WorldWideScience

Sample records for central asia market

  1. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  2. INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN CENTRAL ASIA. PROSPECTS FOR A COMMON MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Gulnur

    2005-01-01

    Globalization processes have a growing effect on the development of individual countries and the world economy, with the Central Asian states, among others, being drawn into their orbit. The advantages of globalization are realized precisely at the integration and regional levels. That is why it is so important today to implement the initiative launched by President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan for creating a Central Asian Common Market (CACM). The idea is that this market should include Kazak...

  3. Inequality of opportunities in the labor market: Evidence from life in transition surveys in Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Abras, Ana; Hoyos, Alejandro; Narayan, Ambar; Tiwari, Sailesh

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the degree of inequality of opportunity in labor market outcomes for a selection of countries in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. We adapt the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) methodology that has been widely used to study opportunities of children to measures of inequality in the labor market for working age adults, using data from the Life in Transition Surveys (LiTS) conducted in 2006. We decompose the observed inequalities into components that are att...

  4. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  5. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. PMID:23866036

  6. CENTRAL ASIA'S POWER DILEMMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Budkin, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    It turned out to be much harder to create new power structures in Central Asia than elsewhere in the post-socialist world: no matter how hard it was for the Central European countries to acquire new political institutions, their advance toward the Western democratic model was much smoother. In the European part of the post-Soviet geopolitical expanse, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova experienced fewer problems than the Central Asian region (CAR for short), though they too had their share of contr...

  7. Re-Centring Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Grenet, Frantz

    2015-01-01

    The “golden peaches” of Samarkand in the days of Sogdian trade As a cultural area Central Asia was recognized at a late stage, since its emergence as a geographical reality was very slow. The term Central Asia was coined in around 1825, simultaneously in Russia and in France, by the diplomat Georges de Meyendorff and by Julius Klaproth, respectively. It soon gained currency, along with its variant Middle Asia, sometimes preferred in Russia. Reading this nineteenth-century geographic literat...

  8. The development of money markets in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Mico Loretan; Philip Wooldridge

    2008-01-01

    The depth and breadth of money markets in Asia have improved significantly over the past decade, yet many are still characterised by segmentation and a low degree of cross-border integration. Admittedly, the underdevelopment of Asia’s money markets worked to the region’s advantage during the recent turmoil by insulating it to some degree from the shocks that disrupted more developed money markets. Nonetheless, the turmoil provides authorities and market participants in Asia with an opportunit...

  9. SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ENERGY POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta NOWAKOWSKA-KRYSTMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.

  10. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  11. Evolving Domestic Bond Markets and Financial Deepening in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Das Dilip K.

    2014-01-01

    The principal thesis of this paper is growth and development of the debt securities markets in Asia, which resulted in financial deepening. In the post-Asian financial crisis period development of Asian currency dominated long-term bond markets was given a high priority. Conception and launch of the ABMI initiative proved to be exceedingly meaningful in this regard. Additionally, with an objective to develop well-capitalized regional bond markets, the EMEAP group of central banks launched the...

  12. THE EU STRATEGY IN CENTRAL ASIA: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhanov, Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The European Union, one of the world’s most successful integration projects, is inevitably analyzed by every expert who probes deep into the international trends of our time. The union of 27 countries, with a population of about 480 million who produce about 28% of the world’s GDP, has certain interests in Central Asia even though the EU’s geopolitical status has not yet been fully developed. The EU wants to see stable and democratic regimes with market economies in Central Asia that are guid...

  13. Nuclear energy options for Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    facilities in the region. Large integrated international nuclear vendors such as Rosatom or Areva could also provide nuclear power plants on more attractive terms in order to secure uranium export rights. An additional advantage the Central Asian nations have in the nuclear arena is the existence of the spent fuel storage site now operating at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. If the functions of this site could be expanded to include spent fuel storage from nuclear power plants located in Kazakhstan, and eventually from other regional states, this will increase the attractiveness of nuclear energy within Central Asia and the world at large. The likely future introduction of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities into the Central Asia region should be conducted under strict nonproliferation ground rules to enable international collaboration and to maintain the good nonproliferation credentials of the regional countries. This topic will be further reviewed in this paper under the nuclear facility selection criteria discussion. In terms of what the international reactor vendors could offer the Central Asian countries, we have to consider two distinct types of nuclear power plants: The large base load plants now offered on the world markets are of a 1,100 - 1,300 MWe class size, a size that is too large (in the near terms) for most Central Asian countries, except for a few sites in Kazakhstan. A better match for the requirements of the Central Asian countries could be the Small and Medium sized reactors (SMRs) now actively being developed particularly in the U.S. These types of reactors might be ready for commercialization by the end of this decade. SMRs come in unit sizes of 200 MWe or less. Several such plants will have to be installed at each site over time to meet the growing demand per site. In the near term, it seems that the 600 MWe class nuclear plants would best fit the current demand requirements of the Central Asian countries. Such reactor types were developed by

  14. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Ullah; Dino Bindi; Marco Pilz; Laurentiu Danciu; Graeme Weatherill; Elisa Zuccolo; Anatoly Ischuk; Natalya N. Mikhailova; Kanat Abdrakhmatov; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999), aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probabili...

  15. Coal marketing in Asia: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Asia, coal currently accounts for over 40 percent of the fossil fuel used for commercial energy. This paper briefly surveys the forces that are likely to decide the future role coal will play as a prime source of energy in the vigorous economies of Asia. As Australia is well placed to profit from Asia's growing need for coal, the challenge to Australian coal suppliers is how to maximize its potential contribution. Four-fifths of all new coal fired electrical generating capacity in the world in the next decade will be located in Asia. Three-quarters of Australia's coal exports are to Asian customers and, conversely, 40 percent of Asian imports are from Australia. Australian coal suppliers have established ties and a depth of marketing experience in the region on which to build. However, pricing policies, and the emergence of the private power producers, together with environmental pressures, will present challenges for the future. (author). 1 fig

  16. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  17. CENTRAL ASIA: ECONOMIC COOPERATION POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asian republics are rich in energy resources: three of them (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) can boast of oil and gas deposits, while the other two (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have vast hydropower potential. This means that harmonized energy policy designed to meet their demands in energy, energy exports, and stronger positions in ensuring international energy security makes sense. By the same token, these countries can, potentially, develop metallurgy, machine building,...

  18. Central Asia's raging waters the prospects of water conflict in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, William B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...

  19. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  20. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  1. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND CENTRAL ASIA: PREMATURE ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabol, Steven

    2008-01-01

    In the months leading up to, and the first few years after, the Soviet Union collapsed numerous articles and books were published that claimed Islamic "fundamentalism" was likely to emerge in Central Asia. These fears were predicated on numerous scenarios, the most important being the ongoing political and military crisis in Afghanistan and Iranian attempts to increase its influence in the region. I will argue, however, that these concerns were premature and that the real threat to the stabil...

  2. The emergence of echinococcosis in central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Torgerson, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was an increase in the number of cases of human echinococcosis recorded throughout central Asia. Between 1991 and 2001 incidence rates of cystic echinococcosis (CE) increased by 4 fold or more. There also appeared to be increases in prevalence of CE in livestock and prevalences of Echinococcus granulosus reported in dogs. The increase in human echinococcosis was associated with changes in livestock husbandry, decline in veterinary publ...

  3. WHITHER "HEARTLAND"? CENTRAL ASIA, GEOGRAPHY AND GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hekimoglu, Levent

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts a double task. First, it looks at the main premises of Halford J. Mackinder's analysis in his renowned 1904 address to the Royal Geographical Society, The Geographical Pivot of History, and discusses some of the problems. It observes that these problems have actually rendered the whole Heartland thesis a fallacy from its very inception, and argues that this resilient fallacy continues to distort perceptions and policies in/on Central Asia. Second, it draws attention to t...

  4. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Services Marketing in Asia-A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Merrilees; Kim Shyan Fam

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the main developments in services marketing in Asia over the last decade. Altogether our review of leading marketing journals resulted in 150 pertinent
    literature on services marketing in Asia. The period covered was between 1990 and 1999. A total of six themes are unveiled. Also included in this stocktake are the indicative directions that services marketing in Asia might take and some suggestions for future directions.

  6. The Asia Pacific natural gas market: Large enough for all?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among natural gas producing nations, there has been some concern about how the Asia Pacific will meet future demand for energy. We argue that natural gas, both regional and global, will play a vital role. Estimates of potential gas consumption in the region are analyzed and used to develop consensus projections to 2030. These consumption profiles are compared with gas supply estimates including indigenous, pipeline and LNG for the Asia Pacific market. From this analytical framework, we find that demand will be sufficiently large to accommodate supplies from diverse sources including North America, the Middle East, Central Asia, Russia, and the Asia Pacific itself. An important policy implication is that gas producing and consuming nations should benefit from promoting gas trade and not be concerned about a situation of potential lack of demand coupled with oversupply. - Highlights: • Estimates of gas consumption in the Asia Pacific (AP) in 2030 are presented. • Compared with supply estimates for AP including indigenous, pipeline, and LNG. • Find that demand in AP large enough to accommodate supply from all regions. • Nations should promote gas trade policy and not be overly concerned about oversupply

  7. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  8. Gas markets and pricing in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issues of natural gas market development and pricing are reviewed within the context of specific Asian countries where gas plays an important role. Within Southeast Asia, Malaysia's Penninsular Gas Utilization project signals a new era in pipeline gas trade with an agreement to supply Singapore. There is now also an opportunity to extend Malaysian pipeline supplies to Thailand, which is actively seeking natural gas from neighboring countries. The prospects for LNG are dominated by the high growth markets of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. LNG trade has tended to bind the region together through close economic ties. Due to the increasing damand within the supplier countries themselves and their close neighbors, it is likely that LNG consumers will increasingly need to look beyond their traditional Southeast Asian suppliers in the future, perhaps to higher cost LNG schemes outside the region. In Southeast Asia, reduction of the high volumes of associated gas currently flared from the Bombay High Field in India will not only make big contribution to meeting the country's future gas demand, but will also prove environmentally beneficial. Pakistan, in order to control its developing gas markets, has raised gas prices to consumers substantially, with beneficial effects on supply and demand. In Bangladesh, economic pricing has been important in allocating gas resources efficiently. At both the regional and global level, the link between gas use and the environment is becoming stronger, raising the question of relating gas and energy prices to environmental costs and benefits

  9. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  10. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  11. FROM CENTRAL ASIA TO GREAT CENTRAL ASIA: THE GOALS AND ADJUSTMENTS OF U.S. CENTRAL ASIAN STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Robert

    2009-01-01

    To penetrate and maintain peaceful development of the Central Asian region is a consistent goal of the United States for its international interests. With the 9/11 event as the baseline, since 2001 America's awareness of the strategic importance of Central Asia and the latter's weight in U.S. global strategy has been greatly changed. According to Charles Manes, the 9/11 terrorist attack enabled the U.S. to "discover Central Asia. As a result of this discovery the United States effectively gai...

  12. The expansion of central bank balance sheets in emerging Asia: what are the risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Filardo; James Yetman

    2012-01-01

    Central bank balance sheets in emerging Asia expanded rapidly over the past decade because of the unprecedented rise in foreign reserve assets. The corresponding expansion of the central banks' liabilities has created dangers - risks of inflation and financial instability and financial market distortions - that require attention.

  13. Investment Cooperation in Central Asia: Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nawal K. Paswan

    2013-01-01

    Central Asia is becoming an increasingly attractive destination for foreign direct investment (FDI). Although a first wave of foreign investments targeted Central and Eastern Europe in the early 1990s, followed by a second one to South-east Europe in the early 2000s, FDI is now moving even further eastward towards Central Asia. The Central Asian countries are all relatively small landlocked economies and need to promote trade and investment which enable them to closely integrate into the inte...

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium ore is a naturally occurring radioactive material which is often regarded as something separate to NORM due to its place at the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium mining and processing was a significant industry in the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union. When the Soviet Union broke up in 1989 these countries gained their independence but the uranium mining industry now had to try and survive in a new economic environment. In Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan this proved too great a challenge. Production stopped and sites were simply abandoned with little or no attention paid to remediation. Skilled personnel departed and both physical and regulatory infrastructure decayed. Consequently, the legacies of the former times remained throughout Central Asia to become an issue of considerable concern to many. The sites were generally uncontrolled and the NORM residues from the mining and processing were a source of environmental contamination which also threatened public health in a number of ways. In recent years there has been considerable activity by a number of international agencies and Governments working towards solutions for these issues. Much of the effort has been undertaken by the IAEA and this paper describes the original situation, the development of remediation strategies and the various remediation related projects, their outcomes to date, and plans for the future in both the political and scientific arenas. (author)

  15. Market-Based Mechanisms to Promote Renewable Energy in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatachalam ANBUMOZHI; Alex BOWEN; Puthusserikunnel Devasia JOSE

    2015-01-01

    Market-based instruments such as Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are increasingly favoured as an alternative to command-and-control legislation to increase the uptake of renewable energy. Focusing on the renewable energy industry and policy situation in Asia, this paper analysed the strengths and weaknesses of market-based approaches in the long-term interest of developing Asia. It found that approaches such as REC are disadvantaged by a lack of both market acceptance and a strong institut...

  16. International Marketing Of Industrial Products In Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, H

    1991-01-01

    Established industrial marketing theories were found to be inadequate to explain the marketing behaviour of European Transnational Corporations in Less Industrialized Countries in Southeast Asia. An institutional approach based on transaction costs was developed instead. The developed transaction cost model for industrial marketing is presented in this paper. It is based on a marketing economics approach that is contrasted to two other major approaches to industrial marketing theory: the micr...

  17. Beyond Borders--Reconsidering Regional Trade in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Grafe, Clemens; Raiser, Martin; Sakatsume, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of FSU countries has focused on the quantities traded, we use relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. We find that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought. While prices vary significantly across the region, variations within one country are just as large as ...

  18. Beyond borders: Reconsidering regional trade in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Grafe; Martin Raiser; Toshiaki Sakatsume

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia. While much of the existing literature on international integration of former Soviet Union countries has focussed on the quantities traded, this paper uses relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. It finds that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought. While prices vary significantly across the region, variations within one co...

  19. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  20. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  1. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  2. The politico-institutional foundation of economic transition in Central Asia: Lessons from China

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is increasingly the focus of intense international attention because of its geopolitical and economic importance as well as its unsettled transition processes. Central Asian countries, i.e., Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, faced enormous challenges when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Overall, they have made rudimentary progress in opening up to the international community, creating market institutions, and building more inclusive, democratic pol...

  3. Market opportunities in Asia-Pacific. Focus on the Japanese market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, A.

    2006-02-15

    An overview is given of market opportunities in Asia-Pacific, focusing on the Japanese market, with regard to Clean Development Mechanism projects and carbon emissions trading and the role of Mitsubishi UJF Securities.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF TANAP IN COMPETITION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Varol Sevim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available TANAP natural gas which was initiated by Azerbaijan’s SOCAR and Turkey's BOTAŞ has altered the dynamics and strategies in the region. TANAP project not only formed new competition picture from Nabucco versus South Stream to TANAP versus South Stream but also triggered the competition between Russia and Central Asia in terms of pipeline strategies. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are landlocked countries in the east Caspian region and Azerbaijan is the only post-Soviet state that had succeeded to reach world markets by non-Russian routes. In this sense if TANAP would establish until 2018-2019, it would have an impact as in the case of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline which was considered as the “Contract of the Century” in the 1990s. In this paper, it is aimed to analyze how TANAP will affect upon Russian foreign energy policy strategy upon Central Asian states and Azerbaijan as well as emphasizing on the risks and opportunities of the project.

  5. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, PAN

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  6. The Financial Crisis and Money Markets in Emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rigg, Robert; Schou-Zibell, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    Asian money markets entered the financial crisis in better shape than markets in other regions due to a substantial build-up of savings and liquidity in their banking systems, as well as a greater domestic focus in most of the region’s markets. However, despite the higher liquidity and lower levels of global integration, the effects of the crisis in Asia were severe and followed a similar path observed in international markets. The further development of money markets, particularly in less de...

  7. Seismic hazard assessment in Central Asia using smoothed seismicity approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.

  8. The EU's Central Asia policy and its implications for China

    OpenAIRE

    SHAO, Yuqun

    2008-01-01

    "The EU under the German Presidency published its first strategy paper on Central Asia in June 2007. The document addresses a wide array of issues ranging from democracy and human rights to trade, energy cooperation, migration and inter-cultural dialogue. While Central Asia has been largely overlooked by the EU in the past, the new policy signals that the EU is no longer content to be left behind while other global powers become increasingly involved in the region. The EU will undoubtedly be ...

  9. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  10. Oil and the geopolitics of Central Asia: A "new 'great game'"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sati, Saud M.

    The nineteenth century rivalry between the Russian Empire and Great Britain over Central Asia, known as the "great game," was triggered by the quest for power and dominance. This study revisits Sir Halford Mackinder's thesis, which viewed the "heartland," consisting of Russia and Central Asia, as being crucial for international politics. It also discusses the influence of Mackinder's ideas on twentieth century geopolitical thinking. The study also examines the common assumption that the new "great game" in Central Asia is evolving around the exploitation of energy resources, and analyzes the consequences of this new factor for the geopolitical significance of the region. The landlocked nature of the Central Asian countries makes it necessary for them to rely on their neighbors for the export of oil and gas to international markets. Thus, the political and economic interests of Russia, Iran, and Turkey motivate them to compete with each other for export routes through their territories. This study also shows that the estimates of Central Asian proven oil reserves are characterized by considerable ambiguity. Estimates vary from seven to twenty-two billion barrels. Despite the fact that these proven oil reserves are limited compared to those of other regions, such as the Middle East, continued exploration is compatible with the Western strategy of energy resource diversification. Another primary aim of American involvement is to prevent the reintegration of Central Asia into the Russian federation and to block Chinese influence in Central Asia. This study reveals that realities in today's Central Asia are different from those of the nineteenth century. Central Asia now consists of independent countries; the competing powers have changed, with the exception of Russia; and oil has emerged as a new factor. However, the perpetual quest for power and dominance that marked the historical "great game" is still at work in the last decade of the twentieth century. Finally, the

  11. Central Asia's comparative advantage in international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lücke, Matthias; Rothert, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy for identifying the pattern of Central Asia’s comparative advantage in international trade, based on factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade. The paper focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, along with Azerbaijan and Mongolia. A country’s comparative advantage cannot be determined at the level of individual industries o...

  12. Asia's growing role in the global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)

  13. CENTRAL ASIA AND AZERBAIJAN:LONG-TERM ENERGY STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov, Stanislav; Reznikova, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the current state of and prospects for development of the energy sector in the post-Soviet countries of Central Asia and Azerbaijan and gives forecasts of the possibilities of implementing long-term energy projects in these regions.

  14. Monetary policy efficiency in the economies of Central Asia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Isakova, Asel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 11-12 (2008), s. 525-553. ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary policy * Central Asia * dollarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1147_str_525_553_-_isakova.pdf

  15. Key outbound tourism markets in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Asia and the Pacific is not only a major tourism destination region but also an increasingly important tourism outbound market. This study, a collaborative project between Tourism Australia (TA) and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), aims to provide an up-to-date perspective of the major tourism trends in five key South-East Asian outbound markets: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The report includes a regional overview in terms of tourism and travel patterns, a deta...

  16. U.S. STRATEGY AND POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat

    2007-01-01

    It goes without saying that American geopolitics and geostrategy are of a genuinely global nature and affect practically every region and every country. And Central Asia is no exception in this respect. America's influence there is of a multi-factoral and multi-level nature in every aspect-the political, military-strategic, economic, and ideological. From the very first days of independence, the Central Asian countries have been aware of America's influence (and pressure) in essentially every...

  17. CENTRAL ASIA AS VIEWED BY CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL ANALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat; Malik, Augan

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the two decades of independent development of the Central Asian states, world political science has formulated its own specific approaches to the region and acquired certain conceptions. Elaborated by the members of different schools and, particularly, of diverse political affiliations, the methods, ideas, and approaches, likewise, differ widely. From the very beginning, everything written about Central Asia abroad was stamped with ideological and geopolitical approaches, which mea...

  18. Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Crowley

    2008-01-01

    Rapid private sector credit growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia has been a result of strong economic growth, financial deepening, and banks’ willingness to explore consumer credit markets. Economic growth, the initial ratio of private sector credit to GDP, price volatility, and nonoil exports are found to be significant explanatory variables, while oil exports and spillovers from oil exporting neighbors were not found to have any significance. The credit growth has finan...

  19. CENTRAL ASIA IN SEARCH OF STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Plastun, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The tension in the Central Asian Region, particularly in its southern part, which includes Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran, largely affects the rest of this vast area and forces the United States and its allies to seek prompt settlement of the crisis they have on their hands. The situation in occupied Iraq is tense; the Turkish invasion into Iraqi Kurdistan in search of terrorists of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party did nothing to relieve the tension; the conflict area spread even further. Two ot...

  20. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Franciscus Janz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  1. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient and...

  2. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  3. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  4. Analisis Strategi Pemasaran Relasional dan Pengalaman Pelayanan Dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Kepuasan Nasabah yang Menggunakan Kartu Kredit pada PT Bank Central Asia Ttbk. Kantor Cabang Utama Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze and determine the effect of relationship marketing and service experience (experiential marketing) to increase customer satisfaction for credit card users Bank Central Asia Company Main Branch Office of Medan. The population in this study are all customers who have a credit card or clients who are actively using credit cards at Bank Central Asia Company Main Branch Office of Medan. The sampling technique using the Supramono formula, selected as 100 customers with ce...

  5. Central Asia earthquake catalogue from ancient time to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya N. Mikhailova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the seismic catalogue compiled for Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. The catalogue from 2000 B.C. to 2009 A.D. is composed by 33,034 earthquakes in the MLH magnitude (magnitude by surface waves on horizontal components widely used in practice of the former USSR countries range from 1.5 to 8.3. The catalogue includes both macroseimic and instrumental constrained data, with about 32,793 earthquake after 1900 A.D. The main sources and procedure used to compile the catalogues are discussed, and the comparison with the ISC-GEM catalogue presented. Magnitude of completeness analysis shows that the catalogue is complete down to magnitude 4 from 1959 and to magnitude 7 from 1873, whereas the obtained regional b value is 0.805.

  6. Analyzing phenological changes with remote sensing data in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on NOAA/AVHRR NDVI biweekly time-series data, the start and end of the growing season of Central Asia from 1982 to 2006 were estimated. Trend analysis results indicate an earlier green-up and a later dormancy over the entire area during the study period. For seven main vegetation types, the largest advance of greenup onset (0.597 days/year) occurs in cropland and the longest delay of dormancy (1.109 days/year) in open shrubland. The smallest advance (0.164 days/year) occurs in evergreen needleleaf forest and delay (0.443 days/year) in crop/natural vegetation mosaic. These results imply enhanced vegetation activity in the Central Asia region over last decades

  7. Uranium Mining Legacies in Central Asia: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining and milling operations of the former Soviet Union undertaken in Central Asia have left a significant series of legacy sites that area major cause of public concern. The paper describes the current situation and how various agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency, are working with each other and the Governments of the States involved towards the alleviation of the problems caused by these sites. (author)

  8. Infrastructure investments in Eastern Neighbours and Central Asia (ENCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Kravets, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure in the Eastern Neighbours and Central Asia (ENCA) lags behind other regions in terms of the quality of service provision and this is a potentially important constraint on the achievement of higher economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the recent developments in infrastructure finance drawing together data from national sources, international institutions and project databases. With a total investment in infrastructure over the last decade of over 2.5% of GDP ...

  9. CENTRAL ASIA: NATO'S MILITARY-POLITICAL STRATEGY AND RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shaymergenov, Timur

    2005-01-01

    Following the Soviet Union's demise, the situation in Central Asia changed radically: it has become an object of attention of various regional and global geopolitical players. This region, which is rich in natural resources (primarily gold, oil, and gas) and which used to be off-limits for the leading geopolitical players with strategic interests in this key area, has now opened up and become an attractive playground for these various strategic forces. The United States, in its desire to cons...

  10. Europe and Central Asia Economic Update, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The economies of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) are facing complex challenges. In the eastern part of the region the task of governments is to orchestrate a coordinated crisis response. The collapse of oil revenues and the associated decline in remittances triggered a chain reaction of shocks. Adjustment to these shocks requires a new monetary policy regime, resolution of serious fragilities in banking sectors, fiscal reforms that put government finances on a sustainable path, while guarantee...

  11. CWRD: ICT in Education: Central and West Asia Executive

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan. Among its many impo...

  12. TURKEY’S NEW FOREIGN POLICY LANDMARKS AND CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yuldasheva, Guli

    2008-01-01

    The geopolitical tension that became even more evident in the wake of the 2001 events, the de facto unfolding global war over energy sources and transportation corridors in the Middle East and Central Asia, and certain aspects of Turkey’s domestic developments have greatly altered Ankara’s international status, its political weight, and its role. The victory of the candidate from the pro-Islamic Justice and Development Party (JDP) at the 28 August, 2007 presidential election created tension b...

  13. Water resources and multilateral security organisations in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Pérez Martín

    2013-01-01

    At present, Central Asia faces serious conflicts over water management, most of them of a transnational nature: humanitarian crises, droughts, floods, pollution, ethnic problems, nepotism and corruption in the allocation of water resources, etc. In July 2010 the United Nations declared access to water and sanitation to be a human right, with the aim of resolving or mitigating such conflicts. In this region, there are several multilateral security organizations which for over two decades have ...

  14. Is Speculative Activity in Asia Pacific Markets Anything New?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany Hutcheson

    1998-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of speculative behaviour in the floating of several Asian currencies in 1977. The incentive for speculators to adopt trading strategies forcing a country to float their currency is taken into account after assessing the exchange rate regimes, currency movements and economic fundamentals for countries in the Asia Pacific. The globalisation of capital markets and use of short-term borrowing by the Asian countries affected by speculative pressures is also taken into...

  15. Co-Evolution in Asia, Markets and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Clement A. Tisdell

    1998-01-01

    Economic, social and natural environmental systems are interdependent, and economic systems cannot be assessed in isolation from an interconnected whole. Many parts of Asia face increasing market intrusion and forced changes in economic mechanisms and rights without concomitant social and technological co-evolution. Consequently, serious problems for economic, social and environmental sustainability are being experienced by local communities, especially in remote regions and in peripheral are...

  16. An Assessment of Future Patterns of Security in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, various social problems left over have emerged in some Central Asian states, thus threatening social stability in the region. Under globalization, the former Soviet republics in Central Asia have made great efforts to develop constructive relations with others in the hope of strengthening their security. However, the threat of terrorism, extremism and separatism still exists. These non-traditional security issues play a role in current international politics, and the countries in the region are trylng to meet new challenges.

  17. AMERICAN POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA AND RUSSIA'S INTERESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Braterskiy, Maxim

    2007-01-01

    Five years ago I published an article in which I assessed the results of the first decade of America's Central Asian policy. I came to the conclusion that between the early 1990s and 2002, it developed from mere recognition of the newly independent states to a long-term regional strategy. For obvious reasons, 9/11 served as the turning point: "From a geographically remote, unstable and, in general, unexciting region, Central Asia became a zone of the U.S.'s national security interests." After...

  18. Northwest Asia - gas market outlook: LNG vs. pipeline gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)

  19. Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Spoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

  20. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  1. CHINA'S PRESENCE IN THE ENERGY SECTOR OF CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Syroezhkin, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    When the fourth generation of leaders came to power in China, the country began drawing up its policy in Central Asia (CA) on the concept of peripheral diplomacy, which since 2005 has been based not on the thesis of "China's peaceful rise," but on the theory of "peaceful development" that came to replace it, as well as on the idea proposed by Hu Jintao of "working together to build a harmonious world." At present, China's relations with the regional states are being established in keeping wit...

  2. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term. (author)

  3. Central Asia: A major emerging energy player in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the most abundant and valuable natural resource of Central Asia and northwest China and includes oil, gas, coal, electricity, and renewables. Kazakhstan has large reserves of oil and coal. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have significant reserves of gas. Kyrgyzstan produces significant amounts of hydroelectric power. Xinjiang, China has significant coal resources and an uncertain, although generally promising, potential for oil in the Tarim basin. These energy reserves form the basis for future economic growth and development in the region, and energy exports are beginning to generate important foreign exchange revenues. Although Central Asia enjoys vast energy development potential, there are obstacles to exploiting these resources, including limited infrastructure for transporting energy-notably oil and gas pipelines and electric transmission lines-in the region, political turmoil, payment difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. Despite these challenges, however, with appropriate government planning Central Asia is poised to become a significant world supplier of energy, especially in the oil and gas sectors, and the region is likely to diminish OPEC's influence of the global oil market over the long term

  4. Natural gas markets in Asia: from callow youth to maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1980s, Asian energy markets expanded at a rapid rate to meet the surge in demand from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. This demand boom coincided with an increase in non-OPEC oil production in the region. As oil production stabilizes, demand looks set to rise sharply, this time in the new Newly Industrialized Countries of Southeast Asia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Natural gas will play a key role in this expansion of energy use and could start to lead rather than follow oil markets. The leading role of natural gas will be especially strong if gas starts to make inroads in the high and middle ends of the barrel with oxygenated gasoline and compressed natural gas for trucks. At the bottom of the barrel, natural gas could increasingly usurp the role of residual fuel oil for environmental reasons. At the same time, regional refiners could find that residual oil is their leading source of additional feed for the new process units currently under discussion or planning. The supply outlook for natural gas is increasingly fraught with uncertainties as more of the region's supplies must come from distant areas. In particular, liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplies from Malaysia and Indonesia will need to be replaced by the early part of the next century as rising domestic demand eats into the exportable gas production. New sources include China, Siberia, Sakhalin Island, Papua New Guinea, and Canada. There will be intense competition to supply the Northeast Asia markets as the gas production in Southeast Asia is increasingly used within ASEAN. (author)

  5. Did inequality increase in transition? : an analysis of the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    RoÌ zsaÌ s, TamaÌ s.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Parallel to the process of democratization, the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia have shown an increase in measured income inequality during their transition from centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy. Since the behavior of these countries contradicted previous models of inequality, researchers analyzing the transition process linked the increase in income inequality to the egalitarian values of s...

  6. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  7. Will climate change exacerbate water stress in Central Asia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegfried, Tobias; Bernauer, Thomas; Guiennet, Renaud;

    2012-01-01

    Soviet Union collapsed. Will climate change exacerbate water stress and thus conflicts? We have developed a coupled climate, land-ice and rainfall-runoff model for the Syr Darya to quantify impacts and show that climatic changes are likely to have consequences on runoff seasonality due to earlier snow......Millions of people in the geopolitically important region of Central Asia depend on water from snow- and glacier-melt driven international rivers, most of all the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. The riparian countries of these rivers have experienced recurring water allocation conflicts ever since the......, and politically unstable Fergana Valley. Targeted infrastructural developments will be required in the region. If the current mismanagement of water and energy resources can be replaced with more effective resource allocation mechanisms through the strengthening of transboundary institutions, Central...

  8. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  9. China's great game in Central Asia implications to U.S. policy in the region

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    y the United States is spearheading a war on terrorism, focusing on countries close to Central Asia such as Afghanistan and Iraq. If the United States plans on staying in the region, it must take into account the forces shaping Chinese foreign policy in Central Asia. Possibilities exist for cooperation, but if the situation is misinterpreted or handled incorrectly, there is also a possibility for conflict. This thesis examines Chinese interests in Central Asia, comparing and contrasting them ...

  10. BUILDING A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP WITH KAZAKHSTAN(A BLUEPRINT FOR INDIA'S CENTRAL ASIA POLICY)

    OpenAIRE

    Stobdan, Phunchok

    2006-01-01

    India has not been able to make significant inroads into Central Asia, a region of vital strategic importance. Central Asia had a considerable impact on the polity and economy all through Indian history. Trade routes linking ancient Uttara-Paath to the Silk Road also carried Indian religion, philosophy and science beyond to Inner and Eastern Asia. The British India's security and frontier trade policy with East Turkistan and Afghanistan is well known. People of Central Asian republics always ...

