Grapevine Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia Pinto; Diogo Pinho; Susana Sousa; Miguel Pinheiro; Conceição Egas; Ana C Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively char...

  12. The first evidence for vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] in a litter of Central Asian Shepherd dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J Mierzejewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Tick-borne infections constitute an increasing health problem in dogs and may lead to death, especially in young or elderly individuals. Canine babesiosis constitutes a serious health problem in dogs worldwide. The aim of the study was to verify the probability of vertical transmission of [i]Babesia canis[/i] between the bitch and the pups. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. In Autumn 2011, cases of babesiosis were diagnosed in a litter of 6-week-old puppies of a Central Asian Shepherd dog. Immediately following the first case of infection, blood samples were collected from all the pups in the litter (n=10 and from the female. Detection of Babesia infection was performed by molecular and microscopical techniques. [b]Results.[/b] The presence of[i] B. canis [/i]DNA was detected using PCR in three pups, presenting at the time or 24–48 hours later with babesiosis symptoms, and in their asymptomatic mother. The isolates derived from the pups and the female – 520 bp 18S rRNA gene fragment – were compared and analyzed. All isolates from the pups and their mother were identical and showed 100% homology with [i]B. canis[/i] group B (EU622793, supporting the same source of infection. Additionally, the USG of the peritoneal cavity was performed in the female, presenting evidence for splenomegaly. [b]Conclusions.[/b] On the basis of (1 the same timing of three pup cases; (2 the identical [i]B. canis[/i] sequences derived from all positive dogs; (3 evident splenomegaly in the asymptomatic female, this provides the first evidence of the vertical transmission of this piroplasm in dogs.

  13. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is

  14. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  15. Reply to Comment by Xu et al. on "Sr-Nd isotope composition and clay mineral assemblages in eolian dust from the central Philippine Sea over the last 600 kyr: Implications for the transport mechanism of Asian dust" by Seo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Inah; Lee, Yong Il; Yoo, Chan Min; Kim, Hyung Jeek; Hyeong, Kiseong

    2016-12-01

    Against Xu et al. (2016), who argued that East Asian Desert (EAD) dust that traveled on East Asian Winter Monsoon winds dominates over Central Asian Desert (CAD) dust in the Philippine Sea with presentation of additional data, we reconfirm Seo et al.'s (2014) conclusion that CAD dust carried on the Prevailing Westerlies and Trade Winds dominates over EAD dust in overall dust budget of the central Philippine Sea. The relative contribution of dust from EADs and CADs using clay mineral composition should be evaluated with elimination of mineralogical contribution from the volcanic end-member which is enriched in kaolinite and overestimate the contribution of EAD dust.

  16. Serial Transmission of Information: A Study of the Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William L.; O'Connor, J. Regis

    In order to test the conclusions of previous studies of the informal communication system commonly known as the "grapevine," a study was conducted of the flow of one unit of information over the organizational grapevine. One of the experimenters planted a unit of information with two secretaries in the departmental office of Speech and…

  17. Neoproterozoic diamictite-bearing sedimentary rocks in the northern Yili Block and their constraints on the Precambrian evolution of microcontinents in the Western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Zheng, Bihai; Wu, Hailin; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Yuanzhi

    2015-12-01

    The origin and tectonic setting of Precambrian sequences in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have been debated due to a lack of high resolution geochronological data. Answering this question is essential for the understanding of the tectonic framework and Precambrian evolution of the blocks within the CAOB. Here we reported LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic data for Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block, an important component of the CAOB, in order to provide information on possible provenance and regional tectonic evolution. A total of 271 concordant U-Pb zircon ages from Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block define three major age populations of 1900-1400 Ma, 1300-1150 Ma and 700-580 Ma, which are quite different from cratons and microcontinents involved in the CAOB. Although it is not completely consistent with the local basement ages, an autochthonous provenance interpretation is more suitable. Some zircon grains show significant old Hf model ages (TDMC; 3.9-2.4 Ga) and reveal continental crust as old as Paleoarchean probably existed. Continuous Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations exhibit large variations in the εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the long-time involvement of both reworked ancient crust and juvenile material. Similar Mesoproterozoic evolution pattern is identified in many continental terranes involved in the CAOB that surround the Tarim Craton. Based on our analysis and published research, we postulate that the northern Yili Block, together with Chinese Central Tianshan, Kyrgyz North Tianshan and some other microcontinents surrounding the Tarim Craton, once constituted the continental margin of the Tarim Craton in the Mesoproterozoic, formed by long-lived accretionary processes. Most of the late Neoproterozoic zircons exhibit significant positive εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the addition of juvenile crust. It is consistent with the tectonic event related to the East Africa

  18. Geochronology and geochemistry of Permian bimodal volcanic rocks from central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for the late Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Chen, Yan; Li, Ke; Li, Jianfeng; Yang, Jinfu; Qian, Xiaoyan

    2017-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation. These rocks are widely distributed in the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in central Inner Mongolia, China. The volcanic rocks mainly consist of basaltic andesite and rhyolite, subordinate dacite and local andesite, and exhibit bimodal geochemical features. The results of zircon U-Pb dating indicate that the volcanic rocks formed during the early Permian (292-279 Ma). The mafic volcanic rocks belong to low-K tholeiitic to medium-K calc-alkaline series. These mafic volcanic rocks are also characterised by moderately enriched light rare earth element (LREE) patterns; high abundances of Th, U, Zr and Hf; negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies; initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70514-0.70623; and positive εNd(t) values (+1.9 to +3.8). These features indicate that the mafic volcanic rocks were likely derived from the high-percentage partial melting of subduction-related metasomatised asthenospheric mantle. The felsic rocks show an A-type affinity, with enrichments in alkalis, Th, U and LREEs. The felsic rocks are depleted in Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta and Ti and exhibit moderately LREE-enriched patterns (LaN/YbN = 2.09-6.45) and strongly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.04-0.25). These features, along with the positive εNd(t) values (+2.6 to +7.7) and young TDM2 ages (TDM2 = 435-916 Ma), indicate that the felsic rocks were likely derived from a juvenile crustal source that mainly consisted of juvenile mid-ocean ridge basalt-related rocks. The volcanic association in this study and in previously published work widely distributed in central Inner Mongolia. The observations in this study suggest that the lower Permian volcanic rocks formed in an identical tectonic environment. The regional geological data indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks from the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation in the study area formed in an extensional setting that was

  19. Petrogenesis of the Early Permian volcanic rocks in the Chinese South Tianshan: Implications for crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Zhang, Dongyang; Wang, Tao

    2015-07-01

    The Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic magmatic suites in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) provide important insights on the crustal growth and reworking process associated with the construction of the largest Phanerozoic orogen on the Earth. Among the tectonic blocks of the CAOB, the South Tianshan Terrane (STT) occupies the southwestern margin and is located adjacent to the Tarim Craton. Here we investigate the Early Permian Xiaotikanlike Formation in the central part of the Chinese STT in Xinjiang in Northwest China. The formation is composed of a series of terrestrial volcanic lava flows and volcanic breccia, interbedded with siltstones, sandstones and sandy conglomerates. Zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis, whole-rock major oxide, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data are presented for the volcanic lava flows of the Xiaotikanlike Formation exposed in the Boziguo'er, Laohutai and Wensu regions. The new zircon ages from our study, together with those reported in previous investigations on the rhyolitic lava flow from the Wensu region, suggest that the volcanic rocks of the Xiaotikanlike Formation simultaneously erupted at ca. 285 Ma. The lavas of the formation show a wide range of SiO2 (49.88 to 78.56 wt.%). The basaltic rocks show SiO2 from 49.88 to 53.78 wt.%, MgO from 3.73 to 7.01 wt.% and Mg# from 41 to 61. They possess slightly enriched Sr-Nd isotope signature [(87Sr/86Sr)t = 0.70495-0.70624 and εNd(t) = - 0.5 to + 0.6], and have trace and rare earth element patterns similar to those of oceanic island basalts (OIBs). Petrographic and whole-rock chemical characteristics indicate that the basaltic lava flows are dominantly tholeiitic, and were likely derived from a spinel-dominated peridotite asthenospheric mantle source. The felsic lavas of the Xiaotikanlike Formation show SiO2 in the range of 60.71 to 78.56 wt.% and display overall similar immobile element pattern characterized by notable troughs at Nb-Ta, P and Ti and gently sloping REEs. Zircon Lu

  20. Motivating Strategies for Central Asian Chinese Learners%中亚留学生汉语学习的动机激发策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖

    2016-01-01

    在问卷调查和访谈的基础上,以DÖrnyei的动机三层次理论为框架,针对中亚留学生汉语学习动机减退的现状,提出动机激发策略。在语言层面,通过培养学生的跨文化意识和促进其与母语者接触来激发和加强融合性动机,同时发展工具型动机。在学习者层面,增强学生自信心,减少学生的语言焦虑,并引导学生进行正确的归因。在学习环境层面,增加课程内容的吸引力,加大学生在任务中的参与度以激发学生的兴趣,任务及教师语言的难度要与学生语言水平一致,及时、有效地反馈,培养学生内心的满足感,教师扮演好学生学习的指导者和促进者的角色。%Based on the questionnaire and interviews and D?rnyei’s extended motivational framework,this paper provides some motivating strategies to the demotivated Central Asian students. At the level of language, in order to stimulate and enhance integrative motivation and instrumental motivation, it is necessary to develop the cross-culture awareness and to increase the students’ contact to native speakers. At the level of learner, developing students’ self - confidence, decreasing language anxiety, and prompting motivation-enhancing attributions are needed. At the level of learning environment, increasing the attraction of the courses,involving students to tasks in class to stimulate the interest,matching difficulty of the tasks and teaching language with the level of students,giving effective feedback on time,facilitating students’ satisfaction and adopting the role of facilitator for students are in need.

  1. Petrogenesis and ore genesis of the Permian Huangshanxi sulfide ore-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Xue, Sheng-Chao; Ripley, Edward M.

    2014-07-01

    The Permian Huangshanxi mafic-ultramafic intrusion hosts one of the two largest magmatic sulfide deposits in the Eastern Tianshan which is situated in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. In this paper we use mineral compositions and whole-rock geochemical data to decipher the genetic relationship between magma evolution and sulfide mineralization. The Huangshanxi intrusion consists of three separate intrusive units. Important sulfide mineralization occurs in the base of the last intrusive unit, an elongated, layered ultramafic body composed of lherzolite at the bottom, olivine websterite in the middle and websterite at the top. Based on olivine-liquid equilibria and mass balance, the MgO and FeO contents in the parental magma for a lherzolite sample are estimated to be 8.71 and 8.36 wt.%, respectively. The Huangshanxi mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks and the estimated "trapped liquids" for several olivine-orthopyroxene cumulate rocks all show light rare earth element enrichments relative to heavy rare earth elements and significant Nb depletions relative to Th and La, which are similar to the characteristics of coeval basalts in the region. The arc-like geochemical features are attributed to pre-Permian mantle metasomatism by slab-derived fluids. Partial melting of the previously-modified mantle is thought to have resulted from heating by upwelling asthenosphere associated with post-subduction lithosphere delamination or by mantle plume activity. The relationship between the Fo and Ni contents of olivine crystals from the Huangshanxi sulfide-poor ultramafic rocks (source mantle. Stratigraphic reversals in olivine Fo contents and bulk sulfide PGE tenors suggest that multiple magma replenishments occurred during the development of the Huangshanxi magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit. The sulfide ore formation can be divided into two stages: a conduit stage during which immiscible sulfide droplets and olivine crystals were brought up by ascending magma

  2. Elimination of Grapevine fleck virus by in vitro Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cătălina GUŢĂ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fleck virus produces a ubiquitous disease, latent in European grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L. and in most American rootstocks, being found in all viticultural countries, in simple or complex infections with other more dangerous viruses. Different techniques for sanitation showed controversial results regarding fleck elimination in grapevine. In vitro culture of ‘Tămâioasă românească’ 3-2-2 with fleck virus and ‘Burgund’ 63 Mn with double infection (Grapevine fleck virus and Grapevine virus A, naturally infected have been submitted to hemotherapy using a combination of ribavirin and oseltamivir in three concentration variants (V1-40 mg/L ribavirin + 40 mg/L oseltamivir; V2-20 mg/L ribavirin + 40 mg/L oseltamivir; V3-20 mg/L ribavirin + 80 mg/L oseltamivir and three consecutive subcultures. The plants regenerated after each subculture were evaluated by ELISA from the viewpoint of virus elimination and the RT-PCR was used for confirmation of the diagnostic. Due the phytotoxic effect of viricides, the ltiplication rate decreased on experimental variants in the next subculture comparatively to the control, but no mortality of explants has been registered. Grapevine fleck virus has been 100% eliminated both from simple and mixed infections on all variants by in vitro chemotherapy, under the simultaneous action of two viricides. Unsatisfactory results have been achieved with Grapevine virus A elimination.

  3. 新疆中亚留学生跨文化适应调查与研究%Investigation and research of Central Asian students cross-cultural adaptation in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕花

    2012-01-01

      The acculturation of Central Asian students in Xinjiang has different characteristics, the paper conducts a survey and interview, from the language, environment and life, psychology and learning adaptation four angles to analyze the cultural adaptability of students. The conclusion shows that the problem of Central Asian students in the cultural adaptation is psychological and learning adaptation, followed by the environment and life adaptation, the last is the language adaptation, thus, educators should take targeted measures, to improve the Central Asian students’ cultural adaptation ability, help them more quickly adapt to the local life and learning.%  来疆中亚留学生在文化适应方面有着不同的特点,论文以问卷调查辅以访谈的方式,从语言、环境和生活、心理以及学习适应四个角度分析了中亚留学生来华的文化适应性。结论表明中亚留学生在文化适应方面存在的主要问题是心理和学习适应,其次是环境和生活适应,最后是语言适应,由此,教育者应当有针对性地采取措施,提高中亚留学生的文化适应能力,帮助他们更快地适应所在地的生活和学习。

  4. Bionomics of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) associated with orange jasmine hedges in southest central Florida, with special reference to biological control by Tamarixia radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it vectors bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) is one of ACP’s favorite host plants and is widely grown as an orn...

  5. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  6. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. Quantitative anatomy of grapevine (Vitis L. leaf blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine S. Codreanu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations were conducted to clarify the features of grapevine which are adaptive to drought and can be used in selection and introduction of VitisL. There are determined biometric values of 21 morpho-anatomic characters of leaf blade for 10 species of grapevine, 10 cultivars of V. viniferaL. and 10 distant hybrids V. vinifera× Muscadinia rotundifoliaMichx. As a result of this study 6 leaf blade quantitative characters which determine relative grapevine drought resistance were described. The most drought resistant species, sorts and hybrids of grapevine are that which have: a greater average thickness of leaf blade; b smaller surface (average area of leaf blade; c less ratio between average area and average volume of dried leaf blade; d greater mass of dried leaf blade; e higher degrees of the leaf succulence and sclerophylly.

  8. Design and evaluation of a grapevine pruner for biofungicide application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M A; Squire, L M; Sabeh, N C; Giles, D K; VanderGheynst, J S

    2005-05-01

    Eutypa lata is a significant grapevine pathogen with limited means of prevention and control. The biological control agent Fusarium lateritium can prevent E. lata infection if applied directly onto a vine pruning wound. F. lateritium was suspended and stored in an invert emulsion formulation. A commercially available pruning shear was modified to dispense the formulated F. lateritium onto the cutting blade for direct application onto the pruning wound simultaneously with grapevine cutting. The modified pruner was tested for its ability to cover grapevine pruning wounds using the emulsion formulation. Efficacy of formulated F. lateritium on pruned grapevine canes was also studied using the pruner for application. Addition of grooves in the pruning blade significantly improved wound coverage. Biological efficacy testing determined that applying formulated F. lateritium with the modified pruner was as effective as pipetting formulation directly onto the pruning wound.

  9. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  10. Evolution of a Permian intraoceanic arc-trench system in the Solonker suture zone, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Ping; Liu, Dunyi; Kröner, Alfred; Windley, Brian F.; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fuqin; Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Liqao; Tomurhuu, Dondov

    2010-07-01

    The identification of a fossil arc-trench system from the ophiolite-decorated Solonker suture zone in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) enables us to constrain the timing of pre-subduction extension (ca. 299-290 Ma), subduction initiation (ca. 294-280 Ma), ridge-trench collision (ca. 281-273 Ma) and slab break-off (ca. 255-248 Ma) in the Permian. A fraction of proto-arc crust (ca. 45 km long, up to 8 km wide) is preserved as a volcanic-plutonic sequence and is juxtaposed against a wide (ca. 30-80 km) forearc mélange. This proto-arc crust comprises two distinct magma series, island arc tholeiite (IAT) and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), both of which have strong supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures. Zircons from a gabbro and a plagiogranite yielded weighted mean 206Pb/ 238U ages of 284.0 ± 4.0 and 288.0 ± 6.0 Ma. The forearc mélange consists of numerous ophiolite fragments and continental margin-derived olistoliths/blocks that predate the ophiolite. The olistoliths are best represented by a gabbroic block (291.8 ± 2.3 Ma) that contains granite xenoliths (312.6 ± 1.8 and 313.6 ± 3.1 Ma). Other dated blocks include a trondhjemite (323.9 ± 2.7 Ma), a gabbro (296.6 ± 1.7 Ma) and a tonalite (294.9 ± 2.4 Ma). Small bodies of diabase, andesite and diorite in the forearc mélange exhibit a wide variety of geochemical signatures. We dated zircons from an N-MORB-like diabase (274.4 ± 2.5 Ma), an E-MORB-like diabase (252.5 ± 2.3 Ma), a transitional sanukitoid/adakite (andesite, 250.2 ± 2.4 Ma), a sanukitoid (high-Mg diorite; 251.8 ± 1.1 Ma) and an anorthosite (252.2 ± 1.7 Ma). The N-MORB-like diabase contains ca. 301-394 Ma zircon xenocrysts suggesting assimilation of trench sediments when a spreading ridge intersected a trench. The other dated rocks simultaneously formed near the Permian/Triassic boundary and captured abundant zircon xenocrysts (ca. 269-295 Ma; ca. 301-495 Ma; and ca. 923-2501 Ma). Our new formation ages constrain

  11. 北约从阿富汗撤军对中亚地区安全的影响∗%The Impacts of NATO Army Withdrawal from Afghanistan on Central Asian Regional Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恕; 张玉艳

    2014-01-01

    北约从阿富汗撤军和撤军后阿富汗的局势都影响着中亚地区的安全,但它们对中亚各个国家的影响在程度和具体内容上明显不同。面对北约从阿富汗撤军的影响,中亚国家难以通过向阿富汗政府提供有效的军事和政治支持来防范威胁进入,只能更多地向俄罗斯或美国寻求安全保障。与此同时,中亚国家不同的安全战略选择也使北约从阿富汗撤军的影响有所扩大。%NATO army withdrawal from Afghanistan and the Afghanistan situation after the withdrawal will influence Central Asian security, but the influence varies in degree and concrete issues in different countries in this area. Facing the influences, Central Asian countries can only turn to Russia or USA for security guarantee instead of providing effective military and political support to Afghanistan to keep away threats. Meanwhile, their choices of different security strategies help enlarge the influence of NATO army withdrawal from Afghanistan.

  12. An Investigation and Analysis of the Chinese Learning Strategies Used by Central Asian Students%来疆中亚留学生汉语学习策略调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔静; 闫丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on a brief account of the domestic and foreign research of second language learning strategies, this paper employs R. L. Oxford' s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) to investigate into the Chinese learning strategies used by foreign students in Xinjiang and specifically analyzes the Chinese learning strategies used by Central Asian students in hopes of informing teachers of the learning strategies of the Central Asian students and provide reference for future teaching and student instruction.%文章利用Oxford的语言学习策略量表(SILL),调查来疆留学生汉语学习策略使用情况,着重分析了其具体特点,旨在帮助汉语教师了解中亚留学生学习策略使用的具体情况,为指导汉语教学和提高学生的学习效率提供借鉴。

  13. Phytotoxic metabolites produced by Botryosphaeriaceae involved in grapevine trunk diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, Sara; Andolfi, Anna; Maddau, Lucia; Linaldeddu, Benedetto Teodoro; Deidda, Antonio; Serra, Salvatorica; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the Botryosphaeriaceae family are well known as cosmopolitan pathogens, saprophytes and endophytes and occur on a wide range of hosts including grapevine. More recently, a new species of Lasiodiplodia was isolated from declining grapevines in Sardinia (Italy). This still undescribed species showed to produce in liquid culture several phytotoxic secondary metabolites. In this communication the chemical and biological characterization of these bioactive secondary metabolit...

  14. The Soil Microbiome Influences Grapevine-Associated Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gilbert, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacteri...

  15. Great challenges of and innovative solutions to the unstable permafrost in Central and High Asia under a warming climate-the first Asian Conference on Permafrost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijun Jin; Jerry Brown

    2007-01-01

    @@ The first Asian Conference on Permafrost (ACOP) was co-sponsored by the State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soils Engineering(SKLFSE) of the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (CAREERI), the Geographical Society of China (GSA), and the Intema-tional Permafrost Association (IPA), and cochaired by Academician Guodong Cheng,President of the Chinese Academy of Sci-ences Lanzhou Branch, and Professor Jerry Brown, President, International Permafrost Association.

  16. Macro- and microscopic leaf characteristics of six grapevine genotypes (Vitis spp.) with different susceptibilities to grapevine downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Boso Alonso, Susana; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Gago Montaña, Pilar; Dürrenberger, M.; Düggelin, M.; Kassemeyer, H. H.; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the leaf morphology of six grapevine genotypes, five belonging to Vitis vinifera and one to Vitis riparia. Earlier studies on these genotypes showed different levels of susceptibility to grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). The aim of this work was to detect differences between the leaf morphology of these cultivars at the macro- and microscopic levels, and to characterize morphological traits which could be associated with susceptibility and resistance to downy ...

  17. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  18. Progress and Development of Monetary and Financial Cooperation between China and Central Asian Countries%中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作实践与发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩

    2015-01-01

    在推动丝绸之路经济带建设促进货币流通的大背景下,中国与中亚五国间加强货币金融合作日益迫切。基于此,本文分析了中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作的进展,并从经济相互依存角度分析了中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作的瓶颈。由于中国与中亚五国及中亚五国间贸易相互依存度较低,因而,中国与中亚五国间货币金融合作尚处于初级阶段,只有加强彼此之间的经贸合作,才能进一步推进各国间的货币金融合作。最后,文章从区域和中国两个层面就推进货币及金融合作提出了建议。%Under the background of promoting construction in Silk Road Economic Belt and improving monetary circulation .It is increasingly urgent to strengthen monetary and financial cooperation in china and the five Central Asian countries .The paper ana-lyses the achievements of monetary and financial cooperation between China and Central Asian Countries ,and the bottleneck of the cooperation from the perspective of macroeconomic interdependence .Because the trade interdependence between china and the five Central Asian countries is at the low level , it means that the monetary and financial cooperation within the region is still in the primary stage.Its further promotion requires countries within the region to strengthen economic and trade cooperation .Finally, the paper from two aspects -Central Asia and China discusses the mechanisms and policies of promoting monetary and financial cooperation .

  19. 欧亚经济共同体对中亚区域一体化影响的研究%Study of the Influence of Eurasian Economic Community on the Integration of Central Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维然; 赵凤莲

    2012-01-01

    The central Asian countries have taken part in lots of regional economic cooperation organizations since the disintegration of the Soviet Union. It is uncertain whether these organizations, especially the most successful Eurasian Economic Community, have promoted the integration degree of these countries. The research results of this paper indicate that the participation of regional integration is beneficial for the exPort of central Asian countries, but the members of Eurasian Economic Community have not achieved their expected goals. The main cause lies in the fault of industrial structure in these countries. A trade integration network based on marketization has been gradually formed in central Asia, but the government of each country has not recognized its importance and positivity.%自独立以来,中亚国家组织和参加了多个区域经济合作组织。但这些组织.包括其中最为成功的欧亚经济共同体,是否提升了各国一体化水平却尚无定论。通过研究认为参与一体化对中亚国家出口的增长是有利的,但欧亚经济共同体却并未发挥各国预期的作用。产生问题的原因主要是各成员国经济发展水平不一、产业结构的缺陷和市场化程度低下。目前中亚已初步形成了基于市场化的贸易一体化网络并取得了良好的效果,但各国政府尚未认识到其作用和积极性。

  20. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  1. Response of grapevines to fluoride under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, F.

    1983-07-01

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) were fumigated in open-top chambers with hydrogen fluoride for 64 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.17 or 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/. Other grapevines grown under ambient conditions in the vineyard or maintained in control chambers were exposed to 0.13 or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, respectively. Leaves of grapevines exposed to 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ accumulated up to 85, 55, 20, or 11 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was observed on plants exposed to 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, but no injury symptoms were observed at 0.17 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ or in control plants. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions had significantly greater mean bunch weight, peduncle weight, number of grapes per bunch, and leaf protein levels than the fumigated treatments. However, these differences may be associated with a chamber effect rather than with an effect of fluoride on grapevines. No significant differences were found between treatments for grape potential alcohol content, fruit acids, number of bunches or grapes per vine, fresh weight of grapes, or leaf chlorophyll content, despite foliar fluoride concentrations in the highest fluoride fumigation level reaching 85 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/. No evidence was found of significant fluoride accumulation in berries or canes. 26 references, 4 tables.

  2. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  3. USEFULNESS OF THE GRAPEVINE VIRUS-INFECTED COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Cocuţa Buciumeanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to use the virus-infected material as reference in various studies, a grapevine virus collection was established at NRDIBH Ştefănşti-Argeş. The vines are infected with 1-3 of the main specific viruses of this crop: fanleaf virus, leafroll associated virus serotypes 1+3, fleck virus and virus A. Different lots of plants belonging to the same cultivar are infected with different viruses. The own rooted or grafted potted plants are maintained in an insect-proof greenhouse. The main goals of the study of grapevine under the influence of virus infection had in view: symptoms, in vitro behaviour of virus infected grapevine, virus elimination, plant positive control in the diagnostic process. The symptoms produced by viral infection can affect the whole plant (systemic symptoms or they are visible on certain parts of the plant (local symptoms. In vitro studies of virus infected grapevines comparatively with the healthy material aimed with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the culture: multiplication and rooting rates, shoots elongation, abnormal cuttings and vitrification phenomena. Infected grapevine cultivars and clones were subjected to virus elimination through thermotherapy, chemotherapy or electrotherapy, combined with in vitro culture. The diagnosis of leafroll, fleck, vein necrosis and corky bark diseases have been done by in vitro micrografting, as rapid biological method of virus detection. Samples collected from infected vines were used as material testing for virus detection by ELISA in inter-laboratory comparisons and Iaboratory-performed validation.

  4. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes of Early Paleozoic arc-related volcanic rocks in Sonid Zuoqi, Inner Mongolia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Yu, Haifei; Wu, Tairan

    2016-11-01

    An Early Paleozoic acid volcanic sequence has been recently detected southeast of Sonid Zuoqi in central Inner Mongolia to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in this area. First, the volcanic rocks have zircon U-Pb ages of 439-445 Ma. They are characterized by (a) a high silica content, moderate alkali content and low iron content; (b) enrichment in light rare earth elements, depletion of heavy rare earth elements, and negative Eu anomalies; and (c) negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. Finally, the volcanic samples yield εHf(t) values of - 4.7 to + 9.2 with TDM2 ages of 835-1724 Ma. For petrogenesis, they were possibly arc derived, from predominant juvenile materials with subordinate ancient continental crust. Combined with previous studies, the Early Paleozoic Sonid Zuoqi arc magmatism can be divided into three stages: a primitive arc stage represented by 464-490 Ma low-K, calcic granitoids; a normal continental arc stage represented by 439-445 Ma medium-K, calcic to calcic-alkalic plutons and volcanic rocks and a syn-collisional stage represented by 423-424 Ma high-K granites. Furthermore, the timing and tectonic settings of the above magmatic rocks show similarities to those in Xilinhot and other areas of the northern Early to Mid-Paleozoic orogenic belt (NOB), although the rock assemblies and their proportions vary more or less in different areas. Accordingly, the NOB that formed on this arc was probably attributed to the northward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean beginning at 500 Ma, which experienced this type of arc development and was terminated by a soft collision before the Late Devonian.

  5. 中亚五国的贸易特征及向东发展的障碍%Trade Features of Five Central Asian Countries and Obstacles Developing Eastward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文中

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes foreign trade of five Central Asian countries by employing such three indexes as goods trade com-plementarities, concentration and trade diversification and finds that Central Asian countries rely on external markets heavily, ex-port is not stronly complemented with the rest of the world on the whole, the potential of developing eastward is great.However, their own ability and the reality of tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers of the East Asian and Pacific countries has become the main obstacle of the development of the east.Therefore, under the background of the new strategy in China, in addition to in-creasing the direct investment in infrastructure investment and enterprises, it is also necessary to moderately reduce tariffs and re-duce non-tariff measures to make the silk road economic belt a two-way trade routes.%本文运用商品贸易互补性、贸易集中度和贸易多样化三个指数对中亚五国对外贸易进行分析发现:中亚国家严重依赖于外部市场,出口在整体上与世界各国的互补性不强,向东发展潜力巨大;但其自身能力和东亚及太平洋国家关税壁垒和非关税壁垒的现实成为其向东发展的主要障碍。为此,在我国新的战略背景下,除加大对其基础设施投资和企业直接投资外,还应适度降低关税水平、减少非关税措施,使丝绸之路经济带成为一条双向贸易通道。

  6. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  7. Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Transmits Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistrom, C M; Blaisdell, G K; Wunderlich, L R; Almeida, R P P; Daane, K M

    2016-08-01

    Several mealybug species are vectors of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV), which cause the economically important grapevine leafroll disease in grape-producing regions worldwide. The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is a new pest of grapevines in El Dorado County, located in the Sierra Foothill wine-growing region of California. GLRaV species 1, 2, 3, and 4LV have been detected in vineyards with symptomatic vines in the Sierra Foothills. We conducted controlled virus acquisition and transmission experiments using source vine accessions infected with different combinations of GLRaV. We determined that F. gilli acquired GLRaV 1, 2, 3, and 4LV, and transmitted GLRaV-3 and GLRaV-4LV to uninfected recipient vines. Like numerous other mealybug species, in addition to causing direct damage to vines, F. gilli poses a threat to the grape industry as a vector of economically damaging viruses.

  8. Spliceosomal intron size expansion in domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goertzen Leslie R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spliceosomal introns are important components of eukaryotic genes as their structure, sizes and contents reflect the architecture of gene and genomes. Intron size, determined by both neutral evolution, repetitive elements activities and potential functional constraints, varies significantly in eukaryotes, suggesting unique dynamics and evolution in different lineages of eukaryotic organisms. However, the evolution of intron size, is rarely studied. To investigate intron size dynamics in flowering plants, in particular domesticated grapevines, a survey of intron size and content in wine grape (Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir genes was conducted by assembling and mapping the transcriptome of V. vinifera genes from ESTs to characterize and analyze spliceosomal introns. Results Uncommonly large size of spliceosomal intron was observed in V. vinifera genome, otherwise inconsistent with overall genome size dynamics when comparing Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis. In domesticated grapevine, intron size is generally not related to gene function. The composition of enlarged introns in grapevines indicated extensive transposable element (TE activity within intronic regions. TEs comprise about 80% of the expanded intron space and in particular, recent LTR retrotransposon insertions are enriched in these intronic regions, suggesting an intron size expansion in the lineage leading to domesticated grapevine, instead of size contractions in Arabidopsis and Populus. Comparative analysis of selected intronic regions in V. vinifera cultivars and wild grapevine species revealed that accelerated TE activity was associated with grapevine domestication, and in some cases with the development of specific cultivars. Conclusions In this study, we showed intron size expansion driven by TE activities in domesticated grapevines, likely a result of long-term vegetative propagation and intensive human care, which simultaneously promote TE proliferation and

  9. Influence of Central Asian Students' Chinese Learning Motivation to Chinese Level%西安中亚留学生汉语学习动机对汉语水平的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽娟

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of Central Asian students can be found at Shaanxi Province recently. To deepen our understan-ding on the Relationship between Learning Motivation and Chinese Language Proficiency, Central Asian students from four different schools in Xi'an city were selected as the research object. This research had drawn lessons from western motivation of second language acquisition theory, and the theory of social psychology and social linguistics. In addition to adopting the combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis method, questionnaire method, and the interview method, descriptive statistics data was collected by means of social science statistical package SPSS. Other than attempted to determine the rela-tionship between learning motivation and Chinese language proficiency, this research also has its significance in promoting Chinese language and culture to Central Asia, expanding exchanges and cooperation with countries along the Silk Road, and cultivating interdisciplinary talent.%中亚留学生在陕留学的人越来越多,为了能将中国语言文化在中亚得以推广与交流等工作,为我国与丝绸之路沿线国家扩大交流与合作培养出更多复合型人才,本课题借鉴西方第二语言习得的动机理论,运用社会心理学和社会语言学理论,以西安市4所学校的中亚留学生为调查研究对象,采用定量研究和定性分析相结合的方法,通过问卷调查和访谈等手段来了解中亚留学生来西安汉语学习动机对汉语水平的影响,用社会科学统计软件包SPSS对数据进行描写性统计,试图确定西安中亚留学生汉语学习动机和汉语水平之间的关系。

  10. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars.