  11. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  12. EU’S CENTRAL ASIA POLICY: THE ADOPTION OF A NEW STRATEGY PAPER 2007-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Norling, Nicklas

    2007-01-01

    As Germany took over the rotating presidency of the EU in the first half of 2007 one of its primary tasks was to redirect and reform EU’s Central Asia policy before the Council’s adoption of a new Strategy Paper for Central Asia in June. As Germany’s Presidency Program explicitly states: “The Presidency will pay particular attention to the strategically significant region of Central Asia. The EU plans to adopt a strategy on Central Asia defining its interests and objectives.” Moreover, follow...

  13. Natural gas in Asia: Trade, markets and regional institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas trade in Asia has been dominated by long-established market structures, under which liquefied natural gas (LNG) has remained indexed based on the price of crude oil. High transaction costs in the region in recent years imply that the regional market is sub-optimally organized. Since 2010, the continued prevalence of oil-indexation has had the most adverse effect on Japan, the world’s largest LNG importer. In response, Japan implemented several strategies to challenge traditional LNG pricing mechanisms in the region and ultimately reduce transaction costs. Japan’s efforts include an increase in the share of spot and short-term purchases, sourcing new supplies from the United States under alternative pricing arrangements and driving regional buyer cooperation. This paper evaluates the potential effect of Japan’s LNG strategy on regional pricing in the broader institutional context, arguing that LNG pricing in the region will only partially shift away from oil-indexation by the end of the decade. While recent cooperation among regional LNG importers indicates that there may be scope for change in the regional institutional setting, the degree of cooperation is insufficient to have a profound effect on regional pricing. - Highlights: • Sub-optimal natural gas market outcomes in Asia since 2010. • Asian buyers have challenged oil-indexation in the region. • Concrete evidence of Japan-led buyer cooperation since 2013. • Pricing will only partially shift from oil-indexation by 2020. • Security of supply remains a top policy priority

  14. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  15. What determines firms’ innovation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Afandi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By employing a rich sample of firm-level data in seven Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries from Europe and Central Asia, our paper investigates core as well as some specific determinants of firm innovation. We find that the likelihood of engaging in innovation for a firm increases with its core socio-economic characteristics such as size, age, capacity utilization, domestic competition and foreign ownership. In addition to the estimates of these socio-economic covariates, the ultimate purpose of our study is to obtain more in-depth knowledge about the policy implacable factors for firm innovation that the countries could focus on. These policy-related factors are: (i access to finance, (ii human capital, and (iii foreign trade. In this respect, our study finds that firm’s innovation increases with better financial inclusion, greater human capital and engagement in foreign trade. We argue that these analysis and results, coupled with inclusive and targeted policies, can be used to enrich the process of private sector innovation in the region’s countries.

  16. Asia-Pacific oil markets in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last year, most experts on world energy and oil demand have come to appreciate the importance of the Asia-Pacific region to world oil markets. many who wish for higher oil demand and higher prices have cited demand on the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) will return sooner rather than later. Before we can bank the additional, say, 2 million, barrels of oil demand which will develop by 1995, it is necessary to look at the reasons for that growth and how it may be affected by developments in the world and regional economies, interfuel competition, and the directions of government energy policies. We must also look at the development of oil supply in the region and the implications for import and export in the region. It is expected that the region will increase production slightly to approximately 6.5 million barrels per day (b/d), but become more dependent on imported crude and products as the result of strong demand growth. This paper reports on economic growth in the region and the world, followed by petroleum product demand growth now and in the future, interfuel competition, and finally the implications for world oil markets

  17. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  18. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  19. Climate and soil salinity in the deserts of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, E. I.; Konyushkova, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    A comparative analysis of climatic and soil salinity characteristics of the deserts of Central Asia, including deserts of the Turan Depression, the Gobi Desert, and deserts of the Dzungar and Tarim depressions was performed. The climatic characteristics—the degree of aridity, the degree of continentality, and the amount and regime of precipitation—are different in these deserts. No direct relationships between the areas occupied by the automorphic salt-affected soils and the aridity of the climate are observed in the studied regions. In the automorphic landscapes of Asian deserts, the degree and chemistry of the soil salinization and the distribution of salt-affected soils are controlled by the history of the particular territories rather than by their modern climatic conditions. The presence and properties of the salt-bearing rocks and the eolian migration of salts play the most significant role. The deficit of moisture in the modern climate favors the preservation of salt accumulations in places of their origin. The specific features of the climate, including the regime of precipitation, affect the redistribution of salts in the profiles of automorphic salt-affected soils. An increase in the degree of climatic continentality is accompanied by the decrease in the intensity of weathering and initial accumulation of salts. A different situation is observed in the soils of hydromorphic desert landscapes, in which the degree of salinity of the surface horizons and the area occupied by salt-affected soils are directly influenced by the modern climatic conditions.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  1. RUSSIAN AND WESTERN ACADEMICS ON CHINA’S POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ye. Malzev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia plays an essential role for China’s foreign policy. Beijing has recently increased its presence in the region and now is treated as one of the main powers. This article analyzes the key studies on China’s Central Asia strategy. It focuses on the most complicated problems that experts face researching the issue. Finally an author came to the conclusion that complex approach towards China’s policy in Central Asia is not worked out yet. Most of the scholars admit that China’s share in regional politics is increasing, but they are not sure about its final goal.

  2. In the Margins: Minority Education in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimzade E.

    2011-03-01

    . Korostelina (2008 in researching history education across for countries (Ireland, Taiwan, China, and North Korea found that history textbooks reinforce ethnic loyalties and play an important role in shaping ethnic identity in History education. Specifically in Central Asia, Kissane (2005 found that history education reform in Kazakhstan has been an important part of shaping post-Soviet Kazak identity.

  3. Hydroclimate variations in central and monsoonal Asia over the past 700 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Fang

    Full Text Available Hydroclimate variations since 1300 in central and monsoonal Asia and their interplay on interannual and interdecadal timescales are investigated using the tree-ring based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI reconstructions. Both the interannual and interdecadal variations in both regions are closely to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. On interannual timescale, the most robust correlations are observed between PDO and hydroclimate in central Asia. Interannual hydroclimate variations in central Asia are more significant during the warm periods with high solar irradiance, which is likely due to the enhanced variability of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the high-frequency component of PDO, during the warm periods. We observe that the periods with significant interdecadal hydroclimate changes in central Asia often correspond to periods without significant interdecadal variability in monsoonal Asia, particularly before the 19th century. The PDO-hydroclimate relationships appear to be bridged by the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and Tibetan Plateau, a key area of PDO. While, in some periods the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and monsoonal Asia may lead to significant interdecadal hydroclimate variations in monsoonal Asia.

  4. Pipelines are high-level politics. The new great battle for the oil from the Caucasus and the Central Asia; Roerledninger er storpolitikk. Det nye store spillet om oljen fra Kaukasus og Sentral-Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    2000-07-01

    The article discusses possibilities, problems and risk factors related to the development of the oil and gas resources in the Caspian region and Central Asia with particular emphasis on the transport of oil and gas to the market. The super power's interests in the region and it's strategic position and the political development in the Caucasus and Central Asia with particular emphasis on the important oil and gas nations are reviewed. Furthermore the political battle for the oil and gas in the region is discussed. Finally the potential for new tensions in the region particularly between Russia, Turkey and the USA is reviewed. The participants in the battle are Iran, Russia, Turkey and the USA as well as the other oil and gas rich nations around Caspian Sea. The USA has newly arrived in the area and have an interest in accessing the new oil and gas provinces and obtaining a political stronghold in a strategically important part of the Eurasian continent. There are specific sections on the interests of the superpowers in the Central Asian oil and gas market, the Caspian and Central Asian region's strategic importance, the political development in the Caucasus and Central Asia, the important oil and gas nations, the battle for Central Asia and new tensions in the region.

  5. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  6. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  7. ANALISIS DANPENGUKURANTINGKAT EKSPOSUR RISIKO TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DENGAN METODE FMEA PADAPT. BANK CENTRAL ASIA , TBK

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Kurniawan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk in measuring the level of risk exposure and identify the need to control IT risk management at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Conducted research methodology, field observation, library research, interviews and gave questionnaires to the relevant parties, perform data analysis, as well as measuring the risk of using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). The results achieved in this study is to facilitate the ma...

  8. Pyogenic liver abscess: Differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herwig; Cerwenka

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes,when possible,play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA).Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology.In this article,we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications.Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA),there ...

  9. The balancing role of Turkey for the influence of China in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Today, there is a dynamic new ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia engaging multiple players and institutions who compete for influence in Central Asia, such as the Russian-dominated Collective Security Treaty Organization, the U.S.-dominated NATO Partnership for Peace Program, and the Sino-Russian-dominated Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Of all the players, China is clearly one of the most dominant. China’s authoritarian regime, domestic problems, and huge energy demands hold potential threats f...

  10. Asia's coal and clean coal technology market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian region is unique in the world in having the highest economic growth rate, the highest share of coal in total primary energy consumption and the highest growth rate in electricity generation capacity. The outlook for the next two decades is for accelerated efforts to control coal related emissions of particulates and SO2 and to a lessor extent NOx and CO2. Only Japan has widespread use of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) however a number of economies have plans to install CCTs in future power plants. Only CCTs for electricity generation are discussed, and are defined for the purpose of this paper as technologies that substantially reduce SO2 and/or NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The main theses of this paper are that major increases in coal consumption will occur over the 1990-2010 period, and this will be caccompanied by major increases in coal related pollution in some Asian economies. Coal fired electricity generation is projected to grow at a high rate of about 6.9 percent per year over the 1990-2010 period. CCTs are projected to account for about 150 GW of new coal-fired capacity over the 1990-2010 period of about one-third of all new coal-fired capacity. A speculative conclusion is that China will account for the largest share of CCT additions over the 1990-2010 period. Both the US and Japan have comparative advantages that might be combined through cooperation and joint ventures to gain a larger share of the evolving CCT market in Asia. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Wine markets in central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Š BOJNEC

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases...

  12. Spatial drought reconstructions for central High Asia based on tree rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Keyan [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western Chinese Environmental Systems (MOE), Center for Arid Environment and Paleoclimate Research (CAEP), Lanzhou (China); Columbia University, Tree-Ring Lab, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Davi, Nicole; Cook, Edward; Li, Jinbao; D' Arrigo, Rosanne [Columbia University, Tree-Ring Lab, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western Chinese Environmental Systems (MOE), Center for Arid Environment and Paleoclimate Research (CAEP), Lanzhou (China)

    2010-11-15

    Spatial reconstructions of drought for central High Asia based on a tree-ring network are presented. Drought patterns for central High Asia are classified into western and eastern modes of variability. Tree-ring based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) are presented for both the western central High Asia drought mode (1587-2005), and for the eastern central High Asia mode (1660-2005). Both reconstructions, generated using a principal component regression method, show an increased variability in recent decades. The wettest epoch for both reconstructions occurred from the 1940s to the 1950s. The most extreme reconstructed drought for western central High Asia was from the 1640s to the 1650s, coinciding with the collapse of the Chinese Ming Dynasty. The eastern central High Asia reconstruction has shown a distinct tendency towards drier conditions since the 1980s. Our spatial reconstructions agree well with previous reconstructions that fall within each mode, while there is no significant correlation between the two spatial reconstructions. (orig.)

  13. Bank Competition, Crisis and Risk-Taking: Evidence from Emerging Markets in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Soedarmono, Wahyoe; Machrouh, Fouad; Tarazi, Amine

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact on financial stability of bank competition in emerging markets by taking into account crisis periods. Based on a broad set of commercial banks in Asia over the 1994-2009 period, the empirical results indicate that a higher degree of market power in the banking market is associated with higher capital ratios, higher income volatility and higher insolvency risk of banks. In general, although banks in less competitive markets hold more capital, the levels of ca...

  14. Developing regional financial markets – the case of East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerleano, Michael

    2008-01-01

    "The paper explores the extent and benefits of financial integration in East Asia. It presents evidence that the extent of financial integration in East Asia is less extensive than the aggregate data suggests. The paper then addresses why some countries are integrated more than others and discusses the obstacles to regional financial integration. The paper points out that East Asia’s growth strategy has shaped bank centric financial systems. An important thesis presented in the...

  15. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  16. Changes of Russian Policy on Security in Central Asia at the turn of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Камынин, Владимир Дмитриевич

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the reasons for change in Russia’s security policy in Central Asia by analyzing leading experts’ opinions. The author argues that this reconsideration of policy was determined by both national and international factors and resulted in growing influence of Russia in the region. The author concludes that fight against international terrorism is now at the center of Russian activities in Central Asia.Key words: Russia, Central Asia, regional security, international terrorism

  17. KAZAKH-U.S. MILITARY-POLITICAL COOPERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF U.S. GEOPOLITICAL INTERESTS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgaliev, Marat

    2007-01-01

    As is known, Central Asia is an important strategic element of the U.S.'s foreign policy. It is interesting both from the energy perspective and in the context of Washington's expanding geopolitical influence in the region. Today, the U.S.'s key objectives in Central Asia are as follows: First, establishment of dominant positions in Central Asia.The Washington administration is striving to assert its dominance in Central Asia by playing on the contradictions between the countries in the regio...

  18. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N D; Kirk, E J; DeLaTorre, G

    2003-12-23

    On February 6, 2003, a workshop, was cosponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) to explore both the linkage between U.S. policy in Central Asia and science and technology (S&T) and the role of S&T in achieving U.S. security and development objectives in the region. A major outcome of the workshop is the identification of potential S&T initiatives that support U.S. Central Asia policy goals. This document summarizes the proceedings, conclusions, and recommendations from this workshop; it is a companion document to the full proceedings entitled Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia. The proceedings are also published by AAAS and a copy can be obtained from either AAAS (www.aaas.org), Sheri Abbott (AAAS; 202 326-6655), or Richard Knapp (LLNL; 925 423-3328; knapp4@llnl.gov).

  19. Innovations in Health Services Delivery from Transition Economies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, A.; Bredenkamp, C.; Schlippert, S.

    2009-01-01

    During the past fifteen years, the countries of the former Eastern Bloc transformed their centrally planned, supply-driven health care systems. Modernization of service delivery required innovations in financing and insurance and the restructuring of primary care and hospital networks. This review of experiences from Central and Southeast Europe, the Baltic States, Central Asia, and the Caucasus spot lights innovative health reforms in low- and middle-income countries, including contributions...

  20. The History, Ethnology and Social Importance of Mare’s Milk Consumption in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make available for occidental lecturers a kind of synthesis of the information we accumulated over more than twenty years about horse breeding in Central Asia. It is also a trans-disciplinary approach mostly based on French bibliography and personal experiences. We will give a new perspective on the early time history of horse breeding to introduce the current breeding of horses in herds in Central Asia. We will continue with the description of the diet of the ...

  1. WILL INDIA BECOME A FULL-FLEDGED PARTICIPANT IN THE BIG GAME IN CENTRAL ASIA?

    OpenAIRE

    Komissina, Irina

    2008-01-01

    Most analysts now agree that Central Asia has become an arena of the Big Game currently being played by the leading world and regional leaders. Nor has India been left on the sidelines, especially since it has clearly outgrown the role of generally accepted leader of the South Asian subcontinent of late and is making its claims to something more. Central Asia is geographically close to India and has common deep historical roots with this country; so its presence in the zone of Indian strategi...

  2. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  4. Enhancing the Efficiency of Securities Markets in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Swati; Revilla, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    The authors explore the relative efficiency of stock markets across countries using newly available data on transactions costs and the quality of the informational environment of stock markets. These new measures are constructed from firm-level stock returns in a panel of 60 countries for the period 2000-04. The authors then develop a framework to understand the linkages between efficiency...

  5. Financial crisis, trade finance, and SMEs: Case of Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pasadilla, Gloria O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys studies of the importance of Central Asian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the economy and their experience during the Russian financial crisis. It also uses survey data from the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development's Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys to infer noteworthy characteristics, features, and dependencies on financing of Central Asian SMEs and, consequently, derive the potential impact of the crisis ...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  7. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder

    2001-12-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogroups, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.

  8. New Geopolitical Role of Central Asia within Foreign Policy Interests of World Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem Kulnazarov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the fall of the Soviet Union, the leading global and regional players have started their occupation of the geopolitical and geo-economical vacuum in Central Asia. This article is targeted to trace the competition growth with regard to establishment of control over the Central Asian region by global players, in particular, by Russia, seeking to return Central Asia, and China, striving to entangle the region into its orbit of influence. Within two post-Soviet decades, the world players still have not managed to develop a general cooperation scheme against each other in Central Asia. Although, at the beginning of the XXI century, Russia and China attempted to build up a scheme of the Russian-Chinese-Central Asian cooperation within the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, however this scheme cannot be called effective due to the absence of common vision of long-term interests in Russia, China and Central Asian countries. As it seems, even at very short by historical standards period of time, after the fall of the Soviet Union we observe clear interests in the Central Asian’s policies of Russia and China.  

  9. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  10. Gas Markets in Asia. Current situation, prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past and recent factors point to a remarkable growth of the Asian market in the medium and long term. This growth will depend on structural and institutional evolutions on the Asian market. Some regulatory and liberalization reforms have already been initiated to support the development of gas but this will require a long process. Oil-indexing will prevail for a long time (but which slope?) Supply flexibility must be improved (relaxation of destination clauses, quantity tolerances) to create a competitive gas market. Marketing innovations expected in new long-term contracts to enhance flexibility whilst preserving investment security. A growing portfolio approach (LNG portfolio, pipeline imports, unconventional gas) is implemented. In conclusion, regional cooperation among Asian buyers is very important

  11. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  12. Features and trends of the environmental change in the arid areas in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU KeFa; ZHANG Qing; CHEN Xi; SUN Li

    2007-01-01

    RS-monitoring index systems of ecological environment changes at a large scale, based on empirical data and trends in environmental change in Central Asia, are developed using NOAA and MODIS data.Moreover, with the help of mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis, the degrees, hazards and distribution extent of various possible ecological problems are discussed, environmental changes in Central Asia in 1990 and 2005 are separately evaluated, and dynamic changes in the environment in Central Asia over a 15-year period are analyzed. The results reveal that during the 15-year period from 1990 to 2005, areas of degenerated vegetation in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirghizstan and Tadzhikistan were enlarged by 0.069×105 km2, 0.081×105 km2, 0.296×105 km2, 0.022×105 km2 and 0.112×105 km2, respectively. The ecological environment in Central Asia was in the state of significant degeneration and even deterioration. This study proves that NOAA and MODIS data can be used to successfully monitor the environment and provide useful results.

  13. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  14. Simulating the Energy and Water Fluxes from Two Alkaline Desert Ecosystems over Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asia region is covered by vast desert ecosystems, where the characteristic of energy and water fluxes is different from other humid ecosystems. The application of land surface models (LSMs in arid and semiarid ecosystems was largely limited. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of Common Land Model (CoLM at two eddy covariance (EC sites in alkaline desert ecosystems over Central Asia. Simulations of the net radiation (Rnet, latent heat flux (Qle, sensible heat flux (Qh, and soil temperature showed that refined estimate of roughness length (Z0m significantly improved the performance of CoLM in simulating turbulent heat fluxes. Qle was increased but Qh was decreased, which were in better agreement with the observations from EC system. The results indicated that accurate parameterization of Z0m is of crucial importance for predicting energy and water fluxes in LSM when applied in Central Asia desert ecosystems. Sensitivity analysis regarding leaf area index (LAI, Z0m, and albedo (α showed that Rnet is very sensitive to α but Qle, Qh, and soil temperature (Tsoil are sensitively varying with the estimate of Z0m at the two EC sites over Central Asia.

  15. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  16. PetroChina, Central Asia Oil Company Ltd Signed Oil Development Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ PetroChina and the Central Asia Oil Company Ltd signed a contract of oil development and production for Block 413 in Songliao Basin in Beijing on July 16. This is the first oil development and production contract signed by PetroChina for external cooperation this year.

  17. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  18. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news…

  19. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  20. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  1. ANALISIS DANPENGUKURANTINGKAT EKSPOSUR RISIKO TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DENGAN METODE FMEA PADAPT. BANK CENTRAL ASIA , TBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Kurniawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to help the PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk in measuring the level of risk exposure and identify the need to control IT risk management at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Conducted research methodology, field observation, library research, interviews and gave questionnaires to the relevant parties, perform data analysis, as well as measuring the risk of using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. The results achieved in this study is to facilitate the management in making decisions related to the design, maintenance, and development of information technology at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk and also minimize the risk of the failure so that the utilization of existing information technology can provide more optimal results. The conclusion from this study is that there is a risk of potential failure that could hamper the existing business processes in PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Highest risk or potential failure according to the RPN (Risk Priority Number is a software and hardware damage, as well as the corrupted database due to the impact of operational risk.

  2. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  3. Living in Limbo : Conflict-Induced Displacement in Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Steven B. Holtzman; Nezam, Taies

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze conflict-induced displacement from the point of view of vulnerability, using a multifaceted definition of vulnerability. As many as 10 million people have been displaced by war in the Europe and Central Asia region since 1990. While many people have been able to return home, approximately half remain displaced, with no available avenues for sustaina...

  4. POPULATION GENETICS OF THE WHEAT LEAF RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistan...

  5. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  6. Economic role of public administration in Central Asia: Decentralization and hybrid political regime

    OpenAIRE

    Libman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to understand how the organization of public administration in Central Asia shapes the results of economic development in the region. It discusses the main factors of bad quality of public administration in the region, paying particular attention to the link between political regimes and public administration. Moreover, it provides an overview of decentralization and devolution of power in Central Asian countries as one of the main channels of transformation of adminis...

  7. Drought : Management and Mitigation Assessment for Central Asia and the Caucasus

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to raise awareness and understanding of exposure and vulnerability to drought in Central Asian countries and the Caucasus and to introduce a strategic, pro-active framework of mitigation and prevention. The audiences of the report are the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the Caucasus and Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic in Central Asia. The report will further be of interest to NGOs and civil society, as w...

  8. The contribution of EMCA to landslide susceptibility mapping in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Saponaro; Marco Pilz; Dino Bindi; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most exposed regions in the world to landslide hazard. The large variability of local geological materials, together with the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify the hazard and the negative impact of slope failures across the Central Asian countries. As a first step towards a quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment, a landslide susceptibili...

  9. Global Food Price Inflation and Policy Responses in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of elevated global food prices for inflation in select Central Asian economies - Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The findings suggest that global food inflation has significant short-run effects that build over time. Inflation outcomes simulated under alternative global wheat price assumptions underscore these vulnerabilities, and suggest that sustained administrative measures are unlikely to prove effective. In line with struc...

  10. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  11. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  12. Studies on Phylogenetic Relationship of Sheep Population in East and South of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; GENG Rong-qing; LU Sheng-xia; DU Lei; NI Da-xing; FAN Bao-sheng; Tsunoda K

    2002-01-01

    This paper was based on the Hu sheep in China, after collecting the same data about 9 Asiasheep populations and 5 European sheep (breeds in Japan) populations. It clustered 15 populations in terms ofthe gene frequency of 10 loci and 33 allele in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The result of Hierar-chy Clustering showed that the sheep populations in the East and South of Central Asia could be classified intothree genetic groups: Mongolia sheep, South Asia sheep and European sheep, and the Hu sheep belonged toMongolia sheep.

  13. United States natural gas markets, contracts and risks: What lessons for the European Union and Asia-Pacific natural gas markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article examines the natural gas markets of the United States, the European Union and the Asia-Pacific region and their regulation and contractual structures. The article's main focus is on the United States natural gas markets. The European Union and Asia-Pacific markets are compared to this more developed market. By comparing the physical and ideological characteristics of, and differences between, the three main international gas markets, the article exposes the limits of regulatory and contractual transplants in this area of law and policy. Each of these markets is unique, which limits the opportunities for modelling certain market institutions on the basis of the more developed markets in the United States. This applies for both the EU and the Asia-Pacific region. - Highlights: • Differences in the physical markets impact regulation. • Regulatory transplants have risks. • The approach in energy policy should be based on “Law-in-Context” approach

  14. Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Mañé

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

  15. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  16. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  17. The US Subprime Crises and Extreme Market Pressures in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Reza; Pontines, Victor; Mohd Hussain, Nurulhuda

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the evidence of occurrences of extreme market pressure of currencies of a number of Asian economies against the US dollar during the period of 2000-2009. In particular, we are interested in investigating the severity of these pressures during the recent US sub-prime crisis of 2007-2009. Were the currencies of these economies subjected to indiscriminate selling pressures during the period of the crisis? Was the heightened severity of the sellin...

  18. Turkey’s Central Asia policy in the changing world: priorities, policies and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhad ALIMUKHAMEDOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s Central Asia policy offers an interesting perspective for analysing political and economic interests of Ankara in the region after the collapse of USSR. The political place of Central Asia in Turkish foreign policy priorities has changed slowly, but constantly from 90s to now. Although all Turkish governments and presidents followed friendly cooperation with Turkic speaking countries, the centrality of the region was lost and geoeconomic interests became dominant. However, among institutional cooperation possibilities TİKA has developed major arguments and increasingly intense activities towards the region. The article seeks to understand the reasons behind the changes of Turkish Foreign Policy and the role of Central Asian countries in Turkey’s agenda. Its objective is to underline how the geoeconomic interests may change foreign policy vectors of the countries and show the increasing dependence and involvements of Ankara on bordering countries. Besides enumerating the reasons, we also propose institutional cooperation between Turkey and Central Asian countries which seems to have more positive impact both in bilateral and multilaretal relations. The paper tries to frame the relations from Turkey’s perspective and explain the chronology of Ankara’s involvement post-Soviet Central Asia. The datas referring to the policies and starategies are primarily taken from the research articles, but also from reports. The literature review shows also that majority of research and papers are focused on early 90s and post 2000 period, indicating Turkey’s most active periods towards the region. The papers outcomes are based on qualitative method and try to explore foreign policy priorities and changes occurring based on geoeconomic interests. We try to describe the variations in Ankara’s policies and explain the relationships between Turkic capitals and leaders of Turkic states. We used open-ended questions such as followings to conduct

  19. The Emergence of Homo sapiens in South Asia: The Central Narmada Valley as Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anek R. Sankhyan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available :The emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens in South Asia is hotly debated due to a great gap in fossil record. A solitary partial cranium from Hathnora dated around 250 Kya is debated and conveniently interpreted as "evolved" Homo erectus or "archaic" Homo sapiens or Homo heidelbergensis or even Homo indet. Cranial fossils of Pre-Toba or post- Toba anatomically modern Homo sapiens are unknown barring the very late 30 Kya modern human remains from Sri Lanka. The present paper reviews the scenario of human evolution in South Asia with special reference to the cranial and recent postcranial fossil findings by the author in association with the archaeological evidences from Central Narmada valley. It is concluded that the Narmada fossils and archaeological findings support the presence of three hominins- two 'archaic' and one 'early modern'. The Mode 2 Acheulian hominin represented by the calvarium and the femur was a 'large-bodied' species akin to Homo heidelbergensis. It appeared first in the Central Narmada valley and was followed by a 'small-bodied' Mode 3 archaic type represented by two clavicles and the 9th rib, provisionally named here as Homo narmadensis. It likely continued and attained anatomical and behavioural modernity in South Asia as attested by the humerus and bone artifacts, and diversified to various short-bodied indigenous populations of South Asia supported by the genomic evidences.

  20. Discussion on Power Market Mode of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhaocheng; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Central China power system is one of the large regional power grids carrying out power market demonstrative project. Because of lacking power market experience, a lot of problems need to be thoroughly discussed.

  1. Research on land markets in South Asia : what have we learned?

    OpenAIRE

    Faruqee, Rashid; Carey, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The authors review the literature on land markets in South Asia to clarify what's known and to highlight unresolved issues. They report that: (1) We have a good understanding of why sharecropping persists and why it can be superior to other standard agricultural contracts. We have less understanding of what determines the relative efficiency of sharecropping in different environments and why other apparently superior contractual relationships are rare. (2) Insecure rights to land adversely af...

  2. Islamic finance in the states of Central Asia: Strategies, institutions, first experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    [Introduction] Islamic finance has been developing steadily in the last decades since the 1970s, yet for most parts its growth was concentrated in the Arab states and in several south-east Asian parts of the world with a Muslim majority (Malaysia in particular). Perhaps the only exceptions to that were global financial centers like London or New York that serve as organizational hubs to channel and direct Islamic financial resources (Baba 2007). In comparison with that, in Central Asia Islami...

  3. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Stankiewicz; Dino Bindi; Adrien Oth; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW) systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds) warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for C...

  4. Labour Migration from Central Asia to Russia : State Management of Migration

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Russia has become a large scale recipient of labour migrants from Central Asia. Unemployment and low wages in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have made people travel north to what used to be the centre of the former Soviet Union – a state entity that these now independent states, a little more than some 20 years ago, all belonged to. Currently, Russia is facing a demographical crisis with dramatic population decline especially among the working-age group of the population. As such, acce...

  5. SOCIAL MEDIA, CYBER-DISSENT, AND CONSTRAINTS ON ONLINE POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Brian; Freedman, Eric; Blom, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Recent world events have demonstrated that the Internet-and social media tools in particular-are increasingly useful for political organizing, not merely frivolous virtual spaces for youthful publics to connect socially. Rather, social media is touted as "the crucible in which repressed civil societies can revive and develop." For the people of Central Asia-where free expression is curtailed and news outlets are under official or non-state, non-official government censorship-information and c...

  6. An overview on the seismic microzonation and site effect studies in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Pilz; Tanatkan Abakanov; Kanatbek Abdrakhmatov; Dino Bindi; Tobias Boxberger; Bolot Moldobekov; Sagynbek Orunbaev; Natalya Silacheva; Shahid Ullah; Sheyshenaly Usupaev; Pulat Yasunov; Stefano Parolai

    2015-01-01

    During the past centuries, many cities in Central Asia have suffered significant damages caused by earthquakes. A crucial step towards preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To accurately identify local variations of the site response at different locations within the cities, earthquakes recorded by seismic networks as well as measurement...

  7. Drugs trafficking and terrorism in Central Asia : an anatomy of relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Justine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates to what extent there is a link between the illicit drugs trade and regional terrorist/insurgent organisation s in Central Asia. In particular , the research attempts to understand the dynamics of actor participation within the drugs trade, including whether any such involvement is motivated by either criminal or political incentives. To inform such an assessment analysis of engagement opportunities, financial requirements, network connections and ...

  8. The regional security puzzle around Afghanistan : bordering practices in Central Asia and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    "Western military presence wanes in Afghanistan and a transformed security environment challenges borders and stability in Central Asia. This book examines how the tensions relating to the reorganization of external military presence interact with regional states’ ambitions and challenge the borders already contested by numerous dividing lines. It studies a complex political landscape across which radical Islam connected with international terrorism is feared to spread as the international mi...

  9. Leadership transition in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan implications for policy and stability in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Shane A.

    2007-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, Central Asia leapt into the vernacular of international politics. This forgotten region, where the "Great Game" was played, received new emphasis in the Global War on Terrorism. Analysts found a region brimming with both promise and concern. This thesis focuses on the future succession of two regional presidents, Nursultan Nazarbayev (Kazakhstan) and Islam Karimov (Uzbekistan), who are the only post-Soviet leaders their countries have known. These are also the only ...

  10. The Origins of Social Capital Evidence From a Survey of Post-Soviet Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Radnitz, Scott; Wheatley, Jonathan; Zürcher, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of social capital by analyzing an original survey of post-Soviet Central Asia. It tests hypotheses derived from two related questions: whether networks, norms, and trust are empirically related and the extent to which four factors—culture, regime type, perceptions of government responsiveness, and development interventions—predict levels of social capital. The results show that trust and norms diverge from networking. Interaction is higher under less...

  11. Cultural Assets in Support of Transition in the Europe and Central Asia Region : An Operational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The purpose ofthis report is to provide guidance to the staff of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Region with respect to mobilizing cultural assets to support socioeconomic development in our country and regional work programs. To this end it seeks to demonstrate how and when it makes sense for us to get involved in activities related to cultural asset mobilization. Equally important, it also indicates how and when we should leave cultural heritage activities to o...