  12. Messenger RNA exchange between scions and rootstocks in grafted grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrated the existence of genome-scale mRNA exchange in grafted grapevines, a woody fruit species with significant economic importance. By using diagnostic SNPs derived from high throughput genome sequencing, we identified more than three thousand genes transporting mRNAs across graft junctio...

  13. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  14. Grapevine phenology and climate change in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, G.; Failla, O.; Maghradze, D.; Megrelidze, L.; Mariani, L.

    2016-10-01

    While the climate of Western Europe has been deeply affected by the abrupt climate change that took place in the late `1980s of the twentieth century, a similar signal is detected only few years later, in 1994, in Georgia. Grapevine phenology is deeply influenced by climate and this paper aimed to analyze how phenological timing changed before and after the climatic change of 1994. Availability of thermal resources in the two climatic phases for the five altitudinal belts in the 0-1250-m range was analyzed. A phenological dataset gathered in two experimental sites during the period 2012-2014, and a suitable thermal dataset was used to calibrate a phenological model based on the normal approach and able to describe BBCH phenological stages 61 (beginning of flowering), 71 (fruit set), and 81 (veraison). Calibration was performed for four relevant Georgian varieties (Mtsvane Kakhuri, Rkatsiteli, Ojaleshi, and Saperavi). The model validation was performed on an independent 3-year dataset gathered in Gorizia (Italy). Furthermore, in the case of variety Rkatsiteli, the model was applied to the 1974-2013 thermal time series in order to obtain phenological maps of the Georgian territory. Results show that after the climate change of 1994, Rkatsiteli showed an advance, more relevant at higher altitudes where the whole increase of thermal resource was effectively translated in phenological advance. For instance the average advance of veraison was 5.9 days for 250-500 m asl belt and 18.1 days for 750-1000 m asl). On the other hand, at lower altitudes, phenological advance was depleted by superoptimal temperatures. As a final result, some suggestions for the adaptation of viticultural practices to the current climatic phase are provided.

  15. 中亚天然气管道发展现状与特点分析%Development and characteristics of Central Asian Natural Gas Pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党学博; 李怀印

    2013-01-01

    Adjacent to China,Central Asia has significant geographic advantages on the pipelined natural gas trade.To make a good use of the natural gas resources in Central Asia,this paper makes a systematic research on the present development,distribution and recent development plan of the natural gas pipelines of Kazakhstan,Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.Meanwhile,the paper also makes a detailed introduction to the significant natural gas export pipelines,including the Central Asia-Central District Gas Pipeline,Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline,Bukhara-Urals Gas Pipeline and Turkmenistan-Iran Gas Pipeline.Then the characteristics of the long-distance gas pipelines in Central Asia are summarized,including the uneven distribution of the pipelines,severe corrosion,difficulties in safe operation and control by national petroleum corporations or their subsidiary companies.%中亚与中国毗邻,管道天然气贸易拥有显著的地缘优势.为了更好地利用中亚天然气资源,系统研究了中亚地区哈萨克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、土库曼斯坦3国的天然气管道发展现状、分布特点及近期发展规划,详细介绍了中亚—中央、中亚—中国、布哈拉—乌拉尔、土库曼斯坦—伊朗等重要的天然气出口管道.在此基础上,总结了中亚天然气长输管道的特点,包括管道地区分布不均匀、腐蚀严重、安全运营难度大、基本被国家石油天然气公司或其子公司控制等.

  16. Short day transcriptomic programming during induction of dormancy in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Y Fennell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bud dormancy in grapevine is an adaptive strategy for the survival of drought, high and low temperatures and freeze dehydration stress that limit the range of cultivar adaptation. Therefore, development of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in bud dormancy is needed to promote advances in selection and breeding, and to develop improved cultural practices for existing grape cultivars. The seasonally indeterminate grapevine, which continuously develops compound axillary buds during the growing season, provides an excellent system for dissecting dormancy, because the grapevine does not transition through terminal bud development prior to dormancy. This study used gene expression patterns and targeted metabolite analysis of two grapevine genotypes, that are short photoperiod responsive (Vitis riparia and non-responsive (V. hybrid, Seyval for dormancy development, to determine differences between bud maturation and dormancy commitment. Grapevine gene expression and metabolites were monitored at seven time points under long (LD, 15 h and short (SD, 13 h day treatments. The use of age-matched buds and a small (2h photoperiod difference minimized developmental differences and allowed us to separate general photoperiod from dormancy specific gene responses. Gene expression profiles indicated three distinct phases (perception, induction and dormancy in SD-induced dormancy development in V. riparia. Different genes from the NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 19 and WRKY families of transcription factors were differentially expressed in each phase of dormancy. Metabolite and transcriptome analyses indicated ABA, trehalose, raffinose and resveratrol compounds have a potential role in dormancy commitment. Finally, a comparison between V. riparia compound axillary bud dormancy and dormancy responses in other species emphasized the relationship between dormancy and the expression of genes associated with C3HC4-TYPE RING FINGER, NAC

  17. Short day transcriptomic programming during induction of dormancy in grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Anne Y.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G.; Khadka, Vedbar; Sreekantan, Lekha; Grimplet, Jerome; Cramer, Grant R.; Mathiason, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Bud dormancy in grapevine is an adaptive strategy for the survival of drought, high and low temperatures and freeze dehydration stress that limit the range of cultivar adaptation. Therefore, development of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in bud dormancy is needed to promote advances in selection and breeding, and to develop improved cultural practices for existing grape cultivars. The seasonally indeterminate grapevine, which continuously develops compound axillary buds during the growing season, provides an excellent system for dissecting dormancy, because the grapevine does not transition through terminal bud development prior to dormancy. This study used gene expression patterns and targeted metabolite analysis of two grapevine genotypes that are short photoperiod responsive (Vitis riparia) and non-responsive (V. hybrid, Seyval) for dormancy development to determine differences between bud maturation and dormancy commitment. Grapevine gene expression and metabolites were monitored at seven time points under long (LD, 15 h) and short (SD, 13 h) day treatments. The use of age-matched buds and a small (2 h) photoperiod difference minimized developmental differences and allowed us to separate general photoperiod from dormancy specific gene responses. Gene expression profiles indicated three distinct phases (perception, induction and dormancy) in SD-induced dormancy development in V. riparia. Different genes from the NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 19 and WRKY families of transcription factors were differentially expressed in each phase of dormancy. Metabolite and transcriptome analyses indicated ABA, trehalose, raffinose and resveratrol compounds have a potential role in dormancy commitment. Finally, a comparison between V. riparia compound axillary bud dormancy and dormancy responses in other species emphasized the relationship between dormancy and the expression of RESVERATROL SYNTHASE and genes associated with C3HC4-TYPE RING

  18. Sacred History for a Central Asian TownSaints, Shrines, and Legends of Origin inHistories of Sayrām, 18th-19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin DeWeese

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie les mythes historiques concernant Sayrām, une petite ville du sud de l'actuel Kazakhstan, cas exemplaire de concepts indigènes d'identité communautaire en Asie centrale pré-soviétique. Ces traditions sont conservées dans un ensemble de travaux en turc, sous le titre générique de « Histoire de Sayrām », qui combine une « histoire sacrée » de la ville avec une « géographie sacrée » sous la forme d'un catalogue de mausolées locaux ; ces deux composantes situent ainsi Sayrām à la fois dans le temps et dans l'espace, à l'intérieur d'un univers sacré défini en tant qu'islamique. Elles offrent une vision de la participation de cette ville à un cadre historique déterminé par l'hommage sanctificateur du Prophète Muhammad à Sayrām, et une affirmation de la présence continue et de la protection, à travers leurs mausolées, d'une multitude de saints musulmans (comprenant aussi bien des personnages purement locaux que d'autres bien connus dans le folklore islamique. Ces ouvrages, compilés vraisemblablement au XVIIIe siècle et répandus très largement dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, reflètent souvent d'anciennes traditions narratives évocatrices du rôle de Sayrām au début de l'islamisation de l'Asie centrale. Mais elles montrent également l'importance capitale de la définition par la religion des identités locales et régionales, au sein de la population sédentaire d'Asie centrale, avant les changements induits par la conquête russe, l'établissement du pouvoir soviétique et la formulation des nouvelles identités « nationales » qui perdurent aujourd'hui.

  19. Metabolic consequences of infection of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. "Modra frankinja" with flavescence dorée phytoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas Georg;

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp-grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. "Modra frankinja" under natural conditions in the vineyard....

  20. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that ...

  1. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  2. Eco-virological approach for assessing the role of wild birds in the spread of avian influenza H5N1 along the central Asian flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations.

  3. Mechanisms of frost adaptation and freeze damage in grapevine buds

    OpenAIRE

    Badulescu Valle, Radu Virgil

    2002-01-01

    Mechanisms of frost hardening in compound (latent) buds of the grapevine cultivar ?Bacchus? were tested with different methods during three winters. The investigated parameters were LTE/HTE (low temperature exotherm/high temperature exotherm), water content, starch, sugar- and anions combination and bud histology. Water content from wood and buds was determined regularly every 2 weeks from March 1998 until Mai 2000. The lowest water content in wood and buds (about 40 %) was found ...

  4. Understanding grapevine-microbiome interactions: implications for viticulture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Iratxe Zarraonaindia; Gilbert, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, the analysis of complex communities such as that of the grapevine-microbe holobiont has been limited by the fact that most microbes are notculturable under laboratory conditions (less than 1%). However, metagenomics, the study of the genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples without the need for enrichment or of culturing, has led to open an unprecedented era in the field of microbiology. Importantly, this technological advance has now become ...

  5. Effects of long term exposure to hydrogen fluoride on grapevines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, F.

    1984-01-01

    Grapevines Vitis vinifera L. Shiraz were exposed to hydrogen fluoride in open-top chambers for 189 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.27, 0.17 or 0.07 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions outside the chambers were exposed to a mean atmospheric fluoride concentration of 0.08 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/. The maximum leaf fluoride concentrations associated with these treatments were 62, 27, 9 and 15 ..mu..g Fg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was first observed on grapevines exposed to 0.27 and 0.17 ..mu..g HFm/sup -3/ after 83 and 99 days, respectively. Exposure to fluoride increased the fluoride content of berries and peduncles, and reduced leaf chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll concentration at both mid-season and harvest. Exposure to 0.17 ..mu..g HF m/sup -3/ was associated with higher total acid content of grapes than other treatments. Fluoride had no significant effect on bunch weight, number of bunches, grape yield, grape water or potential alcohol content, leaf chlorophyll b or leaf protein concentration. The high accumulation of fluoride in peduncles, but low fluoride accumulation in berries, suggests that the peduncle acts to block the translocation of fluoride from sites of uptake to the fruit. 42 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  6. Preliminary attempts to biolistic inoculation of grapevine fanleaf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat, L; Mode, F; Mauro, M C; Burrus, M

    2003-03-01

    Biolistics has been studied to inoculate grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a Nepovirus, to its natural woody host, Vitis sp., and its herbaceous host, Chenopodium quinoa. At first, bombardment conditions for in vitro and greenhouse grown plants were set using the uidA reporter gene. The infectious feature of the cartridges was then evaluated by studying infection of C. quinoa plants. Systemic infection was obtained with either GFLV particles or RNA extracts in experimental conditions which gave also the highest transient uidA gene expression. Concerning grapevine, our results indicate that extrapolation to this plant is difficult. In only 1 out of 8 independent bombardment experiments done with GFLV and 41B, we were able to detect the virus in freshly bombarded leaves. Similarly, later after bombardment, Pol mRNAs were detected once, at days 7 and 14 only. Incubating the plants in darkness, as suggested in the literature, or using Rupestris Saint Georges, an indicator for GFLV presence, did not yield any improvement. Finely, our observations suggest that detection of GFLV in bombarded grapevine tissues by immunological or molecular techniques remains a limiting factor, probably due to an excess of inhibitory compounds released during the biolistic process.

  7. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  8. An Automated Field Phenotyping Pipeline for Application in Grapevine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kicherer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to its perennial nature and size, the acquisition of phenotypic data in grapevine research is almost exclusively restricted to the field and done by visual estimation. This kind of evaluation procedure is limited by time, cost and the subjectivity of records. As a consequence, objectivity, automation and more precision of phenotypic data evaluation are needed to increase the number of samples, manage grapevine repositories, enable genetic research of new phenotypic traits and, therefore, increase the efficiency in plant research. In the present study, an automated field phenotyping pipeline was setup and applied in a plot of genetic resources. The application of the PHENObot allows image acquisition from at least 250 individual grapevines per hour directly in the field without user interaction. Data management is handled by a database (IMAGEdata. The automatic image analysis tool BIVcolor (Berries in Vineyards-color permitted the collection of precise phenotypic data of two important fruit traits, berry size and color, within a large set of plants. The application of the PHENObot represents an automated tool for high-throughput sampling of image data in the field. The automated analysis of these images facilitates the generation of objective and precise phenotypic data on a larger scale.

  9. Verification of the stomatal conductance of Nebbiolo grapevine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefania PRINO; Federico SPANNA; Claudio CASSARDO

    2009-01-01

    Wine is one of the most important Italian export products, and Nebbiolo is one of the most respected Italian grapes. In the summer of 2007, a measurement campaign was carried out in a Nebbiolo vineyard located in Vezza d'Alba, near Cuneo, Italy. Using a gauge of trade gases and some other insU'uments, we recorded the stomatal conductance and also some physiological parameters useful for estimating the dependence of stomatal conductance on environmental variables. The goal of this experiment was improving the parameterization of grapevine evapotranspiration through the assessment of the stomatal conductance and, in particular, of the functional dependence of the stomatal conductance on the following variables: the photosynthetically active radiation, the atmospheric temperature, the atmospheric moisture deficit, and the carbon dioxide concentration. The observations allowed us to check and, in some cases, to adapt the existing' general parameterizations found in literature. The results showed some significant differences with the existing parameterizations concerning the atmospheric temperature, the atmospheric moisture deficit, and the carbon dioxide concentration. The parameterizations obtained in this experiment, although referring to a specific plant and site (namely the Nebbiolo at Vezza d'Alba), could allow assessment of the best environmental conditions under which the Nebbiolo grapevine production is the best, and in future could be tested for other grapevines or climates.

  10. Molecular and phenotypic characterisation of novel Phaeoacremonium species isolated from esca diseased grapevines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essakhi, S.; Mugnai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Surico, G.

    2008-01-01

    Petri disease and esca are very destructive grapevine decline diseases that occur in most countries where grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is cultivated. Phaeoacremonium species are among the principal hyphomycetes associated with symptoms of the two diseases, producing a range of enzymes and phytotoxic m

  11. Evaluation of grapevine as a host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine was evaluated as a feeding and oviposition host for the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Two sets of experiments were conducted. The first set compared performance and preference of glassy-winged sharpshooter females for grapevine (cv. Chardonnay) versus cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivar black...

  12. Epigenetic repressor-like genes are differentially regulated during grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Rubén; Cabrera, Nuri; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González Villanueva, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Grapevine sexual reproduction involves a seasonal separation between inflorescence primordia (flowering induction) and flower development. We hypothesized that a repression mechanism implicating epigenetic changes could play a role in the seasonal separation of these two developmental processes in grapevine. Therefore, the expression of five grapevine genes with homology to the Arabidopsis epigenetic repressor genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE), EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), CURLY LEAF (CLF), MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1) and SWINGER (SWN) was analyzed during the development of buds and vegetative and reproductive organs. During bud development, the putative grapevine epigenetic repressor genes VvCLF, VvEMF2, VvMSI1, VvSWN and VvFIE are mainly expressed in latent buds at the flowering induction period, but also detected during bud burst and inflorescence/flower development. The overlapping expression patterns of grapevine PcG-like genes in buds suggest that chromatin remodeling mechanisms could be operating during grapevine bud development for controlling processes such as seasonal flowering, dormancy and bud burst. Furthermore, the expression of grapevine PcG-like genes was also detected in fruits and vegetative organs, suggesting that epigenetic changes could be at the basis of the regulation of various proliferation-differentiation cell transitions that occur during grapevine development.

  13. A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuntong; Xu, Weirong; Duan, Dong; Wang, Yuejin; Nick, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis. PMID:27702992

  14. Huaxia Centralism in the Governance of Ancient East Asian%“华夏中心观”在早期东亚治理实践中的影响与作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍雨

    2016-01-01

    近代以前,“华夏中心观”深深植根于东亚国家的意识形态中,以此为基础而形成了以中国为主导的朝贡体系,对朝鲜、越南和日本等国的政治实践产生了重大影响。在“天下观”和等级制等观念的影响下,中国长期未能形成正常的对外交往关系,阻碍了早期现代化进程;但是在国力悬殊的情况下,古代中国也未将除遵从形式上的尊卑秩序以外的实质性义务强加于小国之上,其“大而不霸”、“和而不同”等精神对当代国际政治经济新秩序的构建具有启示性意义。%Huaxia Centralism is deeply rooted in the ideologies of East Asian countries.Based on this,the tributary system led by China had a great effect on political practices in Korea,Vietnam and Japan.Under the influence of “Tianxia view”and other concepts such as hierarchy,China failed to form normal diplo-matic relations,hindering the process of early modernization.However,nor did ancient China impose any substantive obligations on small countries,except for respect.Her “seeking harmony but not uniformity”has certain instructive meaning for building a new international political and economic order.

  15. Analysis on Market Prospect of Potato Export to Central Asian Countries in Northwest Region of China%西北地区马铃薯出口中亚国家的市场前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊霞; 侯军岐

    2016-01-01

    西北地区是我国马铃薯的主产区,马铃薯产业的发展对地区经济及农民增收具有重要意义。中亚国家与我国西北地区毗邻,被称为“第二面包”的马铃薯在中亚国家有较大市场需求,发展潜力巨大。“一带一路”战略为西北地区马铃薯出口中亚国家搭建了较好的平台,西北地区可利用其先天性的地理位置优势、出口成本优势和技术优势等向中亚国家出口马铃薯产品。除了稳定传统鲜薯产品出口优势之外,西北地区还应通过境外投资、技术援助等方式带动马铃薯加工品、种薯及马铃薯附加产品的出口。%The Northwest region is the main producing area of potatoes in China.The potato industry has great significance to local economy and farmers’income.Central Asia countries are closed to this area,and have a large demand on potatoes which are called “the second bread”in these countries.And the potato industry has great mar-ket potential.The “Belt and Road”strategy has built a good platform to export potatoes from the Northwest re-gion of China to Central Asian countries.The region can take the advantage of its congenital geographical location, the low export costs and the technology advantages to export potatoes.Apart from maintaining the traditional ad-vantages,the region should also exploit some other ways such as overseas investment and technical assistance to stimulate the export of processed goods,seeds and augmented products of potatoes.

  16. Revisiting Vitis vinifera subtilase gene family: a possible role in grapevine resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Figueiredo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtilisin-like proteases, also known as subtilases, are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms. In grapevine, there are hints of the involvement of subtilases in defence mechanisms, but their role is not yet understood. The first characterization of the subtilase gene family was performed in 2014. However, simultaneously, the grapevine genome was re-annotated and several sequences were re-annotated or retrieved. We have performed a re-characterization of this family in grapevine and identified 82 genes coding for 97 putative proteins, as result of alternative splicing. All the subtilases identified present the characteristic S8 peptidase domain and the majority of them also have a pro-domain I9 inhibitor, a protease-associated (PA domain and a signal peptide for targeting to the secretory pathway. Phylogenetic studies revealed six subtilase groups denominated VvSBT1 to VvSBT6. As several evidences have highlighted the participation of plant subtilases in response to biotic stimulus, we have investigated subtilase participation in grapevine resistance to Plasmopara viticola, the causative agent of downy mildew. Fourteen grapevine subtilases presenting either high homology to P69C from tomato, SBT3.3 from Arabidopsis thaliana or located near the Resistance to Plasmopara viticola (RPV locus were selected. Expression studies were conducted in the grapevine-P. viticola pathosystem with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Our results may indicate that some of grapevine subtilisins are potentially participating in the defence response against this biotrophic oomycete.

  17. The evol ution of coupling of Asian winter monsoon and high latitude climate of Northern Hemisphere——Grain evidence from 8.1 Ma loess-red clay sequence on the Chinese central Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕连清; 方小敏; JosephA.Mason; 李吉均; 安芷生

    2001-01-01

    The evolution and driving mechanism of the Asian winter monsoon system are of great importance to understanding the present-day climate. Through high-resolution particle size analysis of the oldest loess-red clay sequence known so far (with a basal age of about 8 Ma) and comparison of the results with oxygen isotope curves from North Atlantic marine sediments, 4 stages of the evolution of the Asian winter monsoon were clearly demonstrated. During the first stage, between about 8.1 and 4.3 Ma, there was no relation between Asian winter monsoon and Northern Hemisphere ice volume and high latitude climate inferred from marine sediments. A weak relation developed during the second stage, about 4.3 to 3.5 Ma. During the third stage (3.5 to 2.6 Ma) an Asian winter monsoon system similar to the present formed, initiating a stronger relation between the winter monsoon and Northern Hemisphere ice volume and high latitude climate. In the final stage (2.6 to 0 Ma) the present Asian winter monsoon system was fortifi

  18. Oxidative stress homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can maintain growth and reproductive success by sensing changes in the environment and reacting through mechanisms at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental levels. Each stress condition prompts a unique response although some overlap between the reactions to abiotic stress (drought, heat, cold, salt or high light and to biotic stress (pathogens does occur. A common feature in the response to all stresses is the onset of oxidative stress, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. As hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are involved in stress signaling, a tight control in ROS homeostasis requires a delicate balance of systems involved in their generation and degradation. If the plant lacks the capacity to generate scavenging potential, this can ultimately lead to death. In grapevine, antioxidant homeostasis can be considered at whole plant levels and during the development cycle. The most striking example lies in berries and their derivatives, such as wine, with nutraceutical properties associated with their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant homeostasis is tightly regulated in leaves, assuring a positive balance between photosynthesis and respiration, explaining the tolerance of many grapevine varieties to extreme environments.In this review we will focus on antioxidant metabolites, antioxidant enzymes, transcriptional regulation and cross-talk with hormones prompted by abiotic stress conditions. We will also discuss three situations that require specific homeostasis balance: biotic stress, the oxidative burst in berries at veraison and in vitro systems. The genetic plasticity of the antioxidant homeostasis response put in evidence by the different levels of tolerance to stress presented by grapevine varieties will be addressed. The gathered information is relevant to foster varietal adaptation to impending climate changes, to assist breeders in choosing the more adapted varieties and to suitable viticulture

  19. The Asian war bow

    CERN Document Server

    Nieminen, Timo A

    2011-01-01

    The bow is one of the earliest complex machines, a prime example of the storage and transfer of energy. The physics of the bow illuminates compromises and design choices made in Asian military archery.

  20. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  1. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  2. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  3. Development Correlations of the Buds of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana ROTARU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development characteristics of different buds of the grapevine are mainly related by stimulation and/or inhibition effects, the action of which is still inexplicable. The present study examines the development dynamics of the buds of a one-year old branch after excision of different buds and the application of ?-naphtyl acetic acid (ANA, as well as the growth capacity of each bud individually. We verified the effects of acrotony cited previously by various researchers. These effects are due to different developmental characteristics of which could to lay the groundwork for the improvement of different productions methods.

  4. Distribution of Uranium and Molybdenum Deposits and Their Relations with Medium Massifs in Central Asian Orogenic Zone%中亚造山带东段铀、钼矿床分布与中间地块的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵济安; 张履桥; 牟保磊

    2011-01-01

    Based upon recent research achievements on polymetallic ore deposits in the eastern section of Central Asian orogenic belt, the authors selectively studied uranium and molybdenum deposits, to explore diversity of the metallogenic sources and the various stages of mineralization in connection with the geochemical behaviors of uranium and molybdenum elements. Because there are many medium massifs, the relationship between mineralization and the medium massifs is also discussed from view of tectonics. These medium massifs have experienced cracking of continental margin, displacement, and collision orogenesis of plates. The ore-forming material was reformed many times and be concentrated. It is indicated that the Indosinian mineralization in the north margin of North China craton of Indo-Chinese epoch and in the Hinggan-Mongolian orogenic belt is related to the extension in the settings of underplating.%在近年来中亚造山带东段多金属矿床研究取得新进展的基础上,选择铀、钼两类矿床,结合铀、钼元素的地球化学行为探讨成矿物质来源的多样性和成矿的多阶段演化.此外,从构造研究角度,结合中亚造山带东段中大量中间地块存在的构造现象,讨论中间地块与成矿作用的关系:中间地块经历了从大陆边缘的裂解、漂移和板块碰撞造山作用,在漫长而复杂的地质过程中遭受的多次改造,有利成矿物质的反复被萃取和聚集.最后提出印支期华北克拉通北缘和北部造山带的成矿作用与底侵背景下的伸展作用密切相关.

  5. Geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic igneous rocks of the Lesser Xing'an Range, NE China: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Xu, Wen-liang; Pei, Fu-ping; Wang, Feng; Guo, Peng

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents new zircon U-Pb, Hf isotope, and whole-rock major and trace element data for early Paleozoic igneous rocks of the Lesser Xing'an Range, NE China, in order to constrain the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that early Paleozoic magmatic events within the northern Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif (SZM) can be subdivided into four stages: Middle Cambrian (~ 505 Ma), Late Cambrian (~ 490 Ma), Early-Middle Ordovician (~ 470 Ma), and Late Ordovician (460-450 Ma). The Middle Cambrian monzogranites are K-rich, weakly to strongly peraluminous, and characterized by pronounced heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletions, high Sr/Y ratios, low Y concentrations, low primary zircon εHf(t) values (- 6.79 to - 1.09), and ancient two-stage model (TDM2) ages (1901-1534 Ma). These results indicate derivation from partial melting of thickened ancient crustal materials that formed during the amalgamation of the northern SZM and the northern Jiamusi Massif (JM). The Late Cambrian monzonite, quartz monzonite, and monzogranite units are chemically similar to A-type granites, and contain zircons with εHf(t) values of - 2.59 to + 1.78 and TDM2 ages of 1625-1348 Ma. We infer that these rocks formed from primary magmas generated by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic accreted lower crustal materials in a post-collisional extensional environment. The Early-Middle Ordovician quartz monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, monzogranite, and rhyolite units are calc-alkaline, relatively enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, and U), depleted in HREEs and high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and contain zircons with εHf(t) values of - 7.33 to + 4.98, indicative of formation in an active continental margin setting. The Late Ordovician alkali-feldspar granite and rhyolite units have A-type granite affinities that suggest they formed in

  6. Geochemistry, geochronology and zircon Hf isotopic study of peralkaline-alkaline intrusions along the northern margin of the North China Craton and its tectonic implication for the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei; Liao, Wen; Wang, Yanyang

    2016-09-01

    the amalgamation of NCC and its northern blocks in the southeastern part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  7. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf....... As a case study we applied the protocol to grapevine leaf samples infected with plant pathogenic bacteria 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', known to alter carbohydrate metabolism in grapevine. The described adaptations may be useful for determination of metabolic fingerprints for physiological phenotyping...

  8. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of affi nity between grapevine rootstock and Vitis vinifera as scion, quality of reproductive materials and technological actions in grapevine rootstock production process determine success in grapevine rootstock production in large extent. Practical training showed that difference in level of compatibility between grapevine rootstock and grafted Vitis vinifera cultivars are existing. Direct effects of these differences are unequal yield of fi rst class grafted grapevine rootlings. In this paper, level of compatibility in nursery between clones of cv. Chardonnay BCL 75, VCR4 and cv. Merlot R18, MCL 519 and grapevine rootstocks Kober 5BB (Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia, SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia and 41B (Chasselas x V.berlandieri were investigated. The trial was conducted in commercial grapevine nursery located in Velika Drenova, Serbia. As an index of compatibility, grade of high quality grapevine grafted rootlings, dry matter in mature shoots and root system development were used. Grafting was done by `tongue grafting` indoor technique. Stratifi cation was done in sand, on temperature of the stratifi cation material of 26-28oC, and humidity of around 90%. Grafted cuttings were waxed twice: before stratifi cation, and before planting in the nursery. Grafted rootlings were classed in two classes according to regulations of quality, (Yugoslav Offi cial Register, 26/79. Grafted rootlings that did not satisfi ed standard criteria were discarded. Both clones of cv. Chardonnay gave the highest percentage of I class grafted rootlings on grapevine rootstock 41B: clone BCL 75 – 60% and clone VCR4 – 61%. In the same combination, those grapevine grafted rootlings had the highest weight of the root system. Lower percentage of obtained I class grafted rootlings was established on rootstock Kober 5BB, while statistically signifi cantly lower yields were obtained on grapevine rootstock SO4: clone BCL75 – 43% and clone VCR4 – 48%. Dry

  9. Influence of epiphytic bacteria from grapevine leaves on Phomopsis viticola Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 282 isolates of epiphytic bacteria population originating from grapevine leaves 15% inhibited growth of Phomopsis viticola on potato-dextrose agar. Protective activity of 16 isolates, representing different morphological groups was tested on one-year old of grapevine stems fragments. Majority of bacterial isolates which inhibited the fungus growth in-vitro provided no protection of stems fragments against P. viticola. The efficiency of protection activity of bacterial isolates tested decreased with time. The most effective isolates of bacteria in protection of grapevine stemswere identified as Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  10. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evidente

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.

  11. Dissipation of glyphosate from grapevine soils in Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma J. Salazar López

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the important crops in Sonora, due to revenue generation from its export to foreign countries. Among the most widely used herbicides for this crop is glyphosate, which is considered moderately toxic and persistent. The present research evaluates the dissipation of glyphosate in grapevine planted soil at three depths (5, 30 and 60 cm. Sampling was carried out before glyphosate application, and 5, 10, 18, 27, and 65 days after. Glyphosate was extracted from soil samples using ammonium hydroxide. The derivate extracts were partitioned with dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD. The results showed that average glyphosate residues are significantly greater at 5 cm (0.09 mg kg-1 than the other depths (30 and 60 cm, having a difference of 0.078 mg kg-1 between them (P < 0.03. Glyphosate concentration time profiles were similar; it reached maximum soil concentration in a range of 10 to 18 days after application. The half-life of glyphosate in soil has an average of 39 days at all depths. Our data suggests that the release in soil of glyphosate applied to weeds delays its transference to soil by 14 days, and extends residue half life to 55 days after application. These results could be the basis for further research, including more environmental parameters that could affect the dissipation or degradation process in soil.