  12. The role of virtual water for sustainable economic restructuring: Evidence from Uzbekistan, Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekchanov, Maksud; Bhaduri, Anik; Lenzen, Manfred; Lamers, John P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in water demand due to population growth, industrial development and urbanization necessitate economically efficient use of water resources worldwide. This is particularly true in the dryland zones of the world relying on irrigated agriculture for economic development such as in Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Due to ill-managed water resources and the dominance of high water intensive crops, water use efficiency in the region is very low. This challenges Uzbekistan to modernize its agric...

  13. CENTRAL ASIA: THE RELIGIOUS SITUATION AND THE THREAT OF RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In Central Asia, religion is gradually coming to the fore in everyday life as a fairly integrated phenomenon with a wide range of functions: consolidation of ethnic self-awareness, shaping spiritual and moral culture together with the awareness of being part of a religious and the world community; fulfilling social functions through religious prescriptions; formulating the ideals of social justice, as well as man's duty to the state and the state's to man, etc. Some of the functions, however,...

  14. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    OpenAIRE

    SEVDA BABAYEVA; ZEYNAL AKPAROV; ADI DAMANIA

    2014-01-01

    The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC) region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant asso...

  15. Marble-hosted ruby deposits from Central and Southeast Asia : towards a new genetic model

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, V.; Giuliani, Gaston; Ohnenstetter, D.; Fallick, A.E.; Dubessy, J.; Banks, D; Vinh, H. Q.; Lhomme, T.; H. Maluski; Pecher, A.; Bakhsh, K. A.; Van Long, P.; Trinh, P. T.; Schwarz, D.

    2008-01-01

    Marble-hosted ruby deposits represent the most important source of colored gemstones from Central and South East Asia. These deposits are located in the Himalayan mountain belt which developed during Tertiary collision of the Indian plate northward into the Eurasian plate. They are spatially related to granitoid intrusions and are contained in platform carbonates series that underwent high-grade meta morph ism. All occurrences are located close to major tectonic features formed during Himalay...

  16. Role of Wheat in Diversified Cropping Systems in Dryland Agriculture of Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    SULEIMENOV*, Mekhlis; AKHMETOV, Kanat; KASKARBAYEV, Zheksembay; KIREYEV, Aitkalym

    2005-01-01

    Wheat is major crop in dryland agriculture of Central Asia. In most cases both spring wheat and winter wheat are grown in rotation with summer fallow. Studies were conducted in order to identify alternative crops which possibly could replace part of summer fallow and part of wheat area. Summer fallow was found inefficient practice for soil moisture accumulation in semiarid steppes of northern and southern Kazakhstan as well as in Kyrgyzstan. Many alternative crops were identified in all zones...

  17. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359

  18. Policies to improve the local impact from hydrocarbon extraction: Observations on West Africa and possible lessons for Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper offers specific inputs to the debate on local content promotion in the oil industries of West Africa and Central Asia. To this end, we document the international experience with local content promotion to derive best practices in the field. We then use a case study approach to devise a simple analytical framework for rationalizing the selection of viable sectors for local content promotion, in an attempt to make operational one of the best practice principles (efficiency) developed before. By proposing specific rules regarding the acceptability of a project, the analysis seeks to add rigor and address distortions on localization outcomes from rent-seeking. The emphasis is not on supporting efforts to 'pick winners' and subsidize them through a range of by and large discredited instruments. Rather, the paper focuses on the specific public inputs the government would have to provide to support an otherwise market-driven process

  19. Market Information and Signaling in Central Bank Operations, or, How Often Should a Central Bank Intervene?

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    A central bank must decide on the frequency with which it will conduct open market operations and the variability in short-term money market that it will allow. The paper shows how the optimal operating procedure balances the value of attaining an immediate target and broadcasting the central bank's intentions against the informational advantages to the central bank of allowing the free play of market forces to reveal more of the information available to market participants.

  20. Contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation in oases of arid central Asia: A stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Che, Yanjun; Chen, Fenli; Qiang, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial moisture contributed by surface evaporation and transpiration, also known as recycled moisture, plays an important role in hydrological processes especially across arid central Asia. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes can be used for water budget analysis to calculate the contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation between two locations along the moisture flow. Based on a three-component isotopic mixing model, the moisture recycling in oasis stations of arid central Asia during summer months is assessed. At large oases of Urumqi, the proportional contribution of recycled moisture to local precipitation is approximately 16.2%, and the mean proportions of surface evaporation and transpiration are 5.9% ± 1.5% and 10.3% ± 2.2%, respectively. At small oases like Shihezi and Caijiahu the contribution of recycled moisture is less than 5%, and the proportion of surface evaporation is much less than that of transpiration. The vegetative cover in arid central Asia is generally sparse, but the evapotranspiration contribution to precipitation cannot be ignored at the widely distributed oases. The oasis effect shows great variability depending on locations and water availability for evapotranspiration.

  1. Ammonium record over the last 96 years from the Muztagata glacier in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO HuaBiao; YAO TanDong; XU BaiQing; LI Zhen; DUAN KeQin

    2008-01-01

    As a major alkaline gas in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, there is little knowledge about NH3 variations in the Central Asia. Here we ana-lyzed the ammonium (NH+4) history recorded in an ice core from the East Pamir in Central Asia, which was drilled on the Mt. Muztagata at the elevation of 7010 m a.s.I, in 2003. The core was carefully dated and NH+4 concentration history during 1907-2002 was reconstructed. The result shows that NH+4 con-centration remained approximately constant until the 1930s after a sudden decrease at the very begin-ning of the 20th century, followed by a minimum in 1940 before increasing steadily to the peak at the end of 1990s. It is found that the annual mean NH+4 concentration was strongly associated with the Northern Hemisphere temperature, suggesting the impact of temperature on NH3 emissions in the Central Asia. Moreover, an increase of NH+4 concentration after 1940 also reflects the enhancement of NH3 emissions from anthropogenic sources such as fertilizer applications and livestock wastes in the 20th century.

  2. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  3. Water balance modeling using remote sensing information : focus on Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Abror Gafurov

    2010-01-01

    The whole Central Asian population is dependent on water resources stored as solid in high mountains and feed the population in summer. The agriculture in Central Asia is possible only by irrigating the land in regular basis. The water for it comes from snow and glacier melt in high mountains. Thus, it is important to estimate possible water stored in mountains during planting season to better plan agricultural activities in summer. As an example, the year of 2002 or 2007 were drought years w...

  4. The Geopolitics of Central Asia after the Annexation of Crimea in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razma Ainis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The annexation of Crimea accomplished by Russia in 2014 is the event that stands out sharply in the context of post-Cold War international relations: it was the first time after the end of WWII in Europe that a part of the territory of a sovereign state was forcefully annexed. This means that the re-drawing of borders and revisionism are back in international relations as the principles and ways of policy making. It would be plausible to assume that the consequences of an event of such scale would be noticeable not only in its direct neighborhood but as well in more distant, though geopolitically sensitive contexts. The article explores the impact that Russia‘s Crimea campaign has had on the geopolitics of Central Asia and what consequences could be deemed plausible in the future. It is assumed that, due to the annexation of Crimea, international relations started polarizing around the two centers of power: the West and Russia. This trend brings the mentality of strategic confrontation back into international relations. The polarization seemingly becomes a geopolitical factor, which influences the power dynamics in Central Asia in its cultural-informational, military and economic aspects. From the cultural-informational perspective, the polarization is incompatible with the provisions of multivector foreign policies, and pursued by the Central Asian states; therefore, they attempt to neutralize the trend by withholding from taking clear-cut positions with regard to the Ukrainian events. Such a stance, however, does not provide for hedging against military threats, which are perceived as rather real in Central Asia because of the Russian modus operandi in Ukraine, as well as due to the seemingly catalyzing impact of current Russian policies on the local separatist forces and radical Islamic groups. Apprehension about a replication of a Crimean scenario as well as the asymmetric character of military threat may push the Central Asian states to

  5. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  6. The Asia-Pacific petroleum market: Critical issues for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late 1980s saw an astonishing turnaround in the Asian oil market. After years of stagnation, three main factors - economic dynamism, lower oil prices and reduced government regulation of the market - resulted in a consumption surge that surprised even those analysts who had predicted such a recovery. The chronically capacity-surplus refining industry saw a leap in profitability, and new construction began. Rapid demand growth spread from the middle distillates to such formerly depressed products as gasoline and fuel oil, and naphtha markets began to expand again as the petrochemical industry resumed rapid growth. At the same time that demand has been rising and demand patterns have been shifting, other changes have begun. A new environmental awareness has taken root in Asia, and new environmental standards are being set almost daily, not only in the richer countries of East Asia, but also in many of the region's developing nations. Unfortunately, traditional sources of low-sulphur oil for power generation may be limited in the coming decade. Despite many new discoveries within the region, Asian crude availability is shrinking, both in terms of availability on the international market and in terms of percentage contribution to regional oil demand. After years of decreasing reliance, the region will face rapid increases in imports from the Persian Gulf in the 1990s. (author). 16 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Central School Exit Exams and Labor-Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Piopiunik, Marc; Schwerdt, Guido; Woessmann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Many countries use centralized exit exams as a governance devise of the school system. While abundant evidence suggests positive effects of central exams on achievement tests, previous research on university-bound students shows no effects on subsequent earnings. We suggest that labor-market effects may be more imminent for students leaving school directly for the labor market and, on rigid labor markets, for unemployment. Exploiting variation in exit-exam systems across German states, we fin...

  8. Economics of Fish Marketing in Central Uganda: A Preliminary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bukenya, James O.; Hyuha, Theodora; Twinamasiko, Julius; Molnar, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines profitability and market performance of small-scale fish traders selected randomly from a cross-section of nine fish markets in four districts in Central Uganda. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire which was designed to solicit information on traders’ socio-economic characteristics, marketing characteristics, operating costs and returns, and problems associated with fish marketing in the study area. Percentages were used to describe the socio-economic cha...

  9. The contribution of EMCA to landslide susceptibility mapping in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Saponaro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most exposed regions in the world to landslide hazard. The large variability of local geological materials, together with the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitation locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking, call for harmonized procedures to better quantify the hazard and the negative impact of slope failures across the Central Asian countries. As a first step towards a quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessment, a landslide susceptibility analysis at regional scale has been carried out, by benefitting of novel seismic hazard outcomes reached in the frame of Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. By combining information coming from diverse potential factors, it is possible to detect areas where a potential for landslides exists. Initial results allow the identification of areas that are more susceptible to landslides with a level of accuracy greater than 70%. The presented method is, therefore, capable of supporting land planning activities at the regional scale in places where only scarce data are available.

  10. Understanding post 9/11 drug control policy and politics in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Alisher

    2009-09-01

    This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices. PMID:19121928

  11. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R B

    2003-11-04

    The current war with Iraq, international interventions in Afghanistan, and the continuous and seemingly insolvable problems in the Middle East emphasize the importance of supporting stable, healthy countries throughout the Middle East and South and Central Asia. The political alliances and foreign aid promulgated by the Cold War have been seriously strained, creating a more uncertain and unstable international environment. We must stay engaged with this part of the world. New partnerships must be forged. Central Asia represents a mix of political systems - from totalitarian rule to nascent democracy; of economic resources from natural to human; and of cultures from ancient to modern - making it of strategic importance to U. S. national and economic security. The U.S. must remain committed and proactively engaged in the region to promote open and democratic societies attractive to outside investment and to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and extremist groups. The U.S is admired for its science and technology and its flexibility in innovation and applying S&T to solve problems. The inherent value that S&T can contribute to advancing U.S. policy goals is the underlying assumption of this report. Science and technology and their applications have much to contribute to social, economic, and environmental sustainability and, therefore, provide a strong foundation for helping the U.S. to implement its policies abroad. The application of concepts such as competition and peer review, open sharing of scientific information through the use of the internet and other information technologies, and the development of international scientific collaborations and networks, can make major contributions to healthy and stable societies in Central Asia. U.S. scientific and technical know-how has much to contribute to U.S. policy goals and easing regional tensions. Science and technology truly can build bridges between nations and cultures while serving the

  12. Tectono-climatic implications of Eocene Paratethys regression in the Tajik basin of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapa, Barbara; DeCelles, Peter G.; Wang, Xin; Clementz, Mark T.; Mancin, Nicoletta; Stoica, Marius; Kraatz, Brian; Meng, Jin; Abdulov, Sherzod; Chen, Fahu

    2015-08-01

    Plate tectonics and eustatic sea-level changes have fundamental effects on paleoenvironmental conditions and bio-ecological changes. The Paratethys Sea was a large marine seaway that connected the Mediterranean Neotethys Ocean with Central Asia during early Cenozoic time. Withdrawal of the Paratethys from central Asia impacted the distribution and composition of terrestrial faunas in the region and has been largely associated with changes in global sea level and climate such as cooling associated with the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT). Whereas the regression has been dated in the Tarim basin (China), the pattern and timing of regression in the Tajik basin, 400 km to the west, remain unresolved, precluding a test of current paleogeographic models. Here we date the Paratethys regression in Tajikistan at ca. 39 million years ago (Ma), which is several million years older than the EOT (at ca. 34 Ma) marking the greenhouse to icehouse climate transition of the Cenozoic. Our data also show a restricted, evaporitic marine environment since the middle-late Eocene and establishment of desert like environments after ca. 39 Ma. The overall stratigraphic record from the Tajik basin and southern Tien Shan points to deposition in a foreland basin setting by ca. 40 Ma in response to active tectonic growth of the Pamir-Tibet Mountains at the same time. Combined with the northwestward younging trend of the regression in the region, the Tajik basin record is consistent with northward growth of the Pamir and suggests significant tectonic control on Paratethys regression and paleoenvironmental changes in Central Asia.

  13. Penerapan Penggunaan Cash Deposit Machine pada PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Cabang Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Effendy, Ermawita

    2011-01-01

    This research aim to know of advantage of accounting Information system at BCA product of fasilitas ATM setoran tunai for various customer. Beside also to know do applying of transaction procedure real time transaction have ever been adequate and how do handling of bank to cash deposit and customer whwn happened the problem and also to know the effectiveness internal-control owned in PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk to owned by service it. To obtain; get the needed data, writer use the data coll...

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF THE WESTERN SCHOLARLY DISCOURSE ON TURKIC IDENTITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    KAHVECİ, Hayriye

    2001-01-01

    The researeh question is forrnulated for this studyas: Did Western seholarly diseourse published in the period between 1950s and 1990s on Turkie identity in Central Asia refleet the Cold War politieal environment? When there is a rivalry between two states or two groups of states, it can be argued that the study of the other side ten ds to be biased and ereated to legitimate the sustainment of the rivalry. When we look at the Cold War political environment, whieh marked division of internatio...

  15. Crisis potentials and crisis prevention in Central Asia : entry points for German development cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Grävingholt, Jörn

    2004-01-01

    "Following the 9/11/2001 terror attacks in the US, Central Asia moved into the focus of the worldwide efforts aimed at crisis prevention and the fight against terrorism. If the region was no longer perceived merely as the faraway periphery of the crumbled Soviet empire, it now came to be seen as a geographic intersection between East and West, as a boundary line between religious fundamentalism and the secular world, as a poorhouse among the post-socialist countries in transition, and as a po...

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  17. STRATEGIC INITIATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram A. Umarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the U.S. strategy “New Silk Road” and the project of China to establish economic belt “Silk Road”, as well as their implementation in Central Asia. However, the unstable situation in Afghanistan, the lack of sources of financing capital-intensive infrastructure projects, the existence of various contradictions between the countries of this region and other reasons prevent the full implementation of the U.S. strategy. At the same time, the Chinese project faces a lack of precision uncertainty of funding.

  18. MACKINDER'S "HEARTLAND": A HELP OR HINDRANCE IN UNDERSTANDING CENTRAL ASIA'S INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Megoran, Nick; Sharapova, Sevara

    2005-01-01

    In 1904 the British geographer Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) delivered a paper to London's Royal Geographical Society entitled The Geographical Pivot of History. He argued that the "Pivot," or "Heart-land" of Eurasia-much of Russia and Central Asia was the key to the balance of power in the world, and the state that controlled it would be well-placed to dominate Eurasia and even the world. His ideas proved controversial, but entered into the vocabulary of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold W...

  19. The Qing and Russia in Central Asia : A Comparative Study of Motives for Political Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Peoples Republic of China’s Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, or eastern Central Asia, is an area that has recently seen large scale ethnic unrest, as the native Uygurs have protested violently against Chinese domination in the region. This thesis is a discussion of the background for why Xinjiang today is under Chinese rule. To and a half centuries ago, in 1755-59, the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636-1911) conquered Xinjiang and incorporated it into their state, and this conquest contributed s...

  20. Early Pleistocene climate in western arid central Asia inferred from loess-palaeosol sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Haitao; Taheri, Mehdi; Khormali, Farhad; Danukalova, Guzel; Chen, Fahu

    2016-02-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4-1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets.

  1. Natural Gas and LNG Supply/Demand Trends in Asia Pacific and Atlantic Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuo Morikawa

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a portion of the outcome of a study undertaken by the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ) on commission from the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry under the project title of FY2007 Research for Promotion of Natural Gas Development and Utilization (Study of Natural Gas Supply and Demand Trends in Asia Pacific and Atlantic Markets). The scope of the above study included a fixed-point observation survey on the on-going s...

  2. How research on marketing in Central and Eastern Europe can advance international marketing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Schuh

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the question of how research on marketing issues in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) can contribute to the international marketing theory. Regional studies provide valuable insights into business environments, marketing systems and practices in specific countries and geographical areas, which explain their high appeal among marketing practitioners. While contributing to the general body of knowledge in marketing, they often lack a strong role in theory development. Two a...

  3. Russians in Post-Soviet Central Asia: More "Cold" than the Others? Exploring (Ethnic) Identity under Different Sociopolitical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmarskaya, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the identity and the social/political behaviour of Russians in post-Soviet Central Asia through a comparison with the Baltic countries via a "hot and cold ethnicity" paradigm. Central Asian Russians are more likely, ceteris paribus, to be found at the "cold" end of the spectrum of "ethnic…

  4. Exploring Impact of Marketing Mix on Brand Equity in Insurance Industry (Case Study: Asia Insurance Firm, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza Hassan Hosseini; Hamed Moezzi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present study is to explore impact of marketing mix (price, firm image, distribution intensity, promotion and propaganda) on the brand equity of Asia Insurance Firm in view of its customers and prioritizing of these elements based on significance of their impacts. The statistical population includes customers of Asia Insurance Firm in Shiraz, IRAN. Data is collected using questionnaire. Data is analyzed using Correlation, Regression and Path Analyses methods. The results show t...

  5. Gas export potential of Russia's East: Will it match Asia-Pacific markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia's Far East and East Siberia are emerging as new major sources of gas supplies for East Asian energy markets. Thanks to ongoing and earmarked resource and infrastructure developments in Sakhalin, Yakutia (Sakha) and Irkutsk, by around 2020 these poorly developed but naturally endowed areas of the country's East can provide between 50 and 70 Bcm/yr (5-7 Bcfd) of natural gas, including up to 10 Mt/yr of LNG, available for exports to neighbouring Pacific countries (primarily to the PRC, Japan, South Korea as well as to Taiwan and the U.S. West Coast). This can noticeably reshape today's matrix of the Asia-Pacific energy flows and even destabilize the regional gas market. (author)

  6. Asia/Pacific Rim renewable energy market assessments by the State of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of Hawaii has begun to encourage its economic growth and diversification by increasing the export of U.S. energy, environment, ocean, and information technologies. Hawaii's Strategic Technology Market Assessment and Development (STMAD) program promotes the transfer of U.S. technology into Asia and the Pacific Rim, locations having phenomenal growth potential and vast technological infrastructure demands. The STMAD program is managed by the State's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT). Under the auspices of STMAD, the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii is assessing biomass energy resources of Asian and Pacific Rim countries to identify and investigate sustainable energy markets. This paper reviews the STMAD program and reports findings of renewable energy assessment performed by HNEI and DBEDT. (author)

  7. Managerial and Educational Features of a Turkish University in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gagbansua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly independent states occur after the collapse of Soviet Union. A number of Turkish Higher Education Institutes were opened in Central Asia after this event. One of them is the International Ataturk Alatoo University. The International Ataturk Alatoo University is one of the first private universities established in the Kyrgyz Republic that started its educational activity in 1996. International Ataturk Alatoo University aims at being the best model for higher education depending on the highest education standards and norms in newly reshaping Central Asia. The International Atatürk Alatoo University has an education mentality motivating free thinking and personal skills in a world in which paradigms are rapidly changing. In this paper, in order to find the answer for ‘what makes International Atatürk Alatoo University different from other institutes’; the strategies and features of International Atatürk Alatoo University were examined from the managerial and educational perspectives, interviews were made with students, lecturers and businessmen. Opinions of those people who have different University experiences (one International Atatürk Alatoo University experience and one local or International were collected and discussed. By this way success factors and problems faced in the region were explained.

  8. Energy investment and trade opportunities emerging in Central Asia, Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperation in the business of oil and natural gas among governments of Central Asia and Northwest China could help the countries overcome obstacles to development of their vast petroleum resources. The most important obstacle facing these countries is also the one most widely discussed: limited infrastructure for transporting energy. But there are other problems holding back oil and gas development. They include poor communications infrastructure, unstable government structures, political conflict, payments difficulties, and inadequate energy policies. For countries analyzed in a recent Asian Development Bank (ADB) study of economic cooperation in the region--Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Xinjiang autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (Xinjiang PRC)--oil and gas are the most abundant and valuable natural resources. While Central Asia is poised to become a major world supplier of energy, especially oil and gas, countries in the region emphasize energy self-sufficiency at the expense of developing new trading linkages. Governments thus tend to ignore the benefits of regional cooperation and remain reluctant to commit to area-wide trade and other forms of cooperation. The paper discusses oil and gas sectors; major energy trends, including restructuring, foreign investment, and energy diversification; opportunities for cooperation; impediments to cooperation; and models of cooperation

  9. An overview on the seismic microzonation and site effect studies in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pilz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, many cities in Central Asia have suffered significant damages caused by earthquakes. A crucial step towards preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To accurately identify local variations of the site response at different locations within the cities, earthquakes recorded by seismic networks as well as measurements of the seismic noise can be used for estimating the resonance frequencies and for evaluating the expected level of ground motion at each site. Additionally, the measurements can help identifying site specific features like more-dimensional resonances and directional effects. This information can be complemented with array measurements of ambient seismic noise in order to estimate local shear-wave velocity profiles, an essential parameter for evaluating the dynamic properties of soil, and to characterize the corresponding sediment layers at each site. The present study gives an overview on the progressive development of the seismic zonation studies in the frame of EMCA carried out in several cities in Central Asia.

  10. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  11. Climate Change and Water Infrastructure in Central Asia: adaptation capacities and institutional challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, Iskandar; Rakhmatullaev, Shavkat

    2014-05-01

    The paper discusses vulnerability areas of water sector in arid Central Asia due to climate change projections with particular focus on adaptation to sustainable operation of physical infrastructure capacities (from legal, institutional and technical aspects). Two types of technical installations are the main focus of this paper, i.e., electrical lift irrigation systems and water reservoirs. The first set of electrical lift infrastructure is strategic for delivering water to water users via pumps, diversion structures, vertical drainage facilities and groundwater boreholes; on the other hand, the primarily task of second set of structures is to accumulate the water resources for sectors of economy. In Central Asia, approximately, 20-50% of irrigation water is lifted, yet major of lift structures are in very poor technical conditions coupled with ever increasing of electricity tariffs. Furthermore, useful volumes capacities of water reservoirs are being severely diminished due to bio-physical geomorphologic processes, improper operational regimes and chronic financing for special in-house sedimentation surveys. Most importantly, the key argument is that irrigation sector should internalize its adaptation efforts, i.e., integrate renewable energy technologies, energy audit programs and lastly design comprehensive investment prioritization processes and programs. Otherwise, water sector will be at great risk for continued provision of fundamental services to the public, food security and industry

  12. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935–2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia. PMID:27100092

  13. Time varying volatility transmission: the case of emerging equity markets in Asia and Latin America, 1984 – 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti, Xijuan; Willams, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Using a multivariate BEKK GARCH model, we investigate volatility transmission i.e. spillover effects within and between emerging equity markets in Asia and Latin America. Our approach allows cross-border spillover effects to vary over time and we break the time series of market returns into four distinct time intervals which correspond with periods of equity market segmentation, liberalisation, financial crisis, and economic recovery. Generally, volatility transmission is time varying in emer...

  14. Changes of Glaciation and Their Probable Impact on Water Resources in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severskiy, I.

    2009-04-01

    In the Central Asia the main limiting factor of sustainable development is increasing water shortage. Even now the overwhelming part of territory of Kazakhstan and the adjacent countries of Central Asia are characterized by a condition of the strongest water stress. Fresh water deficiency is, to this or that extent, observed practically on all the territory of Central Asia and transboundary character of the main rivers is one of the main risk factors for sustainable development of national economy of the countries in this region. For the last 20 years a great number of scientific publications appeared in which their authors express an increasingly serious fears about significant reduction of water resources in the arid regions of the world as a reaction to global warming. One of the arguments substantiating such forecasts is the indisputable fact of a continuous intensive degradation of glaciers. Predominating opinion about the inevitability of glaciers disappearance in Central Asia Mountains cannot be accepted as an axiom. Taking into account stability in the sum of precipitation and especially in the snow resources, one can suppose that glaciers in this region will not disappear during this century. Despite the reduction of glaciers, annual runoff volumes and runoff distribution within a year remained unchanged during the last decades. During the same period, norms of atmospheric precipitation and maximum snow-water storage in the zone of runoff formation remained stable. All these suggest the existence of a certain compensation mechanism. Research, based on data analysis of repeated photogrammetric surveys of a group of glaciers and temperature regime of permafrost in Zailiyskiy Alatau range (Northern Tien Shan), suggests that such mechanism can be more and more significant (with climate warming) participation of melting waters of underground ice (buried glaciers, rock glaciers, permafrost) in runoff formation. During last decade the Global Climate system

  15. Gender Statistics in the Southern Caucasus and Central and West Asia: A Situational Analysis Promoting Gender-Inclusive Growth in Central and West Asian Developing Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a baseline of the capacity of Asian Development Bank developing member countries to generate, analyze, disseminate, and use sex-disaggregated data. It introduces a framework on gender statistics and guides in assessing statistical systems in the Southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and West Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan). It recommends ways to bridge the gaps in gender data collec...

  16. Pengaruh Kepuasan Kerja dan Komitmen Organisasi Terhadap Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) di PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Kantor Cabang Utama Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Farida, Tia

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to find out the influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Kantor Cabang Utama Medan. The population of this research are 75 employees of PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Kantor Cabang Utama Medan. This research was selected by using nonprobability sampling which consist of 75 employees of PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk Kantor Cabang Utama Medan. Data collections were taken using questionnaire...

  17. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  18. Commercial Interactions in the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market (BACWM) in Argentina supplies 1,500,000 tons of produce yearly to more than 11 million consumers and receives about 13,000 trucks a week from areas within and outside the country. This market faced global transformations with the emergence of superma

  19. Developments in the Western and Central European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The restructuring process of electricity markets in Europe started in the late 1990s and is still going on. This process was triggered by the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity. This article will analyse the recent developments in the liberalised Western and Central European electricity markets and discuss future developments with respect to system adequacy, reliability and security of supply

  20. Lake-levels, vegetation and climate in Central Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Central Asian region is bounded in the east corner of the Greater Khingan Range and the Loess Plateau, and to the west - the Caspian Sea. This representation of region boundaries is based on classical works of A.Humboldt and V.Obruchev. Three typical features of Central Asia nature are: climate aridity, extensive inland drainage basins with numerous lakes and mountain systems with developed glaciation. Nowadays the extensive data is accumulated about lake-levels during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Central Asia. Data compilation on 20 depressions, where lakes exist now or where they existed during LGM, shows that most of them had usually higher lake-level than at present time. This regularity could be mentioned for the biggest lakes (the Aral Sea, the Balkhash, the Ysyk-Kol etc.) and for small ones that located in the mountains (Tien Shan, Pamir and Tibet). All of these lake basins get the precipitation due to westerlies. On the other hand lakes, which are located in region's east rimland (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) and get the precipitation due to summer East Asian monsoons, do not comply with the proposed regularity. During LGM these lake-levels were lower than nowadays. Another exception is Lake Manas, its lake-level was also lowered. Lake Manas is situated at the bottom of Junggar Basin. There are many small rivers, which come from the ranges and suffer the violent fluctuation in the position of its lower channel. It is possible to assume that some of its runoff did not get to Lake Manas during LGM. Mentioned facts suggest that levels of the most Central Asian lakes were higher during LGM comparing to their current situation. However, at that period vegetation was more xerophytic than now. Pollen data confirm this information for Tibet, Pamir and Tien Shan. Climate aridization of Central Asia can be proved by data about the intensity of loess accumulation during LGM. This evidence received for the east part of region (the Loess Plateau) and

  1. How US Filing Agents Expand Market in Asia?%How US Filing Agents Expand Market in Asia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luwei Xie

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to make an analysis on the USA filing agents, and describe the ways through which the USA filing agents can shift their business to Asia. The paper is a description of the USA filing agents, and how they operate. The paper also provides the description of the hurdles that might come in the operations of USA filing agents in case if they want to start their operations in Asia. It make emphasis on the different factors that might come in starting the operations in Asia like the communication factors, the differences in the cultural background, understanding of the SEC rules, and the professionals with which they have to deal. In the end, it is concluded that the main rationale behind the EDGAR, is to enlist the forms of the companies in order to provide the protection to the companies. There are a number of filing agents who perform their duties in terms of providing assistance for validating, updating and recording the files of the companies with Securities and Exchange Commission. If these filing agents need to expand their business in Asian market, then it is necessary for these filing agents to understand the culture, communication modes, SEC rules and the Other requirements. It is very necessary that the filling agents should keep in consideration the fact that the standard or the full disclosure does not provide the complete guarantee about the wastage of the money. Indeed, it is allowed to Securities Exchange Commission that it can bring in force the completeness of the disclosure, but it cannot bring any impact on the quality of the company or the stock of the company.

  2. Rewards and Risks in Stock Markets: A Case of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Deep Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study various insights into the returns provided by the stock markets under study and also summarizes the risk behavior of the stock exchanges of South Asia, i.e., India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal and Maldives. The study aims at finding out whether the return and risk associated with the stock markets of South Asian nations have been significantly different over time. Finally, the study attempts to suggest to the investor as to which of the stock markets from amongst the SAARC nations provide the investor with a potentially profitable avenue. The study presents the descriptive statistics including Mean percent return (per year and over the entire reference period, Average annual return, maximum and minimum return, Standard deviation, Skewness, Kurtosis and Jarque Bera statistic for the stock exchanges under study. The study finds that the Indian stock markets emerge as a preferable potential avenue for the global investors. Secondly, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka also come across as good investment avenues because of the relatively stable political and economic systems besides offering a high return and reasonable risk.

  3. Challenges in the clinical development requirements for the marketing authorization of new medicines in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alex

    2009-03-01

    A rapid growth of investment into clinical research and new drug development has manifested itself by an exponential increase of new products coming onto the worldwide market. The emerging pharmaceutical and biotech markets in Southeast Asia are believed to be extremely promising from a commercial point of view in the next decade. The unique position of the Asian market and the diversity in clinical research initiatives are linked with diverse regulatory requirements for clinical development and registration of new medicines. Some of these differences have an impact on timelines for marketing authorizations in South Korea, China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and other countries. One of the approaches to streamlining regulatory strategy in different countries is the initiation of multicountry international clinical trials trying to address requirements and allowing registration in several regional countries simultaneously. Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries in relation to regulatory requirements and clinical development will facilitate the registration of innovative medicines in this rapidly developing region of the world and enable improved cohesiveness between countries in a drug safety framework. PMID:19168433

  4. Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie BAI; Xi CHEN; Liao YANG; Hui FANG

    2012-01-01

    Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia.Therefore,the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities,and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research.This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period.The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s,TM images from the early 1990s,ETM + images in the late 1990s,and TM images in 2007.The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area,from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007.As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part,the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east.There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions.The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions.Most significantly,the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975.The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007.The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types.The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%,and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%.Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period.Due to global climate warming,vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked,resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan,and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000.The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff.Consequently,the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.