  12. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis J; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A

    2014-11-01

    This review provides an overview of recent technological advancements that enable precision breeding to genetically improve elite cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Precision breeding, previously termed "cisgenic" or "intragenic" genetic improvement, necessitates a better understanding and use of genomic resources now becoming accessible. Although it is now a relatively simple task to identify genetic elements and genes from numerous "omics" databases, the control of major agronomic and enological traits often involves the currently unknown participation of many genes and regulatory machineries. In addition, genetic evolution has left numerous vestigial genes and sequences without tangible functions. Thus, it is critical to functionally test each of these genetic entities to determine their real-world functionality or contribution to trait attributes. Toward this goal, several diverse techniques now are in place, including cell culture systems to allow efficient plant regeneration, advanced gene insertion techniques, and, very recently, resources for genomic analyses. Currently, these techniques are being used for high-throughput expression analysis of a wide range of grapevine-derived promoters and disease-related genes. It is envisioned that future research efforts will be extended to the study of promoters and genes functioning to enhance other important traits, such as fruit quality and vigor.

  13. Phytotoxins produced by fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.

  14. Mitochondria change dynamics and morphology during grapevine leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, Cristina; Barizza, Elisabetta; Bodner, Martina; La Rocca, Nicoletta; De Michele, Roberto; Carimi, Francesco; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Zottini, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells.

  15. Mitochondria change dynamics and morphology during grapevine leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruberti

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera, by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells.

  16. Grapevine Pathogenic Microorganisms: Understanding Infection Strategies and Host Response Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Grace; Schlechter, Rudolf; Agurto, Mario; Muñoz, Daniela; Nuñez, Constanza; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide. Commercial cultivars are greatly affected by a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases during pre- and/or post-harvest periods, affecting production, processing and export, along with fruit quality. Among the potential threats, we can find bacteria, fungi, oomycete, or viruses with different life cycles, infection mechanisms and evasion strategies. While plant-pathogen interactions are cycles of resistance and susceptibility, resistance traits from natural resources are selected and may be used for breeding purposes and for a sustainable agriculture. In this context, here we summarize some of the most important diseases affecting V. vinifera together with their causal agents. The aim of this work is to bring a comprehensive review of the infection strategies deployed by significant types of pathogens while understanding the host response in both resistance and susceptibility scenarios. New approaches being used to uncover grapevine status during biotic stresses and scientific-based procedures needed to control plant diseases and crop protection are also addressed.

  17. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  18. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Min Liu; Xu Liu; Bao-Sen Cheng; Xue-Lei Ma; Xiao-Tong Lyu; Xian-Fang Zhao; Yan-Lun Ju; Zhuo Min; Yu-Lin Fang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P) and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP) traits, evaluate the ...

  19. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Ho Park; Hoseong Choi; Semin Kim; Won Kyong Cho; Kook-Hyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP), but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the n...

  20. Production of highly bioactive resveratrol analogues pterostilbene and piceatannol in metabolically engineered grapevine cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez‐Márquez, Ascensión; Morante‐Carriel, Jaime A.; Ramírez‐Estrada, Karla; Cusidó, Rosa M.; Palazon, Javier; Bru‐Martínez, Roque

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine stilbenes, particularly trans-resveratrol, have a demonstrated pharmacological activity. Other natural stilbenes derived from resveratrol such as pterostilbene or piceatannol, display higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than the parent compound, but are far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain these bioactive resveratrol derivatives, there is a need to develop new bioproduction systems. Grapevine cell cultures are able to produce large amounts of eas...

  1. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  2. Transporters, chaperones, and P-type ATPases controlling grapevine copper homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Mu, Qian; Wang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xudong; Shangguan, Lingfei; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-11-01

    With more copper and copper-containing compounds used as bactericides and fungicides in viticulture, copper homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis) has become one of the serious environmental crises with great risk. To better understand the regulation of Cu homeostasis in grapevine, grapevine seedlings cultured in vitro with different levels of Cu were utilized to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of grapevine responding to copper availability at physiological and molecular levels. The results indicated that Cu contents in roots and leaves arose with increasing levels of Cu application. With copper concentration increasing, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased in roots and leaves and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) increased to protect the plant itself from damage. The expression patterns of 19 genes, encoding transporters, chaperones, and P-type ATPases involved in copper homeostasis in root and leaf of grapevine seedling under various levels of Cu(2+) were further analyzed. The expression patterns indicated that CTr1, CTr2, and CTr8 transporters were significantly upregulated in response both to Cu excess and deficiency. ZIP2 was downregulated in response to Cu excess and upregulated under Cu-deficient conditions, while ZIP4 had an opposite expression pattern under similar conditions. The expression of chaperones and P-type ATPases in response to Cu availability in grapevine were also briefly studied.

  3. Neoproterozoic-middle Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of the Gorny Altai terrane, northwest of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Zheng, Jianping; Rubanova, Elena S.; Voytishek, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The Gorny Altai terrane (GA) is a key area in understanding the crustal evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper reports U-Pb and Hf-isotope data for detrital zircons from Cambrian to early Devonian sedimentary sequences to constrain their provenance, as well as the tectono-magmatic events and crustal growth in this region. Nearly all the detrital zircons are characterized by euhedral to subhedral morphology, high Th/U ratios (ca. 0.1-1.6) and typical oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. The three samples from the Gorny Altai Group (middle Cambrian to early Ordovician) yield detrital zircon populations that are composed predominantly of 530-464 Ma grains, followed by a subordinate group of 641-549 Ma old. The Silurian and Devonian samples exhibit similar major zircon populations (555-456 Ma and 525-463 Ma, respectively), but a significant amount of additional 2431-772 Ma zircons occur in the early Devonian sample. Our results suggest that detritus from the nearby Kuznetsk-Altai intra-oceanic island arc served as a unitary source for the Cambrian-Silurian sedimentary sequences, but older detritus from other sources added to the early Devonian sequence. The low abundance of ca. 640-540 Ma detrital zircons may testify that this island arc was under a primitive stage in this period, when mafic volcanic rocks probably dominated. In contrast, the dominant population of ca. 530-470 Ma zircons may indicate an increased amount of granitic rocks in the source area, suggesting that the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc possibly evolved into a mature one in the Cambrian to early Ordovician. The ca. 530-470 Ma detrital zircons are almost exclusively featured by positive εHf(t) values and have two-stage Hf model ages of ca. 1.40-0.45 Ga, indicating that the precursor magmas were sourced predominantly from heterogeneous juvenile materials. We conclude that the late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic magmatism in the Kuznetsk-Altai arc made a

  4. Late Paleozoic closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean along the Irtysh/Chara shear zone and implications for arc amalgamation and oroclinal bending in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The Irtysh/Chara Shear Zone is one of the largest strike-slip systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It records collisional processes of the peri-Siberian orogenic system with the West Junggar-Kazakhstan-Tianshan orogenic system following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean, but the exact timing of these events remains enigmatic. We conducted detailed structural analysis along the Irtysh Shear Zone (NW China), which together with new geochronological data allows us to reconstruct the tectonic evolution during the final closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean. Our results showed that subduction-accretion processes lasted at least until the Late Carboniferous in the Chinese Altai and the East/West Junggar. The subsequent arc amalgamation is characterized by a cycle of crustal thickening, orogenic collapse and transpressional thickening. On a larger scale, the West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system defines a U-shape oroclinal structure (e.g. Xiao et al., 2010). A major phase of oroclinal bending that involved ~110° rotation may have occurred during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous (Levashova et al., 2012). Previous authors have linked oroclinal bending with the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the western CAOB, and proposed that a quasi-linear West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system was buckled during the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean (in the north) and the South Tianshan Ocean (in the south) (e.g. Abrajevitch et al., 2008). This model, however, is not supported by our new data that constrain the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean to the Late Carboniferous. Alternatively, we propose that oroclinal bending may have involved two phases of bending, with the ~110° rotation in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous possibly associated with trench retreat. Further tightening may have occurred in response to the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons during the Late

  5. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  6. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  7. Asian/American Bodies in Extremis: Gendering Power, Pleasure, and Nation through "Spectacular" Excess

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Melissa Garcia

    2012-01-01

    As a cross-genre study, this project centralizes performances of physical excess, putting genre theory in conversation with Asian/American critical race discourses to articulate the specific knowledges produced by film, stand-up comedy, theatre, and sports. Considering figures such as Annabel Chong, Margaret Cho, and Manny Pacquiao from within the discourses of gender and nation, I investigate how the Asian/American body in extremis speaks and is spoken, and how Asian/American subjects use b...

  8. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems.

  9. HIV Among Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  10. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  11. A New Asian Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The inauguration of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area caps 10 years of fruitful efforts It was not only the birth of a new decade. January 1 also witnessed a day of celebration on the mainland and beyond after Beijing and its partners in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) fully established the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA).

  12. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  13. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  14. Burgundy regional climate change and its potential impact on grapevines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiwen [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); G.C. Rieber Climate Institute at the Nansen Environment and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Castel, Thierry [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); AgroSup, Department of Agriculture and Environment, Dijon (France); Richard, Yves; Cuccia, Cedric [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); Bois, Benjamin [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); IUVV, University of Burgundy, Dijon (France)

    2012-10-15

    ARPEGE general circulation model simulations were dynamically downscaled by The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for the study of climate change and its impact on grapevine growth in Burgundy region in France by the mid twenty-first century. Two time periods were selected: 1970-1979 and 2031-2040. The WRF model driven by ERA-INTERIM reanalysis data was validated against in situ surface temperature observations. The daily maximum and minimum surface temperature (T{sub max} and T{sub min}) were simulated by the WRF model at 8 x 8 km horizontal resolution. The averaged daily T{sub max} for each month during 1970-1979 have good agreement with observations, the averaged daily T{sub min} have a warm bias about 1-2 K. The daily T{sub max} and T{sub min} for each month (domain averaged) during 2031-2040 show a general increase. The largest increment ({proportional_to}3 K) was found in summer. The smallest increments (<1 K) were found in spring and fall. The spatial distribution of temperature increment shows a strong meridional gradient, high in south in summer, reversing in winter. The resulting potential warming rate in summer is equivalent to 4.7 K/century under the IPCC A2 emission scenario. The dynamically downscaled T{sub max} and T{sub min} were used to simulate the grape (Pinot noir grape variety) flowering and veraison dates. For 2031-2040, the projected dates are 8 and 12 days earlier than those during 1970-1979, respectively. The simulated hot days increase more than 50% in the two principal grapevine regions. They show strong impact on Pinot noir development. (orig.)

  15. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  16. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Kartosen; E.S.H. Tan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In concur

  17. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  18. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher.

  19. Vascular Occlusions in Grapevines with Pierce’s Disease Make Disease Symptom Development Worse1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Sun, Yuliang; Walker, M. Andrew; Labavitch, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular occlusions are common structural modifications made by many plant species in response to pathogen infection. However, the functional role(s) of occlusions in host plant disease resistance/susceptibility remains controversial. This study focuses on vascular occlusions that form in stem secondary xylem of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) infected with Pierce’s disease (PD) and the impact of occlusions on the hosts’ water transport and the systemic spread of the causal bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in infected vines. Tyloses are the predominant type of occlusion that forms in grapevine genotypes with differing PD resistances. Tyloses form throughout PD-susceptible grapevines with over 60% of the vessels in transverse sections of all examined internodes becoming fully blocked. By contrast, tylose development was mainly limited to a few internodes close to the point of inoculation in PD-resistant grapevines, impacting only 20% or less of the vessels. The extensive vessel blockage in PD-susceptible grapevines was correlated to a greater than 90% decrease in stem hydraulic conductivity, compared with an approximately 30% reduction in the stems of PD-resistant vines. Despite the systemic spread of X. fastidiosa in PD-susceptible grapevines, the pathogen colonized only 15% or less of the vessels in any internode and occurred in relatively small numbers, amounts much too small to directly block the vessels. Therefore, we concluded that the extensive formation of vascular occlusions in PD-susceptible grapevines does not prevent the pathogen’s systemic spread in them, but may significantly suppress the vines’ water conduction, contributing to PD symptom development and the vines’ eventual death. PMID:23292789

  20. Vascular occlusions in grapevines with Pierce's disease make disease symptom development worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Sun, Yuliang; Walker, M Andrew; Labavitch, John M

    2013-03-01

    Vascular occlusions are common structural modifications made by many plant species in response to pathogen infection. However, the functional role(s) of occlusions in host plant disease resistance/susceptibility remains controversial. This study focuses on vascular occlusions that form in stem secondary xylem of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) infected with Pierce's disease (PD) and the impact of occlusions on the hosts' water transport and the systemic spread of the causal bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in infected vines. Tyloses are the predominant type of occlusion that forms in grapevine genotypes with differing PD resistances. Tyloses form throughout PD-susceptible grapevines with over 60% of the vessels in transverse sections of all examined internodes becoming fully blocked. By contrast, tylose development was mainly limited to a few internodes close to the point of inoculation in PD-resistant grapevines, impacting only 20% or less of the vessels. The extensive vessel blockage in PD-susceptible grapevines was correlated to a greater than 90% decrease in stem hydraulic conductivity, compared with an approximately 30% reduction in the stems of PD-resistant vines. Despite the systemic spread of X. fastidiosa in PD-susceptible grapevines, the pathogen colonized only 15% or less of the vessels in any internode and occurred in relatively small numbers, amounts much too small to directly block the vessels. Therefore, we concluded that the extensive formation of vascular occlusions in PD-susceptible grapevines does not prevent the pathogen's systemic spread in them, but may significantly suppress the vines' water conduction, contributing to PD symptom development and the vines' eventual death.

  1. The Influence of Country of Origin and Academic Level on Asian Students' Gains of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The author examines whether gains of learning of Asian students are the same or different if they are from (a) East Asia, (b) South and Central Asia, or (c) Southeast Asia at undergraduate and graduate levels. Results indicated that East Asian students' gains of learning in personal development, science and development, general education,…

  2. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India.......This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  3. Mood disorders in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  4. Is Asian Currency Unit Attractive to East Asian Economies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Fan He

    2007-01-01

    Pegging the RMB exchange rate to the Asian currency unit (ACU) has not, at least in the short term, been proved a better solution than pegging to the US dollar or pegging to a G-3 (US$, Japaneseyen and euro) currency basket. Although the Asian currency unit can help Asian economies to keep the relative price of regional currencies stable, the cost of joining a formal regional monetary cooperation is the relinquishment of the autonomy of their domestic policies. Asian monetary cooperation needs to provide more potential benefits if it is to attract Asian economies. We argue that Asian monetary cooperation should be designed to solve the problem of regional trade imbalance, and regional exchange rate policy coordination should be adopted as the first step towards exchange rate cooperation.

  5. Profiling of Disease-Related Metabolites in Grapevine Internode Tissues Infected with Agrobacterium vitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green shoot cuttings of 10 different grapevine species were inoculated with Agrobacterium vitis to find disease-related metabolites in the grapevine. Crown galls formed 60 days after inoculation varied in gall severity (GS evaluated by gall incidence (GI and gall diameter (GD, which were classified into three response types as RR (low GI and small GD, SR (high GI and small GD, and SS (high GI and large GD, corresponding to resistant, moderately resistant, and susceptible responses, respectively. In this, 4, 4, and 2 Vitis species were classified into RR, SR, and SS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the grapevine stem metabolites with A. vitis infection showed 134 metabolites in various compound classes critically occurred, which were differentially clustered with the response types by the principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile revealed that 11 metabolites increased significantly in relation to the response types, mostly at post-inoculation stages, more prevalently (8 metabolites at two days after inoculation than other stages, and more related to SS (7 metabolites than RR (3 metabolites or SR (one metabolite. This suggests most of the disease-related metabolites may be rarely pre-existing but mostly induced by pathogen infection largely for facilitating gall development except stilbene compound resveratrol, a phytoalexin that may be involved in the resistance response. All of these aspects may be used for the selection of resistant grapevine cultivars and their rootstocks for the control of the crown gall disease of the grapevine.

  6. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  7. Transmission of Grapevine virus A and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 by Heliococcus bohemicus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Nymphs From Plants With Mixed Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, S; Cavalieri, V; Gribaudo, I; Sacco, D; Marzachì, C; Bosco, D

    2016-08-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) represent a serious threat for viticulture as vectors of phloem-restricted viruses associated with the grapevine rugose wood and leafroll diseases. Heliococcus bohemicus (Šulc) is known to be involved in the spread of these two viral diseases, being a vector of the Grapevine virus A (GVA) and the Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3). This study investigated the acquisition and transmission efficiency of H. bohemicus fed on mixed-infected plants. Nymphs were field-collected onto GVA, GLRaV-1, and GLRaV-3 multiple-infected grapevines in two vineyards in North-Western Italy, and were used in transmission experiments under controlled conditions. Even if most of the collected nymphs were positive to at least one virus, transmission occurred only to a low number of test grapevines. The transmission frequency of GLRaV-3 was the highest, whereas GVA was transmitted to few test plants. The transmission of multiple viruses occurred at low rates, and nymphs that acquired all the three viruses then failed to transmit them together. Statistical analyses showed that the three viruses were independently acquired and transmitted by H. bohemicus and neither synergistic nor antagonistic interactions occurred among them. GVA and GLRaVs transmission efficiencies by H. bohemicus were lower than those reported for other mealybug vectors. This finding is consistent with the slow spread of leafroll and rugose wood diseases observed in Northern Italy, where H. bohemicus is the predominant vector species.

  8. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  10. RNA-Sequencing Reveals Biological Networks during Table Grapevine (‘Fujiminori’) Fruit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Lingfei; Mu, Qian; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Kekun; Jia, Haifeng; Li, Xiaoying; Bao, Yiqun; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine berry development is a complex and genetically controlled process, with many morphological, biochemical and physiological changes occurring during the maturation process. Research carried out on grapevine berry development has been mainly concerned with wine grape, while barely focusing on table grape. ‘Fujiminori’ is an important table grapevine cultivar, which is cultivated in most provinces of China. In order to uncover the dynamic networks involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, cell wall development, lipid metabolism and starch-sugar metabolism in ‘Fujiminori’ fruit, we employed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and analyzed the whole transcriptome of grape berry during development at the expanding period (40 days after full bloom, 40DAF), véraison period (65DAF), and mature period (90DAF). The sequencing depth in each sample was greater than 12×, and the expression level of nearly half of the expressed genes were greater than 1. Moreover, greater than 64% of the clean reads were aligned to the Vitis vinifera reference genome, and 5,620, 3,381, and 5,196 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between different fruit stages, respectively. Results of the analysis of DEGs showed that the most significant changes in various processes occurred from the expanding stage to the véraison stage. The expression patterns of F3’H and F3’5’H were crucial in determining red or blue color of the fruit skin. The dynamic networks of cell wall development, lipid metabolism and starch-sugar metabolism were also constructed. A total of 4,934 SSR loci were also identified from 4,337 grapevine genes, which may be helpful for the development of phylogenetic analysis in grapevine and other fruit trees. Our work provides the foundation for developmental research of grapevine fruit as well as other non-climacteric fruits. PMID:28118385

  11. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  12. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  13. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-β-caryophyllene, ( E)-β-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  14. Resistance induced component of management of diseases of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusciélio Barbosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of induced resistance presents as a viable alternative in the management of diseases of the vine. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Agro Mos® and potassium phosphite in controlling diseases of grapevine under field conditions in the Valley San Francisco. O test was conducted under field conditions in the experimental area IFSertão Pernambucano, Petrolina, PE, using the cultivar Petit Sirah. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, composed of five treatments and five replicates: T1 - control; T2 - Cabrio Top® - CT (2kg ha-1; T3 - Agro Mos® - AM (3mL L-1; T4 - Fosfito de potássio - FP (4mL L-1; T5 - Agro Mos® - AM (3mL L-1 interleaved with the fungicide Cabrio Top® - CT (2kg ha-1. Each plot consisted of eight plants. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and averages compared by Tukey test at 5%. Conditions in which the experiment was developed, the use of potassium phosphite and Agro-Mos® promoted a significant reduction in the incidence of Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator.Key-words: resistance induced, Plasmopara viticola, Uncinula necator.

  15. Agronomic evaluation of 'Bordô' grapevine (Ives clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Carla Vilanova Miotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Bordô' grapevines (Vitis labrusca have great relevance to viticulture due to the quality they can impart to wines and juices. However, this cultivar has high variation in yield, ranging from 6 to 11 t ha-1. The use of clones with superior genetic potential related to scions currently marketed may increase crop profitability and revitalize its cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomical responses of twelve clones of the Bordô cultivar selected over a period of 15 years according to yield and quality. The vineyard was planted in 2008. Grape plants were grafted onto '1103 Paulsen' rootstock and trained on vertical shoot positioning. The agronomical evaluations, performed in the 2011, 2012 and 2013 seasons, covered the duration of their phenological cycles, shoot growth, yield per plant, estimated total yield and physicochemical characteristics. Differences were found between clones in terms of phenology, yield components, and berry composition. Clone 6 had the lowest yield, averaging 5.0 t ha-1 whereas clone 13 was the most productive with 14.9 t ha-1. Based on the most productive vineyards in the region (10.8 t ha-1, the adoption of more productive clones can generate an increase in yield of around 38 %.

  16. VESPUCCI: exploring patterns of gene expression in grapevine

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    Marco eMoretto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale transcriptional studies aim to decipher the dynamic cellular responses to a stimulus, like different environmental conditions. In the era of high-throughput omics biology, the most used technologies for these purposes are microarray and RNA-Seq, whose data are usually required to be deposited in public repositories upon publication. Such repositories have the enormous potential to provide a comprehensive view of how different experimental conditions lead to expression changes, by comparing gene expression across all possible measured conditions. Unfortunately, this task is greatly impaired by differences among experimental platforms that make direct comparisons difficult.In this paper we present the Vitis Expression Studies Platform Using COLOMBOS Compendia Instances (VESPUCCI, a gene expression compendium for grapevine which was built by adapting an approach originally developed for bacteria, and show how it can be used to investigate complex gene expression patterns. We integrated nearly all publicly available microarray and RNA-Seq expression data: 1608 gene expression samples from 10 different technological platforms. Each sample has been manually annotated using a controlled vocabulary developed ad hoc to ensure both human readability and computational tractability. Expression data in the compendium can be visually explored using several tools provided by the web interface or can be programmatically accessed using the REST interface. VESPUCCI is freely accessible at http://vespucci.colombos.fmach.it.

  17. Understanding grapevine-microbiome interactions: implications for viticulture industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, the analysis of complex communities such as that of the grapevine-microbe holobiont has been limited by the fact that most microbes are not culturable under laboratory conditions (less than 1%). However, metagenomics, the study of the genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples without the need for enrichment or of culturing, has led to open an unprecedented era in the field of microbiology. Importantly, this technological advance has now become so pervasive that it is being regularly applied to explore soils and plants of agricultural interest. Interestingly, many large companies are taking notice, with significant financial investment being used to exploring ways to manipulate the productivity, disease resistance and stress tolerance for crops by influencing the microbiome. To understand which microbes one needs to manipulate to influence this valuable characteristics, we need to sequence the microbiome and capture the genetic and hence functional metabolic information contained therein. For viticulture and other agricultural fields where the crop is also associated to particular flavor properties that may also be manipulated, understanding how the bacteria, fungi and viruses influence the development and hence chemical makeup of the crop is essential. PMID:28357290

  18. Understanding grapevine-microbiome interactions: implications for viticulture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Zarraonaindia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the analysis of complex communities such as that of the grapevine-microbe holobiont has been limited by the fact that most microbes are notculturable under laboratory conditions (less than 1%. However, metagenomics, the study of the genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples without the need for enrichment or of culturing, has led to open an unprecedented era in the field of microbiology. Importantly, this technological advance has now become so pervasive that it is being regularly applied to explore soils and plants of agricultural interest. Interestingly, many large companies are taking notice, with significant financial investment being used to exploring ways to manipulate the productivity, disease resistance and stress tolerance for crops by influencing the microbiome. To understand which microbes one needs to manipulate to influence this valuable characteristics, we need to sequence the microbiome and capture the genetic and hence functional metabolic information contained therein. For viticulture and other agricultural fields where the crop is also associated to particular flavor properties that may also be manipulated, understanding how the bacteria, fungi and viruses influence the development and hence chemical makeup of the crop is essential.

  19. South Asian Cluster

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    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  20. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  1. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse...

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the expansin gene superfamily reveals grapevine-specific structural and functional characteristics.

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    Silvia Dal Santo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansins are proteins that loosen plant cell walls in a pH-dependent manner, probably by increasing the relative movement among polymers thus causing irreversible expansion. The expansin superfamily (EXP comprises four distinct families: expansin A (EXPA, expansin B (EXPB, expansin-like A (EXLA and expansin-like B (EXLB. There is experimental evidence that EXPA and EXPB proteins are required for cell expansion and developmental processes involving cell wall modification, whereas the exact functions of EXLA and EXLB remain unclear. The complete grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome sequence has allowed the characterization of many gene families, but an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of expansin gene expression has not been attempted thus far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 29 EXP superfamily genes in the grapevine genome, representing all four EXP families. Members of the same EXP family shared the same exon-intron structure, and phylogenetic analysis confirmed a closer relationship between EXP genes from woody species, i.e. grapevine and poplar (Populus trichocarpa, compared to those from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. We also identified grapevine-specific duplication events involving the EXLB family. Global gene expression analysis confirmed a strong correlation among EXP genes expressed in mature and green/vegetative samples, respectively, as reported for other gene families in the recently-published grapevine gene expression atlas. We also observed the specific co-expression of EXLB genes in woody organs, and the involvement of certain grapevine EXP genes in berry development and post-harvest withering. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive analysis of the grapevine EXP superfamily confirmed and extended current knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of this gene family, and also identified properties that are currently unique to grapevine expansin genes. Our data provide a model for the

  3. Transmission competency of single-female Xiphinema index lines for Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Van-Ghelder, Cyril; Voisin, Roger; Lemaire, Olivier; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Fuchs, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is vectored specifically from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Limited information is available on the vector competency of X. index populations from diverse geographical origins. We determined the transmissibility of two GFLV strains showing 4.6% amino acid divergence within their coat protein (e.g., strains F13 and GHu) by seven clonal lines of X. index developed from seven distinct populations from the Mediterranean basin (Cyprus, southern France, Israel, Italy, and Spain), northern France, and California. X. index lines derived from single adult females were produced on fig (Ficus carica) plants to obtain genetically homogenous aviruliferous clones. A comparative reproductive rate analysis on Vitis rupestris du Lot and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon showed significant differences among clones, with the single-female Cyprus line showing the highest rate (30-fold the initial population) and the Spain and California lines showing the lowest rate (10-fold increase), regardless of the grapevine genotype. However, there was no differential vector competency among the seven X. index lines for GFLV strains F13 and GHu. The implications of our findings for the dynamic of GFLV transmission in vineyards and screening of Vitis spp. for resistance to GFLV are discussed.

  4. Molecular analyses of Pythium irregulare isolates from grapevines in South Africa suggest a single variable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pythium irregulare species complex is the most common and widespread Pythium spp. associated with grapevines in South Africa. This species complex can be subdivided into several morphological and phylogenetic species that are all highly similar at the sequence level. The complex includes P. re...

  5. Glassy-winged sharpshooter oviposition effects on foliar grapevine and red-tipped photinia terpenoid levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grapevine and is a threat to grape production throughout the United States. Female GWSS deposit egg masses be...

  6. Knockdown of MLO genes reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew in grapevine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, Stefano; Lenzi, Luisa; Perazzolli, Michele; Campa, Manuela; Costa, Dalla Lorenza; Urso, Simona; Valè, Giampiero; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Erysiphe necator is the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine. PM is controlled by sulfur-based and synthetic fungicides, which every year are dispersed into the environment. This is why PM-resistant varieties should become a priority for sustainable

  7. Role of MLO genes in susceptibility to powdery mildew in apple and grapevine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a major fungal disease that threatens thousands of plant species. PM is caused by Podosphaera leucotricha in apple and Erysiphe necator in grapevine. Powdery mildew is controlled by frequent applications of fungicides, having negative effects on the environment, and leading to

  8. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation.

  9. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  10. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  11. Identification of breeding signatures in grapevine hybrids, donors of resistances against downy and powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezzulli, S.; Peressotti, E.; Banchi, E.; Dolzani, C.; Micheli, S.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most valuable crops in the world, but has been often plagued by encountering new parasites that still represent a major constraint, such as downy (DM) and powdery (PM) mildew. Nowadays, growers are still obliged to recur to a massive use of pesticides t

  12. Cell wall modification in grapevine cells in response to UV stress investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesniewska, E.; Adrian, M.; Klinguer, A.; Pugin, A

    2004-08-15

    Despite cell wall reinforcement being a well-known defence mechanism of plants, it remains poorly characterized from a physical point of view. The objective of this work was to further describe this mechanism. Vitis vinifera cv Gamay cells were treated with UV-light (254 nm), a well-known elicitor of defence mechanisms in grapevines, and physical cell wall modifications were observed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) under native conditions. The grapevine cell suspensions were continuously observed in their culture medium from 30 min to 24 h after elicitation. In the beginning, cellulose fibrils covered by a matrix surrounded the control and treated cells. After 3 h, the elicited cells displayed sprouted expansions around the cell wall that correspond to pectin chains. These expansions were not observed on untreated grapevine cells. The AFM tip was used to determine the average surface elastic modulus of cell wall that account for cell wall mechanical properties. The elasticity is diminished in UV-treated cells. In a comparative study, grapevine cells showed the same decrease in cell wall elasticity when treated with a fungal biotic elicitor of defence response. These results demonstrate cell wall strengthening by UV stress.

  13. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  14. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

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    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  15. First Report of Lasiodiplodia crassispora as a pathogen of grapevine trunks in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van J.M.; Bester, W.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, a survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) trunk pathogens was conducted in 30 vineyards in the Western and Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. In each vineyard, 20 visually healthy plants were sampled randomly by removing the distal part of one cordon arm. Isolatio

  16. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions.Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined in a...

  17. Grapevine cell early activation of specific responses to DIMEB, a resveratrol elicitor

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    Pilati Stefania

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to pathogen attack, grapevine synthesizes phytoalexins belonging to the family of stilbenes. Grapevine cell cultures represent a good model system for studying the basic mechanisms of plant response to biotic and abiotic elicitors. Among these, modified β-cyclodextrins seem to act as true elicitors inducing strong production of the stilbene resveratrol. Results The transcriptome changes of Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri grapevine cells in response to the modified β-cyclodextrin, DIMEB, were analyzed 2 and 6 h after treatment using a suppression subtractive hybridization experiment and a microarray analysis respectively. At both time points, we identified a specific set of induced genes belonging to the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, including stilbenes and hydroxycinnamates, and to defence proteins such as PR proteins and chitinases. At 6 h we also observed a down-regulation of the genes involved in cell division and cell-wall loosening. Conclusions We report the first large-scale study of the molecular effects of DIMEB, a resveratrol inducer, on grapevine cell cultures. This molecule seems to mimic a defence elicitor which enhances the physical barriers of the cell, stops cell division and induces phytoalexin synthesis.

  18. Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetto, Luciana; Miliordos, Dimitrios E; Pegoraro, Mattia; Sacco, Dario; Veratti, Flavio; Marzachì, Cristina; Bosco, Domenico

    2016-09-15

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads.

  19. Deep amplicon sequencing reveals mixed phytoplasma infection within single grapevine plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of phytoplasmas within single plants has not yet been fully investigated. In this project, deep amplicon sequencing was used to generate 50,926 phytoplasma sequences from 11 phytoplasma-infected grapevine samples from a PCR amplicon in the 5' end of the 16S region. After clustering ...

  20. Possibilities of environmentally acceptable control methods of American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga LAZNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The American Grapevine Leafhopper (AGL (Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932 is a small insect of the family leafhoppers (Cicadellidae, originally spread across North America. Specie has been introduced to Europe, where is known primarily as a vector of phytoplasma Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD, (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis, a disease-causing grapevine yellows. AGL was first found in Slovenia in 1983. First occurrence of grapevine yellows was confirmed in Slovenia in 2005. Since no effective biological control agents are known to date, AGL populations are suppressed using insecticides during the host plant's growth period. Some researchers reported that it is in both continents (North America, Europe abundance of natural enemies of the AGL very small. Researchers reported that some parasitoids (Drynidae: Hymenoptera and Pipunculidae: Diptera parasitize the AGL, but the percentage of efficiency is very low (from 1.3 to 0.8 %. Among the methods of integrated pest management of AGL methods of mating disruption, thermotherapy, and cover crops are used.