  5. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15

  6. Estimating continental water storage variations in Central Asia area using GRACE data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of GRACE satellite is to determine time-variations of the Earth's gravity, and particularly the effects of fluid mass redistributions at the surface of the Earth. This paper uses GRACE Level-2 RL05 data provided by CSR to estimate water storage variations of four river basins in Asia area for the period from 2003 to 2011. We apply a two-step filtering method to reduce the errors in GRACE data, which combines Gaussian averaging function and empirical de-correlation method. We use GLDAS hydrology to validate the result from GRACE. Special averaging approach is preformed to reduce the errors in GLDAS. The results of former three basins from GRACE are consistent with GLDAS hydrology model. In the Tarim River basin, there is more discrepancy between GRACE and GLDAS. Precipitation data from weather station proves that the results of GRACE are more plausible. We use spectral analysis to obtain the main periods of GRACE and GLDAS time series and then use least squares adjustment to determine the amplitude and phase. The results show that water storage in Central Asia is decreasing

  7. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peryshkin, A. Yu., E-mail: alexb700@yandex.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Makarov, P. V., E-mail: bacardi@ispms.ru; Eremin, M. O., E-mail: bacardi@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  8. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  9. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  10. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  11. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDA BABAYEVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant associations with seed yield per plant. Cluster analyses based on drought tolerance index (DTI grouped accessions into five subgroups with different numbers of accessions in each group. Three groups out of five were characterized by high DTI values and high yields were observed in both, under irrigated and rainfed conditions. This collective group of genotypes demonstrated valuable germplasm traits under stress and may therefore serve as source of useful genes in breeding lentils for drought tolerance.

  12. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality

  13. Tapping the Late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental change and alluvial geoarchaeology in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark; Panyushkina, Irina; Toonen, Willem; Chang, Claudia; Seitkaliyev, Meyram; Voyakin, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    We integrate the environmental history derived from spatial-temporal variability of multi proxies and the prehistory of arid lands from archaeological data in Central Asia in order to determine the relationship between the Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming. This study addresses to developing fluvial achieves and geoarcheological records from the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River and the Talas catchment, a east-bank tributary of the Syr Darya River, in the southern Kazakhstan. The catchments of these steppe rivers flowing northwest had favorable habitats for farming from the Eneolithic to the medieval period as appears from human settlement histories documented with archaeological surveys and in some cases excavations. The river development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and the key archaeological sites have been dated with radiocarbon. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water in downstream Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds, and in the Talas River during the medieval period. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming is proposed, which explains settlement patterns since the first documented use of irrigation in the Iron Age and medieval times. The undertaken research highlights the Holocene human adaptations to the environmental change of floodplains in Central Asia.

  14. Influences of deglaciation on the river run-off in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Glazyrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers form a great deal of runoff of rivers in Central Asia. It is clear that amount of melted water directly depends on total area of glaciers in the river basins – their glaciation. It is well known that at present the area quickly reduces. The complete inventory of glaciers was performed in former Soviet Union in the middle of last century. Airphoto images were used as a basis for our calculations. The inventory was repeated later for several river basins using airphoto- and space images. Unfortunately only three inventories is performed in several river basins for the last half of XX century. Amount of water, coming to a river network from glaciers, can be divided into two parts. The first is usual annual melting. It exists under stationary glaciation condition. The second, being part of the first, is caused by reduction of the glaciation volume. It can be negative in some years when glaciers volume is increasing as a result of favorable meteorological conditions. In these cases the part of water containing in seasonal snow cover does not go to river network. Two components of the glacial feeding were calculated for six rivers located in various regions of Central Asia. It is shown that present day glaciers reduction does not lead to disastrous consequences for river run-off. It leads only to the changes of annual distribution in the run-off. The results should be considered as preliminary because of low accuracy of hydrometeorolological data and number of admissions during calculation.

  15. Humid Little Ice Age in arid central Asia documented by Bosten Lake,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Fahu; HUANG; Xiaozhong; ZHANG; Jiawu; J.A.Holmes; CHEN; Jianhui

    2006-01-01

    Short sediment cores retrieved from Bosten Lake,the largest inland freshwater lake in China,were used to explore humidity and precipitation variations in arid central Asia during the past millennium.The chronology of the cores was established using 137Cs,210Pb and AMS 14C dating results.Multi-proxy high-resolution analysis,including pollen ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C),carbonate content and grain size,indicates that the climate during the past millennium can be divided into three stages: a dry climate between 1000-1500 AD,a humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (c.1500-1900 AD),and a warm dry period after 1900 AD.On centennial timescales,the climate change in northwestern China during the past 1000 years is characterized by oscillations between warm-dry and cold-humid climate conditions.All the proxies changed significantly and indicate increased precipitation during the LIA,including increased pollen A/C ratios and pollen concentrations,decreased carbonate content and increased grain size.The humid period during the LIA recorded by the Bosten Lake sediments is representative of arid central Asia and is supported by numerous records from other sites.During the LIA,the water runoff into the Keriya River and Tarim River in the Tarim Basin increased,while the ice accumulation in the Guliya ice core increased.Additionally,the lake levels of the Aral and Caspian Sea also rose,while tree-ring analysis indicates that precipitation increased.We hypothesize that both the lower temperature within China and the negative anomalies of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during this period may have contributed to the humid climate within this area during LIA.

  16. Norwegian support in development of regulations of radioactive waste management in central Asia-threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Central Asia (CA) the radioactive waste comes mainly from uranium mining and milling, nuclear weapon testing and nuclear power development and other ionizing sources. This waste was produced, to a greater extent, by the military-industrial complex and the uranium and non-uranium industry, and, to a lesser extent, by the nuclear industry and in the process of use of isotope products. Exploitation and mining of uranium and thorium deposits produce a large amount of solid and liquid radioactive waste, as well volatile contaminants which need a proper management. In Central Asia the wastes are mainly stored at the surface in large piles and represent a long-term potential health and environmental hazard. The process of remediating legacy sites of the past and reducing the threats is now getting under way, with the design and implementation of remediation activities, partly with international support. However, there is a significant lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring etc., as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. Accordingly, the objective of the proposed project is to assist the relevant regulatory authorities in Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan to develop national robust and adequate regulations and procedures, taking into account the international guidance and Norwegian experience with regulatory support projects in Russia. Specific expected results in the project period include: a threat assessment report identifying priority areas for regulatory development, based on the status of current regulatory documents and the hazard presented by the different sites and facilities; development of national radioactive waste management strategies in each country; development of an enhanced regulatory framework for supervision of nuclear matters, and an enhanced safety culture

  17. Rapid warming in mid-latitude central Asia for the past 100 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahu CHEN; Jinsong WANG; Liya JIN; Qiang ZHANG; Jing LI; Jianhui CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Surface air temperature variations during the last 100 years (1901-2003) in mid-latitude central Asia were analyzed using Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The results suggest that temperature variations in four major sub-regions, i.e. the eastern monsoonal area, central Asia, the Mongolian Plateau and the Tarim Basin, respectively, are coherent and characterized by a striking warming trend during the last 100 years. The annual mean temperature increasing rates at each sub-region (represen-tative station) are 0.19℃ per decade, 0.16℃ per decade, 0.23℃ per decade and 0.15℃ per decade, respectively.The average annual mean temperature increasing rate of the four sub-regions is 0.18℃ per decade, with a greater increasing rate in winter (0.21℃ per decade). In Asian mid-latitude areas, surface air temperature increased relatively slowly from the 1900s to 1970s, and it has increased rapidly since 1970s. This pattern of temperature variation differs from that in the other areas of China. Notably, there was no obvious warming between the 1920s and 1940s, with temperature fluctuating between warming and cooling trends (e.g. 1920s, 1940s, 1960s, 1980s, 1990s). However, the warming trends are of a greater magnitude and their durations are longer than that of the cooling periods, which leads to an overall warming. The amplitude of temperature variations in the study region is also larger than that in eastern China during different periods.

  18. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  19. A Study on International Multimodal Transport Networks from Korea to Central Asia: Focus on Secondhand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, high-income countries use multimodal transportation to export large quantities of secondhand vehicles to low-income countries. Secondhand vehicle export has shown its highest growth in recent years, especially in Korea. The problem of transporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asia is becoming an important issue, but few researchers are interested in it. The objective of this research is to determine the optimal transport network for exporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by combining experts’ opinions and real data from existing transport networks. The fuzzy Delphi method was applied to obtain factors to evaluate alternative multimodal transport networks for moving secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by judgment from experts. The analysis shows that among the five factors (total cost, total time, reliability, security, and transportation capability, total cost is the most considerable factor, followed by reliability, transportation capability, total time, and security. Additionally, in the mainly three multimodal transport networks, the sea+Trans-China Railway route is ranked first, followed by the sea+Trans-Siberian Railway and sea+truck routes.

  20. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  1. Globalizing Social Welfare and Labor Markets in East and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    where state, capital and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia...... contradiction that thus arises is whether capital accumulation is embedded in the national economy to the benefit of society or serves the interests of external actors and interests as well as internal comprador elements. In recent times, due to various evolutions, the United States and the European Union have...... experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...

  2. The Kazakh oil industry: a potential critical role in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While mostly undeveloped, tremendous oil resources are found in the largest Central Asian republic, Kazakhstan. Owing to progressive legislation and a determined government, the second largest country of the former USSR is attracting significant investments from overseas energy companies. Continued limited access to global markets may, however, slow future investments unless the existing pipeline network can be expanded. This paper describes current oil exploration and production activities in Kazakhstan, and outlines prospects for future developments. (Author)

  3. Halal banking in post-soviet central Asia: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region perceived a considerable rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Nowadays, lots of Central Asian Muslims need to be aware of what Islam has termed legal (Halal and illegal (Haram. The process of Islamic revival occurred rapidly soon after the unification of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC and other similar organizations. This interaction tended to be an essential push factor to the previously existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. Besides many other needs, Muslim customer demand appeared as navel movement in the market generally and in banking and financial sector particularly. To satisfy this need, the governments of Muslim majority Central Asian states, namely Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan presented Halal banking and financial goods in the market. In this work, it has been attempted to recognize the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the region and also to investigate the effect of these causes considering the development and progress of Halal banking and financial industry.

  4. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  5. Geopolitical Constructs Understanding and Survey with Constructivism Geography Approach Case Study: IRI and Its Confronting Challenges in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pishgahifard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: After dissolution of Soviet Union, both of political geography system and dominance ideational structure have deconstructed in central Asia region. In year of 1979 with revolution, Iranian actors was accepted the Islamic republic system in their country, so new actors, structure and exigencies were revealed in Iran and central Asia relations, that cause create new challenges in confronting of Islamic republic of Iran government. Our fundamental question in this research is that: How geopolitical constructs have constituted confronting challenges for Islamic republic of Iran in Central Asia region? Approach: Therefore in this study we tried to explain the question in geographical framework and constructivism approach (on ground as constructivism geography. We had utilized qualitative research method and hermeneutic-positivist procedure in this study. As attention implicated question, the purpose of this article is understand challenges how constitute in reason of geopolitical constructs. Results: Differences in geopolitical constructs, between Iran and countries of central Asia region and also being harmonious construct, these countries with the present actors in the region, has caused an opposition in regional anarchic system between IRI and these countries in region and actors in the region and also form of distribution of capabilities between actors which has caused challenges for IRI. Conclusion: For following its goals against, high level fruition enemies of IRI like USA, Israel and Russian, China competitors from distribution of capabilities in national and international caused many challenges and double-deficiency for IRI.

  6. PENGARUH HUBUNGAN KERJA, PENGALAMAN KERJA DAN MOTIVASI KERJA TERHADAP KINERJA KARYAWAN BANK CENTRAL ASIA (BCA CABANG BOROBUDUR, MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laniwidyanti - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   This study analyzed effects of working relationship, working experience and working motivation toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, either simultaneously or partially, as well as the dominant effect toward performance of the employees. This study was conducted in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, including : KCP Lawang, KCP Singosari, KCP Blimbing, KCP Tumpang, with the number of sample 109 persons comprising of 17 managers and 92 employees to identify the effect of working relationship, working experience and working motivation toward the employees’ performance, therefore multiple regression analysis was applied. Results of the study concluded that : (1 The result of the study simultaneously indicated that the variables of the study, working relationship, working experience, and working motivation have significant effect toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang, (2 The result of the study partially indicated that the respective variables including working relationship, working experience, and working motivation has significant effect toward the employees’ performance in Bank Central Asia (BCA Branch of Borobudur Malang. Among the variables, the dominant one is the variable of working motivation.   Keywords: working relationship, working experience, motivation

  7. Market conditions in Hungary, central europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Hungary covering 38% of electricity consumption in the country. The nuclear electricity production of the four VVER440/213 type units in the year of 1999 was 14096 GWh, the second best result in the history of the company. After very detailed safety analyses Paks NPP started a safety upgrading program in 1996, and today the CDF values of the reactor units reached an internationally accepted value. The operational and safety culture and the level of safety was evaluated and reviewed by different international organizations like the IAEA, WENRA, WANO. Based on the conclusions of these international organizations the Paks plant w111 be ready for EU accession after the completion of the ongoing safety upgrading program. Capacity enhancement as a part of the preparation for the market conditions resulted a power upgrade around 20 MW for all four units. This way a relatively small investment in comparison with new installations resulted more efficient to market nuclear capacity. Last year the cost of a generated 1 kWh electricity was 5.98 Ft, which is still to be decreased in 2000. To upgrade the competitiveness of nuclear generation lots of efforts were done in the areas of plant management cost reduction, man-power efficiency upgrade. Un-bundling of activities not directly related to electricity generation in one hand, and more efficient cooperation with other VVER operators and the Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. in certain areas on the other hand are good examples for efficient steps in economic improvement. The company as one of the electricity producers also should follow the capabilities of producers in the neighboring countries like Slovakia and Ukraine, where electricity production is with government subsidiary. To find the right balance between the necessary investments and the market induced cost reduction is one of the most important task in Hungary in Eastern-Europe especially when the nuclear energy

  8. Turkish Foreign Policy towards Central Asia: Understanding the Differences between Özalism and AK Party Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Alimukhamedov, Dr.Farkhad

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes Turkish Foreign Policy changes towards post-communist Central Asia. It tries to underline the geopolitical and domestic situations both in Turkey and Central Asian countries and compare mainly the Turkish Foreign Policy priorities in 90s and 2000s. These two periods, such as Özalizm and Justice and Development Party (AK Party) periods were also remarked by Turkeys very active multidimensional Foreign Policy (somestimes both qualified as Neo Ottomanism).

  9. Dependence Structure and Portfolio Diversification on Central European Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Žikeš

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the dependence structure on Central European, German and UK stock markets within the framework of a semiparametric copula model for weekly stock index return pairs. Although the linear correlation is much lower, we find similar degree of lower tail dependence as between returns on stocks indices representing developed markets. We show in a simulation exercise that the implications of the estimated nonlinear dependencies for portfolio selection and risk management may be not...

  10. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91. ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  11. Characteristics and dynamic settings of the Central-east Asia multi-energy minerals metallogenetic domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ChiYang; QIU; XinWei; WU; BoLin; ZHAO; HongGe

    2007-01-01

    That more than 82 percent of proved sandstone-type uranium deposits coexist with proved oil-gas or coalfields in the world reflects the fact of coexistence and accumulation of multi-energy minerals including oil, gas, coal and uranium in the same basin. Especially, this phenomenon is most typical in the Central-east Asia energy basins. Across China, Mongolia and some central Asian countries, the giant Central-east Asia metallogenetic domain (CEAMD) stretches more than 6,000 km from Songliao Basin of China in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. The multi-energy minerals distribution characteristics of the domain include: their spatial distribution is complicated and ordered; the ore-bearing horizon relates closely to the geographical region; the accumulation/mineralization and localization time is the same or close; the occurrence setting and accumulation/mineralization have close correlation; and they have rich provenance for all the minerals. All of these imply that they have close relations between each other under a unified geodynamic background. The exogenetic uranium mineralization process in CEAMD can be divided into five phases using time limits of 100 Ma, (50±2) Ma, 20±(2―4) Ma, 8―5 Ma. The major mineralization periods and their differences in each primary uranium-bearing basin are identical to the oil-gas accumulation and localization periods and phases in the same basin, and are also in response to regional tectonics and controlled in general by the regional geodynamic environment. For industrial application and commercial exploitation, it is suggested that an important period for coexistence, accumulation and localization of oil, gas, coal and uranium and their interaction mainly occur in the late/last and post basin evolution. Through generalized analysis and comparison of accumulation/mineralization environment of the energy basins in CEAMD, the authors propose that the relatively stable regional tectonic background and moderate (weaker

  12. Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (peconomic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results could help to better understand the interactions between rangeland degradation and

  13. Central Banks Leadership and their Influence over Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Mihai Leoveanu

    2015-01-01

    In the years after the global financial crisis, central banks have undergone to a tremendous pressure from financial markets, from the real economy, but also from the population and politicians. Each part is interrelated with each other, but is in different positions in terms of the influence exerted on the other, in terms of the means and instruments through which their interest must prevail against the other parties. In this context, the leadership of a central bank is the key to the proper...

  14. Isotopic evidences of groundwater circulation in the Kaidu River, South Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAN, Yuting; Métivier, François; Chen, Yaning; He, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2015-04-01

    Water demand always exceeds supply in many parts of the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. Groundwater is the primary input to hydrological systems like surface water bodies in polar and high mountain regions. A reasonable application of water isotopes requires a good understanding of the isotopic fractionation in processes controlling the isotopic composition of surface water and groundwater. Through the review of published papers, we find there is still scope for improving the understanding of groundwater isotopes: (1) quite few studies on groundwater circulation via kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes in the arid region of Central Asia; (2) several shortcomings on the quantitative assessment of water recycling for mountain-plain area. Tianshan Mountains, located in Xinjiang Province, is always called water tower in Central Asia and play an important role in the water cycle. In this paper, we implemented hydro-chemical index and Stable isotope mass balance method to study transformation of groundwater with surface water and to quantify recharge proportion between water bodies of typical regions. As a first step towards quantifying the contribution of groundwater, three-component mixing model of Kaidu River Basin into its constituent components has been done. Chemistry type of headstreams in this basin is mainly Ca-Mg-HCO3, while major ions and salinity of surface water show an increasing trend with the water rising time, which could be attributable to significant features of surface water evaporation and concentration. After that chemistry type of oasis-plain area in the basin is mainly Ca-HCO3-CO4. Groundwater recharge ratio was processed via spatial scale, it is only about 15% in upstream areas, while it accounted for 45% or more in the middle and lower reaches. Two groundwater recharge districts were divided according to the distribution characteristics of surface water. The first recharge district is from mountain area with spring

  15. Aerosol optical depth over central north Asia based on MODIS-Aqua data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousta Foutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). The central Asia region (mainly the Caspian and Aral sea basins), the arid and semi-arid regions of Western China as well as Siberia are of great interest due to the significant natural sources of mineral aerosols originating from local deserts and biomass burning from wildfires in boreal forests. What is of particular interest in the region is the phenomenal shrinking and desertification of the Aral Sea that drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions with important implications in regional air quality. Anthropogenic particles are also observed due to fossil-fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD at 550 nm over central Asia, Siberia and western China, in the region located between 35° N - 65° N and 45° E - 110° E. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest collection (006), available in a 1°×1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002-2014. Our results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AODs are observed over the Aral Sea year-round, with extreme values reaching 2.1 during July. In the rest of our study region a clear seasonal cycle with highest AOD values (up to 1.2 over the Taklamakan Desert) during spring and summer is observed. The arid parts of central north Asia are characterized by larger aerosol loads during spring, lower but still high AOD in summer and much lower values in autumn and spring

  16. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  17. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V.LOBODA; Louis GIGLIO; Luigi BOSCHETTI; Christopher O.JUSTICE

    2012-01-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass-and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia.This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually.Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia.Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region.Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution.Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data.We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001and 2009.The results show that on average ~15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area bumed in August and September in grasslands.Fire is used as a comrnon crop residue management practice across the region.Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan,where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands,respectively,are burned annually.

  18. Central Asia cryosphere dynamics: retrospective analysis, contemporary status, and prediction (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E.; Surazakov, A.; Takeuchi, N.; Fujita, K.; Mayewski, P. A.; Grigholm, B. O.

    2010-12-01

    Central Asia (CA) mountain system is a giant highland in the center of Eurasia accumulates a huge amount of snow and ice similar to the Arctic and Antarctic. Existing ensembles of GCM predict warming for CA at a large scale. Increase in air temperature since 19th century, after the “Little Ice Age”, has induced seasonal snow shrinkage and glaciers recession globally with acceleration particularly at the end of 20th century. However, the change in seasonal snow and glacier melt is not a liner process and different even in one mountain system. Since the 1970s the reduction of snow covered area in Tien Shan (TS) amounted 15% (120,000km2) while in Pamir (PA) didn’t significantly change and increased in Karakorum (KA). The Altai (AL), TS and Tibet (TI) glaciers lost approximately 8% of their area while Pamir only 5%. The largest TS and PA glacierized massifs lost 2-4% their area whereas dispersed small glaciers (fed basins on 2% in average. The present extents of glaciers in CA are generally believed to be remnants of the last deglaciation (Grosswald, et al., 1994, Kuhle, 2004) however our recent ice-cores recovered from AL and TS demonstrated that glaciers did not exist during Bolling/Allerod interstadial period and were formed between 12,500 and 11,500 BP in CA at elevations below 5000 masl. The climate conditions during the late Pleistocene were considerably warmer then present. Most likely AL and TS glaciers have been formed during early Holocene in response to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns yielding oceanic moisture. In contrast, the PA, KA and Himalayan glaciers survived at high elevation during the interstadial period being enriched by southern monsoons that control regional temperature and snow accumulation. Our simulation shows that glaciers of CA may exist at the current state if the increase in mean of summer air temperature by 1.0oC at the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) would be offset with an increase of annual precipitation of 100 mm

  19. Improving semi-automated glacier mapping with a multi-method approach: applications in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Bookhagen, B.; Cannon, F.

    2015-09-01

    Studies of glaciers generally require precise glacier outlines. Where these are not available, extensive manual digitization in a geographic information system (GIS) must be performed, as current algorithms struggle to delineate glacier areas with debris cover or other irregular spectral profiles. Although several approaches have improved upon spectral band ratio delineation of glacier areas, none have entered wide use due to complexity or computational intensity. In this study, we present and apply a glacier mapping algorithm in Central Asia which delineates both clean glacier ice and debris-covered glacier tongues. The algorithm is built around the unique velocity and topographic characteristics of glaciers and further leverages spectral and spatial relationship data. We found that the algorithm misclassifies between 2 and 10 % of glacier areas, as compared to a ~ 750 glacier control data set, and can reliably classify a given Landsat scene in 3-5 min. The algorithm does not completely solve the difficulties inherent in classifying glacier areas from remotely sensed imagery but does represent a significant improvement over purely spectral-based classification schemes, such as the band ratio of Landsat 7 bands three and five or the normalized difference snow index. The main caveats of the algorithm are (1) classification errors at an individual glacier level, (2) reliance on manual intervention to separate connected glacier areas, and (3) dependence on fidelity of the input Landsat data.

  20. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Silva Lopes; Didem Saglam; Mutlu Ozdogan; Matthew Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain fil ing, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68%of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could stil improve GY in a wide range of environ-ments. However, in Iranian sites, tal er genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain fil ing. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  1. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: trends in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Karimov, Bakhtiyor

    2011-02-01

    Limited data on the pollution status of spatially extensive water systems constrain health-risk assessments at basin-scales. Using a recipient measurement approach in a terminal water body, we show that agricultural and industrial pollutants in groundwater-surface water systems of the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (covering the main part of Central Asia) yield cumulative health hazards above guideline values in downstream surface waters, due to high concentrations of copper, arsenic, nitrite, and to certain extent dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Considering these high-impact contaminants, we furthermore perform trend analyses of their upstream spatial-temporal distribution, investigating dominant large-scale spreading mechanisms. The ratio between parent DDT and its degradation products showed that discharges into or depositions onto surface waters are likely to be recent or ongoing. In river water, copper concentrations peak during the spring season, after thawing and snow melt. High spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in river water could reflect its local presence in the top soil of nearby agricultural fields. Overall, groundwaters were associated with much higher health risks than surface waters. Health risks can therefore increase considerably, if the downstream population must switch to groundwater-based drinking water supplies during surface water shortage. Arid regions are generally vulnerable to this problem due to ongoing irrigation expansion and climate changes. PMID:21131050

  2. Creation of zone free nuclear weapon (ZFNW) in the Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues on non-proliferation of mass demolition weapons are of special importance for people of Kazakhstan. The whole damage brought to nature and people's health by nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) is not revealed yet. Kazakhstan contributed much to the matter of nuclear disarmament. More than six years ago for the first time in the world by RK President's resolution an operating nuclear test site closed. Kazakhstan was the first to fulfill obligations in accordance with Lisbon protocol. Kazakhstan liquidated the fourth nuclear potential in the world. It's time to undertake further steps in the field of non-proliferation. One of such steps is the creation of a ZFNW in the central Asia. The idea of ZFNW creation is being acknowledged more and more during last 30 years. All the four present zones include more than 100 countries. If the Antarctic Region is taken into account the zones cover more than 50% of dry land. Regional ZFNWs attract attention as a means of reflecting and rewarding general valuers in the sphere of nuclear disarmament and armament control. Such zones help tj narrow geographical sphere of military nuclear activity and to strengthen non-proliferation regime. The importance of ZFNW in the process of strengthening global and regional peace and safety is confirmed by the documents of Conference for countries joined the agreement on non-proliferation (AN) of 1995 and the first meeting of the Organizing Committee for Conference of 2000

  3. Conservation Agriculture for combating land degradation in Central Asia: a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.A. Lamers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reviews scientific findings on agricultural systems, associated land degradation and selected remedies such as Conservation Agricultural (CA practices to counterbalance these. In particular, this review addresses the research findings onCA practices conducted in the rainfed and irrigated systems in Central Asia. The arid and semi-arid croplands in this region are vulnerable to different types of soil and environmental degradation, and particularly to degradation caused by intensive tillage, irrigation water mismanagement, and cropping practices, especially in the Aral Sea Basin. Overall, the evidence shows that various CA elements, such as permanent beds, seems to be technically suitable for the major cropping systems and despite the heterogeneous conditions in the region. CA practices can contribute to combating on-going land degradation. No-till seeding along with the maintenance of a permanent soil coverage e.g. by residue retention, reduces wind and water erosion, increases water infiltration and storage which can reduce crop water stress, improve soil quality and increase soil organic matter. Further, CA practices can lead to similar or even higher crop yields while reducing production resource needs and costs considerably, including fuel, seeds, agrochemicals, water and labour. Nevertheless, the growing research evidence on the productivity, economic and environmental benefits that can be harnessed with CA, still is from a limited number of studies and hence more research at local scale is needed.

  4. The development of the detailed climatic scenarios for Central Asia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2,084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil -4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850

  5. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  6. Overcoming data scarcity: Seasonal forecasting of reservoir inflows using public domain resources in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Management of large hydropower reservoirs can be politically and strategically problematic. Traditional flow forecasting techniques rely on accurate ground based observations, a requirement not met in many areas of the globe (Artan et al., 2007). In particular, access to real-time observational data in transnational river basins is often not possible. In these regions, novel techniques are required to combat the challenges of flow forecasting for efficient reservoir management. Near real time remotely sensed information regarding flow predictors (e.g. satellite precipitation estimates) could combat data availability issues, improving the utility of seasonal reservoir inflow forecasts. This study investigates the potential for river flow forecasting using public domain resources, including satellite and re-analysis precipitation as well as climate indices for several strategically important reservoirs throughout Central Asia (including Toktogul, Andijan, Kayrakkum and Nurek). Using reservoir inflows from 2001-2010, parsimonious numerical models were created for each study site using selected significant predictors for lead times of 1-3 months as well half year averages. Preliminary investigation has shown that parsimonious statistical models can explain over 80% of the variance in monthly inflows with three month lead to the Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan (Dixon and Wilby, 2015). Such findings show promise for improving the safety and efficiency of reservoir operations as well as reducing risks emerging from climate change.

  7. The development of detailed climatic scenarios for the Central Asia Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Tajikistan Republic over 10% of the territory is the zone of everlasting snow and glaciers. This territory requires strategic defence, as global anthropogenic increasing of temperature more perceptibly tells upon the regime of forming the river flow and activation of ice disintegration. Intense glaciers melting causes not only decreasing of the fresh water supply for Central Asia but also the formation of glacial lakes. Therefore there appears the danger of destructive mountain flows, which caused the human victims and land degradation not once. Under modern climatic conditions the area of the Pamirs and Alai's glaciers is decreasing annually by 1.2 sq. km. As a whole on region the tendency of decrease of emission of polluting substances from stationary sources in air pool is observed. If in 1990 the quantity of emission has made of 6793 thousand tons, by 1995 this size has decreased on 2084 thousand tons. The maximal contribution to total amount of emissions of polluting substances in an atmosphere has of Kazakhstan - 68%. The share of other countries of Central Asia is distributed as follows: Uzbekistan - 18%, Turkmenistan - 10%, Kyrgyzstan - 2% Tajikistan - 2%. In structure of manufacture of the electric power by Kazakhstan on a share of hydroelectric power station is 6-7%, dusty and coil - 79%, gas and fuel - oil - 12-13%. In structure of generating capacities of power stations of Uzbekistan the densities of thermal power stations makes 87.4%, hydroelectric power stations - 12.6%. As power resources for manufacture of energy the share of gas makes 82.6%, black oil - 13%, coil - 4.4%. The constant escalating of thermal capacities results in an aggravation of an ecological problem of region. Emissions of harmful substances by boiler of thermal power stations at development 1.0 GWt.h. is: Flying ashes and not burned down fuel - 4.6 thousand tons, oxides of sulfur - 4.4. thousand tons, oxides of nitrogen - 1.0 thousand t., thus are used about 850

  8. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation. PMID:25980715

  9. Decentralized Markets versus Central Control: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Akkermans, H; 10.1613/jair.627

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) promise to offer solutions to problems where established, older paradigms fall short. In order to validate such claims that are repeatedly made in software agent publications, empirical in-depth studies of advantages and weaknesses of multi-agent solutions versus conventional ones in practical applications are needed. Climate control in large buildings is one application area where multi-agent systems, and market-oriented programming in particular, have been reported to be very successful, although central control solutions are still the standard practice. We have therefore constructed and implemented a variety of market designs for this problem, as well as different standard control engineering solutions. This article gives a detailed analysis and comparison, so as to learn about differences between standard versus agent approaches, and yielding new insights about benefits and limitations of computational markets. An important outcome is that "local information plus market communica...

  10. Land resource development and utilization in Central Asia%中亚土地资源开发与利用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范彬彬; 罗格平; 胡增运; 李超凡; 韩其飞; 王渊刚; 李小玉; 艳燕

    2012-01-01

    rapidly, and then increase slowly. The area of the farmland decreases from 43. 1 x 104 km2 (10. 9% ) in 1992 to 29. 8 x 104 km2 (7. 58% ) in 2000, and then increases to 31.6 x 104 km2(8.04% ) in 2009 which is still far from the farmland area in 1992. Because of the breakup of the Soviet Union, a series of problem including the shortage of means of production, the destruction of the agricultural infrastructure and the market economy is still not established which had been caused the waste of land. After that, the independent of the states in Central Asia leads the recovery of the social economy and the area of farmland. (2) The areas of forest and grassland in Central Asia are varied little. However, the grassland grazing capacity has changed in large degree. In details; the grazing capacity of Kazakhstan has been decreased continually with the number 6. 25 × 107 sheep in 2009 that is only accounts to 63. 1% of the 9. 91 ×10 sheep in 1992; on the contrary, the grazing capacity of Turkmenistan has been increasing from 1. 04 × 10 sheep in 1992 to 2.96×107 sheep in 2009 that is triple of 1.04 x 107 sheep in 1992; the grazing capacity of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan increases at different degree, respectively. The privatization of pasture in the most of Central Asia and the damage of seasonal pasture contribute to the change of the grassland grazing capacity. (3) The potential productivity of the land resource is great in Central Asia. However, ecological problems such as soil erosion and soil-salinization of the farmland and pasture overgrazing, have been discovered in this area. In addition , the reasonable application of water resources in Central Asia has great important ecological significance and e-conomic value, especially in the arid land. But, as well know, the water resources are shortage and the distribution is not reasonable, and there are still some problems in the application of the water resources, such as, the waste of water, the pollution of water

  11. Did Focusing on Asia Pacific Emerging Markets Provide Much Benefit to Portfolio Diversification during the Late 2000s Recession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Hermanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the international co-movement among Asia Pacific emerging markets stock price indices during the late 2000s recession by using the monthly observations start from 1st October 2001 until 1st April 2011. The co-integration analysis and parsimonious Vector Error Correction Model employed in this research reveal a long-term relationship and inter-dependencies among seven Asia Pacific emerging market stock price indices. This research finds that the unique co-integration exists on the equations. Specifically, two indices from China and Taiwan having meteor shower potential while the rest indices from Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia are known to have heat waves effects or country specific factors on the equation. Finally, all the results are linked to the international diversification strategies.

  12. A Study to Promote a Collaboration of R and D for Nuclear Energy Technology Development between Korea and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research work is to promote the cooperation in the field of nuclear related works with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan which are main countries in the central Asia. To make a basis on exchanging researchers, a staff in KAERI had visited INP NNC RK, touring research reactors, and make a discussion with the staffs in INP. With this, there is a efforts to make an arrangement between KAERI and NNC RK, signing will be made in near futures. To understand the level of nuclear technology in Uzbekistan, Dr. Rho had made a trip to INP. He visited the Gamma-radiation facility, a research reactor. In Nov. 2005, the chairman of Science Academy visited Korea to discuss the future cooperation in the field of peaceful use of the nuclear energy. By doing so, Korea will make an effort to cooperate with countries in the Central Asia

  13. A Study to Promote a Collaboration of R and D for Nuclear Energy Technology Development between Korea and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Si Pyo; Kim, Cheol Jung; Yoo, Bung Duk; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Myung Ho; Kim, Kyung Pyo

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this research work is to promote the cooperation in the field of nuclear related works with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan which are main countries in the central Asia. To make a basis on exchanging researchers, a staff in KAERI had visited INP NNC RK, touring research reactors, and make a discussion with the staffs in INP. With this, there is a efforts to make an arrangement between KAERI and NNC RK, signing will be made in near futures. To understand the level of nuclear technology in Uzbekistan, Dr. Rho had made a trip to INP. He visited the Gamma-radiation facility, a research reactor. In Nov. 2005, the chairman of Science Academy visited Korea to discuss the future cooperation in the field of peaceful use of the nuclear energy. By doing so, Korea will make an effort to cooperate with countries in the Central Asia.

  14. The possible pivotal role of the eastward dust transport from Central Asia in the global temperature decrease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingzhe; WEI Wenshou

    2006-01-01

    It is generally considered that the occurrence of glacial-interglacial gyrations can be explained with the Milankovitch theory. However, the solutions of some problems in the theory are currently not derived yet. After researching the eastward dust transport from Central Asia, we have found that there is a positive feedback mechanism between the eastward dust transport and the global temperature decrease. This magnifies the effect of solar radiation change in the high-latitude area of the Northern Hemisphere, and results in the occurrence of the global glacial epoch. The positive feedback mechanism starts with the reduction of solar radiation in the high-latitude area of the Northern Hemisphere. Subsequently, the global temperature decreases and global glacial epoch occurs, in which the pivotal factor is the eastward dust transport from Central Asia.With the theory of the positive feedback mechanism,some problems in the Milankovitch theory can be solved well.

  15. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  16. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Osorio, Luis; Torres Salvador, Andres; Jongschaap, Raymond Elmar; Azurdia Perez, Cesar; Berduo Sandoval, Julio; Trindade, Luisa; Visser, Richard Gerardus; van Loo, Eibertus

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results G...

  17. Development of objective air-mass classifications for studies of heat-related mortality in central Europe and east Asia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan; Kim, J.; Huth, Radan; Choi, B. C.

    Christchurch : Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, 2007 - (Oxley, L.; Kulasiri, D.), s. 2875-2881 ISBN 978-0-9758400-4-7. [International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Christchurch (NZ), 10.12.2007-13.12.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GC205/07/J044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : biometeorology * human mortality * heat stress * air mass classifications * central Europe * east Asia Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  18. Risk management practices in Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan - the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulchmanov, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The study explores the risk management and reporting practices in selected Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan, the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia. The Government of Kazakhstan has planned to transform the economy to a Shari’ah complaint economic system. As risk management is one of the important challenges for banks, this study explores the preparedness of the banking industry in Kazakhstan facing the risk management challenges. Design/methodology/approach – T...

  19. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations at ten sites with contrasting land use in an arid region of central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    K. H. Li; Song, W.; Liu, X. J.; Shen, J. L.; X. S. Luo; Sui, X. Q.; Liu, B.; Y. K Hu; P. Christie; C. Y. Tian

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen (Nr) species from 2009 to 2011 are reported for ten sites in Xinjiang, China, an arid region of central Asia. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4+ and pNO3) showed large spatial and seasonal variation and ave...

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) shows geographic variations in incidence, with high incidences (>50/105 person-years) in central Asia, including North Eastern Iran (Golestan) and Northern India (Kashmir). In contrast to Western countries, smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for ESCC in central Asia. In lung adenocarcinoma, activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are frequent in tumors of never smokers of Asian origin, predicting therapeutic sensitivity to Egfr-targeting drugs. In this study 152 cases of histologically confirmed ESCC from Iran (Tehran and Golestan Province) and North India (Kashmir Valley) have been analyzed for EGFR mutation by direct sequencing of exons 18–21. Egfr protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 34 samples from Tehran and HER2 mutations were analyzed in 54 cases from Kashmir. A total of 14 (9.2%) EGFR variations were detected, including seven variations in exons. Among those, four (2.6%) were already documented in lung cancers, two were reported as polymorphisms and one was a potentially new activating mutation. All but one variation in introns were previously identified as polymorphisms. Over-expression of Egfr was detected in 22/34 (65%) of tested cases whereas no HER2 mutation was found in 54 cases from Kashmir. Overall, EGFR mutations appear to be a rare event in ESCC in high incidence areas of central Asia, although a very small proportion of cases may harbor mutations predicting sensitivity to anti-Egfr drugs

  1. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease. PMID:24937647

  2. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  3. Dust interannual variability and trend in Central Asia from 2000 to 2014 and their climatic linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Sokolik, Irina N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the interannual variability and trend of dust aerosol in Central Asia (37°-55°N, 50°-80°E) from 2000 to 2014, based on a set of dust emission simulations using the WRF-Chem-DuMo modeling system, observations of dust frequency derived from surface station synoptic weather records, and dust optical depth (DOD) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) products. Model simulations reveal that the soil grain size distribution has little impact on the interannual variability of dust fluxes but strongly affects their magnitude. The two physically based dust schemes based on Marticorena and Bergametti (1995) (MB) and Shao et al. (1996) (Shao) produce large differences in the dust flux magnitude and spatiotemporal distributions, largely due to different sensitivities of the threshold friction velocity to vegetation-induced surface roughness. By using a fixed threshold velocity, the dust scheme of Tegen and Fung (1995) (TF) relies on the dynamic dust source function to capture the dust variability associated with vegetation changes. Through a correlation analysis, the simulated dust fluxes show good consistency with the observed dust frequency, whereas only the Shao and TF dust fluxes are consistent with the MODIS Collection 5.1 and SeaWiFS DOD. The dust fluxes, dust frequency, and DOD (except MODIS Collection 6) are highly correlated with the frequency of strong surface winds but show different sensitivities to drought and soil erodibility factors (i.e., precipitation, soil moisture, and vegetation) which are influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In general, La Niña years are associated with reduced precipitation, drier soils, less vegetation, and, consequently, more severe drought and enhanced dust activity in Central Asia. The averaged dust flux of the MB and Shao experiments shows a significant negative trend

  4. The regime of aerosol optical depth over Central Asia based on MODIS Aqua Deep Blue data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floutsi, Athina; KorrasCarraca, Marios; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is therefore important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD over the climatically sensitive region of Central Asia (36° N - 50° N, 46° E - 75° E), which has significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles. The primary source of anthropogenic particles is fossil fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Natural particles originate mostly from the two deserts in the region (namely Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-Kum), where persistent dust activity is observed. Another source is the Aral Sea region, which due to its phenomenal desertification also drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions. This transport is of particular interest because of health-hazardous materials contained in the Aral Sea sea-bed. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest MODIS collection (006), available in 1° x 1° resolution (about 100 km x 100 km) over the period 2002-2014.Our first results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with large aerosol load being associated with strong dust activity during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.5), and low during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.4). In spring and summer significant aerosol load is observed in the Garabogazköl basin, Northeast and South-southeast Caspian Sea (offshore North Iran and Azerbaijan), as well as southwest of the Aral Sea. In the later region, the high AOD values can be explained by export of

  5. Status and trends of the services market for processing and recycling of municipal solid waste in the Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Napalkova Anastasiya A.; Nasadyuk Alena E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors studied the state and trends of the international market processing of municipal solid waste in the Asia - Pacific region, using the methods of content analysis and field studies. The paper shows the structure of the market, discusses the technology of solid domestic waste, used in AsiaPacific countries with different income levels, as well as in developed and developing countries. The research results can be interesting for operators of the industry as well as government agencies...

  6. Contribution of oceanic and vegetation feedbacks to Holocene climate change in Central and Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dallmeyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of vegetation-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere interactions on the mid- to late Holocene climate change as well as their synergy is studied for different regions in Central and Eastern Asia (60–140° E, 0–55° N, giving consideration to the large climatic and topographical heterogeneity in that area. With main focus on the Asian monsoon, we concentrate on both, temperature and precipitation changes. For our purpose, we analyze a set of coupled numerical experiments, performed with the Earth system model ECHAM5/JSBACH-MPIOM under present-day and mid-Holocene (6 k orbital configurations (Otto et al., 2009. Like expected, the temperature change caused by the insolation forcing reveals an enhanced seasonal cycle, with a pronounced warming in summer (0.7 K and autumn (1 K and a cooling in the other seasons (spring: −0.8 K; winter −0.5 K. Most of this change can be attributed to the direct response of the atmosphere, but the ocean, whose reaction has a lagged seasonal cycle (warming in autumn and winter, cooling in the other seasons, strongly modifies the signal. The simulated contribution of dynamic vegetation is small and most effective in winter, where it slightly warms the near-surface atmosphere (≈0.05 K. Concerning the precipitation, the most remarkable change is the postponement and enhancement of the Asian monsoon (0.27 mm/d in summer, 0.23 mm/d in autumn, mainly related to the direct atmospheric response. On regional average, the ocean (ca. 0.05 mm/d amplifies the direct effect, but tends to weaken the East Asian summer monsoon and strongly increases the Indian summer monsoon rainfall rate (0.68 mm/d. The influence of dynamic vegetation and synergy effects on precipitation is comparatively small.

  7. Uncertainties in hydrological modelling and its consequences for water management in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; aus der Beek, Tim; Flörke, Martina

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia features an extreme continental climate with mostly arid to semi-arid conditions. Due to low precipitation and therefore low water availability, water is a scarce resource and often the limiting factor in terms of socio-economic development. The aim of this model study is to compare the uncertainties of hydrological modelling induced by global and regional climate datasets and to calculate the impacts on estimates of local water resources. Within this integrated model study the hydrological and water use model WaterGAP 3 (Global Assessment and Prognosis) is being applied to all river basins located in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Mongolia in five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 6 x 9 km per grid cell). First of all, water abstractions for the sectors households, irrigation, livestock, manufacturing industries, and electricity production are being computed and fed into the hydrological module of WaterGAP. Then, water fluxes of the terrestrial water cycle are being modelled. The performance of the model is then being evaluated by comparing modelled and observed river discharge for the time period 1971 to 2000. As WaterGAP input, various global and regional climate datasets are available for the study region. In detail, these are the global TS dataset of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), the WATCH forcing data (WFD) developed within the EU-FP6 Project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) and the regional Aphrodités Water Resources dataset. Finally, the uncertainties in modelled water availability induced by the different datasets are quantified to point out the consequences for a sustainable water management. The results show that the datasets differ in both aspects, temporal and spatial goodness. At this, not only differences between the regional and the global datasets, but also among the global datasets are evident.

  8. Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie

    2016-01-01

    Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and East Asia. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.

  9. Central System of Psychosocial Support to the Czech Victims Affected by the Tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-02-01

    The Tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  10. Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 μg m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 μg m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 μg m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 μg m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 μg m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 μg m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  11. Improving semi-automated glacial mapping with a multi-method approach: areal changes in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia has been strongly impacted by climate change, and will continue to be impacted by diverse climate stressors in the coming decades. This study aims to decipher the impact of climate change on glaciers in the central Tien Shan Mountain Range, a large and understudied region located northeast from the Pamir Knot. To address glacier characteristics over a wide swath of Central Asia, the authors designed and implemented a glacial mapping algorithm which delineates both clean glacial ice – methods which are well documented – and glacial debris tongues, which often require extensive manual digitization. This research improves upon methods developed to automatically delineate glacial areas using spectral, topographic, velocity, and spatial relationships. The authors found that the algorithm misclassifies between 2 and 10% of glacial areas, as compared to a ~750 glacier control dataset. After validating the algorithm against multiple manually digitized control datasets, the authors applied it to a study area encompassing eight Landsat scene footprints stretching from the central Pamir through the central Tien Shan. A statistically significant, though minor, gradient in glacier area loss was found, where glaciers in the west of the study area have shrunk less than those glaciers in the east. This gradient is explained by differences in regional climate, where extratropical cyclones propagating from the west weaken and disband under continued topographic influence, as well as differences in topography, where high-elevation glaciers are thermally insulated from some of the impacts of changing temperatures in the region.

  12. The timing of ostrich existence in Central Asia: AMS {sup 14}C age of eggshells from Mongolia and southern Siberia (a pilot study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurochkin, Evgeny N. [Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsouyznaya St. 123, Moscow 117647 (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, Yaroslav V., E-mail: kuzmin@fulbrightmail.or [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Koptuyg Avenue 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Antoshchenko-Olenev, Igor V. [S. Razin St. 5, Apt. 97, Kaluga 248012 (Russian Federation); Zabelin, Vladimir I. [Tuva Institute of Complex Studies of the Natural Resources, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Internatsionalnaya St. 17, Kyzyl 667007 (Russian Federation); Krivonogov, Sergey K. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Koptuyg Avenue 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nohrina, Tatiana I. [Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentiev Avenue 17, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lbova, Ludmila V. [Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentiev Avenue 17, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov St. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Burr, G.S.; Cruz, Richard J. [Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0081 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The presence of Asiatic ostrich in Central Asia in the later Cenozoic time is well-documented; nevertheless, a few direct age determinations existed until recently. We performed AMS {sup 14}C dating of ostrich eggshells found in Mongolia, Transbaikal, and Tuva. It shows that ostriches existed throughout the second part of Late Pleistocene, until the Late Glacial time (ca. 13,000-10,100 BP). It seems that Asiatic ostrich went extinct in Central Asia just before or even in the Holocene.

  13. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  14. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  15. Land use change and carbon cycle in arid and semi-arid lands of East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Togtohyn; Chuluun; Dennis; Ojima

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic changes in land use have occurred in arid and semi-arid landsof Asia during the 20th century. Grassland conversion into croplands and ecosystem degradation is widespread due to the high growth rate of human population and political reforms of pastoral systems. Rangeland degradation made many parts of this region vulnerable to environmental and political changes. The collapse of the livestock sector in some states of central Asia, expansion of livestock inChina and intensive degradation of grasslands in China are examples of the responses of pastoral systems to these changes over the past decades. Carbon dynamics in this region is highly variable in space and time. Land use/cover changes with widespread reduction of forest and grasslands increased carbon emission from the region.

  16. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  17. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.R. E-mail: jaromy.green@gcccks.edu; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P

    2004-08-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) {sup 36}Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the {sup 36}Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the {sup 36}Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The {sup 36}Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when {sup 36}Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 x 10{sup 5} atoms of {sup 36}Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak {sup 36}Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 x 10{sup 5}, 5.4 x 10{sup 5} and 0.7 x 10{sup 5} atoms of {sup 36}Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of {sup 36}Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of {sup 36}Cl in ground

  18. Asia-Pacific food markets and trade in 2005: a global, economy-wide perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Dimaranan, Betina; Hertel, Thomas W.; Martin, Will

    1997-01-01

    Rapid industrialization in East Asia, particularly China, is raising questions about who will feed the region in the next century and how Asia will pay for its food imports. The paper addresses this question by first reviewing existing food sector projections and then taking an economy-wide perspective using projections to 2005, based on the global CGE model known as GTAP. After showing the impact of implementing the Uruguay Round, the paper explores the effects of slower global agricultural ...

  19. Central Banks Leadership and their Influence over Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mihai Leoveanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years after the global financial crisis, central banks have undergone to a tremendous pressure from financial markets, from the real economy, but also from the population and politicians. Each part is interrelated with each other, but is in different positions in terms of the influence exerted on the other, in terms of the means and instruments through which their interest must prevail against the other parties. In this context, the leadership of a central bank is the key to the proper functioning of a central bank and also to its effectiveness and efficiency. Based on the central bank functions and on some important principles of decision and action, such as independence, transparency and accountability, the leaders of the central banks should provide guidance for the national economy in turbulent times. As a result, the main focus must be concentrate on aspects like: monitoring policy performance, monitoring efficiency of resources, setting functional goals, managing capital adequacy, balance sheet and liquidity, awareness of external perceptions and reputational risks, ensuring good institutional governance.

  20. Quantifying the Impacts of Environmental Factors on Vegetation Dynamics over Climatic and Management Gradients of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Dubovyk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a lack of quantitative information regarding the driving factors of vegetation dynamics in post-Soviet Central Asia. Insufficient knowledge also exists concerning vegetation variability across sub-humid to arid climatic gradients as well as vegetation response to different land uses, from natural rangelands to intensively irrigated croplands. In this study, we analyzed the environmental drivers of vegetation dynamics in five Central Asian countries by coupling key vegetation parameter “overall greenness” derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series data, with its possible factors across various management and climatic gradients. We developed nine generalized least-squares random effect (GLS-RE models to analyze the relative impact of environmental factors on vegetation dynamics. The obtained results quantitatively indicated the extensive control of climatic factors on managed and unmanaged vegetation cover across Central Asia. The most diverse vegetation dynamics response to climatic variables was observed for “intensively managed irrigated croplands”. Almost no differences in response to these variables were detected for managed non-irrigated vegetation and unmanaged (natural vegetation across all countries. Natural vegetation and rainfed non-irrigated crop dynamics were principally associated with temperature and precipitation parameters. Variables related to temperature had the greatest relative effect on irrigated croplands and on vegetation cover within the mountainous zone. Further research should focus on incorporating the socio-economic factors discussed here in a similar analysis.

  1. Dutch Disease in the Post-Soviet Countries of Central and South-West Asia: How Contagious is it?

    OpenAIRE

    Egert, Balazs

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the extent to which the former communist states of Central and South-West Asia are “infected” by the Dutch Disease. We take a detailed look at the functioning of the transmission mechanism of the Dutch Disease, i.e. the chains that run from commodity prices to real output in manufacturing. We complement this with two econometric exercises. First, we estimate nominal and real exchange rate models to see whether commodity prices are correlated with the exchange rat...

  2. Early experience in centralized real time energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current structure of the California Independent System Operator (ISO) was described. The study provided an outline of California's transition from a decentralized pool operation to a forward bilateral market through the implementation of a centralized real time market. Details of the institutional, economic and technological history of the power system were provided. Although the California real time market was implemented in order to simplify the power system, a number of operational challenges were observed. Discontinuities in the energy curve resulted in the implementation of a target price process, which aimed to resolve the overlap in energy bids. The design of the ISO's real time market did not provide a mechanism for bidders to execute real time energy trades. Regulation bidders also internalized energy in their regulation capacity bids. The real time market application (RTMA) provided the ISO with a substantial computer program to determine and account for nearly all aspects of generation unit scheduling and physical characteristics with a multiple ramp rate. The program combined optimal power flow (OPF) logic for energy flows in addition to mixed-integer nonlinear optimization of trading schedules, and system and security constraints. The RTMA used a multi-period security constrained economic dispatch (SCED) function to optimize energy dispatch schedules. Other features of the RTMA included security constrained unit commitment, security constrained economic dispatch, and dispatch schedule post processes. It was concluded that implementation of the RTMA has increased the efficiency of the ISO. A case study of the RTMA during an outage in November 2004 was provided. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Seasonal and long-term change in lead deposition in central Japan: evidence for atmospheric transport from continental Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-range transport of air pollution from continental Asia is currently an important issue concerning the Japanese environment, especially in regions susceptible to acidification due to low buffering capacity, such as Murakami, Niigata prefecture, located on the west coast of central Japan. Evidence for long-range transport was obtained through lead and lead isotopic analysis of 84 archived precipitation filters, showing seasonal changes in lead deposition from May 1999 to May 2002. Lead deposition was highest in winter and spring (November through May) each year and lowest in summer. Computed 72-h back trajectories showed that in winter air masses were predominantly transported from the northwest, passing over northern China and eastern Russia, whilst in summer air masses predominantly originated from the southeast passing over Japan. Lead isotopic analysis showed higher 208Pb/206Pb during winter, indicating that lead originated from a different source. A plot of 207Pb/206Pb vs. 208Pb/206Pb identified a thorogenic component, which is excess 208Pb compared to a standard lead growth curve, indicative of certain lead ores and coals in continental Asia. The data provided evidence of long-range transport of lead from continental Asia to Japan. Bark pockets included within the trunks of two Japanese cedar trees harvested near Murakami, dating between 1972 and 1982, exhibited lead isotope ratios indicative of Japanese-sourced lead. In contrast, current (2003) bark showed thorogenic ratios, consistent with a relative decline in Japanese-sourced and increase in continental-sourced lead

  4. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also

  5. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kulkarni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD values (annual mean value ∼0.2 in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m−3 also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2–90 μg m−3. Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC (mean value ∼0.1 μg m−3 show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST and Bishkek. The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  6. Dynamics of the Seismogenic Layer for Deforming Zones in Central and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Flesch, L. M.; Holt, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    at over 2500 GPS locations. Preliminary models defined with fault friction values of μ = 0.025 for the Burma region, μ = 0.10 - 0.25 for the Tibetan Plateau region, and μ > 0.6 for the megathrust system as well as for north central and far east Asia achieve optimal fit to Quaternary deformation indicators. Successful models indicate that deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions within Burma and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The dynamic stress and strain rate tensor fields and the dynamic velocity field each are acutely sensitive to the intrinsic mechanical properties of the faults, the density of available fault fabric, and perhaps to contributions from horizontal basal tractions. We test our models of the seismogenic layer, which do not account for contributions from basal tractions, to the effect of deeper lithospheric loads. Initial results indicate that such loads are generally smaller than the stresses associated with our models of the seismogenic layer. Stresses associated from deeper sources together with stresses from the seismogenic layer yield dynamical model output that may enhance the fit to deformation indicators.

  7. Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, A. F.; Bolch, T.; Stoffel, M.; Solomina, O.; Beniston, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information about current and future glaciation and runoff is crucial for water allocation and, hence, for social and ecological stability. Although the impacts of climate change on glaciation and runoff have been addressed in previous work undertaken in the Tien Shan (known as the 'water tower of Central Asia'), a coherent, regional perspective of these findings has not been presented until now. In our study, we explore the range of changes in glaciation in different climatic regions of the Tien Shan based on existing data. We show that the majority of Tien Shan glaciers experienced accelerated glacier wasting since the mid-1970s and that glacier shrinkage is most pronounced in peripheral, lower-elevation ranges near the densely populated forelands, where summers are dry and where snow and glacial meltwater is essential for water availability. The annual glacier area shrinkage rates since the middle of the twentieth century are 0.38-0.76% per year in the outer ranges, 0.15-0.40% per year in the inner ranges and 0.05-0.31% per year in the eastern ranges. This regionally non-uniform response to climate change implies that glacier shrinkage is less severe in the continental inner ranges than in the more humid outer ranges. Glaciers in the inner ranges react with larger time lags to climate change, because accumulation and thus mass turnover of the mainly cold glaciers are relatively small. Moreover, shrinkage is especially pronounced on small or fragmented glaciers, which are widely represented in the outer regions. The relative insensitivity of glaciers in the inner ranges is further accentuated by the higher average altitude, as the equilibrium line altitude ranges from 3'500 to 3'600 masl in the outer ranges to 4'400 masl in the inner ranges. For our study, we used glacier change assessments based both on direct data

  8. The Emergence of Homo sapiens in South Asia: The Central Narmada Valley as Witness

    OpenAIRE

    Anek R. Sankhyan

    2013-01-01

    :The emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens in South Asia is hotly debated due to a great gap in fossil record. A solitary partial cranium from Hathnora dated around 250 Kya is debated and conveniently interpreted as "evolved" Homo erectus or "archaic" Homo sapiens or Homo heidelbergensis or even Homo indet. Cranial fossils of Pre-Toba or post- Toba anatomically modern Homo sapiens are unknown barring the very late 30 Kya modern human remains from Sri Lanka. The present paper reviews t...

  9. CAUSAL AND DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP AMONG STOCK RETURN, TRADING VOLUME, AND RETURN VOLATILITY IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA MARKET PERIODS OF 2011-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the causal and dynamic relationship among stock market, trading volume, and return volatility in South-East Asia market period of 2011-2014. This research employs Vector Auto-Regression (VAR) and E-GARCH model. The causal and dynamic relationship between stock return and trading volume analyzed using VAR model, whereas dynamic relationship between return volatility and trading volume analyzed using E-GARCH model. Result showed that Thailand market re...

  10. Mongolian plateau: Evidence for a late Cenozoic mantle plume under central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Brian F.; Allen, Mark B.

    1993-04-01

    The 2500 x 700 km Mongolian plateau (average elevation 2000 m) is situated between the Altai orogen and the Siberian craton and occupies much of Mongolia and Transbaikalia in Russia. The plateau is characterized by (1) basin and range topography and two major domes(Hentai, 600 x 300 km, and Hangai, 800 x 550 km), where altitudes reach 3905 m; (2) lithosphere that is thinner than adjacent areas (minimum ˜50 km); (3) elevated heat flow (up to 120 mW/m2); (4) dominantly alkaline basaltic volcanism in the form of cones, lava fields, and volcanic plateaus mostly of Miocene-Quaternary age, and (5) rifts, including Baikal (main evolution in the Pliocene-Quaternary), Tunka (Oligocene-early Miocene), and Hobsogol (Pliocene-Quaternary). Existing models explain these features in terms of diapiric upwelling of a mantle asthenolith below the main rifts and/or as a long-distance effect of the India-Asia collision. We propose that the late Cenozoic uplift of the whole Mongolian plateau and associated rifting, magmatism, high heat flow, and lithospherec thinning are not externally driven by the India-Asia collision, but are the expression of the interaction of a mantle plume with overlying lithosphere. Some rifts link and interact with major strike-slip faults, such as the Bolnai. Such faults may be the major expression of the India-Asia collision in this region.

  11. Multi-proxy evidence for late Pleistocene-Holocene environ-mental change in arid Central Asia: An overview of the RACHAD 2001 symposium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; J. A. Holmes

    2003-01-01

    @@ This special issue of Chinese Science Bulletin arose from a symposium entitled "Abrupt Environmental Changes in Arid Asia--History and Mechanisms" (RACHAD 2001) held at Lanzhou University in October 2001. This international event was attended by over 70 scientists from Australia, China, Germany, India, Mongolia, Russia, the UK and the USA. More than fifty papers were given over a three-dayperiod on all aspects of the mechanisms and history of environmental change in Asia's drylands. Most of the papers presented in the symposium are the preliminary results of the INQUA working group called "Rapid Climatic Changes in the Central-Asia's Drylands" (RACHAD).

  12. A long-term context (931-2005 C.E.) for rapid warming over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davi, N. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Jacoby, G. C.; Cook, E. R.; Anchukaitis, K.; Nachin, B.; Rao, M. P.; Leland, C.

    2015-08-01

    Warming over Mongolia and Central Asia has been unusually rapid over the past few decades, particularly in the summer, with surface temperature anomalies higher than for much of the globe. With few temperature station records available in this remote region prior to the 1950s, paleoclimatic data must be used to understand annual-to-centennial scale climate variability, local response to large-scale forcing mechanisms, and the significance of major features of the past millennium such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) both of which can vary globally. Here we use an extensive collection of living and subfossil wood samples from temperature-sensitive trees to produce a millennial-length, validated reconstruction of summer temperatures for Mongolia and Central Asia from 931 to 2005 CE. This tree-ring reconstruction shows general agreement with the MCA (warming) and LIA (cooling) trends, a significant volcanic signature, and warming in the 20th and 21st Century. Recent warming (2000-2005) exceeds that from any other time and is concurrent with, and likely exacerbated, the impact of extreme drought (1999-2002) that resulted in massive livestock loss across Mongolia.

  13. Enhanced Measurement of Energy Market Integration in East Asia: An Application of Dynamic Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dandan; Xunpeng SHI; Yu SHENG

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an updated and expanded review of reforms in China’s electricity sector. It aims to examine the impact of reforms on competition, deregulation, and electricity market integration in China. The findings are used to draw policy implications for electricity market development, particularly the promotion of energy market integration (EMI).

  14. Market Strategy Development and Implementation for a Specialty Chemical Company in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Wenbing

    2006-01-01

    Facing the challenge of fierce competition in the conditioning polymers in Asian���¢��������s shampoo market, Rhodia Novecare needs to proactively formulate and implement a market strategy to defend and even increase market share in a long run. An industry analysis was conducted to assess the market pressures from new entrants, substitution, supplier and buyer powers, and internal rivalry. Three strategies as an integral part of the market strategy have thus been developed...

  15. Organization of international market introduction: Can cooperation between central units and local product management influence success

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Antje; Herstatt, Cornelius; Fantapié Altobelli, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    When organizing international market introductions multinational companies face coordination problems between the leading central organizational unit and local product management. Based on the assumption that international market introductions are initiated and managed by a central unit we examine the impact of cooperation between the central unit and local product management on success. Our survey of 51 international market introductions reveals that the quality of the cooperation with local...

  16. Capital Market Financing for SMEs: A Growing Need in Emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shinozaki, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Asia’s bank-centered financial systems require the reduced supply-demand gap in lending as a core policy pillar to improve small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) access to finance. Meanwhile, the diversification of financing modalities beyond conventional bank lending is another key policy pillar to better serve various financing needs of SMEs and expand their financial accessibility. The rapid growth of emerging Asia is generating SMEs’ long-term funding needs and requires robust capital ma...

  17. Fabric of topsoil horizons in aridic soils of Central Asia Fábrica de horizontes superficiales en suelos áridos de Asia Central Tessitura dos horizontes superficiais de solos Arídicos da Ásia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lebedeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two surface microhorizons – vesicular and platy – were found to be typical of the fabric of topsoil horizons in gravely loamy soils located along an arid/continental climatic gradient in the Subboreal zone of Central Asia (from southern Russia to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia. Their genesis is related to active vesiculation (for vesicular ?1 microhorizon and cryogenesis (for platy ?2 microhorizon against a background of high clay mobility and/or eolian accumulation of fine material. New mechanisms responsible for the formation of vesicular pores are suggested: (a the leaching of dense complete crystal infillings (moldic voids and (b the development of biogenic capsules typical of iron bacteria that were diagnosed by the microbiological method of fouling Agar-covered glasses under natural conditions. In a series of studied soils, Yermic Regosols are characterized by additional specific microfeatures: (1 iron depletion from the material around the pores and formation of iron concentrations in the intrapedal mass owing to biogenic mobilization of iron with participation of sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria and (2 the accumulation of organic matter (residues of microbial cells in the vesicular pores.En este trabajo se estudiaron dos microhorizontes superficiales- vesicular y laminar- cuya fábrica se encuentra típicamente en horizontes superficiales de suelos franco gravosos situados a lo largo del gradiente climático árido/continental de la zona Subboreal de Asia Central (desde el sur de Rusia hacia Uzbekistán, Kazakhstán y Mongolia. Su génesis se relaciona con una activa formación de vesículas (para el microhorizonte A1 vesicular y con criogénesis (para el microhorizonte A2 laminar en un medio con elevada movilidad de arcilla y/o acumulación de material fino. Se proponen los siguientes nuevos mecanismos responsables de la formación de los poros vesiculares: a el lavado de rellenos cristalinos densos (poros móldicos; y b el

  18. Erica Marat, The Military and the State in Central Asia: From Red Army to Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Petric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Erica Marat is a one of the United States’ most brilliant Central Asian political scientists. She has offered numerous analyses of political transformations as presented by different think tanks and American foundations. In this book, Marat focuses on the role of the army in building state processes in contemporary Central Asian states. The book offers a wide panorama of Central Asian armies, compiling sources already published (books, reports in Russian and English etc. and some original da...