  1. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  2. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  3. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  4. Functions of EDS1-like and PAD4 genes in grapevine defenses against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Dai, Ru; Pike, Sharon M; Qiu, Wenping; Gassmann, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The molecular interactions between grapevine and the obligate biotrophic fungus Erysiphe necator are not understood in depth. One reason for this is the recalcitrance of grapevine to genetic modifications. Using defense-related Arabidopsis mutants that are susceptible to pathogens, we were able to analyze key components in grapevine defense responses. We have examined the functions of defense genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, including ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), EDS1-LIKE 2 (EDL2), EDL5 and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 (PAD4) of two grapevine species, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which is susceptible to E. necator, and V. aestivalis cv. Norton, which is resistant. Both VaEDS1 and VvEDS1 were previously found to functionally complement the Arabidopsis eds1-1 mutant. Here we show that the promoters of both VaEDS1 and VvEDS1 were induced by SA, indicating that the heightened defense of Norton is related to its high SA level. Other than Va/VvEDS1, only VaEDL2 complemented Arabidopsis eds1-1, whereas Va/VvPAD4 did not complement Arabidopsis pad4-1. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation results indicated that Vitis EDS1 and EDL2 proteins interact with Vitis PAD4 and AtPAD4, suggesting that Vitis EDS1/EDL2 forms a complex with PAD4 to confer resistance, as is known from Arabidopsis. However, Vitis EDL5 and PAD4 did not interact with Arabidopsis EDS1 or PAD4, correlating with their inability to function in Arabidopsis. Together, our study suggests a more complicated EDS1/PAD4 module in grapevine and provides insight into molecular mechanisms that determine disease resistance levels in Vitis species native to the North American continent.

  5. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Grapevine ( Vitis vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of newly identified, small, non-coding RNAs that play vital roles in regulation. Based on miRNAs unique features of expression pattern, evolutionary conservation, secondary structure and genetic requirements for biogenesis, computational predication strategy is adopted to predicate the novel miRNAs. In this research, potential miRNAs and their targets in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) were predicted. We used previously known plant miRNAs against grapevine genome sequence databases to search for potential miRNAs. A total of 81 potential miRNAs were detected following a range of strict filtering criteria. Using these potential miRNA sequences, we could further blast the mRNA database to find the potential targets in this species. Comparative analysis of miRNAs in grapevine and other species reveals that miRNAs exhibit an evolutional conservation, the number and function of miRNAs must have significantly expanded during the evolution of land plants. Furthermore divergence made versatile functions of miRNAs feasible. Cluster of miRNAs likely represents an ancient expression mechanism. Predicted target genes include not only transcription factors but also genes implicated in floral development, signal transduction, diseases and stress response. Till now, little is known about experimental or computational identification of miRNA in grapevine species. Increased knowledge of the biological mechanisms of the grapevine will allow targeted approaches to increase the quality of fruit and reduce the impact of parasites together with stress, which could enable a sustainable, environmentally-sound, farming policy.

  6. Physical mapping in highly heterozygous genomes: a physical contig map of the Pinot Noir grapevine cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurman Irena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown today are those selected centuries ago, even though grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Grapevine has therefore not benefited from the advances in modern plant breeding nor more recently from those in molecular genetics and genomics: genes controlling important agronomic traits are practically unknown. A physical map is essential to positionally clone such genes and instrumental in a genome sequencing project. Results We report on the first whole genome physical map of grapevine built using high information content fingerprinting of 49,104 BAC clones from the cultivar Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir, as most grape varieties, is highly heterozygous at the sequence level. This resulted in the two allelic haplotypes sometimes assembling into separate contigs that had to be accommodated in the map framework or in local expansions of contig maps. We performed computer simulations to assess the effects of increasing levels of sequence heterozygosity on BAC fingerprint assembly and showed that the experimental assembly results are in full agreement with the theoretical expectations, given the heterozygosity levels reported for grape. The map is anchored to a dense linkage map consisting of 994 markers. 436 contigs are anchored to the genetic map, covering 342 of the 475 Mb that make up the grape haploid genome. Conclusions We have developed a resource that makes it possible to access the grapevine genome, opening the way to a new era both in grape genetics and breeding and in wine making. The effects of heterozygosity on the assembly have been analyzed and characterized by using several complementary approaches which could be easily transferred to the study of other genomes which present the same features.

  7. Analysis of SAR and optical temporal signatures of grapevine over a heterogeneous vineyard landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussert, P.; Baup, F.; Corgne, S.; Quénol, H.; Ortega, A.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse grapevine temporal signatures over a viticultural landscape with remote sensing data in order to evaluate the impact of the perennial practices on optical and SAR signals. For this, the effects of different combinations of vineyard organisations on multi-temporal high and very high spatial resolution SAR and optical data have been analysed. The study area is located in Mendoza (Argentina). All the ground data were acquired during an experimental campaign performed in 2014-2015 over 153 vineyards (around 400ha). The data of the perennial practices were recorded over each of the 153 vineyards. The schedule of the annual practices were also provided over the all site. The grapevine phenological cycle was finally monitored on 14 fields through GLAI (Green Leaf Area index) estimation using hemispherical images and grapevine canopy height measurements. The satellite images dataset is composed of 6 Dual-Pol TerraSAR-X images, 5 Pleiades images, and 6 Landsat-8 images. After calibrating the images, backscattering coefficients and polarimetric parameters were extracted from Terrasar-X images (entropy and alpha angle) and the NDVI from optical images. The analysis of the temporal signatures regarding perennial practices revealed a strong impact of the inter-row spacing management. Ranges of values of backscattering coefficients differ with the type of management but their temporal variation seems to be linked to soil moisture changes. Depending on the roughness of the inter-row spacing the alpha angle evolution is linked to grapevine growth in the case of a chemically weeded inter-row spacing. But it remains at high values when the inter-row spacing is ploughed or grassed. In those cases, the entropy increases along the growth cycle. The vegetation indexes series are increasing with the grapevine growth depending on canopy width and soil management. Thus this work highlighted the variability of the SAR and optical signals due to

  8. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  9. Grapevines respond to glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) oviposition by increasing local and systemic terpenoid levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been observed to respond to oviposition by glassy-winged sharpshooters [Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)] by producing volatile compounds that attract egg parasitoids such as Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Recent work ...

  10. Erica Marat, The Military and the State in Central Asia: From Red Army to Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Petric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Erica Marat is a one of the United States’ most brilliant Central Asian political scientists. She has offered numerous analyses of political transformations as presented by different think tanks and American foundations. In this book, Marat focuses on the role of the army in building state processes in contemporary Central Asian states. The book offers a wide panorama of Central Asian armies, compiling sources already published (books, reports in Russian and English etc. and some original da...

  11. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  12. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  13. Biological control of crown gall on grapevine and root colonization by nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.29, P0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.53, P0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years.

  14. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). III: Descriptions of two new willow-dwelling species, new synonym, annotated check-list, and key to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-07-09

    Macropsis milkoi Tishetshkin sp. n. from West Tien Shan, Alay and Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and Macropsis anufrievi Tishetshkin sp. n. from Hissar-Darvaz Mts. (Tajikistan) are described. M. elaeagni Emelyanov, 1964 = M. cyanescens Dubovskiy, 1966 syn. n. is redescribed and illustrated based on the material from Central Asia. Annotated check list and key to 30 Macropsis species from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the mountains of Southern Kazakhstan are given.

  15. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  16. East Asian Monsoon and EL NIÑO-SOUTHERN Oscillation Activities Since the Mid-Holocene Evidences from Massive Corals in the the Central Vietnamese Coast, Western South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A. D.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Y.; Yu, K.; Gasparon, M.; U-Series Dating Technique Team

    2011-12-01

    The climate of the Vietnamese coast, western South China Sea (SCS), is driven by the annually reversing East Asian Monsoon (EAM) system which is also related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through teleconnection. Our understanding of EAM activity and its connection with global climate is not fully established. In this study high resolution Sr/Ca and δ18O records derived from four fossil Porites sp. corals with U-series ages ranging from ~7000 to 1800 years (yrs) were used to characterise the EAM-ENSO activities since the mid-Holocene. The results show that both the summer and winter monsoons were stronger than present ~ 7000 yrs ago, as evidenced by the higher-than-present amplitudes of annual cycles in SST (9.1 °C) and seawater δ18O (1.4%). The strengthened summer monsoon is considered to result from higher Northern Hemispheric insolation during the mid-Holocene, while the enhanced winter monsoon could be attributed to a reduction/shutdown of North Atlantic Meridional Overturning (NAMOC), leading to a prevailing "cold tongue" off the Vietnamese coast, and an amplified east-west SST gradient in the northern SCS. The EAM was weakened ca. 4200 yrs ago, as reflected by the lower amplitude of SST (4.3 °C) and seawater δ18O (0.57%) annual cycles. The downturn of the EAM is correlated in timing with the cold phase or the Bond event of the high-latitude climate, the Neolithic cultural collapse in China, and the strengthened ENSO in the Pacific. After this downturn, the EAM was slightly strengthened ~3600 and 1800 yrs ago as shown by larger amplitudes of SST (~ 5 °C) and seawater δ18O (1.0-1.2%) annual cycles. The enhanced EAM at these times are out of phase with the high-latitude climate, but are consistent with evidence from historical documents in Vietnam and China. The waxing/waning of the EAM appear to match with the waning/waxing of the ENSO intensity throughout the records since the mid-Holocene. The changes in EAM activity were accompanied by

  17. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  18. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  19. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  20. Warm Indian Ocean, Weak Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koll Roxy, Mathew; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Nath Goswami, Buphendra

    2015-04-01

    There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian monsoon in a changing climate. Observations and climate models have suggested that anthropogenic warming in the past century has increased the moisture availability and the land-sea thermal contrast in the tropics, favoring an increase in monsoon rainfall. In contrast, we notice that South Asian subcontinent experienced a relatively subdued warming during this period. At the same time, the tropical Indian Ocean experienced a nearly monotonic warming, at a rate faster than the other tropical oceans. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we suggest that the enhanced Indian Ocean warming along with the suppressed warming of the subcontinent weaken the land-sea thermal contrast throughout the troposphere, dampen the monsoon Hadley circulation, and reduce the rainfall over South Asia. As a result, the summer monsoon rainfall during 1901-2012 shows a significant weakening trend over South Asia, extending from Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh.

  1. Destino do nitrogênio em videiras 'chardonnay' e 'riesling renano' quando aplicado no inchamento das gemas Nitrogen destiny in 'chardonnay' and 'riesling renano' grapevines, when applied in bud break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No Rio Grande do Sul, o teor de N na folha inteira ou pecíolo e a expectativa de produção têm sido usados tanto para a tomada de decisão quanto no estabelecimento da dose de N a ser aplicada na cultura da videira. Entretanto, se carece de conhecimentos sobre a utilização, a distribuição e a acumulação na planta do N aplicado. O presente trabalho objetivou estimar o destino do N em videiras produtivas quando aplicado na época do inchamento das gemas. O experimento foi conduzido na safra 2002-2003 em um vinhedo de viníferas, cvs. Chardonnay e Riesling Renano, na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves - RS, sobre um Neossolo Litólico. As videiras receberam a aplicação de 15,91g N planta-1 no inchamento das gemas, correspondendo a 40 kg N ha-1, enriquecido com 4% de átomos 15N em excesso. Foram coletadas gemas brotadas e folhas na parte central do ramo emitido no ano, em oito épocas na cv. Chardonnay e sete épocas na cv. Riesling Renano. Na última coleta das folhas, as videiras foram cortadas e separadas em cachos, folhas, ramos do ano, ramos dos anos anteriores e caule. Foram secadas, determinada a produção de matéria seca e os teores de N total e 15N. Os resultados mostraram que a maior porcentagem de N nas folhas das videiras, cvs. Chardonnay e Riesling Renano, na brotação até a colheita da uva, é derivada de formas diferentes de N aplicado no inchamento das gemas. Na colheita da uva, a maior quantidade do N acumulado nas partes anuais e perenes das videiras é derivada do N do solo, sendo muito pequenas as quantidades de N aplicado no inchamento das gemas armazenado nas partes perenes.The grapevines N fertilization levels in Southern Brazil use to be accounted as function of N leaf and leaf petioles rates for a limit yield expectation, without any information about the inner N dynamics in the grapevines. This experiment was carried out in 2002/03, to estimate the N destiny as N broadcasted on the vineyard soil with

  2. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsana Poojari

    Full Text Available A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD. High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV, and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms.

  3. Relations between Economic Transition and Political Transition:Differences among Central Asian and Eastern European Countries and Their Explanations%经济转型与政治转型的关联:中亚、东欧国家间的差异及解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐坡岭; 王旖欢

    2012-01-01

      Group differences of a large scale of political and economic transition are an important feature in the twenty-year transition practice. Examining the basic achievements of economic and political transition of five Central Asian countries and eight Eastern European countries, comparing the differences of their transition results, we find out that political transition is of independence and has restrictions on economic transition and growth in the relations of economic and political transition.%  大规模政治经济转型的群体差异是20年来转型实践的一个重要特征。对中亚五国和东欧八国经济政治转型的基本成就进行梳理,比较上述国家经济转型与政治转型结果的差异,可以发现,在经济转型与政治转型的相互关系中,政治转型更具独立性,并对经济转型及经济增长具有制约作用。

  4. Water Governance in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Assche, Van Kristof; Valentinov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    We develop a social systems theory perspective on Central Asian post-Socialist transition, placing particular emphasis on the coordination problems in transboundary water governance. The extensive Soviet water-energy infrastructure around the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers required coordination, bu

  5. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample.

  6. Phytotoxic Lipophilic Metabolites Produced by Grapevine Strains of Lasiodiplodia Species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Cinelli, Tamara; Masi, Marco; Reveglia, Pierluigi; da Silva, Marcondes Araujo; Mugnai, Laura; Michereff, Sami J; Surico, Giuseppe; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-02-15

    Phytotoxic metabolites produced in liquid culture by six species of Lasiodiplodia isolated in Brazil and causing Botryosphaeria dieback of grapevine were chemically identified. As ascertained by LC/MS, L. brasiliense, L. crassispora, L. jatrophicola, and L. pseudotheobromae produced jasmonic acid, and L. brasiliense synthesized, besides jasmonic acid, also (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein. L. euphorbicola and L. hormozganensis produced some low molecular weight lipophilic toxins. Specifically, L. euphorbicola produced (-)-mellein, (3R,4R)-(-)- and (3R,4S)-(-)-4-hydroxymellein, and tyrosol, and L. hormozganensis synthesized tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. This is the first report on the production of the above cited metabolites from L. euphorbicola and L. hormozganensis. The phytotoxic activity of the metabolites produced is also discussed and related to the symptoms these pathogens cause in the grapevine host plants.

  7. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the ‘PN40024’ reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops. PMID:28125640

  8. Homologous and heterologous expression of grapevine E-(β)-caryophyllene synthase (VvGwECar2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagnin, Umberto; Carlin, Silvia; Angeli, Sergio; Vrhovsek, Urska; Anfora, Gianfranco; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    E-(β)-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene volatile emitted by plants and involved in many ecological interactions within and among trophic levels and it has a kairomonal activity for many insect species. In grapevine it is a key compound for host-plant recognition by the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, together with other two sesquiterpenes. In grapevine E-(β)-caryophyllene synthase is coded by the VvGwECar2 gene, although complete characterization of the corresponding protein has not yet been achieved. Here we performed the characterization of the enzyme after heterologous expression in E. coli, which resulted to produce in vitro also minor amounts of the isomer α-humulene and of germacrene D. The pH optimum was estimated to be 7.8, and the Km and Kcat values for farnesyl pyrophosphate were 31.4 μM and 0.19 s(-1) respectively. Then, we overexpressed the gene in the cytoplasm of two plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana and the native host Vitis vinifera. In Arabidopsis the enzyme changed the plant head space release, showing a higher selectivity for E-(β)-caryophyllene, but also the production of thujopsene instead of germacrene D. Overall plants increased the E-(β)-caryophyllene emission in the headspace collection by 8-fold compared to Col-0 control plants. In grapevine VvGwECar2 overexpression resulted in higher E-(β)-caryophyllene emissions, although there was no clear correlation between gene activity and sesquiterpene quantity, suggesting a key role by the plant regulation machinery.

  9. Sensitivity of grapevine phenology to water availability, temperature and CO2 concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Martínez-Lüscher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, mean global temperatures have increased in parallel with a sharp rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 levels, with apparent implications for precipitation patterns. The aim of the present work is to assess the sensitivity of different phenological stages of grapevine to temperature and to study the influence of other factors related to climate change (water availability and CO2 concentration on this relationship. Grapevine phenological records from 9 plantings between 42.75°N and 46.03°N consisting of dates for budburst, flowering and fruit maturity were used. In addition, we used phenological data collected from two years of experiments with grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings with two grapevine varieties under two levels of water availability, two temperature regimes and two levels of CO2. Dormancy breaking and flowering were strongly dependent on spring temperature, while neither variation in temperature during the chilling period nor precipitation significantly affected budburst date. The time needed to reach fruit maturity diminished with increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation. Experiments under semi-controlled conditions revealed great sensitivity of berry development to both temperature and CO2. Water availability had significant interactions with both temperature and CO2; however, in general, water deficit delayed maturity when combined with other factors. Sensitivities to temperature and CO2 varied widely, but higher sensitivities appeared in the coolest year, particularly for the late ripening variety, ‘White Tempranillo’. The knowledge gained in whole plant physiology and multi stress approaches is crucial to predict the effects of climate change and to design mitigation and adaptation strategies allowing viticulture to cope with climate change.

  10. Combination of RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Salinas; Manuel Armada; Javier Sarria; Roemi Fernández; Héctor Montes

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camer...

  11. Grapevine leaf stripe disease symptoms (esca complex) are reduced by a nutrients and seaweed mixture.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco CALZARANO; Di Marco, Stefano; Vincenzo D'AGOSTINO; Silvia SCHIFF; Mugnai, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine leaf stripe disease (GLSD) seriously reduces the quality and quantity of grape production, and results in a shorter lifespan of vineyards. Recent research has shown that foliar applications of nutrients influence the development of GLSD foliar symptoms. Based on this knowledge the effect of foliar applications of a mixture of calcium chloride, magnesium nitrate and Fucales seaweed extract on the development of leaf symptoms was evaluated over a 3-year period from 2010 to 2012. Nine ...

  12. Identification of suitable grapevine reference genes for qRT-PCR derived from heterologous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Rebecca M; Philips, Joshua G; Winefield, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    Identification and validation of suitable reference genes that exhibit robust transcriptional stability across many sample types is an absolute requirement of all qRT-PCR experiments. Often, however, only small numbers of reference genes, validated across limited sample types, are available for non-model species. This points to a clear need to assess and validate a wider range of potential reference genes than is currently available. We therefore looked to test and validate a large number of potential reference genes across a wide range of tissue types and treatments to determine the applicability of these reference genes for use in grapevine and other non-model plant species. Potential reference genes were selected based on stability of gene transcription in the model plant species Arabidopsis or due to their common use in the grapevine community. The selected reference genes were analyzed across two datasets consisting of a range of either 'Sauvignon blanc' or 'Pinot noir' tissues. A total of 11 potential reference genes were screened across the two datasets. Gene stability was analyzed by GeNorm, a widely used Excel application, or an ANOVA-based method developed in red clover. Both analysis methods showed that all 11 potential reference genes are stably expressed in the datasets tested, but the rankings of gene stability differed based on the datasets and analysis method used. Furthermore, the transcript stability of these genes, initially identified in Arabidopsis and now validated in grapevine, suggests applicability across a wide range of non-model plant species in addition to their utility in grapevine.

  13. Analysis of high-identity segmental duplications in the grapevine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carelli Francesco N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmental duplications (SDs are blocks of genomic sequence of 1-200 kb that map to different loci in a genome and share a sequence identity > 90%. SDs show at the sequence level the same characteristics as other regions of the human genome: they contain both high-copy repeats and gene sequences. SDs play an important role in genome plasticity by creating new genes and modeling genome structure. Although data is plentiful for mammals, not much was known about the representation of SDs in plant genomes. In this regard, we performed a genome-wide analysis of high-identity SDs on the sequenced grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome (PN40024. Results We demonstrate that recent SDs (> 94% identity and >= 10 kb in size are a relevant component of the grapevine genome (85 Mb, 17% of the genome sequence. We detected mitochondrial and plastid DNA and genes (10% of gene annotation in segmentally duplicated regions of the nuclear genome. In particular, the nine highest copy number genes have a copy in either or both organelle genomes. Further we showed that several duplicated genes take part in the biosynthesis of compounds involved in plant response to environmental stress. Conclusions These data show the great influence of SDs and organelle DNA transfers in modeling the Vitis vinifera nuclear DNA structure as well as the impact of SDs in contributing to the adaptive capacity of grapevine and the nutritional content of grape products through genome variation. This study represents a step forward in the full characterization of duplicated genes important for grapevine cultural needs and human health.

  14. Computer Vision Approach for Low Cost, High Precision Measurement of Grapevine Trunk Diameter in Outdoor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Diego Sebastián; Bromberg, Facundo; Antivilo, Francisco Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Trunk diameter is a variable of agricultural interest, used mainly in the prediction of fruit trees production. It is correlated with leaf area and biomass of trees, and consequently gives a good estimate of the potential production of the plants. This work presents a low cost, high precision method for the measurement of trunk diameter of grapevines based on Computer Vision techniques. Several methods based on Computer Vision and other techniques are introduced in the literature. These metho...

  15. Biotin-Avidin ELISA Detection of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus in the Vector Nematode Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmenjaud, D; Walter, B; Minot, J C; Voisin, R; Cornuet, P

    1993-09-01

    The value of biotin-avidin (B-A) ELISA for the detection of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in Xiphinema was estimated with field populations and greenhouse subpopulations. Samples consisted of increasing numbers of adults ranging from 1 to 64 in multiples of two. Tests with virus-free X. index populations reared on grapevine and fig plants as negative controls did not reveal a noticeable effect of the host plant. ELISA absorbances of virus-free X. index samples were greater than corresponding absorbances of X. pachtaicum samples. Differences occurred between two X. index field populations from GFLV-infected grapevines in Champagne and Languedoc. In most tests, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8-nematode samples of virus-free and virus-infected populations, respectively, could not be separated. Consequently, B-A ELISA was not a reliable method for GFLV detection in samples of less than 10 X. index adults, but comparison of the absorbances obtained with increasing numbers may allow differentiation of the viral infectious potential of several populations.

  16. Leaf Treatments with a Protein-Based Resistance Inducer Partially Modify Phyllosphere Microbial Communities of Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Martina; Perazzolli, Michele; Antonielli, Livio; Nesler, Andrea; Torboli, Esmeralda; Bianchedi, Pier L; Pindo, Massimo; Puopolo, Gerardo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Protein derivatives and carbohydrates can stimulate plant growth, increase stress tolerance, and activate plant defense mechanisms. However, these molecules can also act as a nutritional substrate for microbial communities living on the plant phyllosphere and possibly affect their biocontrol activity against pathogens. We investigated the mechanisms of action of a protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB) against grapevine downy mildew, specifically focusing on the effects of foliar treatments on plant defense stimulation and on the composition and biocontrol features of the phyllosphere microbial populations. NB reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defense-related genes in greenhouse- and in vitro-grown plants, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations on leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Although, NB-induced changes on microbial populations were affected by the structure of indigenous communities originally residing on grapevine leaves, degrees of disease reduction and defense gene modulation were consistent among the experiments. Thus, modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Particularly, changes in the abundance of phyllosphere microorganisms may provide a contribution to resistance induction, partially affecting the hormone-mediated signaling pathways involved. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of selected nutritional factors can open new opportunities in terms of sustainable plant protection strategies.

  17. Leaf treatments with a protein-based resistance inducer partially modify phyllosphere microbial communities of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cappelletti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein derivatives and carbohydrates can stimulate plant growth, increase stress tolerance and activate plant defense mechanisms. However, these molecules can also act as a nutritional substrate for microbial communities living on the plant phyllosphere and possibly affect their biocontrol activity against pathogens. We investigated the mechanisms of action of a protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB against grapevine downy mildew, specifically focusing on the effects of foliar treatments on plant defense stimulation and on the composition and biocontrol features of the phyllosphere microbial populations. NB reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defense-related genes in greenhouse- and in vitro-grown plants, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations on leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Although NB-induced changes on microbial populations were affected by the structure of indigenous communities originally residing on grapevine leaves, degrees of disease reduction and defense gene modulation were consistent among the experiments. Thus, modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Particularly, changes in the abundance of phyllosphere microorganisms may provide a contribution to resistance induction, partially affecting the hormone-mediated signaling pathways involved. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of selected nutritional factors can open new opportunities in terms of sustainable plant protection strategies.

  18. The impact of the recent climatic change on grapevine phenophases and the prediction for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnicek, P.

    2009-09-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivation is influenced by the weather. The study try to explain connection between selected phenophases and meteorological characteristics with the focus on their temporal dynamics. Phenological observations in the Czech Lands have a long tradition, but choice of a suitable station is not simple. Finally were selected station Velké Pavlovice, this station have meteorological elements observation. The guideline for observers was set up in 1956 and has included the subsequent observed variables for the vine Vitis vinifera L.. This was replaced by the new CHMI methodology instruction number 3 in 1984. This case study researched available period 1984-2007. The quality control of meteorological characteristics were executed and then data were checked for relative homogenity by Standard Normal Homogeneity Test and then adjusted with respect to the inhomogeneity year. Grapevine phenophases best respond with high correlation coefficient with average and maximum temperature. In the last time the temperature significantly increase and it is hyphothesis this phenomen will be continued. Grapevine react on this climatic change yet in the present time. Beginning of the phenophases is earlier about 8 to 20 days before 20 years and in the future could be starting of the phenophases faster. The study work with time scale 2021-2050 and 2071-2100.

  19. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP, but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the necrotic cell death on the infiltrated leaves. The p19 silencing suppressor of GALV was engineered to inactivate its expression and GFP was successfully expressed with unrelated silencing suppressor, HC-Pro, from soybean mosaic virus. The pGMG vector was used to knock down magnesium chelatase (ChlH gene in N. benthamaina and the silencing phenotype was clearly observed on systemic leaves. Altogether, the GALV-derived vector is expected to be an attractive tool for useful gene expression and VIGS vectors in grapevine as well as N. benthamiana.

  20. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-08-01

    Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP), but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the necrotic cell death on the infiltrated leaves. The p19 silencing suppressor of GALV was engineered to inactivate its expression and GFP was successfully expressed with unrelated silencing suppressor, HC-Pro, from soybean mosaic virus. The pGMG vector was used to knock down magnesium chelatase (ChlH) gene in N. benthamaina and the silencing phenotype was clearly observed on systemic leaves. Altogether, the GALV-derived vector is expected to be an attractive tool for useful gene expression and VIGS vectors in grapevine as well as N. benthamiana.

  1. Naturalised Vitis rootstocks in Europe and consequences to native wild grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Arrigo

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges. In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures.

  2. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of grapevine asteroid mosaic associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Asencio, José; Wojciechowska, Klaudia; Baskerville, Maia; Gomez, Annika L; Perry, Keith L; Thompson, Jeremy R

    2017-01-02

    In analyzing grapevine clones infected with grapevine red blotch associated virus, we identified a small number of isometric particles of approximately 30nm in diameter from an enriched fraction of leaf extract. A dominant protein of 25kDa was isolated from this fraction using SDS-PAGE and was identified by mass spectrometry as belonging to grapevine asteroid mosaic associated virus (GAMaV). Using a combination of three methods RNA-Seq, sRNA-Seq, and Sanger sequencing of RT- and RACE-PCR products, we obtained a full-length genome sequence consisting of 6719 nucleotides without the poly(A) tail. The virus possesses all of the typical conserved functional domains concordant with the genus Marafivirus and lies evolutionarily between citrus sudden death associated virus and oat blue dwarf virus. A large shift in RNA-Seq coverage coincided with the predicted location of the subgenomic RNA involved in coat protein (CP) expression. Genus wide sequence alignments confirmed the cleavage motif LxG(G/A) to be dominant between the helicase and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and the RdRp and CP domains. A putative overlapping protein (OP) ORF lacking a canonical translational start codon was identified with a reading frame context more consistent with the putative OPs of tymoviruses and fig fleck associated virus than with those of marafiviruses. BLAST analysis of the predicted GAMaV OP showed a unique relatedness to the OPs of members of the genus Tymovirus.

  3. Importance of soil and vineyard management in the determination of grapevine mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, M; Vogel-Mikuš, K; Potisek, M; Hančević, K; Radić, T; Nečemer, M; Regvar, M

    2015-02-01

    The spatial variability of the mineral composition of grapevines in production vineyards along the east Adriatic coast was determined and compared between conventional and sustainable vineyard management. Cluster analysis shows a high level of spatial variability even within the individual locations. Factor analysis reveals three factors with strong loading for the macronutrients K and P and the micronutrient Mn, which explain 67% of the total variance in the mineral composition. Here, 26% to 34% of the variance of these three elements can be explained by abiotic and biotic soil parameters, with soil concentrations of K, Fe and Cu, organic matter content, and vesicular colonisation showing the strongest effects on the mineral composition of the grapevines. In addition, analysis of the mineral composition data shows significant differences between differently managed vineyards, with increased bioaccumulation of P and K in sustainable vineyards, while Zn bioaccumulation was increased in conventional vineyards. Our data confirm the importance of soil and vineyard management in the concept of terroir, and demonstrate the effects of sustainable management practices on the mineral nutrition of grapevines that result from modified nutrient availability related to changes in the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the soil.

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valletta, Alessio [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy); Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe, E-mail: cleofe.palocci@uniroma1.it [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Baldan, Barbara [University of Padua, Department of Biology (Italy); Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  5. Leaf Treatments with a Protein-Based Resistance Inducer Partially Modify Phyllosphere Microbial Communities of Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Martina; Perazzolli, Michele; Antonielli, Livio; Nesler, Andrea; Torboli, Esmeralda; Bianchedi, Pier L.; Pindo, Massimo; Puopolo, Gerardo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Protein derivatives and carbohydrates can stimulate plant growth, increase stress tolerance, and activate plant defense mechanisms. However, these molecules can also act as a nutritional substrate for microbial communities living on the plant phyllosphere and possibly affect their biocontrol activity against pathogens. We investigated the mechanisms of action of a protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB) against grapevine downy mildew, specifically focusing on the effects of foliar treatments on plant defense stimulation and on the composition and biocontrol features of the phyllosphere microbial populations. NB reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defense-related genes in greenhouse- and in vitro-grown plants, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations on leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Although, NB-induced changes on microbial populations were affected by the structure of indigenous communities originally residing on grapevine leaves, degrees of disease reduction and defense gene modulation were consistent among the experiments. Thus, modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Particularly, changes in the abundance of phyllosphere microorganisms may provide a contribution to resistance induction, partially affecting the hormone-mediated signaling pathways involved. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of selected nutritional factors can open new opportunities in terms of sustainable plant protection strategies. PMID:27486468

  6. Ecophysiological Modeling of Grapevine Water Stress in Burgundy Terroirs by a Machine-Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Bois, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In a climate change scenario, successful modeling of the relationships between plant-soil-meteorology is crucial for a sustainable agricultural production, especially for perennial crops. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay) located in eight experimental plots (Burgundy, France) along a hillslope were monitored weekly for 3 years for leaf water potentials, both at predawn (Ψpd) and at midday (Ψstem). The water stress experienced by grapevine was modeled as a function of meteorological data (minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall) and soil characteristics (soil texture, gravel content, slope) by a gradient boosting machine. Model performance was assessed by comparison with carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C) of grape sugars at harvest and by the use of a test-set. The developed models reached outstanding prediction performance (RMSE time step improved correlation with δ(13)C data, respect to the observed trend at a weekly time scale. The role of each predictor in these models was described in order to understand how temperature, rainfall, soil texture, gravel content and slope affect the grapevine water status in the studied context. This work proposes a straight-forward strategy to simulate plant water stress in field condition, at a local scale; to investigate ecological relationships in the vineyard and adapt cultural practices to future conditions.