  19. International Gold Market, Stock Market and Business Cycles: the Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Chirila

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During theeconomic recession periods, gold investments seem to become very importantbecause gold is considered a means to preserve the investment value. Gold has also maintained thisfeature during the financial and economic crisis that occurred at the end of theyear 2007. Althoughthe inflation rate has recorded significant increases, the investment in gold has kept its value becausethe price of gold has increased. After the beginning of the financial and economic crisis the price ofgold has also recorded a significant increase in volatility. The aims of this study focus on thecomparative analysis of the gold price cycles and the stock market cycles in the Central and EastEurope as well as the determination of the return of gold investment on the return and risk of stockmarkets in these countries. The results obtained confirm that both the return and the risk in some ofthe stock markets under analysis are influenced by the return of gold investment.

  20. Seasonal contribution of mineral dust and other major components to particulate matter at two remote sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Heo, Jongbae; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg; DeMinter, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that are in and generally surround Central Asia (e.g., the Aral Sea region, the Taklimakan desert in Western China). To investigate the relative importance of mineral dust (dust specifically composed of soil related minerals and oxides) in Central Asia, PM10 and PM2.5, and by difference, coarse particles (particles with diameters between 2.5 and 10 μm) were measured at two sites, Bishkek and Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (Lidar), in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were collected every other day from July 2008 to July 2009. Daily samples were analyzed for mass and organic and elemental carbon. Samples were also composited on a bi-weekly basis and analyzed for elemental constituents and ionic components. In addition, samples collected on days with relatively high and low PM concentrations were analyzed before, and separately, from the biweekly composites to investigate the chemical differences between the episodic events. Data from the episodic samples were averaged into the composited averages. Using the elemental component data, several observational models were examined to estimate the contribution of mineral dust to ambient PM levels. A mass balance was also conducted. Results indicate that at both sites, mineral dust (as approximated by the "dust oxide" model) and organic matter (OM) were the dominant contributors to PM10 and PM2.5. Mineral dust was a more significant contributor to the coarse PM (PM10-2.5) during high event samples at both sites, although the relative contribution is greater at the Lidar site (average ± standard deviation = 42 ± 29%) as compared with the Bishkek site (26 ± 16%). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed using data from both sites, and PCA indicated

  1. System-Wide Impacts of Hospital Payment Reforms : Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo; Wagstaff, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Although there is broad agreement that the way that health care providers are paid affects their performance, the empirical literature on the impacts of provider payment reforms is surprisingly thin. During the 1990s and early 2000s, many European and Central Asian countries shifted from paying hospitals through historical budgets to fee-for-service or patient-based-payment methods (mostly...

  2. Considerations for the Design of a central counterparty for the Mexican Money Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Lascurain M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has brought the problems of regulatory failure and unbridled counterparty risk to the forefront in financial discussions. In the last decade, central counterparties have been created in order to face those insidious problems. In Mexico, both the stock and the derivatives markets have central counterparties, but the money market has not. This paper addresses the issue of creating a central counterparty for the Mexican money market. Recommendations that must be followed in the design and the management of risk of a central counterparty, given by international regulatory institutions, are presented in this study. Also, two different conceptual designs for a central counterparty, appropriate for the Mexican market, are proposed. Final conclusions support the creation of a new central counterparty for the Mexican money market.

  3. La reconfiguración del espacio geopolítico y de los conflictos en Asia central

    OpenAIRE

    Stanganelli, Isabel Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Las teorías geopolíticas vigentes no dan cuenta de la mutante situación internacional en Asia central. Resulta un área de interés vital para la Federación de Rusia y de interés estratégico para China, Estados Unidos (EEUU) y sus aliados. Las políticas nacionales son erráticas y la interferencia de –y entre- estos actores y sus vectores, colabora en una situación de incertidumbre que deviene caótica. Desde su origen, la Geopolítica ha mutado sucesivamente sus alcances y limitaciones teóri...

  4. Inorganic Nitrogen Leaching from Organic and Conventional Rice Production on a Newly Claimed Calciustoll in Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E; Sun, Xiangping;

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems...... of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from....... NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21–42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments...

  5. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  6. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  7. Retreating or standing: responses of forest species and steppe species to climate change in arid Eastern Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed a combined approach of molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM to predict the future responses of these two species to climate change, utilizing evidence of responses from the past. Genetic data for C. sibirica shows a significant phylogeographical signal (N ST > F ST, P<0.05 and demographic contraction during the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene. This forest species would likely experience range reduction, though without genetic loss, in the face of future climate change. In contrast, SDMs predict that C. songorica, a steppe species, should maintain a consistently stable potential distribution under the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the future climatic conditions referring to its existing potential distribution. Molecular results indicate that the presence of significant phylogeographical signal in this steppe species is rejected and this species contains a high level of genetic differentiation among populations in cpDNA, likely benefiting from stable habitats over a lengthy time period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Evidence from the molecular phylogeography of these two species, the forest species is more sensitive to past climate changes than the steppe species. SDMs predict that the forest species will face the challenge of potential range contraction in the future more than the steppe species. This provides a perspective on ecological management in arid Eastern Central Asia, indicating that increased attention should be paid to montane forest species, due to their high sensitivity to

  8. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  9. Impacts of climate gradients on the vegetation phenology of major land use types in Central Asia (1981-2008)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan KARIYEVA; Willem J.D.van LEEUWEN; Connie A.WOODHOUSE

    2012-01-01

    Time-series of land surface phenology (LSP)data offer insights about vegetation growth patterns.They can be generated by exploiting the temporal and spectral reflectance properties of land surface components.Interannual and seasonal LSP data are important for understanding and predicting an ecosystem's response to variations caused by natural and anthropogenic drivers.This research examines spatio-temporal change patterns and interactions between terrestrial phenology and 28 years of climate dynamics in Central Asia.Long-term (1981-2008) LSP records such as timing of the start,peak and length of the growing season and vegetation productivity were derived from remotely sensed vegetation greenness data.The patterns were analyzed to identify and characterize the impact of climate drivers at regional scales.We explored the relationships between phenological and precipitation and temperature variables for three generalized land use types that were exposed to decadelong regional drought events and intensified land and water resource use:rainfed agriculture,irrigated agriculture,and non-agriculture.To determine whether and how LSP dynamics are associated with climate patterns,a series of simple linear regression analyses between these two variables was executed.The three land use classes showed unique phenological responses to climate variation across Central Asia.Most of the phenological response variables were shown to be positively correlated to precipitation and negatively correlated to temperature.The most substantial climate variable affecting phenological responses of all three land use classes was a spring temperature regime.These results indicate that future higher temperatures would cause earlier and longer growing seasons.

  10. Management of environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable waste management and disposal is a societal challenge in terms of economics, public health and environmental impact. The situation in developing countries, and in particular those subject to extreme natural hazards, results in increased overall risk as governments prioritize investments to issues of perceived higher economic importance. This dissertation investigates environmental risks associated with landfills in seismically active regions in the New Independent States of Central Asia. Environmental risk from municipal solid waste landfill sites encompasses a wide range of topics within socio-economics, physical sciences and engineering and therefore necessitates a multi-disciplinary approach. The underlying study is an accumulative result of a three-year collaborative research project (Contract No. INCO-CT-2005-516732) funded within the Eu Sixth Framework Programme (FP6). The international cooperation involved European, Russian and Central Asian research partners forming a multi-disciplinary consortium covering: GIS technologies, geology / hydrogeology geophysics and geotechnical engineering; landfill design and operation and waste management. understanding the relevant socio-economic aspects and legislative frameworks was necessary to prepare results and recommendations to address stakeholders in the Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and uzbekistan. (author)

  11. The Impacts of the Global Financial Crisis on Agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe and in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KADLEČÍKOVÁ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of financial crises has been growing in the world according to the International Monetary Fund. The recent global financial crisis caused a considerable slowdown in many countries in the world. The results have included the collapse of housing prices, massive unemployment, and the spread of distress throughout financial markets and economies around the globe. The economic slowdown hit the agricultural sector as well. The purpose of the presented article is to evaluate the impacts of the global economic and financial crisis on the agri-food sector and to present solutions for the existing problems.

  12. Power's promise: electricity reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampietti, J. (ed.)

    2004-06-01

    This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries in the Europe and East Asia region - Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Hungary; Kazakhstan and POland. It finds sector deficits have been falling over the last decade and that the savings from lower sector deficits did not translate into higher social spending. More emphasis must be placed on monitoring deficits and tailoring policy reform to country specific circumstances. The impact of reform on utility efficiency, as measured by the cost of generation, system loss collections, and operational efficiency, is ambiguous. While overall revenue per kilowatt hour increased in almost all countries, problems continue with losses, collection rates, and staffing. In terms of social impacts, electricity spending as a share of income increased, especially for the poor, while consumption stayed the same. In terms of environmental impacts, reforms did slightly improve energy efficiency in power plants though this has little direct impact on human health because the electricity sector's share of the total health damage from air pollution is negligible. Several lessons emerge from the analysis. Undertaking simple ex ante simulations of reform impacts will allow better identification of potential reform benefits and costs. Placing more emphasis on outcome-based indicators of service quality would help ensure that future operations produce the intended end-user benefits. In many cases, tariff increases can and should be explicitly timed to coincide with service quality improvements. 24 figs., 15 tabs., 10 annexes.

  13. Assimilation or integration: Similarities and differences between acculturation attitudes of migrants from Central Asia and Russians in Central Russia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva N. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50), Russia (50), and Central Africa (50) (age range 21–60; M = 34). We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova) and the “Directed...

  14. Regulatory Support Program in Central Asia. Progress and new bilateral project with the State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Republic of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A meeting of the regional regulatory support program in Central Asia (CA) was held in May 25 to 26, 2011 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where parties discussed ongoing bilateral cooperation between the NRPA and the regulatory bodies of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. (Author)

  15. Mapping lake level changes using ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry data: a case study in arid regions of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JunLi; Fang, Hui; Yang, Liao

    2011-12-01

    Lakes in arid regions of Central Asia act as essential components of regional water cycles, providing sparse but valuable water resource for the fragile ecological environments and human lives. Lakes in Central Asia are sensitive to climate change and human activities, and great changes have been found since 1960s. Mapping and monitoring these inland lakes would improve our understanding of mechanism of lake dynamics and climatic impacts. ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry provides an efficient tool of continuously measuring lake levels in these poorly surveyed remote areas. An automated mapping scheme of lake level changes is developed based on GLAS altimetry products, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of 9 typical lakes in Central Asia are analyzed to validate the level accuracies. The results show that ICESat/GLAS has a good performance of lake level monitoring, whose patterns of level changes are the same as those of field observation, and the max differences between GLAS and field data is 3cm. Based on the results, it is obvious that alpine lakes are increasing greatly in lake levels during 2003-2009 due to climate change, while open lakes with dams and plain endorheic lakes decrease dramatically in water levels due to human activities, which reveals the overexploitation of water resource in Central Asia.

  16. CHINESE STRATEGY TOWARD CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA: ENERGY INTERESTS AND ENERGY SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Marketos, Thrassyvoulos

    2012-01-01

    As China's economy has grown and become integrated into the global market, both have become interdependent. Therefore China's long-term development goals will only be possible with increasing and stable access to foreign trade, resources, and energy. The latter has become a pressing issue as the country's dependence on international energy imports rapidly increases and might impose a limit on its growth if left unmet. This is especially important given supply shortages as a result of the rece...

  17. Labor Market Performance in Transition; The Experience of Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Egoume Bossogo; Jerald Alan Schiff; Miho Ihara; Tetsuya Konuki; Kornelia Krajnyak

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after the start of the transition process, unemployment rates remain in the double digits in a number of Central and Eastern European countries. That unemployment rates have failed to decline, even in countries experiencing good growth, is puzzling. In this paper the authors examine three interrelated questions: How has the transition from central planning to market economies affected labor market performance? How have labor market institutions and policies influenced devel...

  18. Labour markets in transition: balancing flexibility and security in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrine Cazes; Alena Nesporova

    2004-01-01

    The article, based on a recent book by the two authors, attempts to give the answer to the question whether persistently high unemployment in Central and Eastern Europe is to be attributed to the rigidity of their labour markets. After defining the concept of labour market flexibility, the article discusses the incidence of flexible forms of employment in the region. The analysis shows that Central and Eastern European labour markets have increased their flexibility, but the forms of flexibil...

  19. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  20. State Response to Religious Revivalism in Post-Soviet Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev's Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments' push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.

  1. State Response to Religious Revivalism in Post-Soviet Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev’s Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments’ push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.

  2. Rural Development in Central America : Markets, Livelihoods and Local Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Bastiaensen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rural development is now considered almost synonymous with involvement in market exchange. When market and institutional failures prevail, however, rural communities increasingly rely on local institutional or contractual arrangements to guarantee their livelihoods. This book offers a comprehensive

  3. The Heartland theory of Sir Halford John Mackinder: justification of foreign policy of the United States and Russia in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Suban Kumar; Hel Kafi, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    "The paper examines the foreign policy of the United States and Russia towards Central Asia by reviewing selective foreign policy discourses in the context of the Heartland theory. In effect, the central formulation of the study rests on this research question: to what extent is the Heartland theory influential in the foreign policy of the United States and Russia? The analysis is therefore organized by first conducting a comparative/contrast approach of USA and Russian policies via each othe...

  4. Westerly jet stream and past millennium climate change in Arid Central Asia simulated by COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Bijan; Sodoudi, Sahar; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study tackles one of the most debated questions around the evolution of Central Asian climate: the "Puzzle" of moisture changes in Arid Central Asia (ACA) throughout the past millennium. A state-of-the-art Regional Climate Model (RCM) is subsequently employed to investigate four different 31-year time slices of extreme dry and wet spells, chosen according to changes in the driving data, in order to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution of the moisture variability in two different climatological epochs: Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). There is a clear regime behavior and bimodality in the westerly Jet phase space throughout the past millennium in ACA. The results indicate that the regime changes during LIA show a moist ACA and a dry East China. During the MCA, the Kazakhstan region shows a stronger response to the westerly jet equatorward shift than during the LIA. The out-of-phase pattern of moisture changes between India and ACA exists during both the LIA and the MCA. However, the pattern is more pronounced during the LIA.

  5. Economy of Central Asia Under the Rule of the Abbasids%阿拔斯王朝统治下的中亚经济

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永伦

    2012-01-01

    Economy of Central Asia continued to develop Under the rule of the Abbasids.Feudalism of Central Asia during this period of time further to develop and landowner began to form a special elass.the Arab went on to exploit irrigation water and farm in order to accelerate the development of agriculture of Central Asia. on which the development of handicraft ,commerce and banking of Central Asia was based. Economy of Central Asia continued to be prosperous.%在阿拔斯王朝统治时期,中亚经济得到发展。封地制进一步发展,大土地所有者形成。阿拉伯人在中亚继续兴修水利,开垦荒地,促进农业的发展,在此基础上,中亚的手工业、商业和中国史料提到的白水胡城是商人汇集之地。这里修建的商队客栈达一千七百个,有的为会馆,如布哈拉人的会馆,撒马尔罕人的会馆,那色波人的会馆等,多是本地人为其同乡所建,或为由商人或达官贵人捐款,修建了他们聚集的会所,有的则为达官贵人捐款所建。银行业也发展起来,整个中亚经济呈现出繁荣景象。

  6. Comparison of GPS and Quaternary slip rates: Insights from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd; Bendick, Rebecca; Mutz, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies related to the kinematics of deformation within the India-Asia collision zone have relied on slip rate data for major active faults to test kinematic models that explain the deformation of the region. The slip rate data, however, are generally disputed for many of the first-order faults in the region (e.g., Altyn Tagh and Karakorum faults). Several studies have also challenged the common assumption that geodetic slip rates are representative of Quaternary slip rates. What has received little attention is the degree to which geodetic slip rates relate to Quaternary slip rates for active faults in the India-Asia collision zone. In this study, we utilize slip rate data from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia to determine the overall relationship between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for 18 faults. The preliminary analysis investigating this relationship uses weighted least squares and a re-sampling analysis to test the sensitivity of this relationship to different data point attributes (e.g., faults associated with data points and dating methods used for estimating Quaternary slip rates). The resulting sample subsets of data points yield a maximum possible Pearson correlation coefficient of ~0.6, suggesting moderate correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for some faults (e.g., Kunlun and Longmen Shan faults). Faults with poorly correlated Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates were identified and dating methods used for the Quaternary slip rates were examined. Results indicate that a poor correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates exist for the Karakorum and Chaman faults. Large differences between Quaternary and GPS slip rates for these faults appear to be connected to qualitative dating of landforms used in the estimation of the Quaternary slip rates and errors in the geomorphic and structural reconstruction of offset landforms (e.g., offset terrace riser reconstructions for Altyn Tagh fault

  7. From the Silk Road to Chevron: The Geopolitics of Oil Pipelines in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fishelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the struggle between Iran, Russia, China, and the US over their preferred pipeline routes for Central Asian oil and gas gives a good glimpse as to the world's future geopolitical order. Despite the formidable difficulties in building pipelines, those four powers are converging upon the region with an eagerness that is almost desperate. In previous eras, a country's military was the sole arbiter of her strength, but today her economy has become nearly as important, if not more so, and all industrial economies – and militaries – run on oil and gas. The US and China desire those resources to fuel their power plants, factories, automobiles, aircraft, and armored vehicles. Iran and Russia want the pipelines to go through their territory in order to claim transit fees and use the resources as political tools. For each country wresting control of the Central Asian oil and gas is necessarily a vital part of its grand strategy.

  8. Time for Stability in Derivatives Markets – a New Look at Central Counterparty Clearing for Securities Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten V. Koeppl

    2011-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has driven many plans for improving the stability and resilience of the global financial system. One concept, managing the risk of default in securities or financial derivatives markets through central counterparties, receives scrutiny in this report. The author examines the role centralized clearing parties could play in improving system resilience. These centralized clearing parties are institutions that interpose themselves between counterparties in financial tr...

  9. Irrigation scheduling strategies for cotton to cope with water scarcity in the Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Pereira; Paredes, P.; Cholpankulov, E.D.; Inchenkova, O.P.; Teodoro, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Central Asian countries face high water scarcity due to aridity and desertification but excess water is often applied to the main irrigated crops. This over-irrigation contributes to aggravate water scarcity problems. Improved water saving irrigation is therefore required, mainly through appropriate irrigation scheduling. To provide for it, after being previously calibrated and validated for cotton in the Fergana region, the irrigation scheduling simulation model ISAREG was...

  10. Do social benefits respond to crises? Evidence from Europe and Central Asia during the global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Isik-Dikmelik, Aylin

    2012-01-01

    Social benefits can potentially play an important role in protecting the poor and minimizing the impacts of an economic crisis. While many studies estimate the impacts of a crisis, there is little evidence of the actual response of social safety nets to systematic shocks. This study traces the response of social benefits during the 2008-10 global crisis for 14 countries in Europe and Central ...

  11. State Response to Religious Revivalism in Post-Soviet Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Eren Tatari; Renat Shaykhutdinov

    2010-01-01

    After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev's Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadi...

  12. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  13. Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia; What is the Role of Oil?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Billmeier; Dalia Hakura

    2008-01-01

    The analysis in this paper suggests that import and export volume elasticities are markedly lower in oil-exporting Middle East and Central Asian countries than in non-oil countries in the region. A key implication of this finding is that a real appreciation of the exchange rate in oil-exporting countries would achieve little in terms of expenditure switching: an appreciation does not boost imports and non-oil exports constitute only a small share of GDP and total trade in these countries. The...

  14. PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN COMMODITY SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL ASIA-CAUCASUS REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Tvalchrelidze, Alexander; Silagadze, Avtandil

    2011-01-01

    The Russia-Ukraine “gas wars” and the cold winter that hit Southern and Central Europe in January 2006 and 2009 highlighted Europe’s commodity insecurity and its dependence on Russian good will. In all fairness, it should be noted that some studies on this topic appeared even before the “cold winter” of 2009, but their impact on the leadership of the European Commission was insignificant, to put it mildly. This is evident from the fact that prior to the 2009 crisis the International Energy Ag...

  15. Failed development and vulnerability to climate change in central Asia: implications for food security and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Craig R

    2010-07-01

    This article presents results of research undertaken to identify factors that affect the vulnerability of rural Mongolian herders to climate change. Findings suggest that models of market development instituted since 1990 have failed to recognize and support key elements of the pastoralist adaptive strategy. A retreating state presence has led to the collapse of regulatory regimes needed to safeguard critical common resources. This in turn has produced considerable social differentiation in the countryside, a breakdown in cooperative institutions, and conflicts over water and pasture. In a context of climate change, these changes seriously threaten the sustainability of the rural economy, leading to livelihood insecurity, growing rural poverty, and increasing rates of migration to shantytowns surrounding the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. The newly vulnerable poor are at higher risk for poor health and malnutrition. PMID:20566560

  16. Syncollisional extension along the India-Asia suture zone, south-central Tibet: Implications for crustal deformation of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Sanchez, V.; Taylor, M. H.

    2010-02-01

    Crustal deformation models of the Tibetan plateau are assessed by investigating the nature of Neogene deformation along the India-Asia suture zone through geologic mapping in south-central Tibet (84°30'E). Our mapping shows that the suture zone is dominated by a system of 3 to 4 ENE-striking, south-dipping thrust faults, rather than strike-slip faults as predicted by models calling upon eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau. Faults along the suture zone are not active, as they are cut by a system of NNW-striking oblique slip normal faults, referred to herein as the Lopukangri fault system. Fault-slip data from the Lopukangri fault system shows that the mean slip direction of its hanging wall is N36W. We estimate the net slip on the Lopukangri fault by restoring components of the thrust system. We estimate that the fault has accommodated ˜ 7 km of right-slip and ˜ 8 km of normal dip-slip, yielding a net slip of ˜ 10.5 km, and 6 km of horizontal east-west extension. The Lopukangri fault system is active and geomorphic offsets indicate right separations and westside-down dip-separation. The mapview curviplanar geometry and geomorphic expression of the Lopukangri fault system is similar to faults and rift basins to its east and west. These extensional faults are en echelon in map view and encompass a region that is 200 km long (east-west) and 95 km wide (north-south). Assuming our results for the Lopukangri fault are applicable to the entire system, we estimate a maximum of 18% extension across the zone. All active faults in the system terminate southward adjacent to the India-Asia suture zone. Because the individual rift geometries are similar and suggest a common kinematic relationship, we propose that the extensional system formed as a trailing extensional imbricate fan at the southern termination of the central Tibet conjugate fault zone. Alternatively, the extensional system may terminate to the north and represent a group of isolated crustal tears. Both

  17. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  18. High resolution leaf wax carbon and hydrogen isotopic record of late Holocene paleoclimate in arid Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aichner

    2014-11-01

    precipitation (including snow-melt and thus leaf wax δ D values must also respond to shifts in the proportion of moisture derived from westerly storms during late winter/early spring. Downcore results give evidence for a gradual shift to cooler and wetter climates between 3.5 and 2.5 cal kyr BP, interrupted by a warm/dry episode between 3.0–2.7 kyr BP. Further cool and wet episodes occur between 1.9–1.5 kyr BP and between 0.6–0.1 kyr BP, the latter coeval with the Little Ice Age. Warm and dry episodes between 2.5–1.9 kyr BP and 1.5–0.6 kyr BP coincide with the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly, respectively. Finally, we find a drying tend in recent decades. Regional comparisons lead us to infer that the strength and position of the Westerlies, and wider Northern Hemispheric climate dynamics control climatic shifts in arid Central Asia.

  19. Challenges in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Evaluation of 18 Years of Swiss Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bonvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSwitzerland’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO has been working in the energy sectors of Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1992, financing 41 projects to the value of CHF 316 million. In 2009 an independent evaluation was commissioned to assess the effects of these projects in the region and to draw lessons for future project funding. The evaluation found the projects to be highly satisfactory in terms of relevance, satisfactory in terms of effectiveness and sustainability, and — because of external factors relating to governance, transparency and political stability in a country — generally unsatisfactory in terms of efficiency.Lessons drawn from the successful projects will be used to further improve them in the future. With limited financial resources governments are attempting to find a balance between energy security and environmental sustainability. SECO will support this mission by helping to reduce inefficient consumption, to increase the share of renewable energy, to strengthen the sustainability of utility companies and to develop effective energy policies.

  20. The taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal micromorphological characters in distinguishing 43 species of allium L. (amaryllidacae Central Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Allium is comprised of more than 800 species, and although previous studies have been useful in identifying the species, there is a paucity of easy-to-observe morphological characters with which to distinguish them. Thus, we determined the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of 43 species of Allium from Central Asia using light microscopy and evaluated their taxonomic significance. Our study examined variability in epidermal cell shape and size and the stomatal apparatus. The stomatal apparatus is ellipsoid, anomocytic and amphistomatic. The shape (rectangular or rhomboid) of epidermal cells, pattern (straight or arched) of anticlinal walls, and stomatal index are stable within a species, while there are differences among species that allow for species delimitation. Based on the shape and pattern of anticlinal walls of leaf epidermal cells, the 43 sampled species could be divided into three distinct types of epidermal cells: type 1, rhomboid cell shape and straight anticlinal walls; type 2, rhomboid cell shape and arched anticlinal walls; and type 3, rectangular cell shape and straight anticlinal walls. These leaf epidermal micromorphological characters prove to be the taxonomic significance in distinguishing and delimitating species in Allium. (author)

  1. FACIES CONTROL ON THE COMPOSITION OF SERPUKHOVIAN AND EARLY BASHKIRIAN FORAMINIFERAL ASSEMBLAGES IN THE MIDDLETIEN-SHAN MOUNTAINS, CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA ORLOV-LABKOVSKY

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Serpukhovian-lower Bashkirian deposits are widely developed in the Middle Tien-Shan Mountains of Uzbekistan and adjacent countries of Central Asia. These deposits formed in a sedimentary basin exhibiting four distinctive facies that differ in foraminiferal diversity and population density. The facies types, named for mountain ranges containing representative sections, are called 1 Talassic, for inner shelf, shallow- water marine carbonates; 2 Ugamic, for carbonaceous deposits accumulating on an open, shallow-water, outer carbonate shelf platform; 3 Karzhantauic, for interbedded volcaniclastics and shallow-water marine carbonates deposited on a eroded surface; and  4 Paltauic, for basinal beds containing thin-bedded, graded and laminated organic limestones and interbedded turbidites. A statistical program (Sorenson's Coefficients of Species Similarity was used to compare assemblages in eight foraminiferal zones from coeval fades across the basin. Highest similarity coefficients occur in the early Serpukhovian and are probably related to a marine transgression that flooded the basin. Regression and volcaniclastic sedimentation account for lower coefficients in the remainder of the Serpukhovian. Increased foraminiferal diversity and abundance in the earliest Bashkirian were probably caused by the opening of new connections to adjacent Paleotethyan basins only to be followed by more restricted environmental conditions and lower similarity coefficients later in the early Bashkirian. 

  2. Western Central Asia - Uzbekistan:new insights into the basin architecture and lithosphere structures from geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This report was prepared as one part of joint Uzbekistan's Working Group results by DARIUS programme, provided in Uzbekistan during the 2009-2013 years. The special attention is devoted to potential geophysical fields and results of interpretation of seismic profiles, which was the base for conclusions about deep lithosphere structure of the DARIUS domains in Uzbekistan.For four last years 12 field expeditions in Uzbekistan were organized by the DARIUS projects - were studied new geological sections and now the new ideas developing about geodynamical evolution in Western Central Asia. The state of art reveals a very heterogeneous set of data. These data commonly deal either with particular basins or mountain belts, or specific basin investigations. Our aim was to combine all available seismic, magnetic and geothermal data with the revealed of the tectonically objects, geological structures, and to show their interrelated temporal and spatial development for general understanding of the inner structure of lithosphere and upper layers of Earth's crust. In link of this, the detailed studying structure of Paleozoic crystal basement on representative basic sites and the crossing faults, accompained by drawing up of level-by-level and summary sections, large-scale geological and geophysical mapping was conducted. Our study elucidated the lithosphere-scale processes driving forces for kinematic of blocks between southern Tien Shan and Pamir. All our data were integrated in the DARIUS database GEOLIS.

  3. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  4. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan mountains, central Asia, by ground penetrating radar survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Puyu Wang; Zhongqin Li; Shuang Jin; Ping Zhou; Hongbing Yao; Wenbin Wang

    2014-04-01

    The results of radar survey for three times are presented, aiming to determine ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan Mountains, central Asia. Results show that the distribution of ice is more in the center and lesser at both ends of the glacier. The bedrock is quite regular with altitudes decreasing towards the ice front, showing the U-shaped subglacial valley. By comparison, typical ice thinning along the centerline of the East Branch of the glacier was 10–18 m for the period 1981–2006, reaching a maximum of ∼30 m at the terminus. The corresponding ice volume was 10296.2 × 104 m3, 8797.9 × 104 m3 and 8115.0 × 104 m3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is the direct result of glacier thinning. In the same period, the ice thickness, area and terminus decreased by 12.2%, 10.3%, and 3.6%, respectively. These changes are responses to the regional climatic warming, which show a dramatic increase of 0.6°C (10 a)−1 during the period 1981–2006.

  5. Climate Change in Central and West Asia. Routes to a More Secure, Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    ADB's Central and West Asian countries are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Geoclimatic and environmental factors make this region highly vulnerable to the risks and hazards of climate change. For example, accelerated glacial melt has serious implications for agriculture, water supply, and energy generation - problems exacerbated by overexploitation of natural resources. Countries may find it difficult to shift to low-carbon growth, since many have abundant fossil fuel and tend to use energy inefficiently. ADB is responding to these climate hazards and low-carbon pathways with a comprehensive strategy that strengthens policies, governance, and capacity support; expands the use of clean and renewable energy; encourages sustainable transport and urban development; promotes development that will be more resilient to climate change, especially in water-dependent sectors; and manages land use and forests for carbon sequestration. ADB's support is helping its developing member countries face the challenges of climate change and, with partners, is providing innovative solutions, while continuing to work to reduce poverty.

  6. The Eastern Turk Empire in Central Asia 620–630 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam T. Ganiev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Chinese written sources the author analyzes the internal and the external policies of Xieli Qaghan, the ruler of the Eastern Turkic Empire from 620 through 630. All throughout the history of the Empire the name of Xieli Qaghan is closely associated with the aggressive foreign policy of the Turks against China, as is the final defeat of the Eastern Turks and their troops by the Tang Emperor Taizong in 630. This article is the first attempt to see the events of the said period in a different light that is based on new information received from Chinese written sources, as well as the results of the modern climate research undertaken by Russian and foreign scientists. The article highlights the first stage of Xieli's rule (620–626 with its strong central government and its aggressive foreign policy towards its neighbors as a consequence, and the second period (627–630, when the Eastern Turkic Empire came under the rule of the Tang Emperor Taizong. The author analyzes the reasons of rising tension in the country of the Turks in 627–629, which led to the total collapse of the entire policy of Xieli Qaghan.

  7. Changes in Diversity of Fish Fauna of the Chu River Basin (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Byrlykzhanovna Kozhabaeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chu River originates in the Central Tien Shan Mountains and dissipates into the Muyunkum desert. The first information about the fish of the river was received in the middle 19-th century. Several expeditions collected data during 20-th century. Results of our investigations last decade in comparison with previous data allow tracking changes in the fish fauna after growing human impact. In the main, our data concern of the Kazakhstan part of the river. About 34 species and subspecies were discovered here; about 19 species between them are native. Origin or taxonomy of some species are disputable. In the last publications of the XX-th century 38 fish species and subspecies were mentioned. Native fish species as Aral barbel Barbus brachycephalus and Bulatmai barbel Barbus capito, Chu sharpray Capoetobrama kuschakewitschii and alien Sea trout Salmo trutta, Sevan trout Salmo ischchan were not found last decade in the Kazakhstan part of the river. Distribution area of native Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus and alien Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii were reduced. The most widespread and numerous fish species are native roach, carp, dace, gudgeon and alien stone moroco. Native fishes like pike, asp, Aral ide, striped bystranka, golden spiny loach, southern ninespine stickleback and others were found only in certain sites. Fish species composition for each investigated site was not stable during recent years. Significant variations in fish composition were observed between different water bodies of the basin too. It reflects diversity of human impacts and unsteady water regimen here.

  8. Remote sensing and hydrological measurement based irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, C.; Dech, S. W.; Hafeez, M.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Tischbein, B.

    assessments for all irrigation systems in Central Asia.

  9. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  10. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-islamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly

  11. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-lslamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly.

  12. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    . This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage...

  13. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  14. Important Crustal Growth in the Phanerozoic: Isotopic Evidence of Granitoids from East-Central Asia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bor-ming Jahn; Fuyuan Wu; Dawei Hong

    2000-03-01

    The growth of the continental crust is generally believed to have been essentially completed in the Precambrian, and the amount of juvenile crust produced in the Phanerozoic is considered insignificant. Such idea of negligible growth in the Phanerozoic is now challenged by the revelation of very large volume of juvenile crust produced in the period of 500 to 100 Ma in several orogenic belts. While appreciable volumes of juvenile terranes in North America (Canadian Cordillera, Sierra Nevada and Peninsular Range, Appalachians) have been documented based on Nd isotopic data, the mass of new crust formed in the East-Central Asian Orogenic Belt (ECAOB), eastern part of the Altaid Tectonic Collage, appears to be much greater than the above terranes combined. New and published Nd-Sr isotope data indicate that the Phanerozoic granitoids from the southern belt of the ECAOB (Xinjiang-West Mongolia-Inner Mongolia-NE China) as well as from Mongolia and Transbaikalia were generated from sources dominated by a depleted mantle component. These granitoids represent a significant growth of juvenile crust in the Phanerozoic. Although most plutons in this huge orogenic belt belong to the calc-alkaline series, the ECAOB is also characterized by the emplacement of voluminous A-type granites. The origin of these rocks is probably multiple and is still widely debated. However, the isotopic data (Sr-Nd-O) and trace element abundance patterns of A-type granites from the ECAOB clearly indicate their mantle origin. The evolution of the ECAOB and the entire Altaid Collage is most likely related to successive accretion of arc complexes. However, the emplacement of a large volume of post-tectonic A-type granites requires another mechanism, probably through a series of processes including underplating of massive basaltic magma, partial melting of these basic rocks to produce granitic liquids, followed by extensive fractional crystallization. The proportion of juvenile to recycled, as well as

  15. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered mobile and

  16. THE EFFICIENCY OF DECENTRALIZED AND CENTRALIZED MARKETS FOR LEMONS

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Moreno; John Wooders

    2001-01-01

    In markets with adverse selection, when average quality is low and frictions are small decentralized trade produces a greater surplus than predicted by the competitive model: under decentralized trade some high-quality units of the good trade whereas, due to the "lemons problem", only low-quality units trade in the competitive equilibrium. This suggests a reason why these markets are often decentralized. Remarkably, under some conditions payoffs are competitive as frictions vanish, even thoug...

  17. The Development and Impact of Marketing Capabilities in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    John Fahy; Graham Hooley; Tony Cox; Jozsef Beracs; Krzysztof Fonfara; Boris Snoj

    2000-01-01

    The industrial organisation and evolutionary economics traditions in international business and the resource-based view of the firm in strategic management provide a rich and related set of perspectives on the question of performance in an international environment. This paper draws on these perspectives to examine the nature of marketing capabilities across a range of firm types in Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. A number of key strategic capabilities are examined including market orientation,...

  18. Interbank Deposits and Market Discipline: Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Distinguin; Tchudjane Kouassi; Amine Tarazi

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable debate on the role played by market discipline in the banking industry. Using data for 207 banks across 10 Central and Eastern European countries, this paper empirically analyzes the disciplining role of interbank deposits. We find that market discipline has been effective in Central and Eastern Europe since the implementation of explicit deposit insurance. However, several factors affect the strength of this discipline. State-owned banks are not disciplined probably b...

  19. Development of real estate markets in Central Europe: the case of Prague, Warsaw, and Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    A R Ghanbari-Parsa; R Moatazed-Keivani

    1999-01-01

    The countries of Central Europe have been undergoing major structural transformations since the collapse of Soviet and communist domination towards the end of 1989. However, there has been a relative scarcity of published research on the impact of these transformations on the development of real estate markets in these countries. The authors aim to rectify in part this lack by examining the process of development of real estate markets in the three Central European cities of Prague, Warsaw, a...

  20. Measuring Spatial Price Transmission of Coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Central Market in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dessalegn Gachena; Amsalu Mitiku

    2014-01-01

    This study tries to analyze the spatial price transmission of coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Addis Ababa markets. Monthly prices data (September 2006 to August 2011) for producer and central market prices were collected from Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. The Engle and Granger procedure was employed to test for co-integration between prices. The ADF test for unit root was applied for individual price series. The results of stationarity tests indicate...

  1. Centralized Wage Setting and Labor Market Policies: the Nordic Model Case

    OpenAIRE

    Vona, Francesco; Zamparelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    It is often argued that rigid labour market and centralized bargaining are harmful employment and growth. This paper looks at the case of Nordic countries as a counter-example pointing to some weaknesses of this view. Rigid labour markets, while reducing the offer of low quality jobs, increase average labor productivity by favoring job relocation in high quality jobs. Moene and Wallerstein (1997) adopted a vintage-capital model to compare centralized and decentralized bargaining: they show th...

  2. Global Shared Service Trends in the Central and Eastern European Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert MARCINIAK

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the research is to disclose what kind of trends are present in the global business service markets and which appear in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) business market. The research determines the most important business service trends that emerged in shared service organizations in the CEE region.

  3. Transactions, Credit, and Central Banking in a Model of Segmented Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D. Williamson

    2006-01-01

    A segmented markets model is constructed in which transactions are conducted using credit and currency. Goods market segmentation plays an important role, in addition to the role played by conventional segmentation of asset markets. An important novelty of the paper is to show how the diffusion of a money injection by the central bank depends not only on the interaction of agents in exchanging money for goods, but on the arrangements for clearing and settlement of credit instruments. The mode...

  4. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment Progamme (UNEP); MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and wheter this wil...

  5. La cooperazione dell'UE nella creazione di uno spazio sicuro nella globalizzazione come possibile modello per la regione dell'Asia Centrale

    OpenAIRE

    Atymtayeva, Zhazira

    2015-01-01

    Gli ultimi anni hanno visto importanti cambiamenti positivi nella cooperazione interstatale in Asia centrale. Crescenti minacce come il terrorismo internazionale, l'estremismo religioso e politico, il traffico di droga, ecc, causati dagli interessi geopolitici e geo-economici delle potenze mondiali, hanno contribuito alla formazione di una politica estera più coordinata e coerente degli Stati della regione. Questo processo si manifesta nella partecipazione attiva dell’istituzionalizzazione de...

  6. Au-Sn-W-Cu-Mineralization in the Astaneh-Sarband Area, West Central Iran : including a comparison of the ores with ancient bronze artifacts from Western Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nezafati, Nima

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with two primary aims; (1) geological, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations of the Deh Hosein, Astaneh, and Nezam Abad mineralizations in the Astaneh-Sarband area, west central Iran, with the aim to understand the characteristics of the occurrences and their conditions of formation, and (2) geochemical investigations on ancient bronze artifacts from Iran and Western Asia in order to compare their characteristics with the high-tin copper ore of Deh Hosein and e...

  7. US POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA: TWO APPROACHES ADMINISTRATION OF GEORGE. BUSH (2005-2009 GG. AND BARACK OBAMA (2009-2010 BIENNIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Troitsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evolution of the U.S. strategy towards Central Asia in the second half of the 2000s was defined greatly by the development of the war in Afghanistan. However, since the middle of the decade the course of its implementation depended on the necessity to compensate or overcome consequences of the deterioration of the U.S. relations with Uzbekistan.

  8. Labour Markets and Training in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesporova, Alena

    1997-01-01

    Economic upheaval in Central and Eastern Europe has led to excessive labor supply, increased unemployment, and enforced economic inactivity. Economic policies promoting growth, efficiency, and education and training to improve the quality and adaptability of the workforce are needed. (SK)

  9. Counterparty Risk Externality: Centralized Versus Over-the-counter Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Viral V; Alberto Bisin

    2011-01-01

    We model the opacity of over-the-counter (OTC) markets in a setup where agents share risks, but have incentives to default and their financial positions are not mutually observable. We show that this setup results in excess "leverage" in that parties take on short OTC positions that lead to levels of default risk that are higher than Pareto-efficient ones. In particular, OTC markets feature a "counterparty risk externality" that we show can lead to ex-ante productive inefficiency. This extern...

  10. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul

    2002-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market

  11. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations at ten sites with contrasting land use in an arid region of central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen (Nr species from 2009 to 2011 are reported for ten sites in Xinjiang, China, an arid region of central Asia. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4+ and pNO3 showed large spatial and seasonal variation and averaged 7.71, 9.68, 1.81 and 1.13 μg N m−3, and PM10 concentrations averaged 249.2 μg m−3 across all sites. Lower NH3 concentrations and higher NO2, pNH4+ and pNO3 concentrations were found in winter, reflecting serious air pollution due to domestic heating in winter and other anthropogenic sources such as increased emissions from motor traffic and industry. The increasing order of total concentrations of Nr species was alpine grassland; desert, desert-oasis ecotone; desert in an oasis; farmland; suburban and urban ecosystems. Lower ratios of secondary particles (NH4+ and NO3 were found in the desert and desert-oasis ecotone, while urban and suburban areas had higher ratios, which implied that anthropogenic activities have greatly influenced local air quality and must be controlled.

  12. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns. PMID:26718947

  13. PM₁₀ concentration in urban atmosphere around the eastern Tien Shan, Central Asia during 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Minguillón, María Cruz; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Fang; Qiu, Xue

    2015-05-01

    Based on the daily records from 16 cities around the eastern Tien Shan (Tianshan Mountains), central Asia from 2007 to 2013, the spatial pattern and seasonal/interannual variation of urban particulate matter up to 10 μm in size (PM10) concentrations and influencing factors were analyzed. Annual mean PM10 concentrations (±standard deviation) in most cities on the northern slope mainly range from 55 ± 28 μg/m(3) to 92 ± 75 μg/m(3), and those on the southern slope range between 96 ± 65 and 195 ± 144 μg/m(3). PM10 concentrations are maxima in winter on the northern slope, while they maximize in springtime on the southern slope. There is an increasing trend in annual mean concentrations during the period 2007-2013, which is not statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Urban PM10 concentration in the study region is jointly influenced by anthropogenic emission and regional natural processes, especially dust events and precipitation. The northern slope usually has heavy anthropogenic air pollution (mostly in winter) and relatively rich precipitation especially in summer, and the southern slope always suffers more frequent dust events (mostly in spring) and less precipitation. Modeled back-trajectory indicated that the Taklimakan desert source can greatly increase the PM10 concentration on the southern slope, and the mountain ranges may hinder the transport of dust to the northern slope. PMID:25471722

  14. Influence of strong electromagnetic discharges on the dynamics of earthquakes time distribution in the Bishkek test area (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tosi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available From 08/01/1983 to 28/03/1990, at the Bishkek ElectroMagnetic (EM test site (Northern Tien Shan and Chu Valley area, Central Asia, strong currents, up to 2.5 kA, were released at a 4.5 km long electrical (grounded dipole. This area is seismically active and a catalogue with about 14100 events from 1975 to 1996 has been analyzed. The seismic catalogue was divided into three parts: 1975-1983 first part with no EM experiments, 1983-1990 second part during EM experiments and 1988-1996 after experiments part. Qualitative and quantitative time series non- linear analysis was applied to waiting times of earthquakes to the above three sub catalogue periods. The qualitative approach includes visual inspection of reconstructed phase space, Iterated Function Systems (IFS and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA. The quantitative approach followed correlation integral calculation of reconstructed phase space of waiting time distribution, with noise reduction and surrogate testing methods. Moreover the Lempel- Ziv algorithmic complexity measure (LZC was calculated. General dynamics of earthquakes’ temporal distribution around the test area, reveals properties of low dimensional non linearity. Strong EM discharges lead to the increase in extent of regularity in earthquakes temporal distribution. After cessation of EM experiments the earthquakes’ temporal distribution becomes much more random than before experiments. To avoid non valid conclusions several tests were applied to our data set: differentiation of the time series was applied to check results not affected by non stationarity; the surrogate data approach was followed to reject the hypothesis that dynamics belongs to the colored noise type. Small earthquakes, below completeness threshold, were added to the analysis to check results robustness.

  15. Estimating Spatial and Temporal Variability in Surface Kinematics of the Inylchek Glacier, Central Asia, using TerraSAR–X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Neelmeijer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use 124 scenes of TerraSAR–X data that were acquired in 2009 and 2010 to analyse the spatial and temporal variability in surface kinematics of the debris-covered Inylchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan mountain range in Central Asia. By applying the feature tracking method to the intensity information of the radar data and combining the results from the ascending and descending orbits, we derive the surface velocity field of the glaciated area. Analysing the seasonal variations over the upper part of the Southern Inylchek branch, we find a temperature-related increase in velocity from 25 cm/d up to 50 cm/d between spring and summer, with the peak occurring in June. Another prominent velocity peak is observable one month later in the lower part of the Southern Inylchek branch. This area shows generally little motion, with values of approximately 5–10 cm/d over the year, but yields surface kinematics of up to 25 cm/d during the peak period. Comparisons of the dates of annual glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs of the proglacial Lake Merzbacher suggest that this lower part is directly influenced by the drainage, leading to the observed mini-surge, which has over twice the normal displacement rate. With regard to the GLOF and the related response of Inylchek Glacier, we conclude that X–band radar systems such as TerraSAR–X have a high potential for detecting and characterising small-scale glacial surface kinematic variations and should be considered for future inter-annual glacial monitoring tasks.

  16. Petrogenesis of Early-Permian sanukitoids from West Junggar, Northwest China: Implications for Late Paleozoic crustal growth in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiyuan; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Tang, Gongjian; Yu, Shun; Long, Xiaoping; Cai, Keda; Geng, Hongyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-11-01

    Sanukitoids and their equivalents are rare subduction-related rock types that have been found in modern arc settings and in Late Archean sequences. The investigation of sanukitoids is of particular importance to a better understanding of crust-forming processes and continental growth. In this paper we report zircon U-Pb and Ar-Ar ages and major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Bieluagaxi dioritic pluton and dikes from the southern part of the West Junggar, NW China. These rocks formed in the Early Permian and show a remarkable geochemical affinity with Cenozoic sanukitoids of the Setouchi Volcanic Belt of SW Japan with high Mg# (48-73) values, Cr (54-539 ppm), Ni (21-197 ppm) contents and Th/La (0.15-0.37) ratios and low Sr/Y ratios (16-27) and Sr (263-442 ppm) contents. They may be generated by the partial melting of subducting sediments, and subsequent melt-mantle interaction. Additionally, the sanukitoids are also widespread in the Karamay-Baogutu area of West Junggar accompanied by high Sr (average 713 ppm) contents and Sr/Y (50-130) ratios, and low Y (6.9-12.6 ppm) contents. The difference in petrochemical characteristics between the Baogutu-Karamay and Bieluagaxi sanukitoids can be explained by the difference in depth of initial melting, origin composition and fractional crystallization. The Baogutu-Karamay sanukitoids were probably formed under eclogitic conditions, while the Bieluagaxi sanukitoids were at a shallower depth. Moreover, the compositional similarity between continental-crust forming rocks and the Bieluagaxi sanukitoids suggests that the sanukitoids genesis could be closely related to the process of continental crust formation. The Late Carboniferous-Early Permian sanukitoids in the West Junggar may be an indicator of anomalous thermal activity. Ridge subduction may play a crucial role in the evolution and growth of the continental crust in Central Asia.

  17. On the Annual Cycle of Central South-West Asia precipitation in GCMs: an Analysis of AMIP Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Szeto, K.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates simulations of precipitation patterns over the Central South-West Asia region (25-40N and 45-75E) by using results from the Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP). Annual and monthly spatial precipitation fields produced by a subset of 13 currently available AMIP model experiments are evaluated for the region and compared with GPCC (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre) monthly precipitation data for the period of 1979-2001. GPCC precipitation data are available with 0.5 degree resolution and correlate with observational precipitation data with a correlation factor of 0.953. The models show large variations in their ability to capture the seasonal precipitation, although spatial correlations indicate that some of the models simulate the pattern of GPCC precipitation fields fairly well. Some models cannot capture the convective precipitation in the region that occurs during spring (March-April) and fall (Sept-Oct). Relative to the GPCC data most of the models predicted well in winter whereas some models cannot adequately capture the summer (monsoon) precipitation which enters the domain from east. On the spatial scales of the selected region, there is little consistent evidence that points to any specific feature as an indicator of model performance. None of the obvious candidates such as horizontal resolution, convective closure schemes, or land surface schemes are reliable discriminators of a models ability to simulate precipitation accurately. Horizontal resolution effects are apparent in the inter-mountain region, where high resolution models do better that low resolution models. However, there is not enough evidence to produce reliable simulation on this basis. Correlation coefficients of observed precipitation with model output can be improved by using ensemble averaged precipitation from several models.

  18. Climate change impact on future water resources availability for a semi-arid area (Ferghana Valley, Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, Iuliia; Breuer, Lutz; Mannig, Birgit; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2014-05-01

    Considering increasing temperatures and glacier recession during the last decades, it is of high interest to study the climate change impact on water resources availability in semi-arid regions of Central Asia. The Ferghana Valley is surrounded by the Tien-Shan and Pamiro-Alay mountain systems that store big amounts of water in snowpacks and glaciers. In the valley the agricultural activity of local people strongly depends on available water from the Syrdarya River. The river is formed by the confluence of the Naryn and Karadarya Rivers, which are mainly fed by the glacier and snow melt from the Akshiirak and Ferghana ridges of the aforementioned mountain systems. The small upper river basins of the valley also contribute with runoff (~34 %) to the Syrdarya River. These small rivers are mainly fed by precipitation and seasonal snow melt. Thus, because of climate change and glacier decline, it is necessary to investigate the comparative contribution of the small catchments versus two big river basins to the Syrdarya River system, as these small upper catchments could become more important for future water consumption. In this study the conceptual hydrological HBV-light model has been calibrated and validated for the period 1980-1985 over 18 upper catchments that feed the Syrdarya River from the surrounding mountain ridges. Dynamically downscaled climate change scenarios were then applied up to the year 2100 for these basins. The scenarios were generated by means of Global Circulation Model (ECHAM5) and Regional Climate Model (REMO) with a baseline period from 1971 till 2000. We will present modelling results of water resources, the contribution of small rivers to the Syrdarya River and to what extent this contribution is likely to change in the future. Moreover, the results of simulated potential runoff will be used to develop future climate change adaptation strategies regarding socio-economic and environmental sustainable water use.

  19. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul

    2001-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market valuation of central banks. Our analysis shows that shares of these two central banks have performed poorly. We also investigate the factors affecting central bank stock returns and find that the ...

  20. Impacts of SST Warming in tropical Indian Ocean on CMIP5 model-projected summer rainfall changes over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Huqiang

    2016-05-01

    Based on the historical and RCP8.5 experiments from 25 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) on the projected change in summer rainfall over Central Asia (CA) are investigated. The analysis is designed to answer three questions: (1) Can CMIP5 models reproduce the observed influence of the IO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the CA rainfall variations and the associated dynamical processes? (2) How well do the models agree on their projected rainfall changes over CA under warmed climate? (3) How much of the uncertainty in such rainfall projections is due to different impacts of IO SSTs in these models? The historical experiments show that in most models summer rainfall over CA are positively correlated to the SSTs in the IO. Furthermore, for models with higher rainfall-SSTs correlations, the dynamical processes accountable for such impacts are much closer to what have been revealed in observational data: warmer SSTs tend to favor the development of anti-cyclonic circulation patterns at low troposphere over north and northwest of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These anomalous circulation patterns correspond to significantly enhanced southerly flow which carries warm and moisture air mass from the IO region up to the northeast. At the same time, there is a cyclonic flow over the central and eastern part of the CA which further brings the tropical moisture into the CA and provides essential moist conditions for its rainfall generation. In the second half of twenty-first century, although all the 25 models simulate warmed SSTs, significant uncertainty exists in their projected rainfall changes over CA: half of them suggest summer rainfall increases, but the other half project rainfall decreases. However, when we select seven models out of the 25 based on their skills in capturing the dynamical processes as observed, then the model projected changes

  1. An exchange rate determination model for central banks' interventions in financial markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林浚清; 黄祖辉; 战明华

    2002-01-01

    We establish an exchange rate determination model for central banks' in terventions in financial markets. The model shows that central banks can adjust exchange rate by several policy instruments and that different instruments may h ave different effects on exchange rate determination. It specifies potential pol icy instruments for central banks as well as their policy effects. Based on thes e effects, feasible matches of policy instruments in contingent intervention are put forth.

  2. The impact of macro news and central bank communication on emerging European forex markets

    OpenAIRE

    Egert, Balazs; Kocenda, Evžen

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the impact of macroeconomic news and central bank communication on the exchange rates of three Central and Eastern European (CEE) currencies against the euro. In doing so, we first estimate standard and extended versions of the monetary model to capture deviations from the long-term monetary equilibrium. In the second stage, we employ a high-frequency GARCH model that includes accurately identified macroeconomic news, central bank communication and emerging market risk and allows f...

  3. Macro prudential supervision in the open economy, and the role of central banks in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore lessons from the global liquidity crisis pertaining to the prudential supervision role of central bank in an open economy. The narrow view of the role of central banks has been seriously challenged by the global liquidity crisis of 2008-9. The crisis validates central banks’ responsibility for prudential regulations and policies aimed at reducing susceptibility of economies to crises, and the need for external debt management policy in emerging markets. Hoardi...

  4. Market efficiency, purchasing power parity and cointegration in Central American black foreing exchange markets

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto López

    1993-01-01

    The assumption that black market exchange rates follow a random walk and /or are determined by the purchasing power parity conditions in comonly imposed in macreoconomic models. The results from standard tests of black market efficiency, under the weak form, are not conclusive withoutany ambiguity whenever they are applied to nonstationary time series. This paper compares then with the unambiguous results arising from the application of the theory of cointegration to the study of market effic...

  5. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften

    2014-07-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  6. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  7. Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic intraplate magmatism in Central Asia and its relation with mantle diapirism: Evidence from the South Khangai volcanic region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolyuk, Vladimir V.; Kudryashova, Ekaterina A.; Kozlovsky, Alexander M.; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Savatenkov, Valery M.

    2015-11-01

    The South Khangai volcanic region (SKVR) comprises fields of Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic rocks scattered over southern and central Mongolia. Evolution of the region from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cenozoic includes 13 successive igneous episodes that are more or less evenly distributed in time. Major patterns in the distribution of different-aged volcanic complexes were controlled by a systematic temporal migration of volcanic centers over the region. The total length of their trajectory exceeds 1600 km. Principle characteristics of local magmatism are determined. The composition of igneous rocks varies from basanites to rhyolites (predominantly, high-K rocks), with geochemistry close to that of OIB. The rock composition, however, underwent transformations in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Rejuvenation of mafic rocks is accompanied by decrease in the contents of HREE and increase of Nb and Ta. According to isotope data, the SKVR magmatic melts were derived from three isotope sources that differed in the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions and successively alternated in time. In the Early Cretaceous, the predominant source composition was controlled by interaction of the EMII- and PREMA-type mantle materials. The PREMA-type mantle material dominated quantitatively in the Late Cretaceous and initial Early Cenozoic. From the latest Early Cenozoic to Late Cenozoic, the magma source also contained the EMI-type material along with the PREMA-type. The structural fabric, rock composition, major evolutionary pattern, and inner structure of SKVR generally comply with the criteria used to distinguish the mantle plume-related regions. Analogous features can be seen in other regions of recent volcanism in Central Asia (South Baikal, Udokan, Vitim, and Tok Stanovik). The structural autonomy of these regions suggests that distribution of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanism in Central Asia was controlled by a group of relatively small hot finger-type mantle plumes associated with

  8. Water Productivity Mapping (WPM Using Landsat ETM+ Data for the Irrigated Croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabirjan Isaev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this paper was to espouse methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM using high spatial resolution Landsat remote sensing data. In a world where land and water for agriculture are becoming increasingly scarce, growing “more crop per drop” (increasing water productivity becomes crucial for food security of future generations. The study used time-series Landsat ETM+ data to produce WPMs of irrigated crops, with emphasis on cotton in the Galaba study area in the Syrdarya river basin of Central Asia. The WPM methods and protocols using remote sensing data consisted of: (1 crop productivity (ton/ha maps (CPMs involvingcrop type classification, crop yield and biophysical modeling, and extrapolating yield models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2 crop water use (m3/ha maps (WUMs (or actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET developed through Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB model; and (3 water productivity (kg/m3 maps (WPMs produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs. The SSEB model calculated WUMs (actual ET by multiplying the ET fractionby reference ET. The ETfraction was determined using Landsat thermal imagery by selecting the “hot” pixels (zero ET and “cold” pixels (maximum ET. The grass reference ET was calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data. The WPMs for the Galaba study area demonstrated a wide variations (0-0.54 kg/m3 in water productivity of cotton fields with overwhelming proportion (87% of the area having WP less than 0.30 kg/m3, 11% of the area having WP in range of 0.30-0.36 kg/m3, and only 2% of the area with WP greater than 0.36 kg/m3. These results clearly imply that there are opportunities for significant WP increases in overwhelming proportion of the existing croplands. The areas of low WP are spatially pin-pointed and can be used as focus for WP improvements

  9. Inorganic nitrogen leaching from organic and conventional rice production on a newly claimed calciustoll in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21-42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32-0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21-0.34 kg N Mg(-1) rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be maintained

  10. Inorganic nitrogen leaching from organic and conventional rice production on a newly claimed calciustoll in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanqiao Meng

    Full Text Available Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21-42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78% than did organic treatments (0.32-0.60%, but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21-0.34 kg N Mg(-1 rice grains. Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to

  11. Assessing the Use of Remote Sensing and a Crop Growth Model to Improve Modeled Streamflow in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Richey, J. E.; Tan, A.; Liu, M.; Adam, J. C.; Sokolov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Central Asia presents a perfect case study to understand the dynamic, and often conflicting, linkages between food, energy, and water in natural systems. The destruction of the Aral Sea is a well-known environmental disaster, largely driven by increased irrigation demand on the rivers that feed the endorheic sea. Continued reliance on these rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, often place available water resources at odds between hydropower demands upstream and irrigation requirements downstream. A combination of tools is required to understand these linkages and how they may change in the future as a function of climate change and population growth. In addition, the region is geopolitically complex as the former Soviet basin states develop management strategies to sustainably manage shared resources. This complexity increases the importance of relying upon publically available information sources and tools. Preliminary work has shown potential for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to recreate the natural water balance in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins by comparing results to total terrestrial water storage changes observed from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Modeled streamflow is well correlated to observed streamflow at upstream gauges prior to the large-scale expansion of irrigation and hydropower. However, current modeled results are unable to capture the human influence of water use on downstream flow. This study examines the utility of a crop simulation model, CropSyst, to represent irrigation demand and GRACE to improve modeled streamflow estimates in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins. Specifically we determine crop water demand with CropSyst utilizing available data on irrigation schemes and cropping patterns. We determine how this demand can be met either by surface water, modeled by VIC with a reservoir operation scheme, and/or by groundwater derived from GRACE. Finally, we assess how the

  12. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components

  13. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  14. Application of a statistical-dynamical downscaling approach to simulate present and future regional precipitation regimes in Central-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, M.; Born, K.; Pinto, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    A statistical-dynamical downscaling approach is used to analyse the effect of climate change on the precipitation regimes within a river catchment in the Tienshan Mountains in Central Asia. Since this region is characterised by extraordinary topographic heterogeneity, with a large desert basin in the south and high ridge mountains in the north, highly resolved regional climate simulations are performed to capture the orographic effects on rainfall climatology. In the statistical part of the downscaling a Circulation Weather Type (CWT) analysis is applied to daily 700hPa geopotential height datasets of the ERA40 Reanalyis, where the lower tropospheric flow for each day is subdivided into one of eight directional flows and/or into cyclonic or anti-cyclonic flow. In the dynamical part of the downscaling a sample of representatives for each cluster of the CWTs is simulated with the COSMO-CLM model with a horizontal resolution of up to approximately 7 km. By weighting the simulated representatives with their climatological frequencies, a climatology of the precipitation can be determined on the regional scale. For the analysis of the impact of climate change on the regional precipitation in the Tienshan Mountains different scenarios of the ECHAM5 model are used. For this purpose, changes of the CWT frequencies of the ECHAM5 scenarios related to the respective control period are added to the climatological ERA40 frequencies. The simulated representatives are then weighted by these new frequencies to estimate the precipitation change signal in the catchment. First results of the statistical-dynamical downscaling suggest that the general orographic effects are well captured by the downscaling procedure. A precipitation climatology computed from simulations with a horizontal resolution of approximately 20 km shows the expected horizontal rainfall distribution, with less than 100 mm per year in the desert basin and at the southern slope of the Tienshan Mountains and with

  15. Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jihyung Hong,1 Diego Novick,1 Tamás Treuer,2 William Montgomery,3 Virginia S Haynes,4 Shenghu Wu,5 Josep Maria Haro61Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, US; 5Eli Lilly China, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 6Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD from Central Europe and East Asia.Patients and methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and East Asia. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE. Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI, changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE.Results: Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in East Asia were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from East Asia was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In East Asia, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional

  16. Information, Direct Access to Farmers, and Rural Market Performance in Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of a change in procurement strategy of a private buyer in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Beginning in October 2000, Internet kiosks and warehouses were established that provide wholesale price information and an alternative marketing channel to soy farmers in the state. Using a new market-level dataset, the estimates suggest a significant increase in soy price after the introduction of kiosks, supporting the predictions of the theoretical model. Mo...

  17. Development of Exchange-Traded Derivatives Markets in Selective Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Sorin Gabriel; Diaconasu Delia-Elena

    2011-01-01

    The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe are trying to construct viable modern financial markets which provide a wide range of financial instruments. The paper focuses on the evolution of exchange-traded derivatives in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. The results indicate that the most developed exchange-traded derivatives market is the Polish one. In Hungary, the derivatives on currency rates and stock index futures are the most popular, while in Romania, trading ta...

  18. A rationale for the coexistence of central and decentral marketing in team sports

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    In some sports leagues, the sports association sells broadcasting rights centrally in order to create competitive balance. In other ones, the market is decentral. As a result, there is competitive imbalance. In this paper, the preferred kind of marketing of sports associations is analysed. Distinctions are made between three cases. In case one, the sports association is only interested in competitive balance. In the second case, it wishes to create a single high performing team, and in the th...

  19. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  20. Historical Influences and a Modern Alternative for Leadership Models in Central Asia = Orta Asya'da Liderlik Modellerinde Tarihsel Etkiler ve Modern Alternatifler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael COX

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1991 demise of the Soviet Union that led to the emancipation of many Central Asian states, also led to a grab for power by a variety of leadership types. Although the characteristics of leadership types in the 1990s were diverse, few followed the pattern of Samuel Huntington's Third Wave of authoritarian transition, whereby authoritarian regimes were abandoned in favor of democratically elected and democratically oriented governments. Historically, Eurasia has had little experience with popular government. This is reflected in the general characteristics of leadership types in the post-Soviet era, which closely follow three regional historical influences - the early Islamic Emperors, the Mongolian Khans and the Russian Tsars (and later Soviet leaders. This article examines the historic influences on Eurasian leadership types and the impact of these types on the politics, societies and economies of these same states. It will be argued that at the current stage of political development, it would ultimately benefit the states of Central Asia to follow, at this time, the most successful Eurasian model to date, that of Kemal Atatürk and Turkey, rather than to push for a fully participatory democracy or sustain the post-Soviet personal dictatorships that have prospered throughout Central Asia.