  7. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  8. Phylogeny of geminivirus coat protein sequences and digital PCR aid in identifying Spissistilus festinus (Say) as a vector of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a newly identified virus of grapevines, and a putative member of a new genus within the family Geminiviridae. This virus is associated with red blotch disease that was first reported in California in 2008. It affects the profitability of vineyards by ...

  9. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been…

  10. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  11. Near isohydric grapevine cultivar displays higher photosynthetic efficiency and photorespiration rates under drought stress as compared with near anisohydric grapevine cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Degu, Asfaw; Fait, Aaron; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-04-01

    Drought stress is known to limit photosynthesis rates and to inflict photo-oxidative damage in grapevines. Grapevines, which are considered drought-tolerant plants, are characterized by diverse hydraulic and photosynthetic behaviors, depending on the cultivar. This research compared the photosynthesis and the photorespiration of Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) (isohydric) and Shiraz (anisohydric) in an attempt to acquire a wider perspective on the iso/anisohydric phenomenon and its implications. Shiraz and Cs were subjected to terminal drought in the greenhouse. Soil water content (θ), leaf water potential (Ψl ) and stomata conductance (gs ) were measured to determine the cultivars' hydraulic behavior. Gas exchange and fluorometry measurements were taken at 21 and 2% O2 to acquire photosynthesis and photorespiration characteristics. Cs was found to behave in a near isohydric manner whereas Shiraz behaved in a near anisohydric manner. Compared to Shiraz, the reduced stomata conductance values of Cs were accompanied by higher water use efficiency and photorespiration rates, as well as photosystem II photochemical potential (Fv /Fm ). As compared with Shiraz, Cs compensated for lower stomata conductance by higher photosynthesis and photorespiration. These two processes contributed to higher electron flow rates that might have a role in photoinhibition avoidance, which was observed in the stability of Fv /Fm under drought stress.

  12. Study of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment, we studied the antimicrobial and antioxidative effect of phytogenic additives. Three additives (grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressings were selected to be monitored. The extracts about concentrations of 1:3 and 1:5 were prepared from them. The monitoring of antimicrobial properties was focused on the pathogenic bacteria Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli causing a serious disease in avian species. The bacteria were prepared in the dilutions of 102, 104 and 106. The antimicrobial effect was observed in the inhibition zones. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method within the antioxidant analysis. Furthermore, the content of flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids and the total content of polyphenolic compounds was also determined. In the monitoring of the antimicrobial effect of grapevine seeds, grape and rosehip pressings at E. coli, a reduced growth of KTJ (colony forming units was observed in the disk area during the dilution of 106 and 104. Reduced growth of C. perfringens at a dilution of 106 was noticed using the extracts of grapevine seeds and grape pressings. Low reduced growth of C. perfringens at a dilution of 106 was found out using rosehip pressings. In a dilution of 102 and 104 in C. perfringens and 102 in E. Coli, a very low increase of KTJ was observed therefore the zones of inhibition were not possible to measure. In all monitored additives, the antimicrobial effect was proved. The additives reduced the growth of pathogenic E. coli and C. perfringens. Within the antioxidant analysis, the highest antioxidant activity was found out in grapevine seeds (7.021 g.L-1 GAE, which also contained the highest content of flavanols (3000 times higher than the rosehip pressings and 300 times higher than grapevine seeds pressings, hydroxycinnamic acids (1000 times higher than in grape pressings and 7600 times higher than in rosehip pressings and the total content of polyphenolic compounds (580 times

  13. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian

  14. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine research,to

  15. Japan's Energy Policy in the Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Reiji Takeishi

    2014-01-01

    With encouraged economic activities in the Asian region, energy consumption of Asian countries are substantially increasing. Based on the improved role of Asian countries, the possibility to secure enough energy in the future is becoming a seriously important matter because economic activities basically depend on stable energy supplies.

  16. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  17. Educational Planning: The Asian Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Jansen (Karel)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractThis article intends to present a discussion of various approaches to educational planning against the background of the experience of the Asian countries.l It may be, however, that some of our arguments apply to other parts of the Third World as well.

  18. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  19. China-Central Asia Cooperation Forum Produces Good Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the five Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the CPAFFC

  20. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    With 30% of the world's smokers, two million deaths annually from tobacco use, and rising levels of tobacco consumption, the Asian region is recognised as central to the future of global tobacco control. There is less understanding, however, of how Asian tobacco companies with regional and global aspirations are contributing to the global burden of tobacco-related disease and death. This introductory article sets out the background and rationale for this special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'. The article discusses the core questions to be addressed and presents an analytical framework for assessing the globalisation strategies of Asian tobacco firms. The article also discusses the selection of the five case studies, namely as independent companies in Asia which have demonstrated concerted ambitions to be a major player in the world market.

  1. Asian Creativity: A Response to Satoshi Kanazawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to Satoshi Kanazawa's thoughtful and entertaining comments about my article concerning the Asian future of evolutionary psychology. Contra Kanazawa's argument that Asian cultural traditions and/or character inhibit Asian scientific creativity, I review historical evidence of high Asian creativity, and psychometric evidence of high Asian intelligence (a cognitive trait and openness to experience (a personality trait — two key components of creativity. Contra Kanazawa's concern that political correctness is a bigger threat to American evolutionary psychology than religious fundamentalism, I review evidence from research funding patterns and student attitudes suggesting that fundamentalism is more harmful and pervasive. Finally, in response to Kanazawa's focus on tall buildings as indexes of national wealth and creativity, I find that 13 of the world's tallest 25 buildings are in China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan — of which 11 were built in the last decade. Asian creativity, secularism, and architectural prominence point to a bright future for Asian science.

  2. cDNA-AFLP analysis of plant and pathogen genes expressed in grapevine infected with Plasmopara viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortekamp Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt. Berl. and de Toni causes downy mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.. This pathogen is strictly biotrophic, thus completely dependent on living host cells for its survival. The molecular basis of compatibility and disease development in this system is poorly understood. We have carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify grapevine and P. viticola genes associated with the infection process. Results We carried out cDNA-AFLP analysis on artificially infected leaves of the susceptible cultivar Riesling at the oil spot stage, on water-treated leaves and on a sample of pure sporangia as controls. Selective amplifications with 128 primer combinations allowed the visualization of about 7000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs in infected leaves, 1196 of which (17% were differentially expressed. We sequenced 984 fragments, 804 of which were identified as grapevine transcripts after homology searching, while 96 were homologous to sequences in Phytophthora spp. databases and were attributed to P. viticola. There were 82 orphan TDFs. Many grapevine genes spanning almost all functional categories were downregulated during infection, especially genes involved in photosynthesis. Grapevine genes homologous to known resistance genes also tended to be repressed, as were several resistance gene analogs and carbonic anhydrase (recently implicated in pathogen resistance. In contrast, genes encoding cytoskeletal components, enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and beta-oxidation pathways, and pathogenesis related proteins were primarily upregulated during infection. The majority of P. viticola transcripts expressed in planta showed homology to genes of unknown function or to genomic Phytophthora sequences, but genes related to metabolism, energy production, transport and signal transduction were also identified. Conclusion This study provides the first global catalogue of grapevine and P

  3. Metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease:Asian deifnitions and Asian studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gao Fan; Yong-De Peng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as conventionally recognized, is a metabolic disorder largely conifned to residents of aflfuent industrialized Western countries. However, obesity and insulin resistance are not restricted to the West, as witnessed by their increasingly universal distribution. In particular, there has been an upsurge in metabolic syndrome in the Asia-Paciifc region, although there are critical differences in the extent of adiposity between Eastern and Western populations. DATA SOURCES:An English-language literature search using PubMed (1999-2007) on obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, focusing on Asian deifnitions and Asian studies. RESULTS:NAFLD appears to be of long-standing insulin resistance and likely represents the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. With insulin resistance as a common factor, the disease is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. All features of the metabolic syndrome and related events are assessed for practical management of NAFLD, although the criteria for the diagnosis of obesity and central obesity differ across racial groups. CONCLUSIONS:The increasing prevalence of obesity, coupled with diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and ultimately metabolic syndrome, puts a very large population at risk of developing NAFLD in the coming decades. The simultaneous identiifcation and appropriate treatment of the components of metabolic syndrome are crucial to reduce hepatic as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  4. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Abels, H. A.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Z.; Abell, J.; Giesler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42–33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat. PMID:27488503

  5. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Abels, H. A.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Z.; Abell, J.; Giesler, D.

    2016-08-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42-33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat.

  6. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Grapevines under Organic and Biodynamic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Johanna; Frisch, Matthias; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred; Kauer, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine growth, yield and fruit quality of grapevines under organic and biodynamic management in relation to integrated viticultural practices. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the observed changes in growth, yield and fruit quality were investigated by determining nutrient status, physiological performance of the plants and disease incidence on bunches in three consecutive growing seasons. A field trial (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling) was set up at Hochschule Geisenheim University, Germany. The integrated treatment was managed according to the code of good practice. Organic and biodynamic plots were managed according to Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 and Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 and according to ECOVIN- and Demeter-Standards, respectively. The growth and yield of the grapevines differed strongly among the different management systems, whereas fruit quality was not affected by the management system. The organic and the biodynamic treatments showed significantly lower growth and yield in comparison to the integrated treatment. The physiological performance was significantly lower in the organic and the biodynamic systems, which may account for differences in growth and cluster weight and might therefore induce lower yields of the respective treatments. Soil management and fertilization strategy could be responsible factors for these changes. Yields of the organic and the biodynamic treatments partially decreased due to higher disease incidence of downy mildew. The organic and the biodynamic plant protection strategies that exclude the use of synthetic fungicides are likely to induce higher disease incidence and might partially account for differences in the nutrient status of vines under organic and biodynamic management. Use of the biodynamic preparations had little influence on vine growth and yield. Due to the investigation of important parameters that induce changes especially in growth and yield of grapevines under

  7. Root Proteomic Analysis of Grapevine Rootstocks Inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vilvert

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine decline and death caused by the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis is among the main phytosanitary problem for viticulture in southern Brazil. The eradication of infected plants is presently the most common procedure for disease control in vineyards. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is an option to reduce or neutralize the negative impacts of soil pathogenic microorganisms, but the mechanisms of plant response involved in this process are not yet completely elucidated. In order to better understand these mechanisms, an experiment was carried out to identify proteins related to plant defence induced by the mycorrhizal fungus after infection with the pathogenic fungus. We used the grapevine rootstocks SO4 and R110 (susceptible and resistant to the pathogenic fungus, respectively inoculated or not inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, and inoculated or not inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis. Growth of the rootstocks’ shoot and root and presence of pathogenic symptoms were evaluated. The protein profiles of roots were characterized by two-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified using mass spectrometry. The grapevine rootstocks inoculated with R. irregularis had higher biomass production and lower level of pathogenic symptoms. The R110 rootstock differentially accumulated 73 proteins, while SO4 accumulated 59 proteins. Nine plant-defence proteins were expressed by SO4 rootstock, and six were expressed by R110 rootstock plants. The results confirm the effect of mycorrhizal fungi in plant growth promotion and their potential for biological control against soil pathogenic fungus. Protein expression is dependent on rootstock characteristics and on the combination of plant material with the fungi.

  8. Transcriptional Characterization of a Widely-Used Grapevine Rootstock Genotype under Different Iron-Limited Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Alessandro; Donnini, Silvia; Vigani, Gianpiero; Corso, Massimiliano; Valle, Giorgio; Vitulo, Nicola; Bonghi, Claudio; Zocchi, Graziano; Lucchin, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Iron chlorosis is a serious deficiency that affects orchards and vineyards reducing quality and yield production. Chlorotic plants show abnormal photosynthesis and yellowing shoots. In grapevine iron uptake and homeostasis are most likely controlled by a mechanism known as “Strategy I,” characteristic of non-graminaceous plants and based on a system of soil acidification, iron reduction and transporter-mediated uptake. Nowadays, grafting of varieties of economic interest on tolerant rootstocks is widely used practice against many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, many interspecific rootstocks, and in particular those obtained by crossing exclusively non-vinifera genotypes, can show limited nutrient uptake and transport, in particular for what concerns iron. In the present study, 101.14, a commonly used rootstock characterized by susceptibility to iron chlorosis was subjected to both Fe-absence and Fe-limiting conditions. Grapevine plantlets were grown in control, Fe-deprived, and bicarbonate-supplemented hydroponic solutions. Whole transcriptome analyses, via mRNA-Seq, were performed on root apices of stressed and unstressed plants. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) confirmed that Strategy I is the mechanism responsible for iron uptake in grapevine, since many orthologs genes to the Arabidopsis “ferrome” were differentially regulated in stressed plant. Molecular differences in the plant responses to Fe absence and presence of bicarbonate were also identified indicating the two treatments are able to induce response-mechanisms only partially overlapping. Finally, we measured the expression of a subset of genes differentially expressed in 101.14 (such as IRT1, FERRITIN1, bHLH38/39) or known to be fundamental in the “strategy I” mechanism (AHA2 and FRO2) also in a tolerant rootstock (M1) finding important differences which could be responsible for the different degrees of tolerance observed. PMID:28105035

  9. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  10. Integrated management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, N Swarna; Sivakumar, C V

    2005-01-01

    An integrated approach with the obligate bacterial parasite, Pasteuria penetrans and nematicides was assessed for the management of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine. Seedlings of tomato cv. Co3 were transplanted into pots filled with sterilized soil and inoculated with nematodes (5000 juveniles/pot). The root powder of P. penetrans at 10 mg/pot was applied alone and in combination with carbofuran at 6 mg/pot. Application of P. penetrans along with carbofuran recorded lowest nematode infestation (107 nematodes/200 g soil) compared to control (325 nematodes/200 g soil). The rate of parasitization was 83.1% in the carbofuran and P. penetrans combination treatment as against 61.0% in the P. penetrans treatment only. The plant growth was also higher in the combination treatment compared to all other treatments. A field trial was carried out to assess the efficacy of P. penetrans and nematicides viz., carbofuran and phorate in the management of root-knot nematode, M. incognita infestation of grapevine cv. Muscat Hamburg. A nematode and P. penetrans infested grapevine field was selected and treatments either with carbofuran or phorate at 1 g a.i/vine was given. The observations were recorded at monthly interval. The results showed that the soil nematode population was reduced in nematicide treated plots. Suppression of nematodes was higher under phorate (117 nematodes/200 g soil) than under carbofuran (126.7 nematodes/200 g soil) treatment. The number of juveniles parasitized was also influenced by nematicides and spore load carried/juvenile with phorate being superior and the increase being 17.0 and 29.0% respectively over the control. The results of these experiment confirmed the compatibility of P. penetrans with nematicides and its biological control potential against the root-knot nematode.

  11. Lasiojasmonates A-C, three jasmonic acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia sp., a grapevine pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Maddau, Lucia; Cimmino, Alessio; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Basso, Sara; Deidda, Antonio; Serra, Salvatorica; Evidente, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a strain (BL 101) of a species of Lasiodiplodia, not yet formally described, which was isolated from declining grapevine plants showing wedge-shaped cankers, was investigated for its ability to produce in vitro bioactive secondary metabolites. From culture filtrates of this strain three jasmonic acid esters, named lasiojasmonates A-C and 16-O-acetylbotryosphaerilactones A and C were isolated together with (1R,2R)-jasmonic acid, its methyl ester, botryosphaerilactone A, (3S,4R,5R)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone and (3R,4S)-botryodiplodin. The structures of lasiojasmonates A-C were established by spectroscopic methods as (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone, (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*,10'R*,12'R*,13'R*,14'S*) and (1R*,2R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*,10'S*,12'R*,13'R*,14'S*)-4-(4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyltetrahydro-furan-2-yloxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanones jasmonates (1, 4 and 5). The structures of 16-O-acetylbotryosphaerilactones A and C were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of the corresponding acetyl derivatives obtained by acetylation of botryosphaerilactone A. The metabolites isolated, except 4 and 5, were tested at 1mg/mL on leaves of grapevine cv. Cannonau and cork oak using the leaf puncture assay. They were also tested on detached grapevine leaves at 0.5mg/mL and tomato cuttings at 0.1mg/mL. In all phytotoxic assays only jasmonic acid was found to be active. All metabolites were inactive in the zootoxic assay at 50 μg/mL.

  12. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Sore Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs' function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.

  13. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Som Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs’function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.Edited excerpts follow

  14. English as an Asian Language

    OpenAIRE

    Kachru, Braj .B

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines the dimensions of Asia's English, which constitutes a world of its own in linguistic, cultural, interactional, ideological, and political terms. The questions this paper raises are: What conditions must a transplanted colonial language satisfy to be accepted as part of the colonized's linguistic repertoire? Why not consider Asian Englishes as part of a local pluralistic linguistic heritage? Answers to these questions demand redefining the concept of «nativeness» and types ...

  15. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  16. Characterization of Botrytis cinerea isolates from small fruits and grapevine in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanović Brankica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six single-spore isolates of Botrytis cinerea from blackberry, raspberry, strawberry, and grapevine were investigated using transposable elements, morphological characterization, and sensitivity to fungicides. Both transposable elements, Flipper and Boty, were detected among isolates from all the hosts. Six vacuma (without transposable elements and seven transposa (containing both elements isolates were found to be present in sympatry in Serbia. Isolates containing only the Boty element were detected. Eight morphological types of colonies on PDA and MA media were observed, confirming the great phenotypic variability of B. cinerea. Sensitivity to fungicides was various, depending on both the fungicide and the isolate.

  17. Proteomic analysis of shoot tissue during photoperiod induced growth cessation in V. riparia Michx. grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kim J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth cessation, cold acclimation and dormancy induction in grapevines and other woody perennial plants native to temperate continental climates is frequently triggered by short photoperiods. The early induction of these processes by photoperiod promotes winter survival of grapevines in cold temperate zones. Examining the molecular processes, in particular the proteomic changes in the shoot, will provide greater insight into the signaling cascade that initiates growth cessation and dormancy induction. To begin understanding transduction of the photoperiod signal, Vitis riparia Michx. grapevines that had grown for 35 days in long photoperiod (long day, LD, 15 h were subjected to either a continued LD or a short photoperiod (short day, SD, 13 h treatment. Shoot tips (4-node shoot terminals were collected from each treatment at 7 and 28 days of LD and SD for proteomic analysis via two-dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis. Results Protein profiles were characterized in V. riparia shoot tips during active growth or SD induced growth cessation to examine physiological alterations in response to differential photoperiod treatments. A total of 1054 protein spots were present on the 2D gels. Among the 1054 proteins, 216 showed differential abundance between LD and SD (≥ two-fold ratio, p-value ≤ 0.05. After 7 days, 39 protein spots were more abundant in LD and 30 were more abundant in SD. After 28 days, 93 protein spots were more abundant in LD and 54 were more abundant in SD. MS/MS spectrometry was performed to determine the functions of the differentially abundant proteins. Conclusions The proteomics analysis uncovered a portion of the signal transduction involved in V. riparia grapevine growth cessation and dormancy induction. Different enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle and glutamate synthetase isoforms were more abundant either in LD or SD treatments. In LD tissues the significantly differentially more abundant proteins

  18. Breakdown of resistance to grapevine downy mildew upon limited deployment of a resistant variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellin Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural disease resistance is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of controlling plant disease. Breeding programmes need to make sure that the resistance deployed is effective and durable. Grapevine downy mildew, caused by the Oomycete Plasmopara viticola, affects viticulture and it is controlled with pesticides. Downy mildew resistant grapevine varieties are a promising strategy to control the disease, but their use is currently restricted to very limited acreages. The arising of resistance-breaking isolates under such restricted deployment of resistant varieties would provide valuable information to design breeding strategies for the deployment of resistance genes over large acreages whilst reducing the risks of the resistance being defeated. The observation of heavy downy mildew symptoms on a plant of the resistant variety Bianca, whose resistance is conferred by a major gene, provided us with a putative example of emergence of a resistance-breaking isolate in the interaction between grapevine and P. viticola. Results In this paper we describe the emergence of a P. viticola isolate (isolate SL that specifically overcomes Rpv3, the major resistance gene carried by Bianca at chromosome 18. We show that isolate SL has the same behaviour as two P. viticola isolates avirulent on Bianca (isolates SC and SU when inoculated on susceptible plants or on resistant plants carrying resistances derived from other sources, suggesting there is no fitness cost associated to the virulence. Molecular analysis shows that all three isolates are genetically closely related. Conclusions Our results are the first description of a resistance-breaking isolate in the grapevine/P. viticola interaction, and show that, despite the reduced genetic variability of P. viticola in Europe compared to its basin of origin and the restricted use of natural resistance in European viticulture, resistance-breaking isolates overcoming monogenic

  19. Grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar limberger treated with plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Slavica R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of foliar application of paclobutrasol (PK, chlorcholinechloride (CC and gibberellic acid (GA3 on grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar Limberger were studied. PK and CC strongly inhibited shoot growth. The number of berries per bunch, bunch weight and grape yield per m2 were increased. At the same time, sugar content of must was either reduced (CC2000 or retained at the level of control (PK1000, CC1000. The GA150 treatment resulted in lower grape yield. At the concentration of GA3 100mg/l no significant increase in yield was found, whilst sugar content of must was significantly increased.

  20. Central Asian Security Trends: Views from Europe and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ist movements, energy security, nuclear proliferation, chemical and biological weapons, maritime security, the environment, health (pandemics), and... analitic /1/2/536. html. 56. Kazakhstan has its own program to develop a military- industrial complex, which it launched in 2007, see the site of 34 the

  1. The Soviet Central Asian Challenge: A Neo-Gramscian Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    relations with spccific ’Cclings. outlooks’. jRcI. 5.0:p. 3,\\1., Ncverteless. lie still considered the dominanit socia , div:’.on to 1C detennncI 1 the...the mass media , trade unions, churches, etc. These are the private organisms or structures of civil society which shape the social and political...proud of the things which make them different from Russians - their large families, their courtyards, their native food and markets , their elaborate

  2. Mark Slobin. Central Asian Film Music as a Subcultural System

    OpenAIRE

    Zevaco, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Quelles sont les stratégies employées par les réalisateurs, à travers la construction de la musique d’un film, pour refléter une ou des inscription(s) identitaire(s) soviétique, nationale, locale et/ou régionale ? C’est la question posée et étudiée par Mark Slobin dans cet article. La qualification de la musique de film comme « subcultural system » renvoie à celle de « subcultural cinema », que Slobin a définit dans son récent livre (Mark Slobin, (ed.), Global Soundtracks: world of Film Music...

  3. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Annina; Kääb, Andreas; Roesch, Andrea; Bigler, Christof; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-06

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers--and glaciers elsewhere--to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photography from Soviet archives and high-resolution satellite imagery, we present here the world's longest record of rock glacier movements. We also demonstrate that the rock glaciers exhibit synchronous periods of activity at decadal timescales. Despite the complex energy-balance processes on rock glaciers, periods of enhanced activity coincide with warm summers, and the annual mass balance of Tuyuksu glacier fluctuates asynchronously with rock glacier activity. At multi-decadal timescales, however, the investigated rock glaciers exhibit site-specific trends reflecting different stages of inactivation, seemingly in response to the strong increase in air temperature since the 1970s.

  4. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Annina Sorg; Andreas Kääb; Andrea Roesch; Christof Bigler; Markus Stoffel

    2015-01-01

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers – and glaciers elsewhere – to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photograph...

  5. Central Asian Leadership Succession: When, Not If. Number 203

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    R E C T O R AT E Robert A. Silano Director of Publications The Institute for National Strategic Studies publishes books, monographs, and reports on...Government. P U B L I C AT I O N D I R E C T O R AT E Robert A. Silano Director of Publications The Institute for National Strategic Studies...R AT E Robert A. Silano Director of Publications The Institute for National Strategic Studies publishes books, monographs, and reports on national

  6. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  7. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...

  8. Effect of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus on the Reproduction and Survival of its Nematode Vector, Xiphinema index Thorne &Allen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Raski, D J

    1969-04-01

    Studies on the virus-vector interaction between the grapevine fanleaf virus (GFV) and its nematode vector, Xiphinema index, indicate the virus had no measurable effect on the rate of reproduction of its vector, but significantly influenced survNal of the nematodes.

  9. Moderate water stress from regulated deficit irrigation decreases transpiration similarly to net carbon exchange in grapevine canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the effects of timing and extent of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) canopies, whole-canopy transpiration (TrV) and canopy conductance to water vapor (gc) were calculated from whole-vine gas exchange near key stages of fruit development. The vines were ma...

  10. A first pedigree-based analysis (PBA) approach for the dissection of disease resistance traits in grapevine hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peressotti, E.; Dolzani, C.; Poles, L.; Banchi, E.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Vezzulli, S.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To date, molecular markers are available for many economically important traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as well as in other fruit crops. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of the allelic variation of the related genes hampers their full exploitation in commercial breeding programs. These m

  11. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427) AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Record of Decision. SUMMARY: Western Area Power... proposed wind park would be built in one or more phases, dependent on one or more power sale contracts....

  12. Efficient procedure for grapevine embryogenic suspension establishment and plant regeneration: role of conditioned medium for cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amar, A; Cobanov, P; Boonrod, K; Krczal, G; Bouzid, S; Ghorbel, A; Reustle, G M

    2007-09-01

    An efficient system for the establishment and multiplication of highly prolific embryogenic cell cultures of grapevine (Vitis sp.) was developed. Using anther-derived pro-embryogenic masses as starting material, cell suspensions of different grapevine cultivars (Tempranillo, Cabernet-Sauvignon) and rootstocks (Kober 125 AA, Kober 5 BB, 110 Richter) were initiated in liquid medium containing NOA (1.0 mg l(-1)) and BAP (0.25 mg l(-1)) as growth regulators. Conditioned medium was recovered and utilised for establishing new, highly totipotent cell cultures. The suspensions obtained, showed embryogenic competence resulting in somatic embryo induction and subsequent plant regeneration. In this study, a simplified establishment procedure for grapevine embryogenic cell suspension allowing the fast multiplication of embryogenic material is described. Evidence for the promoting effect of the protein fraction derived from conditioned medium, on cell proliferation was found. In bioassays, addition of ss-D: -GlcY affect cell proliferation suggesting that arabinogalactan proteins are required for growth processes in grapevine cell cultures.

  13. The chemotaxis regulator pilG of Xylella fastidiosa is required for virulence in Vitis vinifera grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative, xylem-limited pathogenic bacterium that causes Pierce’s disease of grapevines. Type IV pili of X. fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in Pil-Chp operon involving signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of pilG in twitching motil...

  14. REPCO 501452 : Replacement of copper fungicides in organic production of grapevine and apple in Europe : publishable final activity report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2007-01-01

    Final Activity Report: The objective of REPCO was to contribute to the replacement of copper fungicides in organic agriculture by new measures for control of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) in grapevine and scab (Venturia inaequalis) in apple. Both major European organic crops strongly depend on

  15. Xylella fastidiosa Infection and Ethylene Exposure Result in Xylem and Water Movement Disruption in Grapevine Shoots1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G.; Greve, L. Carl; Walton, Jeffrey H.; Shackel, Ken A.; Labavitch, John M.

    2007-01-01

    It is conventionally thought that multiplication of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) within xylem vessels is the sole factor responsible for the blockage of water movement in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) affected by Pierce's disease. However, results from our studies have provided substantial support for the idea that vessel obstructions, and likely other aspects of the Pierce's disease syndrome, result from the grapevine's active responses to the presence of Xf, rather than to the direct action of the bacterium. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe the distribution of water within the xylem has allowed us to follow nondestructively the development of vascular system obstructions subsequent to inoculation of grapevines with Xf. Because we have hypothesized a role for ethylene produced in vines following infection, the impact of vine ethylene exposure on obstruction development was also followed using MRI. In both infected and ethylene-exposed plants, MRI shows that an important proportion of the xylem vessels become progressively air embolized after the treatments. The loss of xylem water-transporting function, assessed by MRI, has been also correlated with a decrease in stem-specific hydraulic conductivity (KS) and the presence of tyloses in the lumens of obstructed water conduits. We have observed that the ethylene production of leaves from infected grapevines is greater than that from healthy vines and, therefore, propose that ethylene may be involved in a series of cellular events that coordinates the vine's response to the pathogen. PMID:17189331

  16. QTL identification in an interspecific grapevine cross segregating for resistance to Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew, Black Rot, and Phylloxera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine is a highly heterozygous plant with a complex genetic background. Here, we report the use of an F1 family (N = 125) from a cross of MN1264 × MN1246 made in 2010. The cross contains at least six Vitis species in its ancestry and segregates for resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)...

  17. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  18. U.S. and East Asian Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Limin

    2008-01-01

    the U.S. is directly impacting on the future of the East Asian community. Therefore, finding ways to get along with the U.S. is crucial to the speed, direction, configuration and character of the East Asian community. In this paper, the author has analyzed the interests of the United States in East Asia and its stands towards the East Asian integration. The author concludes that it is to the interest of the United States to make more efforts to further join in the East Asian integration.And East Asia should accept and welcome the American participation.

  19. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  20. RT-PCR detection of Grapevine fleck virus%葡萄斑点病毒的RT-PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓娜; 王国平; 邓丛良; 洪霓

    2011-01-01

    Grapevine fleck is a common grapevine virus disease in the world,which is caused by Grapevine fleck virus(GFkV).A pair of primers F1/R1 were synthesized based on the reported GFkV sequence,and the products with expected 179 bp were amplified by RT-PCR from the leaves of grapevine samples Centennial seedless,Victoria and Shengbao which showed fleck symptoms.These products were cloned and sequenced.Sequence comparison showed that the similarities among sequences from the three samples were 97.2% to 98.9% and shared 96.6% to 97.8% similarities with the reported sequence(GeneBank accession no.AJ309022).The virus RNAs were extracted from buds and phloem tissues of the dormant grapevine canes by magnetic nano-particles(MNP) method,and the TaqMan probe and primers were designed based on the above sequences.The MNP RT-PCR method was primarily established for the detection of GFkV.The results showed that the GFkV titers were relatively higher in Centennial seedless than in the other two samples,and it was 10 times higher in dormant buds than in phloem.The detection sensitivity for GFkV by MNP-Real time-RT-PCR was about 100 μg grapevine tissues.%由葡萄斑点病毒(Grapevine fleck virus,GFkV)引起的葡萄斑点病是世界上普遍发生的葡萄病毒病害。采用RT-PCR从表现明显斑点症状的葡萄样品维多利亚、无核白鸡心和胜宝叶片中检测到预期大小为179 bp的片段。对这些扩增片段进行克隆、序列测定及比对分析,结果表明,来源于这3个样品的GFkV序列间相似性为97.2%~98.9%,与NCBI已登录GFkV序列AJ309022的相似性为96.6%~97.8%。在此基础上,采用纳米磁珠法从以上3个葡萄品种的休眠枝条韧皮部与休眠芽中提取病毒RNA

  1. Expression QTL mapping in grapevine--revisiting the genetic determinism of grape skin colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Fen; Bertrand, Yves; Guiraud, Jean-Luc; Vialet, Sandrine; Launay, Amandine; Cheynier, Véronique; Terrier, Nancy; This, Patrice

    2013-06-01

    Expression quantitative locus (eQTL) mapping was proposed as a valuable approach to dissect the genetic basis of transcript variation, one of the prime causes of natural phenotypic variation. Few eQTL studies have been performed on woody species due to the difficulty in sample homogenisation. Based on previous knowledge on berry colour formation, we performed eQTL mapping in field experimentation of grapevine with appropriate sampling criteria. The transcript level of VvUFGT, a key enzyme for anthocyanin synthesis was measured by real-time qRT-PCR in grape berry on a 191-individual pseudo-F1 progeny, derived from a cross between Syrah and Grenache cultivars. Two eQTLs were identified: one, explaining 20%, of genotypic variance and co-locating with VvUFGT itself (cis-eQTL), was principally due to the contrast between Grenache alleles; the other, explaining 35% of genotypic variance, was a trans-eQTL due to Syrah allelic contrast and co-located with VvMYBAs, transcription factors known to activate the expression of VvUFGT. This study assessed and validated the feasibility of eQTL mapping approach in grapevine and offered insights and new hypotheses on grape skin colour formation.

  2. Synergism and redundancy in a plant volatile blend attracting grapevine moth females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Coracini, Miryan; Casado, Daniel; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A flight tunnel study was done to decipher the behavioral effect of grape odor in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana. A blend of 10 volatile compounds, which all elicit a strong antennal response, attracts mated grapevine moth females from a distance, by upwind orientation flight. These 10 grape volatiles are in part behaviorally redundant, since attraction to a 3-component blend of beta-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene was not significantly different from the 10-component blend. Blending these three compounds had a strong synergistic effect on female attraction, and omission of any one compound from this 3-component blend almost abolished attraction. It was nonetheless possible to substitute the three compounds with the other grape volatiles which are perceived by the female antenna, to partly restore attraction. Several blends, of varying composition, elicited significant attraction. The observed behavioral plasticity in response to grape volatile blends probably reflects the variation of the natural plant signal, since females oviposit on different grape varieties, in different phenological stages.

  3. Volatiles that encode host-plant quality in the grapevine moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Betta, Emanuela; Carlin, Silvia; Gasperi, Flavia; Mattivi, Fulvio; Pertot, Ilaria

    2011-11-01

    Plant volatiles are signals used by herbivorous insects to locate host plants and select oviposition sites. Whether such volatiles are used as indicators of plant quality by adult insects in search of host plants has been rarely tested. We tested whether volatiles indicate plant quality by studying the oviposition of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana on the grapevine plant Vitis vinifera. Host plants were infected with a variety of microorganisms, and larval fitness was correlated to the infected state of the substrate. Our results show an oviposition preference for volatiles that is significantly correlated with the fitness of the substrate. The chemical profiles of the bouquets from each V. vinifera-microorganism system are clearly differentiated in a PCA analysis. Both the volatile signal and the quality of the plant as larval food were affected by the introduction of microorganisms. Our study represents a broad approach to the study of plant-insect interactions by considering not only the direct effect of the plant but also the effect of plant-microorganism interactions on insect population dynamics.

  4. Relative performance of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) on grapes and other hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, Denis; Moreau, Jérôme

    2005-05-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana is a major grapevine pest, but despite the abundance of vineyards it is a generalist and uses either grapes or alternative species. Given the abundance and predictability of grape, L. botrana could be expected to have evolved towards monophagy. In order to understand why this species remains polyphagous, we hypothesized that larvae reared on rare wild host plants should have higher fitness than those reared on the more abundant grape host. For this, we compared larval performance and several life history traits on three alternative host plants (Daphne gnidium, Olea europaea, Tanacetum vulgare) and three Vitaceae (Vitis vinifera), two cultivars and one wild species (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and two control groups raised on either a low or a high nutritive value medium. Alternative hosts are more suitable than Vitaceae for the reproductive performance of L. botrana: larval mortality and development time was reduced, while pupal weight, growth rate, female longevity, female fecundity, duration of laying and mating success were increased. High quality food ingested by larvae promotes higher adult body weight and enhances female reproductive output. This suggests that alternative hosts provide greater nutritional value for L. botrana than Vitaceae. The use of alternative host plants could thus be maintained in the host range because they offer L. botrana a better fitness than on the Vitaceae. This could typically represent an advantage for moths behaving in plant diversity grape landscapes.

  5. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  6. RPB2 gene reveals a phylodemographic signal in wild and domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni ZECCA; Fabrizio GRASSI

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphism at the single copy RPB2 locus was investigated to define the relationship between wild and domesticated grapevines.Two different forms still coexist in Eurasia,the cultivated (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.vinifera) and the wild (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi),referred to as separate subspecies.Using the observed number of mutations at the RPB2 locus,as well as archaeological data,to define an approximate age of domestication,we have estimated a high nucleotide substitution rate (4.25 × 10-7) in the domesticated group.Moreover,the dynamics of population size in the RPB2 gene were estimated using Bayesian coalescent inference.The Bayesian skyline plot offered interesting information on the past dynamics of RPB2 for both wild and domesticated groups.The signal of exponential growth observed in grapevine accessions can be viewed as a consequence of human breeding activity during the domestication of the species.However,a recent and drastic decline of population size has been observed in the Mediterranean wild lineages.This event mirrors the demographic decline of wild grape,probably explained by anthropogenic pressure on its natural habitats and by the introduction of pathogens from North America in recent centuries.

  7. SNP high-throughput screening in grapevine using the SNPlex™ genotyping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, only a small number of low- and mid-throughput methods have been used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery and genotyping in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.. However, following completion of the sequence of the highly heterozygous genome of Pinot Noir, it has been possible to identify millions of electronic SNPs (eSNPs thus providing a valuable source for high-throughput genotyping methods. Results Herein we report the first application of the SNPlex™ genotyping system in grapevine aiming at the anchoring of an eukaryotic genome. This approach combines robust SNP detection with automated assay readout and data analysis. 813 candidate eSNPs were developed from non-repetitive contigs of the assembled genome of Pinot Noir and tested in 90 progeny of Syrah × Pinot Noir cross. 563 new SNP-based markers were obtained and mapped. The efficiency rate of 69% was enhanced to 80% when multiple displacement amplification (MDA methods were used for preparation of genomic DNA for the SNPlex assay. Conclusion Unlike other SNP genotyping methods used to investigate thousands of SNPs in a few genotypes, or a few SNPs in around a thousand genotypes, the SNPlex genotyping system represents a good compromise to investigate several hundred SNPs in a hundred or more samples simultaneously. Therefore, the use of the SNPlex assay, coupled with whole genome amplification (WGA, is a good solution for future applications in well-equipped laboratories.

  8. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  9. Lasiolactols A and B Produced by the Grapevine Fungal Pathogen Lasiodiplodia mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Basso, Sara; Giambra, Selene; Conigliaro, Gaetano; Lo Piccolo, Sandra; Alves, Artur; Burruano, Santella

    2016-04-01

    A strain of Lasiodiplodia mediterranea, a fungus associated with grapevine decline in Sicily, produced several metabolites in liquid medium. Two new dimeric γ-lactols, lasiolactols A and B (1 and 2), were characterized as (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,2'S*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*)- and (2R*,3S*,4R*,5R*,2'R*,3'S*,4'R*,5'R*)-(5-(4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyl-tetrahydro-furan-2-yloxy)-2,4-dimethyl-tetrahydro-furan-3-yl]-methanols by IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. Other four metabolites were identified as botryosphaeriodiplodin, (5R)-5-hydroxylasiodiplodin, (-)-(1R,2R)-jasmonic acid, and (-)-(3S,4R,5R)-4-hydroxymethyl-3,5-dimethyldihydro-2-furanone (3 - 6, resp.). The absolute configuration (R) at hydroxylated secondary C-atom C(7) was also established for compound 3. The compounds 1 - 3, 5, and 6, tested for their phytotoxic activities to grapevine cv. Inzolia leaves at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) were phytotoxic and compound 5 showed the highest toxicity. All metabolites did not show in vitro antifungal activity against four plant pathogens.

  10. VitisCyc: a metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Sushma; Raja, Rajani; Waddell, Elijah N.; Elser, Justin; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to (i) search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, (ii) compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and (iii) upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera “Pinot Noir” cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related pathways and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant's immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu. PMID:25538713

  11. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV encoding the movement protein (MP was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  13. Identification of Agrobacterium vitis as a causal agent of grapevine crown gall in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a serious outbreak of crown gall disease was observed on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in several commercial vineyards located in the Vojvodina province, Serbia. Bacteria were isolated from the young tumor tissue on nonselective YMA medium and five representative strains were selected for further identification. Tumorigenic (Ti plasmid was detected in all strains by PCR using primers designed to amplify the virC pathogenicity gene, producing a 414-bp PCR product. The strains were identified as Agrobacterium vitis using differential physiological and biochemical tests, and a multiplex PCR assay targeting 23S rRNA gene sequences. In the pathogenicity assay, all strains induced characteristic symptoms on inoculated tomato and grapevine plants. They were less virulent on tomato plants in comparison to the reference strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  14. Host plant suitability and feeding preferences of the grapevine pest Abagrotis orbis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, A M; Lowery, D T; Jensen, L B M; Deglow, E K

    2011-12-01

    Thirteen plant species were tested for their suitability as hosts for Abagrotis orbis (Grote), a climbing cutworm pest of grapevines in British Columbia. Choice tests were also conducted to investigate larval feeding preferences for the Brassicaceae species joi choi, Brassica rapa variety. Chinensis L., spring draba; Draba verna L.; and shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik; compared with postdormant buds of grape, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae), and leaves of nine other plant species from several families. Results showed that tah tsai, Brassica rapa L. variety rosularis (M. Tsen & S. H. Lee) Hanelt (Brassicaceae), is a superior host for A. orbis based on shorter time to adult eclosion, heavier pupae, and higher rates of survival. Later-instar larvae died when fed draba, whereas those reared on shepherd's purse did not survive beyond the third instar. White clover, Trifolium repens L. (Fabaceae), and grape leaves were unsuitable hosts throughout development. Fifth-instar A. orbis preferred plants of the Brassicaceae family, dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae), and strawberry, Fragaria sp. L. (Rosaceae), compared with postdormant grape buds. The results of this study suggest that the winter annual mustards draba and shepherd's purse that often grow abundantly in vine rows might help reduce climbing cutworm damage to the buds of grapevines.

  15. A divergent variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 is present in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seah YeeMey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses are a problem for grape production globally. Symptoms are caused by a number of distinct viral species. During a survey of Napa Valley vineyards (California, USA, we found evidence of a new variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3. We isolated its genome from a symptomatic greenhouse-raised plant and fully sequenced it. Findings In a maximum likelihood analysis of representative GLRaV-3 gene sequences, the isolate grouped most closely with a recently sequenced variant from South Africa and a partial sequence from New Zealand. These highly divergent GLRaV-3 variants have predicted proteins that are more than 10% divergent from other GLRaV-3 variants, and appear to be missing an open reading frame for the p6 protein. Conclusions This divergent GLRaV-3 phylogroup is already present in grape-growing regions worldwide and is capable of causing symptoms of leafroll disease without the p6 protein.

  16. Ethylene and not embolism is required for wound-induced tylose development in stems of grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Rost, Thomas L; Reid, Michael S; Matthews, Mark A

    2007-12-01

    The pruning of actively growing grapevines (Vitis vinifera) resulted in xylem vessel embolisms and a stimulation of tylose formation in the vessels below the pruning wound. Pruning was also followed by a 10-fold increase in the concentration of ethylene at the cut surface. When the pruning cut was made under water and maintained in water, embolisms were prevented, but there was no reduction in the formation of tyloses or the accumulation of ethylene. Treatment of the stems with inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) and/or action (silver thiosulfate) delayed and greatly reduced the formation of tyloses in xylem tissue and the size and number of those that formed in individual vessels. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that wound ethylene production is the cause of tylose formation and that embolisms in vessels are not directly required for wound-induced tylosis in pruned grapevines. The possible role of ethylene in the formation of tyloses in response to other stresses and during development, maturation, and senescence is discussed.

  17. Crystal, solution and in silico structural studies of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the common grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Atkinson

    Full Text Available Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS catalyzes the rate limiting step in lysine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants. The structure of DHDPS has been determined from several bacterial species and shown in most cases to form a homotetramer or dimer of dimers. However, only one plant DHDPS structure has been determined to date from the wild tobacco species, Nicotiana sylvestris (Blickling et al. (1997 J. Mol. Biol. 274, 608-621. Whilst N. sylvestris DHDPS also forms a homotetramer, the plant enzyme adopts a 'back-to-back' dimer of dimers compared to the 'head-to-head' architecture observed for bacterial DHDPS tetramers. This raises the question of whether the alternative quaternary architecture observed for N. sylvestris DHDPS is common to all plant DHDPS enzymes. Here, we describe the structure of DHDPS from the grapevine plant, Vitis vinifera, and show using analytical ultracentrifugation, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray crystallography that V. vinifera DHDPS forms a 'back-to-back' homotetramer, consistent with N. sylvestris DHDPS. This study is the first to demonstrate using both crystal and solution state measurements that DHDPS from the grapevine plant adopts an alternative tetrameric architecture to the bacterial form, which is important for optimizing protein dynamics as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations reported in this study.

  18. Crystal, Solution and In silico Structural Studies of Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase from the Common Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sarah C.; Dogovski, Con; Downton, Matthew T.; Pearce, F. Grant; Reboul, Cyril F.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Wagner, John; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the rate limiting step in lysine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants. The structure of DHDPS has been determined from several bacterial species and shown in most cases to form a homotetramer or dimer of dimers. However, only one plant DHDPS structure has been determined to date from the wild tobacco species, Nicotiana sylvestris (Blickling et al. (1997) J. Mol. Biol. 274, 608–621). Whilst N. sylvestris DHDPS also forms a homotetramer, the plant enzyme adopts a ‘back-to-back’ dimer of dimers compared to the ‘head-to-head’ architecture observed for bacterial DHDPS tetramers. This raises the question of whether the alternative quaternary architecture observed for N. sylvestris DHDPS is common to all plant DHDPS enzymes. Here, we describe the structure of DHDPS from the grapevine plant, Vitis vinifera, and show using analytical ultracentrifugation, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray crystallography that V. vinifera DHDPS forms a ‘back-to-back’ homotetramer, consistent with N. sylvestris DHDPS. This study is the first to demonstrate using both crystal and solution state measurements that DHDPS from the grapevine plant adopts an alternative tetrameric architecture to the bacterial form, which is important for optimizing protein dynamics as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations reported in this study. PMID:22761676

  19. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Baldan

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%, release ammonium (39%, secrete siderophores (38% and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%. Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards.

  20. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D'Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards.

  1. ETHNICITY AND TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ASIAN INDIAN MIGRANTS IN AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowitt Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to present ethnic differences in body size and body composition in Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand, associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, through the comparison with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation. About 74 studies out of 128 publications were selected to ensure relevance to the topic of the review. Seven research projects were presented for the body size and body composition of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes of 8.6% in Asian Indians in New Zealand is still higher than in their homeland, owing to their ethnicity, genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle and altered nutrition, and other psychosocial factors related to migration and living conditions like stress at work and depression. For the same body mass index, in comparison with people of other ethnic groups in New Zealand Asian Indians had more total body fat, higher percent body fat, more central fat, less lean mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Central obesity was associated with insulin resistance and low grade systemic inflammation. Considering the evidence that type 2 diabetes develops ten years earlier in Asian Indians than in other populations, further studies are warranted to shed some light on the still incompletely understood metabolic syndrome and “thin-fat” Indian phenotype.

  2. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eNesler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB, against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  3. Screening and modes of action of antagonistic bacteria to control the fungal pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora involved in grapevine trunk diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Rana; Roudet, Jean; Bonnard, Olivier; Dufour, Marie Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie France; Fert, Mathieu; Gautier, Thomas; Deschamps, Alain; Fermaud, Marc

    2016-11-01

    The antagonistic activity of 46 bacterial strains isolated from Bordeaux vineyards were evaluated against Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, a major grapevine pathogen involved in Esca. The reduction of the necrosis length of stem cuttings ranged between 31.4% and 38.7% for the 8 most efficient strains. Two in planta trials allowed the selection of the two best strains, Bacillus pumilus (S32) and Paenibacillus sp. (S19). Their efficacy was not dependent on application method; co-inoculation, prevention in the wood and soil inoculation were tested. The involvement of antibiosis by the secretion of diffusible and/or volatile compounds in the antagonistic capacity of these two strains was assessed in vitro. Volatile compounds secreted by B. pumilus (S32) and Paenibacillus sp. (S19) were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The volatile compounds 1-octen-3-ol and 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine were obtained commercially and tested, and they showed strong antifungal activity against P. chlamydospora, which suggested that these compounds may play an important role in the bacterial antagonistic activity in planta. Furthermore, the expression of 10 major grapevine defense genes was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, which demonstrated that the two strains significantly affected the grapevine transcripts four days after their application on the plants. High expression levels of different genes associated with P. chlamydospora infection in B. pumilus pre-treated plants suggests that this strain induces systemic resistance in grapevine. For the first time, we demonstrated the ability of two bacterial strains, B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp., isolated from grapevine wood, to control P. chlamydospora via direct and/or indirect mechanisms.

  4. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; Perazzolli, Michele; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Elad, Yigal; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB), against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  5. An innovative pot system for monitoring the effects of water stress on grapevines and grape quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccioni, Sergio; Leprini, Marco; Mocali, Stefano; Perria, Rita; Priori, Simone; Storchi, Paolo; Zombardo, Alessandra; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The advantage of a pot system is the possibility to control many variables and factors with a large number of replicates, obtaining statistically significant results in only one year of experimentation. An innovative pot system for the monitoring of grapevine water stress was set up. The system consists of 99 pots of 70 liters, filled by 3 different soils collected from premium vineyards of the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany). The soils showed different texture (clay-loam, loam and sandy-loam), different gravel and carbonate content, and different available water capacity (AWC). The same soils had been field monitored for grapevine water stress; therefore it was possible to compare the grapevine behaviour both in pot and in field conditions. The grapevine cultivar was Pinot noir clone ENTAV 115, which can be used to investigate the genetic expression in response to environmental factors, since its genome has been sequenced. Different rootstocks theses were compared: not grafted, 1103 Paulsen and M101-14. Each combination rootstock-soil was repeated 9 times. Every pot was equipped for drip irrigation and with electrodes for soil moisture determination by TDR. A non-stop automated control unit recorded meteorological data (temperature and rainfalls), soil temperature and water potential on 9 selected pots. These 9 selected pots were also used to calibrate a model for soil water volume/tension curve. Soil, leaves and grapes samples from each pot were collected for microbial community determination, through NGS analysis. A preliminary study was based on testing the ability of the system to simulate the natural growing conditions of the grapevines. Therefore the grape performances of the potted plants were compared to those of plants cultivated in the vineyards where the soils were taken. In July 2015 three levels of water supply were tested during 5 weeks (up to veraison) in order to study the effects of water stress on the plants and the grape. Later, all the pots

  6. Accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in fruit, leaves and shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following foliar applications of guaiacol or oak extract to grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfire smoke, and their subsequent release during winemaking. This study investigated the accumulation of guaiacol glycoconjugates in the fruit, shoots and leaves of Monastrell grapevines following foliar applications (at veraison) of either an aqueous solution of guaiacol or an aqueous oak extract. Fruit, shoot and leaf samples were then collected at 3 time points between veraison and maturity, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, to quantify guaiacol and its glycoconjugates, respectively. Guaiacol glycoconjugates were observed in fruit and leaves in particular, demonstrating glycosylation occurred after grapevine treatment; however, different glycoconjugate profiles were apparent.

  7. Ocorrência do molusco asiático Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae no baixo rio Negro, Amazônia central Occurrence of the Asian mollusc Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in the lower Rio Negro, Central Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mansur Pimpão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Negro é um dos maiores afluentes do rio Amazonas, mas poucos moluscos foram registrados até o momento para aquele rio, representados apenas por gastrópodes. Foi registrada a presença do molusco bivalve exótico Corbicula fluminea na margem esquerda do baixo rio Negro, no lago do Tupé e no Catalão - margem direita do rio Negro, todas localidades no município de Manaus, Brasil. O registro foi realizado por meio da coleta de conchas e espécimes vivos. É o primeiro registro de C. fluminea para o estado do Amazonas e Amazônia central.The Rio Negro is one of the biggest Rio Amazonas tributaries. Few molluscs have been registered to that river yet, represented only by gastropods. It is reported the occurrence of the exotic bivalve mollusc Corbicula fluminea in left bank margin of Rio Negro, Lago do Tupé and Catalão - right bank margin of Rio Negro, all localities in the municipality of Manaus, Brazil. The species is recorded by a collection of shells and specimens alive. This is the first occurrence of C. fluminea in the Amazon State and Central Amazon.

  8. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:http://www.ahr-journal.com.

  9. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  10. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome ePouzoulet; Alexandria ePivovaroff; Louis eSantiago; Philippe Eric Rolshausen

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different ...

  11. Bacteria in a wood fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie eBruez; Rana eHaidar; Maryam eTidjani Alou; Jessica eVallance; Christophe eBertsch; Flore eMazet; Marc eFermaud; Alain eDeschamps; Lucia eGuerin-Dubrana; Stephane eCompant; Patrice eRey

    2015-01-01

    Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD) associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interactions have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic), different anatomical part (trunk and cordon) a...

  12. The sulfated laminarin triggers a stress transcriptome before priming the SA- and ROS-dependent defenses during grapevine's induced resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Gauthier

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera is susceptible to many pathogens which cause significant losses to viticulture worldwide. Chemical control is available, but agro-ecological concerns have raised interest in alternative methods, especially in triggering plant immunity by elicitor treatments. The β-glucan laminarin (Lam and its sulfated derivative (PS3 have been previously demonstrated to induce resistance in grapevine against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola. However, if Lam elicits classical grapevine defenses such as oxidative burst, pathogenesis-related (PR-proteins and phytoalexin production, PS3 triggered grapevine resistance via a poorly understood priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of the PS3-induced resistance. For this purpose we studied i the signaling events and transcriptome reprogramming triggered by PS3 treatment on uninfected grapevine, ii grapevine immune responses primed by PS3 during P. viticola infection. Our results showed that i PS3 was unable to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS production, cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration variations, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation but triggered a long lasting plasma membrane depolarization in grapevine cells, ii PS3 and Lam shared a common stress-responsive transcriptome profile that partly overlapped the salicylate- (SA and jasmonate-(JA-dependent ones. After P. viticola inoculation, PS3 specifically primed the SA- and ROS-dependent defense pathways leading to grapevine induced resistance against this biotroph. Interestingly pharmacological approaches suggested that the plasma membrane depolarization and the downstream ROS production are key events of the PS3-induced resistance.

  13. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  14. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  15. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  16. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  17. Diabetic nephropathy in Surinamese South Asian subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandieshaw, Prataap Kalap; Chandie Shaw, Prataap Kalap

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the incidence and risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic and non-diabetic Surinamese South Asians. The Surinamese South Asians, originally descended from the North-East India. Due to the former colonial bounds with the Netherlands, a relatively youn

  18. Book Review: Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sandee, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the book Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity edited by Bhattacharyay, Kawai and Nag (2012). This book is the second publication coordinated by the ADB and the ADB Institute focusing on infrastructure and connectivity in Asian countries. This book looks at regional (across border) infrastructure that is needed to facilitate growth and development through better connectivity and integration among countries.

  19. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  20. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  1. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  2. Population genomic analysis of a bacterial plant pathogen: novel insight into the origin of Pierce's disease of grapevine in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Nunney

    Full Text Available Invasive diseases present an increasing problem worldwide; however, genomic techniques are now available to investigate the timing and geographical origin of such introductions. We employed genomic techniques to demonstrate that the bacterial pathogen causing Pierce's disease of grapevine (PD is not native to the US as previously assumed, but descended from a single genotype introduced from Central America. PD has posed a serious threat to the US wine industry ever since its first outbreak in Anaheim, California in the 1880s and continues to inhibit grape cultivation in a large area of the country. It is caused by infection of xylem vessels by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, a genetically distinct subspecies at least 15,000 years old. We present five independent kinds of evidence that strongly support our invasion hypothesis: 1 a genome-wide lack of genetic variability in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa found in the US, consistent with a recent common ancestor; 2 evidence for historical allopatry of the North American subspecies X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa; 3 evidence that X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa evolved in a more tropical climate than X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; 4 much greater genetic variability in the proposed source population in Central America, variation within which the US genotypes are phylogenetically nested; and 5 the circumstantial evidence of importation of known hosts (coffee plants from Central America directly into southern California just prior to the first known outbreak of the disease. The lack of genetic variation in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa in the US suggests that preventing additional introductions is important since new genetic variation may undermine PD control measures, or may lead to infection of other crop plants through the creation of novel genotypes via inter-subspecific recombination. In general, geographically mixing of previously

  3. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; LIU, WILLIAM MING

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found ...

  4. Genetic and functional diversity of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiano, Arturo; Kuramae, Eiko; de Hollander, Matias; Kowalchuck, George; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Pastorelli, Roberta; Fornasier, Flavio; Priori, Simone; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Despite the economic importance of vineyards in Italy, the wine sector is facing severe challenges from increased global competition and climate changes. The quality of the grape at harvest has a strong direct impact on final wine quality and the strong relationship between wine composition, aroma, taste and soil properties has been outlined in the "Terroir concept". However, information on the impact of soil microbial communities on soil functions, grapevine plants and wine quality is still lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the composition and the potential functions of soil microbial communities associated to grapevine plants grown in two soils which showed similar physical, chemical and hydrological properties but which provided a different wine quality. Materials and Methods Soils from two sites of the Chianti region in Tuscany (BRO11 and BRO12) cultivated with the grapevine cultivar Sangiovese with contrasting wine quality were examined by means of a structural and functional approach: specifically, GeoChip microarrays, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, enzyme assays and measurements of some soil biological properties, such as microbial biomass C and soil respiration, were carried out. Results Enzyme assays and soil biological analyses revealed a higher biological activity in BRO11 as compared to BRO12. The structure of soil microbial communities, assessed using 16S and 18S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing, revealed a higher presence of Actinobacteria in the BRO12 than in the BRO11 soil where, in contrast, the alfa-Proteobacteria are more abundant. GeoChip microarray analyses revealed a consistent difference in genes involved in S cycling, with a significant overrepresentation of sulfur-oxidation genes in BRO11 and increased levels of sulfate reduction genes BRO12. These results are consistent with the high content of sulfates and the abundance of Firmicutes such as Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans in the BRO

  5. Cytoplasmic- and extracellular-proteome analysis of Diplodia seriata: a phytopathogenic fungus involved in grapevine decline

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    Cobos Rebeca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phytopathogenic fungus Diplodia seriata, whose genome remains unsequenced, produces severe infections in fruit trees (fruit blight and grapevines. In this crop is recognized as one of the most prominent pathogens involved in grapevine trunk disease (or grapevine decline. This pathology can result in the death of adult plants and therefore it produces severe economical losses all around the world. To date no genes or proteins have been characterized in D. seriata that are involved in the pathogenicity process. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with pathogenicity and to gain a better understanding of the biology of D. seriata, we initiated a proteome-level study of the fungal mycelia and secretome. Results Intracellular and secreted proteins from D. seriata collected from liquid cultures were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 550 cytoplasmic proteins were reproducibly present in 3 independent extractions, being 53 identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and tandem mass spectrometry. The secretome analysis showed 75 secreted proteins reproducibly present in 3 biological replicates, being 16 identified. Several of the proteins had been previously identified as virulence factors in other fungal strains, although their contribution to pathogenicity in D. seriata remained to be analyzed. When D. seriata was grown in a medium supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose, 3 proteins were up-regulated and 30 down-regulated. Within the up-regulated proteins, two were identified as alcohol dehydrogenase and mitochondrial peroxyrredoxin-1, suggesting that they could play a significant role in the pathogenicity process. As for the 30 down-regulated proteins, 9 were identified being several of them involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions This study is the first report on proteomics on D. seriata. The proteomic data obtained will be important to understand the pathogenicity

  6. Resistance to Plasmopara viticola in a grapevine segregating population is associated with stilbenoid accumulation and with specific host transcriptional responses

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    Delledonne Massimo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is a serious disease in Vitis vinifera, the most commonly cultivated grapevine species. Several wild Vitis species have instead been found to be resistant to this pathogen and have been used as a source to introgress resistance into a V. vinifera background. Stilbenoids represent the major phytoalexins in grapevine, and their toxicity is closely related to the specific compound. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance response to P. viticola of the Merzling × Teroldego cross by profiling the stilbenoid content of the leaves of an entire population and the transcriptome of resistant and susceptible individuals following infection. Results A three-year analysis of the population's response to artificial inoculation showed that individuals were distributed in nine classes ranging from total resistance to total susceptibility. In addition, quantitative metabolite profiling of stilbenoids in the population, carried out using HPLC-DAD-MS, identified three distinct groups differing according to the concentrations present and the complexity of their profiles. The high producers were characterized by the presence of trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, trans-pterostilbene and up to thirteen different viniferins, nine of them new in grapevine. Accumulation of these compounds is consistent with a resistant phenotype and suggests that they may contribute to the resistance response. A preliminary transcriptional study using cDNA-AFLP selected a set of genes modulated by the oomycete in a resistant genotype. The expression of this set of genes in resistant and susceptible genotypes of the progeny population was then assessed by comparative microarray analysis. A group of 57 genes was found to be exclusively modulated in the resistant genotype suggesting that they are involved in the grapevine-P. viticola incompatible interaction. Functional annotation of these transcripts

  7. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    dollars worth of illegal or unregistered cash, most of it associated with narcotics trafficking and unreported remittances from migrant labor , is...Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia month on some construction sites.32 Remittances from legal migrant labor are part of the Central Asian...farms and construction sites,36 since they rarely have any le- gal standing. Also, income from migrant labor is usually barely suffi- cient to cover

  8. Summer Asian-Pacific Oscillation and Its Relationship with Atmospheric Circulation and Monsoon Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; CHEN Junming; XIAO Dong; NAN Sulan; ZOU Yan; ZHOU Botao

    2008-01-01

    Using the ERA-40 data and numerical simulations, this study investigated the teleconnection over the extratropical Asian-Pacific region and its relationship with the Asian monsoon rainfall and the climatological characteristics of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific, and analyzed impacts of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) heating and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) on the teleconnection. The Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO) is defined as a zonal seesaw of the tropospheric temperature in the midlatitudes of the Asian-Pacific region. When the troposphere is cooling in the midlatitudes of the Asian continent, it is warming in the midlatitudes of the central and eastern North Pacific; and vice versa. The APO also appears in the stratosphere, but with a reversed phase. Used as an index of the thermal contrast between Asia and the North Pacific, it provides a new way to explore interactions between the Asian and Pacific atmospheric circulations. The APO index exhibits the interannual and interdecadal variability. It shows a downward trend during 1958-2001, indicating a weakening of the thermal contrast, and shows a 5.5-yr oscillation period. The formation of the APO is associated with the zonal vertical circulation caused by a difference in the solar radiative heating between the Asian continent and the North Pacific. The numerical simulations further reveal that the summer TP heating enhances the local tropospheric temperature and upward motion, and then strengthens downward motion and decreases the tropospheric temperature over the central and eastern North Pacific. This leads to the formation of the APO. The Pacific decadal oscillation and El Nino/La Nina over the tropical eastern Pacific do not exert strong influences on the APO. When there is an anomaly in the summer APO, the South Asian high, the westerly jet over Eurasia, the tropical easterly jet over South Asia, and the subtropical high over the North Pacific change significantly, with anomalous Asian

  9. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the European Grapevine moth (EGVM) Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Melissa Claire; van Helden, Maarten; Court, Leon N; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-09-01

    The Lobesia botrana larvae feed on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), thereby reducing crop yield and increasing crop susceptibility to fungal and bacterial attacks. We determined the circular mitochondrial genome of L. botrana as 15 229 bp (GenBank KP677508) and contained 13 protein coding genes (PCG's), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and two ribosomal RNAs. All tRNAs have the "clover-shaped" 2-D structures, while the tRNA-Ile which has the TψC-stem but lacked the TψC-loop. Knowledge of L. botrana mitochondrial genome represents a valuable molecular resource for developing effective DNA identification tools for biosecurity purposes and will contribute to better understanding of its evolutionary and population genetics.

  11. Combination of RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of cabernet sauvignon grapevine elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota; Sarria, Javier; Armada, Manuel

    2013-06-19

    This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  12. Combination of RGB and Multispectral Imagery for Discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Salinas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  13. Possibilities of producing grape-based alcoholic drinks from newly created grapevine varieties

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    Nikićević N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with investigations on the possibility of producing grape-based alcoholic drinks from newly created grapevine varieties, such as Riesling Italian, Seedling 14660, Muscat Hamburg and Godominka. All chemical parameters for produced grape brandies, marc brandies and wine distillates complied with standards of quality as prescribed by the Regulations for quality of alcoholic drinks. Organoleptic evaluation proved that Seedling 14660 produced best scored wine distillate (17.85, Muscat Hamburg and Godominka gave best scored grape brandy (18.25 and Godominka yielded best scored marc brandy (18.40. Sensory properties of assessed brandies and wine distillate indicate that aroma and quality are gaining in intensity and level of improvement, starting from wine distillate to marc brandies. Also, intensive fruity-floral aroma reminding of lily-of-the-valley and iris fragrance is evident.

  14. Peptidoglycan from fermentation by-product triggers defense responses in grapevine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly under attack from a variety of microorganisms, and rely on a series of complex detection and response systems to protect themselves from infection. Here, we found that a by-product of glutamate fermentation triggered defense responses in grapevine, increasing the expression of defense response genes in cultured cells, foliar chitinase activity, and resistance to infection by downy mildew in leaf explants. To identify the molecule that triggered this innate immunity, we fractionated and purified candidates extracted from Corynebacterium glutamicum, a bacterium used in the production of amino acids by fermentation. Using hydrolysis by lysozyme, a silkworm larva plasma detection system, and gel filtration analysis, we identified peptidoglycan as inducing the defense responses. Peptidoglycans of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus also generated similar defensive responses.

  15. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

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    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  16. Modelling Growth and Partitioning of Annual Above-Ground Vegetative and Reproductive Biomass of Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggio, Franco; Vendrame, Nadia; Maniero, Giovanni; Pitacco, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In the current climate change scenarios, both agriculture and forestry inherently may act as carbon sinks and consequently can play a key role in limiting global warming. An urgent need exists to understand which land uses and land resource types have the greatest potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global change. A common believe is that agricultural fields cannot be net carbon sinks due to many technical inputs and repeated disturbances of upper soil layers that all contribute to a substantial loss both of the old and newly-synthesized organic matter. Perennial tree crops (vineyards and orchards), however, can behave differently: they grow a permanent woody structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate a woody pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. In this context, reliable methods for quantifying and modelling emissions and carbon sequestration are required. Carbon stock changes are calculated by multiplying the difference in oven dry weight of biomass increments and losses with the appropriate carbon fraction. These data are relatively scant, and more information is needed on vineyard management practices and how they impact vineyard C sequestration and GHG emissions in order to generate an accurate vineyard GHG footprint. During the last decades, research efforts have been made for estimating the vineyard carbon budget and its allocation pattern since it is crucial to better understand how grapevines control the distribution of acquired resources in response to variation in environmental growth conditions and agronomic practices. The objective of the present study was to model and compare the dynamics of current year's above-ground biomass among four grapevine varieties. Trials were carried out over three growing seasons in field conditions. The non-linear extra-sums-of-squares method demonstrated to be a feasible way of growth models comparison to statistically assess significant differences among

  17. Plant regeneration of grapevine (Vitis sp.) protoplasts isolated from embryogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reustle, G; Harst, M; Alleweldt, G

    1995-12-01

    Protoplasts with high embryogenic competence could be isolated from leaf-disk-derived embryos and embryoids of Vitis sp. cv. Seyval blanc. After a 4-week induction treatment in NN-69 medium supplemented with 4.0mg/l naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) and 0.9mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) and subsequent subcultivation in hormone-free medium, 38.5% of the developed microcalluses showed somatic embryogenesis. In contrast, only few formed somatic embryos after induction in CPW-13 medium with either 1.0mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5mg/l benzylaminopurine treatment (13.8%) or NOA/TDZ treatment (1.4%). Up to 30% of these embryos germinated and about half of them regenerated into typical in vitro grapevines when transferred onto LS-medium in culture tubes.

  18. Ampelographic Characterization and Sanitary Status of Grapevine Cultivar ‘Prč bijeli’ (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Goran Zdunić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Prč bijeli’ is an old Croatian autochthonous grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera L., which has not been ampelographically characterized in detail until now. Ampelographic description was performed following 52 morphological, 22 phyllometric and seven bunches dimension characteristics. ‘Prč bijeli’ showed acceptable yield and a must composition suitable for oenological purposes, with low acidity value and medium sugar content. The following synonyms were established: ‘Ćimavica’, ‘Parč’ and ‘Muškat’. The results of sanitary analysis (ELISA test on four viruses on twenty-seven vines revealed that 92.6 % samples were GLRaV-3 positive, while ArMV was not detected. Only one vine was free of the tested viruses.

  19. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  20. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

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    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  1. Genetic dissection of sex determinism, inflorescence morphology and downy mildew resistance in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Boury, Christophe; Manicki, Aurélie; Donnart, Martine; Butterlin, Gisèle; Némorin, Alice; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Ollat, Nathalie; Decroocq, Stéphane

    2009-05-01

    A genetic linkage map of grapevine was constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy based upon 138 individuals derived from a cross of Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon x Vitis riparia Gloire de Montpellier. A total of 212 DNA markers including 199 single sequence repeats (SSRs), 11 single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) and two morphological markers were mapped onto 19 linkage groups (LG) which covered 1,249 cM with an average of 6.7 cM between markers. The position of SSR loci in the maps presented here is consistent with the genome sequence. Quantitative traits loci (QTLs) for several traits of inflorescence and flower morphology, and downy mildew resistance were investigated. Two novel QTLs for downy mildew resistance were mapped on linkage groups 9 and 12, they explain 26.0-34.4 and 28.9-31.5% of total variance, respectively. QTLs for inflorescence morphology with a large effect (14-70% of total variance explained) were detected close to the Sex locus on LG 2. The gene of the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, involved in melon male organ development and located in the confidence interval of all QTLs detected on the LG 2, could be considered as a putative candidate gene for the control of sexual traits in grapevine. Co-localisations were found between four QTLs, detected on linkage groups 1, 14, 17 and 18, and the position of the floral organ development genes GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE1, FRUITFULL, LEAFY and AGAMOUS. Our results demonstrate that the sex determinism locus also determines both flower and inflorescence morphological traits.

  2. Selection and evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from grapevine rhizospheres for use as biofertilizers

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    Min Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB have the ability to solubilize insoluble phosphorus (P and release soluble P. Extensive research has been performed with respect to PSB isolation from the rhizospheres of various plants, but little is known about the prevalence of PSB in the grapevine rhizosphere. In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify PSB from the grapevine rhizosphere in five vineyards of Northwest China, to characterize their plant-growth-promoting (PGP traits, evaluate the effect of stress on their phosphate-solubilizing activity (PSA, and test their ability to stimulate the growth of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. From the vineyard soils, 66 PSB isolates were screened, and 10 strains with high PSA were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that these 10 strains belonged to 4 genera and 5 species: Bacillus aryabhattai, B. megaterium, Klebsiella variicola, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The selected PSB strains JY17 (B. aryabhattai and JY22 (B. aryabhattai were positive for multiple PGP traits, including nitrogen fixation and production of indole acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, chitinase, and protease. JY17 and JY22 showed strong PSA under stress conditions of high pH, high salt, and high temperature. Therefore, these two isolates can be used as biofertilizers in saline-alkaline soils. The inoculation with PSB significantly facilitated the growth of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under greenhouse conditions. Use of these PSB as biofertilizers will increase the available P content in soils, minimize P-fertilizer application, reduce environmental pollution, and promote sustainable agriculture.

  3. Fluoride accumulation and toxicity in grapevines Vitis vinifera L. in New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leece, D.R.; Scheltema, J.H.; Anttonen, T.; Weir, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The accumulation of fluoride by fully expanded basal leaves of grapevines was measured through two seasons in ten vineyards 9-25 km downwind of an aluminium smelter near Cessnock. Accumulation was linear with time until mid-summer then declined somewhat as leaves aged. Heavy rainfall and lowered emissions reduced accumulation. The impact of fluoride on the vines each season could be readily assessed from the leaf fluoride concentration in January, just prior to harvest. Fluoride accumulation by grapevines was assessed in four districts each January from 1981 to 1983. At Griffith and Mudgee, two districts which lacked an industrial source of fluoride, vine leaves did not accumulate fluoride (< 2..mu..g Fg/sup -1/). At Muswellbrook, vines growing 15-37 km downwind of a power station generally had slightly elevated leaf fluoride concentrations (1-10 ..mu..g Fg/sup -1/), but certain higher values were recorded (18-27 ..mu..g Fg/sup -1/) in vineyards under the direct influence of the plume. These higher values did not produce leaf necrosis. At Cessnock, 9-23 km downwind of the aluminium smelter, elevated leaf fluoride concentrations (4-42 ..mu..g Fg/sup -1/) were also recorded, with highest levels 9-11 km from the smelter. These levels did not produce leaf necrosis in well managed vineyards. In certain non-irrigated vineyards, fluoride accumulation was retarded by water-deficit stress when experienced throughout the growing season. In contrast, where severe water-deficit stress was not experienced until mid-summer, certain leaves which had accumulated 26-36 ..mu..g Fg/sup -1/ developed marginal necrotic lesions which reduced effective leaf photosynthetic area by 5-10%.

  4. THE ROLE OF MINERAL NUTRITION ON YIELDS AND FRUIT QUALITY IN GRAPEVINE, PEAR AND APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fertilization of temperate fruit trees, such as grapevine ( Vitis spp., apple ( Malus domestica, and pear ( Pyrus communis is an important tool to achive maximum yield and fruit quality. Fertilizers are provided when soil fertility does not allow trees to express their genetic potential, and time and rate of application should be scheduled to promote fruit quality. Grapevine berries, must and wine quality are affected principally by N, that regulate the synthesis of some important compounds, such as anthocyanins, which are responsible for coloring of the must and the wine. Fermenation of the must may stop in grapes with low concentration of N because N is requested in high amount by yeasts. An N excess may increase the pulp to peel ratio, diluting the concentration of anthocyanins and promoting the migration of anthocyanins from berries to the growing plant organs; a decrease of grape juice soluble solid concentration is also expected because of an increase in vegetative growth. Potassium is also important for wine quality contributing to adequate berry maturation, concentration of sugars, synthesis of phenols and the regulation of pH and acidity. In apple and pear, Ca and K are important for fruit quality and storage. Potassium is the most important component of fruit, however, any excess should be avoided and an adequate K:Ca balance should be achieved. Adequate concentration of Ca in the fruit prevents pre- and post-harvest fruit disorders and, at the same time, increases tolerance to pathogens. Although N promotes adequate growth soil N availability should be monitored to avoid excessive N uptake that may decrease fruit skin color and storability.

  5. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Bei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and plant area index (PAI are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI, canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  6. Viral small RNAs reveal the genomic variations of three grapevine vein clearing virus quasispecies populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Susanne; Qiu, Wenping

    2017-02-02

    Viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) include viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) that are initiators and products of RNA silencing, and small RNAs that are derived from viral RNAs with function still unknown. Sequencing of vsRNAs allows assembling of viral genomes and revelation of viral population variations at genomic levels. Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a new member of the family Caulimoviridae whose DNA genome is replicated by reverse transcription of pre-genomic RNA molecules. In this short report, three genomic sequences of GVCV were assembled from vsRNAs that were isolated and sequenced from three individual grapevines in commercial vineyards and compared to the GVCV-CHA reference genome. Profiles of single nucleotide polymorphism among three viral populations indicated a closer relatedness between two populations in different grape cultivars at the same location than those in the same grape cultivar at different locations, suggesting the spread of GVCV populations among vineyards of close proximity. Classic types of vsiRNAs (21-nt, 22-nt, and 24-nt) were found in the three GVCV vsiRNA populations, but these did not produce alignment hotspots on the GVCV-CHA reference genome. The number of 36-nt reads is the highest among vsRNAs, the role of these vsRNAs remains unclear. The analysis of vsRNAs provides a first holistic picture of genomic variations among GVCV viral quasispecies populations that help monitor epidemics and evolution of GVCV populations, an emerging virus that is becoming a threat to grape production in the Midwest region of the USA.

  7. Comparing Kaolin and Pinolene to Improve Sustainable Grapevine Production during Drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Brillante

    Full Text Available Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene, traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control. The trial was carried out under field conditions over three growing seasons, during which moderate to very severe plant water stress (down to -1.9 MPa was measured through stem water potential. Leaf stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthesis rate (An were measured during the seasons and used to compute intrinsic WUE (WUEi, defined as An/gs ratio. Leaf temperature was also recorded and compared between treatments. Bunch quantity, bunch and berry weight, sugar accumulation, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were measured. Finally, microvinifications were performed and resultant wines subjected to sensory evaluation.Results showed that the use of kaolin increased grapevine intrinsic WUE (+18% on average as compared to unsprayed vines without affecting berry and bunch weight and quantity, or sugar level. Anthocyanin content increased (+35% in kaolin treatment, and the wine was judged more attractive (p-value <0.05 and slightly more appreciated (p-value < 0.1 than control. Pinolene did not increase WUEi, limiting An more than gs; grapes with this treatment contained lower sugar and anthocyanin content than control, and the obtained wine was the least appreciated. This study demonstrates that particle film technology can improve vine WUEi and wine quality at the same time, while traditional antitranspirants were not as effective for these purposes. This positive effect can be used in interaction with other already

  8. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boursiquot Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats, due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol, is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L. has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars.

  9. Selected Statistics on the Status of Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado

    1977-01-01

    Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.

  10. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  11. Asian Financial Cooperation as Seen From Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In fact, I am convinced that steps to promote the Asian bond market have the potential to make a contribution to monetary and financial cooperation in Asia that goes beyond simply deepening and enhancing the efficiency of today's bond markets. Let me explain what I have in mind by looking at Asian monetary cooperation through the European rear-view mirror. In doing so, I will first make some broad-brush comparisons between Asian and European developments and then present some observations on the forces that, in my mind, have driven the process of cooperation in Europe - leaving it to you to decide whether a similar development could be expected in Asia.

  12. Sex differences of sarcopenia in Asian populations: The implications in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hui Wu, MD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, a well-known geriatric syndrome, is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass plus declined muscle function (muscle strength and/or physical performance. Sarcopenia is associated with a number of adverse outcomes, including poor quality of life, falls, disability, and mortality. The clinical impact of sarcopenia on older people will escalate along with the rapid growth of elderly population in Asia. Moreover, the differences of ethnic backgrounds between Asian people and Westerners have trigger the need for specific diagnostic criteria for Asian populations. After the publication of Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia consensus, sarcopenia has gained even more extensive research attention in Asia. In general, the reported prevalence of sarcopenia in Asia was lower than Western countries, ranging from 2.5% to 45.7%. Asian people tend to have lower muscle mass, weaker grip strength, slower gait speed, and higher body fat mass with central distribution. Compared to Western populations, the rate of age-related muscle mass decline in older Asian people remain relatively unchanged, but the decline rate in muscle strength or physical performance was more significant along with aging. With aging, Asian people presented with greater increase in fat mass and higher prevalence of central obesity, especially in women. Due to the great impact of sarcopenia, a life course program for good nutrition and physical activities would be of great benefit. However, various research challenges remain to be resolved in the future and more outcome-based trials are needed to formulate the most optimal strategy for sarcopenia in Asia.

  13. Potential Geographical Distribution of Genus Ammopiptanthus (Leguminosae) in the Eastern Central Asian Desert and Its Determinant Environmental Factors%沙冬青属植物在亚洲中部荒漠区的潜在地理分布及驱动因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松梅; 张明理; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    在较大的空间尺度上,物种分布模型是预测物种潜在分布的有效途径之一。利用最大熵模型MAXENT,预测了蒙古沙冬青和新疆沙冬青在亚洲中部荒漠区的潜在分布;借助模型启发式搜索和多元线性回归分析揭示了控制其潜在分布的驱动因子。结果表明:①蒙古沙冬青的潜在适生区和实际分布范围基本一致,局限在阿拉善荒漠区的东部和南部、鄂尔多斯西部;最适生的分布区局限在内蒙古乌兰布和沙漠东缘和贺兰山北部的小部分区域。控制蒙古沙冬青潜在分布的关键因子主要是反映极端的温度和降水条件的因子,如最干月降水量、极端最低温和最冷季平均温度等。②新疆沙冬青最适生的潜在分布区局限在新疆乌恰县和沿昆仑山向南延伸的区域。反映极端气候和气候变化范围的因子,如温度季节性、最冷季平均温度、最湿月降水量和降水季节性等以及海拔,基本控制了新疆沙冬青的潜在分布。%On a large spatial scale, species distribution model is one of the effective ways for modelling species' potential distribution. Using species distribution model (MAXENT), this study aimed to determine the potential distribution areas of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and Ammopiptanthus nanus in the eastern Central Asian desert, and then to identify the determinant environmental variables contributing to the distri- bution. Results show that: (1) The produced potential distribution areas of A. mongolicus agree well with the observed ones, and species A. mongolicus are restricted distributed in the eastern and southern part of Alxa desert and the western Ordos of Inner Mongolia. The most suitable habitats are in the eastern edge of the Ulan Buh Desert and a small area of northern Helan Mountain. The distribution-influencing factors are mainly the extreme temperature and precipitation, for example, the most drought month

  14. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  15. Toward the Identification of Two Glycoproteins Involved in the Stomatal Deregulation of Downy Mildew-Infected Grapevine Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, Christelle; Gamm, Magdalena; Lucchi, Géraldine; Truntzer, Caroline; Pecqueur, Delphine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Adrian, Marielle; Héloir, Marie-Claire

    2015-11-01

    Stomata remain abnormally opened and unresponsive to abscisic acid in grapevine leaves infected by downy mildew. This deregulation occurs from 3 days postinoculation and increases concomitantly with leaf colonization by the pathogen. Using epidermal peels, we demonstrated that the active compound involved in this deregulation is located in the apoplast. Biochemical assays showed that the active compound present in the apoplastic fluids isolated from Plasmopara viticola-infected grapevine leaves (IAF) is a CysCys bridge-independent, thermostable and glycosylated protein. Fractionation guided assays based on chromatography coupled to stomatal response and proteomic analysis allowed the identification of both plant and pathogen proteins in the active fraction obtained from IAF. Further in silico analysis and discriminant filtrations based on the comparison between predictions and experimental indications lead to the identification of two Vitis vinifera proteins as candidates for the observed stomatal deregulation.

  16. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  17. Cooking impact in color, pigments and volatile composition of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adriano; Pereira, José Alberto; Baraldi, Ilton; Malheiro, Ricardo

    2017-04-15

    Grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca) under culinary treatment (blanching and boiling at 60, 75 and 90min) were studied for their color, pigments and volatile fraction changes. Blanching and boiling caused a decrease in luminosity and a loss of green coloration in both varieties, while a yellow-brownish color arose. Significant correlations were established between the loss of green color (monochromatic variable a(∗)) and the total chlorophylls content. The main volatiles in fresh leaves [(Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate] were drastically reduced by blanching and suppressed by boiling. Other compounds like pentanal and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2 one arose from blanching and boiling. A boiling time of 60min is adequate for the culinary process of grapevine leaves, since the product is considered edible and the pigments and volatile changes are not as drastic as observed at 75 and 90min of boiling.

  18. Identification and utilization of a new Erysiphe necator isolate NAFU1 to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance in wild Chinese grapevine species using detached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Rong; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Cheng, Yuan; Ding, Qin; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe necator. To integrate effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines, numerous disease resistance screens of diverse Vitis germplasm, including wild species, have been conducted to identify powdery mildew resistance, but the results have been inconsistent. Here, a new powdery mildew isolate that is infectious on grapevines, designated Erysiphe necator NAFU1 (En. NAFU1), was identified and characterized by phylogeny inferred from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of pathogen ribosomal DNA sequences. Three classical methods were compared for the maintenance of En. NAFU1, and the most convenient method was maintenance on detached leaves and propagation by contact with infected leaves. Furthermore, controlled inoculations of En. NAFU1 were performed using detached leaves from 57 wild Chinese grapevine accessions to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance based on trypan blue staining of leaf sections. The results were compared with previous natural epidemics in the field. Among the screened accessions inoculated with En. NAFU1, 22.8% were resistant, 33.3% were moderately resistant, and 43.9% were susceptible. None of the accessions assessed herein were immune from infection. These results support previous findings documenting the presence of race-specific resistance to E. necator in wild Chinese grapevine. The resistance of wild Chinese grapevine to En. NAFU1 could be due to programmed cell death. The present results suggest that En. NAFU1 isolate could be used for future large-scale screens of resistance to powdery mildew in diverse Vitis germplasms and investigations of the interaction between grapevines and pathogens.

  19. Downy mildew resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 in susceptible grapevines partially mimics transcriptional changes of resistant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perazzolli Michele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most severe diseases of grapevine and is commonly controlled by fungicide treatments. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39 can induce resistance to downy mildew, although the molecular events associated with this process have not yet been elucidated in grapevine. A next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq approach was used to study global transcriptional changes associated with resistance induced by T39 in Vitis vinifera Pinot Noir leaves. The long-term aim was to develop strategies to optimize the use of this agent for downy mildew control. Results More than 14.8 million paired-end reads were obtained for each biological replicate of T39-treated and control leaf samples collected before and 24 h after P. viticola inoculation. RNA-Seq analysis resulted in the identification of 7,024 differentially expressed genes, highlighting the complex transcriptional reprogramming of grapevine leaves during resistance induction and in response to pathogen inoculation. Our data show that T39 has a dual effect: it directly modulates genes related to the microbial recognition machinery, and it enhances the expression of defence-related processes after pathogen inoculation. Whereas several genes were commonly affected by P. viticola in control and T39-treated plants, opposing modulation of genes related to responses to stress and protein metabolism was found. T39-induced resistance partially inhibited some disease-related processes and specifically activated defence responses after P. viticola inoculation, causing a significant reduction of downy mildew symptoms. Conclusions The global transcriptional analysis revealed that defence processes known to be implicated in the reaction of resistant genotypes to downy mildew were partially activated by T39-induced resistance in susceptible grapevines. Genes identified in this work are an important source of markers

  20. Influence of Fungal Strain, Temperature, and Wetness Duration on Infection of Grapevine Inflorescences and Young Berry Clusters by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Languasco, Luca; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature and wetness duration on infection of Vitis vinifera inflorescences (from "inflorescence clearly visible" to "end of flowering" stages) and young berry clusters (at "fruit swelling" and "berries groat-sized" stages) by Botrytis cinerea was investigated. Artificial inoculations were carried out using conidial suspensions of eight B. cinerea strains belonging to the transposon genotypes transposa and vacuma. Infection incidence was significantly affected by strain but not by transposon genotype (transposon genotype accounted for only 6.5% of the variance). Infection incidence was also affected by the interaction between strain and growth stage of the inflorescence or berry cluster (overall accounting for approximately 57% of the experimental variance). Thus, under our experimental conditions, the ability to cause infection was a strain rather than a transposon genotype attribute. Across all strains, infection incidence was lowest when inflorescences were clearly visible or fully developed, highest at flowering (from beginning to end of flowering), and intermediate at the postflowering fruit stages (fruit swelling and berries groat-sized). One transposa strain, however, was highly virulent on all grapevine growth stages tested. The effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection incidence were similar for all fungal strains and grapevine growth stages; infection incidence was highest at 20°C and lowest at 30°C, and was also low at 5°C. Similar results were obtained for mycelial growth and conidial germination. Based on the pooled data for all strains and grapevine growth stages, an equation was developed that accounted for the combined effects of temperature and wetness duration on relative infection incidence. This equation should be useful for developing decision-making systems concerning B. cinerea control at early grapevine growth stages.

  1. Organic and nitrogen fertilization of soil under Syrah grapevine: effects on soil chemical properties and nitrate concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Davi José Silva; Luís Henrique Bassoi; Marlon Gomes da Rocha; Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva; Magnus Dall’Igna Deon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viticulture is an activity of great social and economic importance in the lower-middle region of the São Francisco River valley in northeastern Brazil. In this region, the fertility of soils under vineyards is generally poor. To assess the effects of organic and nitrogen fertilization on chemical properties and nitrate concentrations in an Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Typic Plinthustalf), a field experiment was carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco, on Syrah grapevines. Treatments cons...

  2. Organic and Nitrogen Fertilization of Soil under ‘Syrah’ Grapevine: Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Nitrate Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Davi José; Bassoi,Luís Henrique; Rocha,Marlon Gomes da; Silva, Alexsandro Oliveira da [UNESP; Deon,Magnus Dall'Igna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viticulture is an activity of great social and economic importance in the lower-middle region of the São Francisco River valley in northeastern Brazil. In this region, the fertility of soils under vineyards is generally poor. To assess the effects of organic and nitrogen fertilization on chemical properties and nitrate concentrations in an Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Typic Plinthustalf), a field experiment was carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco, on Syrah grapevines. Treatments cons...

  3. A Grapevine Anthocyanin Acyltransferase, Transcriptionally Regulated by VvMYBA, Can Produce Most Acylated Anthocyanins Present in Grape Skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Amy R; Cavallini, Erika; Jia, Yong; Moss, Sarah M A; McDavid, Debra A J; Hooper, Lauren C; Robinson, Simon P; Tornielli, Giovanni B; Zenoni, Sara; Ford, Christopher M; Boss, Paul K; Walker, Amanda R

    2015-11-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds responsible for red/purple colors in the leaves, fruit, and flowers of many plant species. They are produced through a multistep pathway that is controlled by MYB transcription factors. VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 activate anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and are nonfunctional in white grapevine cultivars. In this study, transgenic grapevines with altered VvMYBA gene expression were developed, and transcript analysis was carried out on berries using a microarray technique. The results showed that VvMYBA is a positive regulator of the later stages of anthocyanin synthesis, modification, and transport in cv Shiraz. One up-regulated gene, ANTHOCYANIN 3-O-GLUCOSIDE-6″-O-ACYLTRANSFERASE (Vv3AT), encodes a BAHD acyltransferase protein (named after the first letter of the first four characterized proteins: BEAT [for acetyl CoA:benzylalcohol acetyltransferase], AHCT [for anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase], HCBT [for anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase], and DAT [for deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase]), belonging to a clade separate from most anthocyanin acyltransferases. Functional studies (in planta and in vitro) show that Vv3AT has a broad anthocyanin substrate specificity and can also utilize both aliphatic and aromatic acyl donors, a novel activity for this enzyme family found in nature. In cv Pinot Noir, a red-berried grapevine mutant lacking acylated anthocyanins, Vv3AT contains a nonsense mutation encoding a truncated protein that lacks two motifs required for BAHD protein activity. Promoter activation assays confirm that Vv3AT transcription is activated by VvMYBA1, which adds to the current understanding of the regulation of the BAHD gene family. The flexibility of Vv3AT to use both classes of acyl donors will be useful in the engineering of anthocyanins in planta or in vitro.

  4. REPCO 501452 : Replacement of copper fungicides in organic production of grapevine and apple in Europe : publishable final activity report

    OpenAIRE

    Köhl, J

    2007-01-01

    Final Activity Report: The objective of REPCO was to contribute to the replacement of copper fungicides in organic agriculture by new measures for control of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) in grapevine and scab (Venturia inaequalis) in apple. Both major European organic crops strongly depend on copper fungicides. Permitted amounts will be reduced stepwise in the years ahead (Council Regulation (EEC) 2092/91, Annex II) to avoid environmental risks. In European countries where copper fungic...

  5. Partitioning the grapevine growing season in the Douro Valley of Portugal: accumulated heat better than calendar dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, António C; Borges, José; Cabral, J Sarsfield; Jones, Gregory V

    2015-08-01

    Temperature and water status profiles during the growing season are the most important factors influencing the ripening of wine grapes. To model weather influences on the quality and productivity of the vintages, it is necessary to partition the growing season into smaller growth intervals in which weather variables are evaluated. A significant part of past and ongoing research on the relationships between weather and wine quality uses calendar-defined intervals to partition the growing season. The phenology of grapevines is not determined by calendar dates but by several factors such as accumulated heat. To examine the accuracy of different approaches, this work analyzed the difference in average temperature and accumulated precipitation using growth intervals with boundaries defined by means of estimated historical phenological dates and intervals defined by means of accumulated heat or average calendar dates of the Douro Valley of Portugal. The results show that in situations where there is an absence of historical phenological dates and/or no available data that makes the estimation of those dates possible, it is more accurate to use grapevine heat requirements than calendar dates to define growth interval boundaries. Additionally, we analyzed the ability of the length of growth intervals with boundaries based on grapevine heat requirements to differentiate the best from the worst vintage years with the results showing that vintage quality is strongly related to the phenological events. Finally, we analyzed the variability of growth interval lengths in the Douro Valley during 1980-2009 with the results showing a tendency for earlier grapevine physiology.

  6. PERSPECTIVES ON EAST-ASIAN MONETARY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Masini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trade interdependence among East-Asian countries suggests the urge to design some monetary arrangement to stabilize the macroeconomic framework of an extremely heterogeneously growing area. The paper reviews the literature and analyses several directions of East-Asian integration process, especially in relation to the European model. We argue that a more comprehensive economic and political world-scenario should be considered and a multi-speed policy approach should be implemented in the area. Around the pivotal role of China, a wide agreement should be reached for an Asian single-currency, which might be rapidly issued and provide a reference target for other East-Asian countries.

  7. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  8. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  9. The rise of Asian sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This Asia Focus provides an overview of sovereign wealth funds, evaluates the structure and activities of major funds in Asia, and compares the transparency of Asian funds relative to international best practices.

  10. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  11. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.

  12. Spatial distribution of the dagger nematode Xiphinema index and its associated Grapevine fanleaf virus in French vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate, L; Fievet, V; Hanse, B; Delemarre, F; Plantard, O; Esmenjaud, D; van Helden, M

    2008-08-01

    The nematode Xiphinema index is, economically, the major virus vector in viticulture, transmitting specifically the Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), the most severe grapevine virus disease worldwide. Increased knowledge of the spatial distribution of this nematode, both horizontally and vertically, and of correlative GFLV plant infections, is essential to efficiently control the disease. In two infested blocks of the Bordeaux vineyard, vertical distribution data showed that the highest numbers of individuals occurred at 40 to 110 cm depth, corresponding to the two layers where the highest densities of fine roots were observed. Horizontal distribution based on a 10 x 15 m grid sampling procedure revealed a significant aggregative pattern but no significant neighborhood structure of nematode densities. At a finer scale ( approximately 2 x 2 m), nematode sampling performed in a third block confirmed a significant aggregative pattern, with patches of 6 to 8 m diameter, together with a significant neighborhood structure of nematode densities, thus identifying the relevant sampling scale to describe the nematode distribution. Nematode patches correlate significantly with those of GFLV-infected grapevine plants. Finally, nematode and virus spread were shown to extend preferentially parallel to vine rows, probably due to tillage during mechanical weeding.

  13. Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Marasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P=0.03 and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23% presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%, insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%, and ammonia production (70%. The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root.

  14. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Lisa; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Masuero, Domenico; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Moretto, Marco; Caputi, Lorenzo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Moser, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts.

  15. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  16. LongSAGE gene-expression profiling of Botrytis cinerea germination suppressed by resveratrol, the major grapevine phytoalexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuanlin; Choquer, Mathias; Zhang, Bing; Ge, Hui; Hu, Songnian; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2011-09-01

    The ascomycetes Botrytis cinerea is one of the most studied necrotrophic phytopathogens and one of the main fungal parasites of grapevine. As a defense mechanism, grapevine produces a phytoalexin compound, resveratrol, which inhibits germination of the fungal conidium before it can penetrate the plant barriers and lead to host cell necrotrophy. To elucidate the effect of resveratrol on transcriptional regulation in B. cinerea germlings, two LongSAGE (long serial analysis of gene expression) libraries were generated in vitro for gene-expression profiling: 41 428 tags and among them, 15 665 unitags were obtained from resveratrol-treated B. cinerea germlings and 41 358 tags, among them, 16 362 unitags were obtained from non-treated B. cinerea germlings. In-silico analysis showed that about half of these unitags match known genes in the complete B. cinerea genome sequence. Comparison of unitag frequencies between libraries highlighted 110 genes that were transcriptionally regulated in the presence of resveratrol: 53 and 57 genes were significantly down- and upregulated, respectively. Manual curation of their putative functional categories showed that primary metabolism of germinating conidia appears to be markedly affected under resveratrol treatment, along with changes in other putative metabolic pathways, such as resveratrol detoxification and virulence-effector secretion, in B. cinerea germlings. We propose a hypothetical model of cross talk between B. cinerea germinating conidia and resveratrol-producing grapevine at the very early steps of infection.

  17. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  18. Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fickle, Tara

    2014-01-01

    "Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature," argues that games are narrative fantasies of perfectly equal opportunity that can help us reconceive of what it means to be a minority in contemporary America. Race's idiomatic evolution into a "race card" points not just to identity's growing immateriality and "virtualization" but to its increasingly intimate relationship with the ludic. Asian American authors in particular have seized upon the possibilities of transforming identity into...

  19. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway : RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  20. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut...... dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species....

  1. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  2. Genome-wide characterisation and expression profile of the grapevine ATL ubiquitin ligase family reveal biotic and abiotic stress-responsive and development-related members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Pietro; Regaiolo, Alice; Lovato, Arianna; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Porceddu, Andrea; Camiolo, Salvatore; Wong, Darren; Castellarin, Simone; Vandelle, Elodie; Polverari, Annalisa

    2016-12-02

    The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) protein family is a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases with a characteristic RING-H2 Zn-finger structure that mediates diverse physiological processes and stress responses in plants. We carried out a genome-wide survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ATL genes and retrieved 96 sequences containing the canonical ATL RING-H2 domain. We analysed their genomic organisation, gene structure and evolution, protein domains and phylogenetic relationships. Clustering revealed several clades, as already reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), with an expanded subgroup of grapevine-specific genes. Most of the grapevine ATL genes lacked introns and were scattered among the 19 chromosomes, with a high level of duplication retention. Expression profiling revealed that some ATL genes are expressed specifically during early or late development and may participate in the juvenile to mature plant transition, whereas others may play a role in pathogen and/or abiotic stress responses, making them key candidates for further functional analysis. Our data offer the first genome-wide overview and annotation of the grapevine ATL family, and provide a basis for investigating the roles of specific family members in grapevine physiology and stress responses, as well as potential biotechnological applications.

  3. Method validation for determination of metals in Vitis labrusca L. grapevine leaf extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANE V.V. BOKOWSKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vitis labrusca L. is the main species used for wine and juice production in Brazil. The grapevine leaves can be used both as functional foods and as cheapest sources for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Besides the antioxidant activity, grapevine leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine the metals selenium (96Se, chromium (53Cr, nickel (62Ni, cadmium (111Cd and lead (206Pb in 30 samples of grapevine leaf extracts (Vitis labrusca, Bordo cultivar using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. To obtain the grapevine leaf extracts the samples were milled, weighed and digested in microwave oven with nitric acid. The method showed linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification and detection acceptable for INMETRO protocol validation of analytical methods. Therefore, the method using ICP-MS was developed and validated to determine metals concentrations in grapevine leaves of Vitis labrusca L. and the proposed method could be applied in routine analytical laboratory.

  4. Analysis of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus in Slovakia Reveals Differences in Intra-Host Population Diversity and Naturally Occurring Recombination Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Predajňa, Lukáš; Šoltys, Katarína; Sihelská, Nina; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Wetzel, Thierry; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a worldwide-distributed pathogen in grapevines with a high genetic variability. Our study revealed differences in the complexity of GRSPaV population in a single host. A single-variant GRSPaV infection was detected from the SK30 grapevine plant. On the contrary, SK704 grapevine was infected by three different GRSPaV variants. Variant-specific RT-PCR detection protocols have been developed in this work to study distribution of the three different variants in the same plant during the season. This study showed their randomized distribution in the infected SK704 grapevine plant. Comparative analysis of fulllength genome sequences of four Slovak GRSPaV isolates determined in this work and 14 database sequences showed that population of the virus cluster into four major phylogenetic lineages. Moreover, our analyses suggest that genetic recombination along with point mutations could play a significant role in shaping evolutionary history of GRSPaV and contributed to its extant genetic diversification. PMID:28167886

  5. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T.; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M.; Fortes, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  6. Structural and functional analysis of the GRAS gene family in grapevine indicates a role of GRAS proteins in the control of development and stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome eGrimplet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g. axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L., an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 Vitis vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits.

  7. Pseudomonas spp.-induced systemic resistance to Botrytis cinerea is associated with induction and priming of defence responses in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Bas W M; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Couderchet, Michel; Höfte, Monica; Aziz, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Non-pathogenic rhizobacteria Pseudomonas spp. can reduce disease in plant tissues through induction of a defence state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). This resistance is based on multiple bacterial determinants, but nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in grapevine. In this study, the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 to induce resistance in grapevine against Botrytis cinerea is demonstrated. Both strains also triggered an oxidative burst and phytoalexin (i.e. resveratrol and viniferin) accumulation in grape cells and primed leaves for accelerated phytoalexin production upon challenge with B. cinerea. Treatment of cell cultures with crude cell extracts of bacteria strongly enhanced oxidative burst, but resulted in comparable amounts of phytoalexins and resistance to B. cinerea to those induced by living bacteria. This suggests the production of bacterial compounds serving as inducers of disease resistance. Using other strains with different characteristics, it is shown that P. fluorescens WCS417 (Pch-deficient), P. putida WCS358 (Pch- and SA-deficient) and P. fluorescens Q2-87 (a DAPG producer) were all capable of inducing resistance to an extent similar to that induced by CHA0. However, in response to WCS417 (Pch-negative) the amount of H2O2 induced is less than for the CHA0. WCS417 induced low phytoalexin levels in cells and lost the capacity to prime for phytoalexins in the leaves. This suggests that, depending on the strain, SA, pyochelin, and DAPG are potentially effective in inducing or priming defence responses. The 7NSK2 mutants, KMPCH (Pch- and Pvd-negative) and KMPCH-567 (Pch-, Pvd-, and SA-negative) induced only partial resistance to B. cinerea. However, the amount of H2O2 triggered by KMPCH and KMPCH-567 was similar to that induced by 7NSK2. Both mutants also led to a low level of phytoalexins in grapevine cells, while KMPCH slightly primed grapevine leaves

  8. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  9. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  10. Effects of grapevine root density and reinforcement on slopes prone to shallow slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Bordoni, Massimiliano; Bischetti, Gianbattista; Vercesi, Alberto; Chiaradia, Enrico; Cislaghi, Alessio; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Vergani, Chiara; Chersich, Silvia; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Comolli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Slope erosion and shallow slope instabilities are the major factors of soil losses in cultivated steep terrains. These phenomena also cause loss of organic matter and plants nutrients, together with the partial or total destruction of the structures, such as the row tillage pattern of the vineyards, which allow for the plants cultivation. Vegetation has long been used as an effective tool to decrease the susceptibility of a slope to erosion and to shallow landslides. In particular, the scientific research focused on the role played by the plant roots, because the belowground biomass has the major control on the potential development of soil erosion and of shallow failures. Instead, a comprehensive study that analyzes the effects of the roots of agricultural plants on both soil erosion and slope instability has not been carried out yet. This aspect should be fundamental where sloped terrains are cultivated with plants of great economical relevance, as grapevine. To contribute to fill this gap, in this study the features of root density in the soil profile have been analyzed in slopes cultivated with vineyards, located on a sample hilly area of Oltrepò Pavese (northern Italy). In this area, the viticulture is the most important branch of the local economy. Moreover, several events of rainfall-induced slope erosion and shallow landslides have occurred in this area in the last 6 years, causing several economical damages linked to the destruction of the vineyards and the loss of high productivity soils. Grapevine root distribution have been measured in different test-site slopes, representative of the main geological, geomorphological, pedological, landslides distribution, agricultural features, in order to identify particular patterns on root density that can influence the development of slope instabilities. Roots have been sampled in each test-site for characterizing their strength, in terms of the relation between root diameter and root force at rupture. Root

  11. Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus complex in Napa Valley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhineet M Sharma

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is caused by a complex of several virus species (grapevine leafroll-associated viruses, GLRaV in the family Closteroviridae. Because of its increasing importance, it is critical to determine which species of GLRaV is predominant in each region where this disease is occurring. A structured sampling design, utilizing a combination of RT-PCR based testing and sequencing methods, was used to survey GLRaVs in Napa Valley (California, USA vineyards (n = 36. Of the 216 samples tested for GLRaV-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -9, 62% (n = 134 were GLRaV positive. Of the positives, 81% (n = 109 were single infections with GLRaV-3, followed by GLRaV-2 (4%, n = 5, while the remaining samples (15%, n = 20 were mixed infections of GLRaV-3 with GLRaV-1, 2, 4, or 9. Additionally, 468 samples were tested for genetic variants of GLRaV-3, and of the 65% (n = 306 of samples positive for GLRaV-3, 22% were infected with multiple GLRaV-3 variants. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequence data from the single infection GLRaV-3 samples produced seven well-supported GLRaV-3 variants, of which three represented 71% of all GLRaV-3 positive samples in Napa Valley. Furthermore, two novel variants, which grouped with a divergent isolate from New Zealand (NZ-1, were identified, and these variants comprised 6% of all positive GLRaV-3 samples. Spatial analyses showed that GLRaV-3a, 3b, and 3c were not homogeneously distributed across Napa Valley. Overall, 86% of all blocks (n = 31 were positive for GLRaVs and 90% of positive blocks (n = 28 had two or more GLRaV-3 variants, suggesting complex disease dynamics that might include multiple insect-mediated introduction events.

  12. Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus complex in Napa Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhineet M; Wang, Jinbo; Duffy, Siobain; Zhang, Siming; Wong, Michelle K; Rashed, Arash; Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2011-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is caused by a complex of several virus species (grapevine leafroll-associated viruses, GLRaV) in the family Closteroviridae. Because of its increasing importance, it is critical to determine which species of GLRaV is predominant in each region where this disease is occurring. A structured sampling design, utilizing a combination of RT-PCR based testing and sequencing methods, was used to survey GLRaVs in Napa Valley (California, USA) vineyards (n = 36). Of the 216 samples tested for GLRaV-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -9, 62% (n = 134) were GLRaV positive. Of the positives, 81% (n = 109) were single infections with GLRaV-3, followed by GLRaV-2 (4%, n = 5), while the remaining samples (15%, n = 20) were mixed infections of GLRaV-3 with GLRaV-1, 2, 4, or 9. Additionally, 468 samples were tested for genetic variants of GLRaV-3, and of the 65% (n = 306) of samples positive for GLRaV-3, 22% were infected with multiple GLRaV-3 variants. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequence data from the single infection GLRaV-3 samples produced seven well-supported GLRaV-3 variants, of which three represented 71% of all GLRaV-3 positive samples in Napa Valley. Furthermore, two novel variants, which grouped with a divergent isolate from New Zealand (NZ-1), were identified, and these variants comprised 6% of all positive GLRaV-3 samples. Spatial analyses showed that GLRaV-3a, 3b, and 3c were not homogeneously distributed across Napa Valley. Overall, 86% of all blocks (n = 31) were positive for GLRaVs and 90% of positive blocks (n = 28) had two or more GLRaV-3 variants, suggesting complex disease dynamics that might include multiple insect-mediated introduction events.

  13. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Europe and reducing the number of military personnel by 40,000 to 60,000. According to United States Air Force General Charles Wald , there are...The Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted as saying United States presence “…may be more political than actually military” and that

  14. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  15. Cardiovascular risk in young apparently healthy descendents from Asian Indian migrants in the Netherlands: the SHIVA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, S S; Oemrawsingh, P V; Cannegieter, S C; Le Cessie, S; Schreur, J; Rosendaal, F R; Schalij, M J

    2009-04-01

    BACKGROUND.: Asian Indian migrants in the Western world are highly susceptible for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Until now, most IHD risk studies were performed in first and second generation Asian Indian expatriates. For optimal prevention, knowledge of the cardiovascular risk profile of younger generations is crucial. METHOD.: In a cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of conventional IHD risk factors and Framingham risk score in asymptomatic third to seventh generation Asian Indian descendants, compared with Europeans. Subjects were classified as asymptomatic if they did not have documented IHD, diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol. RESULTS.: A total of 1790 Asian Indians (45% men, age 35.9+/-10.7 years) and 370 native Dutch hospital employees (23% men, age 40.8+/-10.1 years) were recruited. Asian Indians had higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein levels than the Dutch. Glucose intolerance was present in 7.1 vs. 0.5% men, and in 6.1 vs. 1.4% women (both p<0.001). Asian Indian women were more frequently obese (12 vs. 5%; p<0.001), and centrally obese (44 vs. 25%; p<0.001) as compared with the Dutch women. Prevalence of most of the conventional and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in each ten-year age group was higher in Asian Indians compared with controls, which reflected in higher Framingham risk scores. CONCLUSION.: This study demonstrates the persistence of an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile in young, third to seventh generation migrated Asian Indians and supports an aggressive screening and intervention strategy. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:155-61.).

  16. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AMONG ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Tsardanidis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike other communities with a strongpresence in the country (i.e Albanians, Asians seek to differentiate themselves from their welcoming society by emphasising the ethnic nature of their business so as to specifically lend added value to their entrepreneurial practices. This creates new economic structures that have a positive impact on the Greek economy, which is invigorated by an increase in the number of workers, companies and taxpayers, at the same time as it transforms the urban landscape by revitalising (for example some of Athens’ most depressed neighbourhoods. These Asian diasporas, even though they display several common features, also have great differences which determine both their strategies for progressing in the welcoming society and their chances of achieving same. The underlying argument in the analysis is that the presence of the Asian diaspora represents a positive element for the Greek economy, in view of which the government should react by encouraging their integration and maximising their potential.

  17. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement.

  18. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  19. Tracking the dispersion of Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from wild to cultivated grapevine: use of a novel mark-capture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessio, F; Tota, F; Alma, A

    2014-08-01

    The dispersion of Scaphoideus titanus Ball adults from wild to cultivated grapevines was studied using a novel mark-capture technique. The crowns of wild grapevines located at a distance from vineyards ranging from 5 to 330 m were sprayed with a water solution of either cow milk (marker: casein) or chicken egg whites (marker: albumin) and insects captured in yellow sticky traps placed on the canopy of grapes were analyzed via an indirect ELISA for markers' identification. Data were subject to exponential regression as a function of distance from wild grapevine, and to spatial interpolation (Inverse Distance Weighted and Kernel interpolation with barriers) using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 software. The influence of rainfall and time elapsed after marking on markers' effectiveness, and the different dispersion of males and females were studied with regression analyses. Of a total of 5417 insects analyzed, 43% were positive to egg; whereas 18% of 536 tested resulted marked with milk. No influence of rainfall or time elapsed was observed for egg, whereas milk was affected by time. Males and females showed no difference in dispersal. Marked adults decreased exponentially along with distance from wild grapevine and up to 80% of them were captured within 30 m. However, there was evidence of long-range dispersal up to 330 m. The interpolation maps showed a clear clustering of marked S. titanus close to the treated wild grapevine, and the pathways to the vineyards did not always seem to go along straight lines but mainly along ecological corridors. S. titanus adults are therefore capable of dispersing from wild to cultivated grapevine, and this may affect pest management strategies.

  20. Local and systemic mycorrhiza-induced protection against the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index involves priming of defence gene responses in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhipeng; Fayolle, Léon; van Tuinen, Diederik; Chatagnier, Odile; Li, Xiaolin; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2012-06-01

    The ectoparasitic dagger nematode (Xiphinema index), vector of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), provokes gall formation and can cause severe damage to the root system of grapevines. Mycorrhiza formation by Glomus (syn. Rhizophagus) intraradices BEG141 reduced both gall formation on roots of the grapevine rootstock SO4 (Vitis berlandieri×V. riparia) and nematode number in the surrounding soil. Suppressive effects increased with time and were greater when the nematode was post-inoculated rather than co-inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. Using a split-root system, decreased X. index development was shown in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal parts of mycorrhizal root systems, indicating that both local and systemic induced bioprotection mechanisms were active against the ectoparasitic nematode. Expression analyses of ESTs (expressed sequence tags) generated in an SSH (subtractive suppressive hybridization) library, representing plant genes up-regulated during mycorrhiza-induced control of X. index, and of described grapevine defence genes showed activation of chitinase 1b, pathogenesis-related 10, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase 1, 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and a heat shock proein 70-interacting protein in association with the observed local and/or systemic induced bioprotection against the nematode. Overall, the data suggest priming of grapevine defence responses by the AM fungus and transmission of a plant-mediated signal to non-mycorrhizal tissues. Grapevine gene responses during AM-induced local and systemic bioprotection against X. index point to biological processes that are related either to direct effects on the nematode or to protection against nematode-imposed stress to maintain root tissue integrity.

  1. Local and systemic mycorrhiza-induced protection against the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index involves priming of defence gene responses in grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhipeng; Fayolle, Léon; van Tuinen, Diederik; Chatagnier, Odile; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    The ectoparasitic dagger nematode (Xiphinema index), vector of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), provokes gall formation and can cause severe damage to the root system of grapevines. Mycorrhiza formation by Glomus (syn. Rhizophagus) intraradices BEG141 reduced both gall formation on roots of the grapevine rootstock SO4 (Vitis berlandieri×V. riparia) and nematode number in the surrounding soil. Suppressive effects increased with time and were greater when the nematode was post-inoculated rather than co-inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus. Using a split-root system, decreased X. index development was shown in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal parts of mycorrhizal root systems, indicating that both local and systemic induced bioprotection mechanisms were active against the ectoparasitic nematode. Expression analyses of ESTs (expressed sequence tags) generated in an SSH (subtractive suppressive hybridization) library, representing plant genes up-regulated during mycorrhiza-induced control of X. index, and of described grapevine defence genes showed activation of chitinase 1b, pathogenesis-related 10, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase 1, 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and a heat shock proein 70-interacting protein in association with the observed local and/or systemic induced bioprotection against the nematode. Overall, the data suggest priming of grapevine defence responses by the AM fungus and transmission of a plant-mediated signal to non-mycorrhizal tissues. Grapevine gene responses during AM-induced local and systemic bioprotection against X. index point to biological processes that are related either to direct effects on the nematode or to protection against nematode-imposed stress to maintain root tissue integrity. PMID:22407649

  2. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  3. An Asian Regional Architecture for Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Non-traditional security issues such as energy security have been becoming more and more important in Asia and worldwide in recent years.It is increasingly difficult for a single country to guarantee its energy security in the globalized world of today.Asian countries have made some progress in bilateral and multilateral dialogues to promote cooperation and coordination in the energy field.However, they are still far from establishing a regional architecture of energy security.The Asian countries must therefore make greater efforts to realize a regional mechanism of energy cooperation.In the future, there should be a multi-level(regional, sub-regional, and trans-regional, and bilateral),multi-channel, and multi-model Asian regional architecture of energy security.

  4. Sensitive and reliable detection of grapevine fanleaf virus in a single Xiphinema index nematode vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Cornuet, Pascal; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Fuchs, Marc

    2004-12-01

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is specifically transmitted from plant to plant by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. A sensitive and reliable procedure was developed to readily detect GFLV in a single viruliferous X. index, regardless of the nematode origin, i.e. greenhouse rearings or vineyard soils. The assay is based on bead milling to disrupt nematodes extracted from soil samples, solid-phase extraction of total nematode RNAs, and amplification of a 555bp fragment of the coat protein (CP) gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with two primers designed from conserved sequences. This procedure is sensitive since the CP gene fragment is amplified from an artificial sample consisting of one viruliferous nematode mixed with 3000 aviruliferous individuals. In addition, StyI RFLP analysis of the CP amplicon enables the GFLV isolate carried by a single viruliferous X. index to be characterized. This GFLV detection assay opens new avenues for epidemiological studies and for molecular investigations on the mechanism of X. index-mediated GFLV transmission.

  5. Attraction of female grapevine moth to common and specific olfactory cues from 2 host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Anfora, Gianfranco; Carlin, Silvia; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In herbivorous insects with more than 1 host plant, attraction to host odor could conceptually be mediated by common compounds, by specific compounds released by each plant or by combinations of common and specific compounds. We have compared the attraction of female grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, with specific and common (shared) odors from 2 different plants: a wild host (Daphne gnidium) and a recently colonized host (Vitis vinifera). Odor blends eliciting female attraction to V. vinifera have previously been identified. In this study, olfactory cues from D. gnidium were identified by electroantennographic detection and chemical analysis. The attraction of mated females to synthetic odor blends was then tested in a wind tunnel bioassay. Female attraction was elicited by a blend of compounds released by both from D. gnidium and V. vinifera and by 2 blends with the compounds released specifically from each host. However, more complete odor blends of the 2 plants elicited stronger attraction. The common compounds in combination with the specific compounds of D. gnidium were the most attractive blend. This blend was tested with the common compounds presented both in the ratio emitted by D. gnidium and by V. vinifera, but there was no difference in female attraction. Our findings suggest that specific as well as common plant odor cues play a role in L. botrana host recognition and that there is plasticity in attraction to partial blends. The results are discussed in relation to mechanisms behind host odor recognition and the evolution of insect-plant associations.

  6. Plant volatiles enhance behavioral responses of grapevine moth males, Lobesia botrana to sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2012-02-01

    Plant volatiles play an important role in the lives of phytophagous insects, by guiding them to oviposition, feeding and mating sites. We tested the effects of different host-plant volatiles on attraction of Lobesia botrana males to the female-produced sex pheromone, in a wind tunnel. Addition of volatile emissions from grapevines or individual plant volatiles to pheromone increased the behavioral responses of L. botrana males over those to pheromone alone. At a low release rate (under-dosed) of pheromone, addition of (E)-β-caryophyllene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 1-hexanol, or 1-octen-3-ol increased all behavioral responses, from activation to pheromone source contact, while addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-β-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexenol, or methyl salicylate affected only the initial behavioral responses. Dose-response experiments suggested an optimal release ratio of 1:1000 (sex pheromone: host plant volatile). Our results highlight the role of plant volatiles in the sensory ecology of L. botrana.

  7. Different emergence phenology of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on six varieties of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-06-01

    The phenology of insect emergence affects reproductive success and is especially critical in short-lived species. An increasing number of studies have documented the effects of thermal and other climatic variations and of unpredictable habitats on the timing of adult insect emergence within and between populations and years. Numerous interacting factors may affect the phenology of adult emergence. Host-plant quality and availability is a key factor that has been largely neglected in studies of the phenology of phytophagous insects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of host plant characteristics on the rate of larval growth and the pattern of emergence in a wild population of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth), a significant pest in European vineyards. The phenology of emergence differed significantly among the six tested varieties of grapes. The percentage of bunches harboring pupae was similar among the different grape varieties, and the total number of pupae collected was similar to the number of emerging adults per bunch. Among the six varieties of grapes, 0-25 pupae were produced on each bunch. Each of the grape varieties had a single wave of emergence, in which males emerged before females, but their emergence phenology differed significantly in Chardonnay, Chasselas, and Pinot grapes. Both genders had extended durations of emergence in Merlot grapes. Together, the present results show that the characteristics of the grape host plant affect the emergence phenology of L. botrana.

  8. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-23

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana.

  9. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  10. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp.

  11. UV-B impairs growth and gas exchange in grapevines grown in high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, Federico J; Alonso, Rodrigo; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo; Bottini, Rubén

    2013-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation levels in high altitude vineyards improve berry quality in Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec, but also reduce berry size and yield, possibly as a consequence of increased oxidative damage and growth reductions (lower photosynthesis). The defense mechanisms toward UV-B signal and/or evoked damage promote production of antioxidant secondary metabolites instead of primary metabolites. Purportedly, the UV-B effects will depend on tissues developmental stage and interplay with other environmental conditions, especially stressful situations. In this work, grapevines were exposed to high solar UV-B (+UV-B) and reduced (by filtering) UV-B (-UV-B) treatments during three consecutive seasons, and the effects of UV-B, developmental stages and seasons on the physiology were studied, i.e. growth, tissues morphology, photosynthesis, photoprotective pigments, proline content and antioxidant capacity of leaves. The +UV-B reduced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, mainly through limitation in gas exchange, reducing plant's leaf area, net carbon fixation and growth. The +UV-B augmented leaf thickness, and also the amounts of photoprotective pigments and proline, thereby increasing the antioxidant capacity of leaves. The defense mechanisms triggered by + UV-B reduced lipid peroxidation, but they were insufficient to protect the photosynthetic pigments per leaf dry weight basis. The +UV-B effects depend on tissues developmental stage and interplay with other environmental conditions such as total radiation and air temperatures.

  12. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzaga Santesteban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if THz time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head.Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity.

  13. Characterization of NPR1 Genes from Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-ming; NI Xi-lu; MA Hui-qin; Wenping Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) plays a significant role in the defense responses of plants to pathogens by regulating the expression of defense-related genes. In the present study, we isolated two NPR1 genes from Vitis aestivalis cv. Norton and Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which were referred to as VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1. 1-CS, respectively. They encode a protein of 584 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 64.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.74. The predicted amino acid sequences of VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.1-CS differ by only one amino acid. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 gene in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants restores the transcriptional expression of AtPR-1 gene, though not to the full scale. This result demonstrated that a grapevine VaNPR1.1 possesses a similar function to the Arabidopsis NPR1 in the regulation of defense-related genes. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plant increased tolerance to salinity, but had no effect on the drought tolerance. We conclude that VaNPR1.1 is a functional ortholog of AtNPR1 and also involved in grapevine’s response to the salt stress.

  14. Changes on grape phenolic composition induced by grapevine foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, J; López-Alfaro, I; Gómez-Alonso, S; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-08-01

    Grapevines may require the input of nitrogen to grow and to guarantee an appropriate grape composition. Recently there has been a growing interest in foliar fertilization, which entails a fast and efficient assimilation of the products. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea, at two different doses, on grape anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later at doses of 0.9 and 1.5 kg N/ha. The results showed that the synthesis of phenolic compounds was favoured by foliar applications of phenylalanine and urea. The application of the lowest dose of urea was the most effective treatment, increasing the content of several anthocyanins and flavonols. Moreover, none of the foliar treatments worsened the grape phenolic composition. In conclusion, foliar application of phenylalanine and especially urea, could be an interesting management tool for improving grape quality and their health-promoting properties.

  15. Components of variance and heritability of resistance to important fungal diseases agents in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In four interspecies crossing combinations of grapevine (Seedling 108 x Muscat Hamburg, Muscat Hamburg x Seedling 108, S.V.I8315 x Muscat Hamburg and Muscat Hamburg x S.V.I2375 during three years period, resistance to important fungal diseases agents (Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea were examined. Based on results of analysis of variance, for investigated characteristics, components of variance, coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation and coefficient of heritability in a broader sense were calculated. It was established that for both characteristics and in all crossing combinations, genetic variance took the biggest part in total variability. The lowest coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation were established for both properties in crossing combination Seedling 108 x Muscat Hamburg. The highest coefficients of genetic and phenotypic variation were determined for leaf resistance to Plasmopara viticola in crossing combination Muscat Hamburg x S.V.I2375, and for bunch resistance to Botrytis cinerea in crossing combination Muscat Hamburg x Seedling 108. Considering all investigated crossing combinations, coefficient of heritability for leaf resistance to Plasmopara viticola was from 87.23% to 94.88%, and for bunch resistance to Botrytis cinerea from 88.04% to 93.32%. .

  16. Ampelographic Description and Sanitary Analysis of Four Istrian Grapevine Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordano Persuric

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian Peninsula, one of the five districts within viticultural region of Coastal Croatia, provides great geological-reliefal and climatic diversity and various production conditions. This research studied the autochthonous varieties and their sanitary status in old vineyards. Considering the age of vineyard, ten locations were chosen where four autochthonous varieties ‘Malvasia istarska’, ‘Teran’, ‘Borgonja’, and ‘Pergola velika’ were identified using ampelographic description according to OIV descriptors. Morphological characteristics of chosen varieties were described using OIV parameters and must was chemically analysed (pH value, sugar content, titratable acidity. High intra cultivar variability was found for weight of a single bunch especially for ‘Teran’. There were also differences in sugar content of must particularly for ‘Pergola velika’. Must pH was low for all varieties with predominantly low acidity value. Sanitary status of vines was determined by testing the plant samples for the presence of three grapevine viruses (GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3 and GFLV using DAS-ELISA. The percentage of infection for GFLV was 55.6% while for GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 it was 61.1%. Results showed that some morphological characteristics differ from characteristics described in literature. With purpose of preserving the biodiversity of autochthonous varieties and for future researches, healthy propagation material will be collected and planted in collection field of autochthonous varieties at the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Poreč.

  17. New approaches for the management of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altindisli Ferhunde Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the key pest of grape in Turkey. It damages grape berries directly and requires strict control measures producing 3 or 4 generations per year. Since the ‘80s, farmers often preferred chemical control with organophosphorus insecticides against the pest because it is wieldy, very effective and cheap. Tendency to use environmentally friendly pesticides began at the beginning of the nineties because chemicals sprayed next to grape harvest threaten environment and consumer health, causing residue problem in export. Consequently, a bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl., was put into practice against the pest. Forecasting System timing according to the larvicides against EGVM was reviewed as a result of the registration of an ovicide at the end of nineties. Modifications have been made in standard biological efficacy test method and Forecasting System taking the biological stages of EGVM into account to get optimal results from ovicides. Mating disruption and auto-confusion techniques against EGVM were tested and put into practice for the first time in the Aegean Region to decrease insecticide applications. Since 2005, mating disruption has been gradually preferred by the growers and firms because it is very effective and easy to apply.

  18. Development and Comparison of Symptom Indices for Quantifying Grapevine Resistance to Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, A F; Stevenson, J F; Walker, M A

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT Symptoms of Pierce's disease (PD) were assessed under greenhouse conditions on field-resistant and field-susceptible grapevines in order to characterize the PD resistance phenotype in the genus Vitis. A cane maturation index (CMI) was developed to quantify the green-islands symptom, which was measured at 12 weeks post-bacterial inoculation, along with leaf scorch and percentage of xylem vessels blocked by occlusions. Canes of resistant genotypes matured normally and had a significantly lower CMI score of 0.9 (on a 0-to-6 scale) compared with 5.1 for the susceptible genotypes. The CMI scoring method had a high correlation (R(2) = 0.91) with previously characterized field performance, whereas leaf scorch had only a moderate correlation (R(2) = 0.51) with field performance. Average scorched area on leaves of the susceptible and resistant genotypes was 80 and 48%, respectively, demonstrating that leaf scorch can be extensive in resistant genotypes under the presented screening conditions, and suggesting that systemic infection can occur in all evaluated genotypes. Occlusions within both stem and petiole vessels were composed principally of tyloses and were significantly higher in petioles than in stems of either resistant or susceptible backgrounds. Susceptible genotypes displayed a higher level of stem tylose occlusions relative to resistant genotypes, but correlation to field performance was low (R(2) = 0.13). Ease of use and high correlation to field performance makes CMI scoring a better choice for PD resistance evaluations relative to other phenotypic symptom assessments.

  19. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  20. Adaptation of grapevine flowers to cold involves different mechanisms depending on stress intensity.

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    Mélodie Sawicki

    Full Text Available Grapevine flower development and fruit set are influenced by cold nights in the vineyard. To investigate the impact of cold stress on carbon metabolism in the inflorescence, we exposed the inflorescences of fruiting cuttings to chilling and freezing temperatures overnight and measured fluctuations in photosynthesis and sugar content. Whatever the temperature, after the stress treatment photosynthesis was modified in the inflorescence, but the nature of the alteration depended on the intensity of the cold stress. At 4°C, photosynthesis in the inflorescence was impaired through non-stomatal limitations, whereas at 0°C it was affected through stomatal limitations. A freezing night (-3°C severely deregulated photosynthesis in the inflorescence, acting primarily on photosystem II. Cold nights also induced accumulation of sugars. Soluble carbohydrates increased in inflorescences exposed to -3°C, 0°C and 4°C, but starch accumulated only in inflorescences of plants treated at 0 and -3°C. These results suggest that inflorescences are able to cope with cold temperatures by adapting their carbohydrate metabolism using mechanisms that are differentially induced according to stress intensity.