  1. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.

  2. Potentials of RapidEye time series for improved classification of crop rotations in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes: experiences from irrigation systems in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Christopher; Machwitz, Miriam; Schorcht, Gunther; Löw, Fabian; Fritsch, Sebastian; Dech, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    In Central Asia, more than eight Million ha of agricultural land are under irrigation. But severe degradation problems and unreliable water distribution have caused declining yields during the past decades. Reliable and area-wide information about crops can be seen as important step to elaborate options for sustainable land and water management. Experiences from RapidEye classifications of crop in Central Asia are exemplarily shown during a classification of eight crop classes including three rotations with winter wheat, cotton, rice, and fallow land in the Khorezm region of Uzbekistan covering 230,000 ha of irrigated land. A random forest generated by using 1215 field samples was applied to multitemporal RapidEye data acquired during the vegetation period 2010. But RapidEye coverage varied and did not allow for generating temporally consistent mosaics covering the entire region. To classify all 55,188 agricultural parcels in the region three classification zones were classified separately. The zoning allowed for including at least three observation periods into classification. Overall accuracy exceeded 85 % for all classification zones. Highest accuracies of 87.4 % were achieved by including five spatiotemporal composites of RapidEye. Class-wise accuracy assessments showed the usefulness of selecting time steps which represent relevant phenological phases of the vegetation period. The presented approach can support regional crop inventory. Accurate classification results in early stages of the cropping season permit recalculation of crop water demands and reallocation of irrigation water. The high temporal and spatial resolution of RapidEye can be concluded highly beneficial for agricultural land use classifications in entire Central Asia.

  3. TESTING CAPM MODEL ON THE EMERGING MARKETS OF THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Džaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines if the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is adequate for capital asset valuation on the Central and South-East European emerging securities markets using monthly stock returns for nine countries for the period of January 2006 to December 2010. Precisely, it is tested if beta, as the systematic risk measure, is valid on observed markets by analysing are high expected returns associated with high levels of risk, i.e. beta. Also, the efficiency of market indices of observed countries is examined.

  4. Paths to policy coherence to create market economies in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana

    2011-01-01

    centralized economies of Central and Eastern Europe into market-driven ones. It shows that government characteristics with likely impact on the quality of policy-making, such as accountability and institutional constraints, are associated with coherent policies only in a limited number of cases. It also shows...... that governments that are not constrained and accountable, formulate coherent policies if they find themselves in contexts that do not pose constraints, or that offer strong incentives. © The Author(s) 2011....

  5. THE REGIONAL CENTERS OF POWER: IS THERE A CONFLICT OF INTERESTS, IDEOLOGICAL COOPERATION, OR A CONFLICT OF STRATEGIES AMONG THEM IN CENTRAL ASIA?

    OpenAIRE

    Omarov, Noor; Usubaliev, Esen

    2008-01-01

    The geopolitical vacuum of the post-Soviet period in Central Asia soon developed into a security vacuum to be filled, in the latter half of the 1990s, with various regional and sub-regional units set up by countries located outside the region. Many of them claimed regional leadership and monopoly domination in the Eurasian security system. In the wake of 1991, the regional countries, in turn, restored the wide contacts, within the geopolitical and geo-economic context, interrupted by their lo...

  6. CHINESE “ROOTS” AND RUSSIAN “BRANCHES” IN CENTRAL ASIA (ON THE CORRELATION OF CHINESE AND RUSSIAN POLICY IN THE REGION)

    OpenAIRE

    Luzianin, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    China and Russia both look at Central Asia as a potentially promising, yet risky region, the potential/risk correlation being very different for them. For obvious reasons, the region, in which Russia is implementing several promising and important projects (the CSTO, EurAsEC), is highly important for it. China, which does not take part in these projects, is rapidly building up its economic and political presence in an effort to make up for the slow start. Russia and China are SCO members, an ...

  7. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  8. Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon

    2010-05-01

    Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary

  9. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ahmad A; Canguven, Onder; Raidh, Talib A

    2015-01-01

    Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ± standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ± 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%), 83 (5%) patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture. PMID:26229311

  10. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  11. A Comparative Context for U.S. Housing Policy: Housing Markets and the Financial Crisis in Europe, Asia, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Bardhan, Ashok; Edelstein, Robert; Kroll, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares housing markets and housing finance institutions around the world to better understand how economic, historical, regulatory, and institutional factors influenced national economies and global housing markets during the financial crisis.

  12. Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO Accession: Regionalism and Integration into the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pomfret

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements which the Central Asian countries have signed have had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for the Central Asian countries of Chinese and Russian WTO membership and the consequences of the current Central Asian applicants’ (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbeki...

  13. Perspectives for long-term competition in the central European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we focus on the Central European electricity market and analyse whether liberalization, deregulation, and privatization are sufficient to bring about real competition. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of the following conditions to bring about real competition and to avoid market power: 1) A rigorous correct un bundling; 2) excess capacities in transmission; 3) excess capacities in generation; 4) a large number of generators and suppliers; 5) the balanced existence of short-term (e.g. spot markets) and long-term markets (e.g. bilateral contracts, forwards); 6) full liberalization; Some major findings of this analysis are: 1) Currently, demand is continuously increasing while capacities are shut down. At least in 2009 demand will have caught up with generation capacities. This could lead to severe price spikes. 2) The Central European electricity market is separated from other markets by means of limited transmission capacities; 3) With respect to effective competition in Central Europe the major problems are: i) a very small (and continuously decreasing) number of generators, and ii) a lack of serious un bundling between generation and transmission mainly in Germany; This leads to cross-subsidization of generation by the network operation and to a heavy discrimination of other and new generators; 4) Moreover, a crucial condition for active competition is a sufficiently large transmission grid. Yet, currently especially at the border to the new EU member countries transmission capacities are rather scarce and there are no signs of extensions of the grid. This also limits the access of countries with potential excess capacities like Ukraine, Bulgaria, Romania to the Central European market The major conclusion of this analysis is: All conditions investigated above must be fulfilled simultaneously to bring about a competitive electricity market in Western Europe and the extended European Union. If only one of these conditions is missing, competition

  14. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  15. Western Pacific Regional Index Medicus (WPRIM, Asia Pacific Association of Medical Journal Editors (APAME and APAMED CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vui Heng CHONG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONThe Global Health Library (GHL is a virtual platform conceptualised by the World Health Organisation (WHO Library and Information Networks with the goal of “disseminating health knowledge by making it accessible to everyone so that the benefits of the knowledge can be used for the fullest attainment of health”. A part of GHL is the Global Index Medicus (GIM, which hosts the Regional Index Medici (RIM produced by the WHO Regional Offices in Africa, the Americas,Eastern Mediterranean and South-East Asia as shown in Figure 1. The information contained in these RIM can be searched individually or simultaneously through a federated search engine.

  16. How Might Sovereign Bond Yields in Asia Pacific React to US Monetary Normalisation under Turbulent Market Conditions?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Fong; Ceara Hui; Alfred Wong

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the potential impact of US monetary normalisation on sovereign bond yields in Asia Pacific. We apply the quantile vector autoregressive model with principal component analysis to the assessment of tail risk of sovereign debt, which may not be detectable using traditional OLS-based analysis. Our empirical evidence suggests that US Treasury bond yields can have a significant impact on sovereign bond yields in the region, an important channel through which monetary normalisat...

  17. Foreign Investment in the Foreign Sector in the Russian Far East and Potential Market Integration with Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, K.

    1994-01-01

    Located in one of the world's most resource-rich regions, the Russian Far East suggests major potential interactions with some of the fastest growing economies in Northeast Asia, namely, Japan, Korea and China. Russian economic reform and opportunity for foreign direct investment have increased the chance of realizing such potential. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of South Korean investment in developing the forest resources of the Russian Far East and expor...

  18. Natural gas transport and storage markets in central Europe - trends of development and price formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final consumer price is to a large part determined by the costs of natural gas transport, which thus often also becomes a determinant of the structure of natural gas markets. The present paper restricts itself to current developments in central Europe. It is intended to show that there is an increase in demand for 'unbundled' storage and transport services across markets of different strufctures. It is not possible to give more than a scanty outline of the principles governing tariff and price fixing. (orig.)

  19. Food and Migration: the Abacería Central Market of Gràcia (Barcelona)

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, F. Xavier; Provansal, Danielle; Montero, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Local food markets are, aside from being places for provisioning, spaces for meeting and social interaction. This article engages in an analysis of the social and commercial relations exhibited in the geographical area of the Abacería Central Market, in the neighborhood of Gràcia (Barcelona): a neighborhood that, over the last two decades, has seen a significant rise in the number of residents arriving from other countries (primarily Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe). The Abacería Cen...

  20. International conference on a nuclear-weapon-free zone in central Asia, 15-16 September 1997 Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Building an integral part of the global nuclear security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Conference is the first fruit of the joint effort by the Central Asian States to counter external threats and challenges. The decision to declare Central Asia a nuclear-weapon-free zone is a further manifestation of the Central Asian States' shared interest in ensuring security, stability and peace for all the inhabitants of the region and in creating the necessary -indeed, the essential- conditions for its sustainable development and prosperity

  1. Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Balci

    2010-12-01

    galement envoyé des milliers de migrants turcs dans le cadre de plusieurs projets missionnaires. Amenée à s’enraciner dans ses villes d’expatriation en Asie centrale, cette migration turque a déjà très nettement marqué de son empreinte l’islam de ces pays, plus particulièrement au Turkménistan, au Kazakhstan et au Kirghizstan qui ont d’excellentes relations politiques avec la Turquie. Ainsi, bon nombre de nouvelles élites religieuses dans ces pays ont été formées dans le cadre de la coopération avec les mouvements missionnaires turcs et leurs disciples qui ont immigré en Asie centrale. S’inscrivant en marge de la politique officielle turque de coopération en matière religieuse avec les pays d’Asie centrale, les migrants turcs n’en rendent pas moins un grand service à la diplomatie d’Ankara dans la région en l’aidant indirectement à se constituer une sphère d’influence dans cet espace turcophone qui occupe une place notable dans la nouvelle politique extérieure de la Turquie.With the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, a wave of migrants left Turkey for the newly independent Turkish-speaking Central Asian republics with which the country had strong cultural ties – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. As a result of this multiform movement, an important religious message travelled in both directions, but especially from Turkey to the main Central Asian cities. This article focuses on this message. Turkish migrants, who were often missionaries, used commerce and cooperation initiatives in education as two main tools to re-Islamise Central Asia. For many Turkish Islamic movements, it was important to bring this region back into the fold after over 70 years of domination by a Soviet government with a strongly anti-religious policy. As part of this proselytizing, four key Turkish Islamic movements became visible in Central Asia. The largest was undoubtedly that founded by Said Nursi, whose disciples were

  2. Cultural Mechanism of Communication in Central Asia%中亚传播的文化机制建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立斌; 王圆方

    2015-01-01

    The dissemination in Central Asia needs to develop a correct communication strategy in line with the law of the cultural communication. On the one hand, the laws of inherent cultural propagation must be utilized to focus on the living wisdom of 5000 year Chinese culture, try to preserve the national emotion of Central Asian nations, and arouse in Central Asian nations the emotional identification with Chinese culture by the dissemination of the Chinese concept of ”benevolence”. On the other hand, the external rules of cross cultural communication must also be exploited to actively spread the ideal of social development with Chinese characteristics, and, with the Chinese dream, wake up the pursuit of secular happiness in Central Asian nations. Therefore, the dissemination in Central Asia is not without conditions. Only by taking a series of effective cultural communication strategies can it be possible to open up an interactive, innovative communication channel between Chinese culture and Central Asian culture.%中亚传播需要根据文化的传播规律制定出正确的传播策略。既要利用文化的内在传播规律,关注中华文化五千年形成的生存智慧,尽力维护中亚民族特定的民族情感,通过传播中华民族“仁”爱天下情怀,唤起中亚民族对中华文化的情感认同;又要利用跨文化传播的外在规律,积极传播中国特色的社会发展理想,用中国梦唤醒中亚民族的现世幸福追求。所以中亚传播不是没有条件的,只有采取一系列卓有成效的文化传播战略,才有可能开辟出一条中国文化与中亚文化的互动传播创新之路。

  3. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  4. Development of Renewable Energies in the liberation of the energy market in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the diagnostic of the current situation on renewable energy in Central America, including socio-economical situation, with economical index, supply and demand of energy and planning of wind resources. The experience of Europe in the promotion for the market of renewable energy, discussing the policies and cooperation between private sector and the government is included. A list of potential projects of renewable energy in each country of Central America based on biomass, hydro power, wind and other energy sources for power generation is presented

  5. Communication dated 11 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 11 September 2006, from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the IAEA regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed on 8 September 2006 in Semipalatinsk by the leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the enclosed information regarding the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, is reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  6. Effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance in a data-scarce glacierized catchment in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, L.; Knoche, M.; Dietrich, J.; Merz, R.

    2016-06-01

    Glacierized high-mountainous catchments are often the water towers for downstream region, and modeling these remote areas are often the only available tool for the assessment of water resources availability. Nevertheless, data scarcity affects different aspects of hydrological modeling in such mountainous glacierized basins. On the example of poorly gauged glacierized catchment in Central Asia, we examined the effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance. The study was conducted with the GSM-Socont model driven with climatic input from the corrected High Asia Reanalysis data set of two different discretizations. We analyze the effects of the use of long-term glacier volume loss, snow cover images, and interior runoff as an additional calibration data. In glacierized catchments with winter accumulation type, where the transformation of precipitation into runoff is mainly controlled by snow and glacier melt processes, the spatial discretization of precipitation tends to have less impact on simulated runoff than a correct prediction of the integral precipitation volume. Increasing model complexity by using spatially distributed input or semidistributed parameters values does not increase model performance in the Gunt catchment, as the more complex model tends to be more sensitive to errors in the input data set. In our case, better model performance and quantification of the flow components can be achieved by additional calibration data, rather than by using a more distributed model parameters. However, a semidistributed model better predicts the spatial patterns of snow accumulation and provides more plausible runoff predictions at the interior sites.

  7. Contagion among Central and Eastern European stock markets during the financial crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2013), s. 443-453. ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wavelets * financial crisis * Central and Eastern European stock markets * comovement * contagion Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/barunik-0396416.pdf

  8. Wavelet Analysis of Central European Stock Market Behaviour During the Crisis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 23 (2009), s. 1-14 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Grant ostatní: GAUK(CZ) 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : wavelet analysis * multiresolution analysis * Central European stock markets * financial crisis Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  10. Hidrocarburos en Kazajastán: nuevas realidades y enfoques para el estudio de las relaciones energéticas de Asia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Aurèlia Mañé Estrada

    2011-01-01

    Desde 1994 se ha hablado mucho acerca del potencial de las antiguas repúblicas soviéticas de Asia Central, como exportadoras de hidrocarburos. Sin embargo, como se argumentará en el artículo, la mayoría de los análisis se basan en dos premisas obsoletas: a) que las relaciones energéticas son como las que el paradigma energético dicotómico (PED) describe - Los países productores frente a países consumidores-, y b) que la función y los objetivos de los países productores en la economía mundial ...

  11. Foreign students in Central Asia learning Chinese characters bias inquiry%中亚留学生汉字习得偏误探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林华

    2014-01-01

    Teaching Chinese characters are the focus of foreign language teaching. Especially for students whose native language is the Latin alphabet countries,learning Chinese Characters become the biggest obstacle when they learn Chinese. At present,more and more students from Central Asia study in China,they want to learn Chinese,strengthen exchanges with China.%一直以来,汉字教学是对外汉语教学中的重点也是难点。特别是针对母语为拉丁字母国家的留学生,汉字学习成为他们学好汉语的最大障碍。当前,越来越多来自中亚的留学生涌入中国,他们希望能够学好汉语,加强与中国的交流。

  12. Modelling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote sensing data in a mountainous region of semi-arid Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klinge

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyse forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semi-arid Central Asia at the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan a strong relation between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the mountain border based on an analysis of the differences of climatic preconditions and present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit takes the same course from 1800 to 2900 m a.s.l. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m and maximum 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north facing-slopes, which is a common feature in semi-arid Central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analysed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  13. Modelling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote sensing data in a mountainous region of semi-arid Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, M.; Böhner, J.; Erasmi, S.

    2014-10-01

    Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyse forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semi-arid Central Asia at the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan a strong relation between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the mountain border based on an analysis of the differences of climatic preconditions and present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit takes the same course from 1800 to 2900 m a.s.l. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m and maximum 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north facing-slopes, which is a common feature in semi-arid Central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analysed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  14. THE DEEP STRUCTURE AND PALEOGEODYNAMICS OF SIBERIA AND CENTRAL ASIA IN STUDIES OF THE INSTITUTE OF THE EARTH’S CRUST, SB RAS (2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep structure and paleogeodynamics of the Siberian craton and the Central Asian folded belt are studied by two specialized laboratories of the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, SB RAS – the Laboratory of Complex Geophysics and the Laboratory of Paleogeodynamics. A variety of modern geophysical methods is applied. Surface wave tomography is focused on determination of 3D velocity structure of the upper mantle. Seismic, gravimetric and electrical surveys are aimed at stu­dies of structures of the crust and the upper mantle. Geothermic parameters of the lithosphere in Central Asia are measured. In search for mineral resources, new geophysical prospecting technologies are developed. Quality paleogeodynamics reconstructions require a proper understanding of the structural evolution of the Siberian craton and the Central Asian folded belt. Researches in this scientific field are conducted by the Laboratory of Paleogeodynamics. Besides, the Laboratory studies new minerals and conditions of their formation. Some of the scientific research projects are jointly implemented by the two laboratories, and research results are regularly published in Russia and abroad.  

  15. The influence of Late Pleistocene geomorphological inheritance and Holocene hydromorphic regimes on floodwater farming in the Talgar catchment, southeast Kazakhstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Chang, Claudia; Tourtellotte, Perry A.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Wang, Hong; Prins, Maarten A.

    2015-12-01

    In comparison to Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming in Central Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a multi-disciplinary research project was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken investigations of Holocene human adaptations to changing hydromorphic regimes in the Tien Shan piedmont region, Central Asia. Fluvial geochronologies have been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years using Optically Stimulated Luminescence and 14C dating, and are compared with human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the medieval period. Phases of Late Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradation at c. 17,400-6420, 4130-2880 and 910-500 cal. BC and between the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were coeval with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes. Entrenchment and floodplain soil development (c. 2880-2490 cal. BC and cal. AD 1300-1640) coincided with warmer and drier conditions. Prior to the modern period, floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400 cal. BC - cal. AD 1) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds. This period of agricultural expansion corresponds to a phase of reduced flooding, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan Mountains. Late Iron age agriculturists appear to have been opportunistic by exploiting a phase of moderate flows within an alluvial fan environment, which contained a series of partially entrenched distributary channels that could be easily 'engineered' to facilitate floodwater farming. Holocene climate change was therefore not a proximate cause for the development and demise of this relatively short-lived (c. 200 years) period of Iron Age farming. River dynamics in the Tien Shan piedmont are

  16. Enlisting Markets in the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in South Asia’s Sundarbans

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Biller; Ernesto Sanchez-Triana

    2013-01-01

    The unique biodiversity of the Sundarbans is threatened by a number of factors, many of which are the direct or indirect result of market failures. Past governmental interventions aiming at protecting biodiversity have been ineffective, while other government efforts have directly or indirectly led to ecosystem degradation. In order to address these challenges, new governmental interventions are needed, particularly those that have the potential to mitigate market failures and address policy ...

  17. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  18. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  19. Communication dated 30 May 2014 received from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 30 May 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan, HE Mr Islam Karimov, on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia. The note verbale and its attachment are circulated herewith for information, as requested by the Permanent Mission

  20. Commercialization and marketing of non-wood forest products in Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of return to nature and its original values is increasingly common worldwide in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. In this context, it is particularly important to pay attention to organic products, as well as the increased demand for healthy food. In these circumstances non-wood forest products (NWFPs emerge as forestry products that meet the criteria of organic farming and as such are placed on the market. The aim of this research was to acquire knowledge about the behavior of the marketing mix elements of NWFPs in Central Serbia in the period from 2007 to 2011. The purpose of this paper was to point to the opportunities for the development of enterprises, and the overall potential of Serbia for the development of companies engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs. The research object were the quantities of products purchased and placed on both domestic and foreign markets, the types of promotional activities, the prices of final products and distribution of the products among the enterprises engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs in Central Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji

  1. COUNTRIES’ SUSTAINABILITY TO ECONOMIC SHOCKS: THE STUDY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturas Jurgelevicius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze economic “shock” impact on Central and Eastern European countries’ sustainable economic development. Design/methodology/approach – Statistical data has been analyzed and sustainability theory has been applied to Central and Eastern European countries during economic downturn 2008 – 2012. Findings – Findings suggest that commonly used macroeconomic indicators do not reflect stable social economic development. Moreover, usually high economic growth during economic cycle is determent by high level of recession in economic cycle. This finding suggests that investors and other financial decision makers should take into account the sustainability of economic performance before taking financial decisions so that during financial economic recession could mitigate risks and loses in Central and Eastern European markets. Also the impact of intangible capital on countries’ sustainability was identified. There is a relationship between social and economic sustainability and intangible capital. Research limitations/implications – Research is applied in the theory of sustainable economic development. The economic and social performance is being considered in the research. Although the concept of sustainable economic development is quite controversial in scientific literature, the aspects of economic and social indicators are taken into account not considering much of ecological aspects of sustainable development. The research logic is based on sustainability as constant and smooth social and economic development than the development through natural limitations and human being needs combinations. Practical implications – Practical implications might be broad enough. Identification of reaction of economies to natural economic “shock” during economic downturn might be applied for governments decision makers, investors, banks, exporters to evaluate future economic financial decisions in Eastern and Central European

  2. Government Securities Versus Central Bank Securities in Developing Open Market Operations; Evaluation and Need for Coordinating Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Quintyn

    1994-01-01

    In an indirect monetary policy framework, open market operations become the central bank’s main instrument. In the initial stages, when financial markets are still undeveloped, selection of a financial instrument for those operations and the design of supporting arrangements to ensure the central bank’s operational autonomy when using the instrument, are crucial issues. Based on theoretical arguments and experience of a sample of countries that embarked on financial reforms, this paper argues...

  3. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  4. E-business and its Application in Conditions of Central European Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Tolga Saruc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is highlighting possibilities in effective utilization of Information and Communication Technologies for supporting entrepreneurship (e-business for Small and Medium enterprises. The core research carried on for duration of twelve months covered analysis and following presentation of possibilities of practical utilization of e-business applications. Furthermore research was oriented towards innovative forms of marketing communication in Real Corporation conducting business in Central European market. Analyzing data on collected findings can add value towards gaining a significant competitive advantage in form of better understanding of real facts influencing entrepreneurship in principle. This can lead consequently to positive influence on corporate effectiveness in the environment of Small and Medium enterprises.

  5. Extent of Salt Affected Land in Central Asia: Biosaline Agriculture and Utilization of the Salt-affected Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Toderich, Kristina; Tsukatani, Tsuneo; Shoaib, Ismail; Massino, Igor; Wilhelm, Margarita; Yusupov, Surat; Kuliev, Tajiddin; Ruziev, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    The current status and trends of salinization are discussed with waterlogging of marginal land/plant and water resources problems including strategies for development of integrated biosaline crop-livestock agriculture based system on food-feed crops and forage legumes for better livelihood of poor farmers in Central Asian (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan). Transfer of technologies and/or methodology of ICBA (International Centre for Biosaline Agriculture) in planting of bo...

  6. Impacts of climate change on glaciers, rock glaciers and water availability in the Tien Shan, Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorg, Annina

    2013-01-01

    The Tien Shan ranges play a pivotal role in supplying freshwater for the Central Asian region. There, climate-driven streamflow changes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. The objective of this thesis is to assess the impacts of climate change on glaciers, rock glaciers and water availability in the Tien Shan region. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature review has been carried out as a basis for a climate change impact case study. Modeli...

  7. Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central Tien Shan, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Glacioclimatological research in the central Tien Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central Tien Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the Tien Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in Tien Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. SURVEY OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY BALANCE IN LOAN MARKETS: CENTRAL BANK'S EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naumenkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the existing Bank Lending Survey (BLS approaches to the assessment of the non-price lending conditions' impact on the credit market balance. BLS responses provided domestic central banks an early and reliable signal about the deterioration of financing conditions and the financial access. The monitoring pattern stipulate by using the core indicators: net percentage, diffusion index, Bank Lending Tightness (BLT. The priority tasks for National Bank of Ukraine for Bank Lending Survey were put forward by author. Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey (SLOOS on Bank Lending Practices address changes in the supply of, and demand for, bank loans to businesses and households over the past months.

  9. Consumer acceptance and market development of irradiated food in Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication covers the activities and accomplishments of eight countries that participated in a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Public Acceptance and Market Development of Irradiated Food in Asia and the Pacific, as presented at a final Research Coordination Meeting held in Bangkok, 20-25 September 1998. The CRP was implemented through research agreements with Bangladesh, China (one each for Shanghai and Beijing), the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam, from 1994 to 1998. The technical work undertaken to bring food irradiation technology to the marketplace to address food security, public health and trade needs, is described. This covered the establishment of quality assurance procedures, the determination of irradiation doses for nontraditional as well as traditional foods, the conduct of techno-economic feasibility, and the identification of industry and consumer needs. In the majority of cases, R and D activities were undertaken in partnership with industry. Developments in the establishment and harmonization of regulations on food irradiation were also monitored. The participants made commendable progress in the marketing of irradiated food and in the understanding and promotion of consumer acceptance of the technology. This was demonstrated in the marketing of close to 179,000 tons of different food and related products through normal trading channels. While the volume of food irradiated varied with the capacity of irradiation plants in participating countries, the work showed that consumers would accept irradiated foods and that trade benefits would ensue from the application of the technology. Information dissemination was found to be a critical factor in public acceptance. The discussions at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting, which are also summarized in this publication, focused on key issues and recommendations to bring about the wider commercialization of food irradiation for the

  10. Water resources in Central Asia - status quo and future conflicts in transboundary river catchments - the example of the Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Michael; Opp, Christian; Kulmatov, Rashid; Normatov, Inom; Stulina, Galina; Shermatov, Nurmakhmad

    2014-05-01

    Water is the most valuable resource in Central Asia and due to its uneven distribution and usage among the countries of the region it is also the main source of tension between upstream and downstream water users. Due to the rapidly shrinking glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alai mountains, the available water resources will, by 2030, be 30% lower than today while the water demand of the growing economies will increase by 30%. This will further aggravate the pressure on the water resources and increase the water deficit caused by an unsustainable water use and political agendas. These challenges can only be overcome by an integrated water resource management for the important transboundary river catchments. The basis for such an IWRM approach however needs to be a solid data base about the status quo of the water resources. To that end the research presented here provides a detailed overview of the transboundary Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan), the lifeline for more than 6 mln people. The Zarafshan River is well suited for this as it is not only one of the most important rivers in Central Asia but because the public availability of hydrological and ecological data is very limited, Furthermore the catchment is characterized by the same imbalances in the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus as most river systems in that region, which makes the Zarafshan a perfect model river for Central Asia as a whole. The findings presented here are based on field measurements, existing data from the national hydrometeorological services and an extensive literature analysis and cover the status quo of the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Zarafshan as well as the most important water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, arsenic, chromate, copper, zinc, fluoride, petroleum products, phenols and the aquatic invertebrate fauna). The hydrology of the Zarafshan is characterized by a high natural discharge dynamic in the mountainous upper parts of

  11. Simulated Future Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology in the Central Asia Cordex Region 8 BY Using RegCM 4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2071-2100 in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology and variability over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. Hadley Global Environment Model 2 (HadGEM2) of the Met Office Hadley Centre was downscaled for the Cordex Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by usingtwo different emission scenario datasets for three future periods. The regional model is capable of reproducing the observed climate with few exceptions, which are due to the meteorological and physical geographical complexities of the domain. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation amounts almost all part of the domain. The results of our study showed that surface air temperatures in the region will increase from 3° C up to more than 7° C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. In the future, a decrease in the amount of precipitation is also predicted for the region. The projected warming and decrease in precipitation for the domain may strongly affect the ecological and socio-economic systems including agriculture, natural biomes, hydrology and water resources of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Options trading on the Romanian Capital Market and Central and Eastern Europe Emerging Capital Markets during the Global Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghita-Mitrescu Silvia; Duhnea Cristina; Vancea Diane Paula Corina

    2010-01-01

    One of the main culprits for the international financial crisis started in late 2007 and still in progress, it is, in the opinion of many experts, the creation and trading in excess of the derivatives. This theory developed in close relationship with the mature capital markets where the derivatives segment reached significant volumes and values. But in the emerging capital markets of Central and Eastern Europe is no large volume of derivatives and rather we can discuss only about the start of...

  13. Quarantine treatment of fresh fruits using irradiation - recent development in market potential and future prospects for Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural exports are important sources of foreign exchange for many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. These horticultural commodities from countries endemic with quarantine pests, especially fruit fly of the Tephritidae family, have to be treated to satisfy strict regulations on plant protection and quarantine in major importing countries. The prohibition of ethylene dibromide (EDB) as a food fumigant by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 1984 followed by Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in 1987, have jeopardized trade in fresh fruits and vegetables originating from tropical and sub-tropical countries. Alternative treatments to satisfy quarantine regulations have been used with limited degree of success. Irradiation by gamma rays has been demonstrated as a viable alternative. The USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) accepted irradiation as a quarantine treatment against various species of fruit fly infesting Hawaiian papaya in early 1989. The North American Plant Protection Organization also accepted irradiation as a quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables in late 1989. A review will be made on the status of research and development on irradiation as a quarantine treatment especially as viable method to overcome trade barriers on tropical fruits. Research carried out under the sponsorship of FAO and IAEA in the past five years demonstrated that a minimum radiation dose of 150 Gy is effective to disinfest fruits and vegetables against all species of fruit fly tested without affecting the quality of host commodities. A minimum dose of 300 Gy is effective against mango seed weevil, mites and other insects which are subject to quarantine restrictions in certain importing countries. An international protocol to demonstrate the efficacy of irradiation as a quarantine treatment on a practical scale will be described. 10 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Structural evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone: implication for the Late Paleozoic amalgamation of multiple arc systems in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-04-01

    The NW-SE Irtysh Shear Zone represents a major tectonic boundary in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, recording the amalgamation history between the peri-Siberian orogenic system and the Kazakhstan orogenic system. The structural evolution and geodynamics of this shear zone is still poorly documented. Here we present new structural data complemented by chronological data in an attempt to unravel the geodynamic significance of the Irtysh Shear Zone in the context of accretion history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Our results show three episodes of deformation for the shear zone. D1 foliation is locally recognized in low strain area and recorded by garnet inclusions, whereas D2 is represented by a sub-horizontal fabric and related NW-SE lineation. D3 is characterized by a transpersonal deformation event, to form a series of NW-SE mylonitic belts with sinistral kinematics, and to overprint D2 fabric forming regional-scale NW-SE upright folds. A paragneiss sample from the shear zone yielded the youngest detrital zircon peaks in the late Carboniferous, placing a maximum age constraint on the deformation, which overlaps in time with the late Paleozoic collision between the Chinese Altai and the intraoceanic arc system of the East Junggar and West Junggar. We interpret three episodes of deformation to represent orogenic thickening (D1), collapse (D2) and thickening (D3) in response to this collisional event. Sinistral shearing (D3) together with the coeval dextral shearing in the Tianshan accommodate eastward extrusion of the Kazakhstan orogenic system during the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by the Major Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant: 2014CB440801), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048, 41273012) and a HKU CRCG grant. The work is a contribution of the Joint

  15. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  16. A comparative review on local government: Ander pressure of central goverment and market mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal policies after 1980 aimed at reforming public administration, especially owing to financial budget deficit, in terms of both central and local administrations. In this study,  local administration reforms in Turkey, Germany and France have been studied comperatively taking method of change together into consideration. The comparison focuses on similarities and distinctness of the above-mentioned countries from two aspects, namely, the first one is functional change between central and local governments (with the help of vertical point of view and the second one is regulation of the relations between local governments and market or third sector (with the help of horizontal point of view. The second reconsideration surely positions evoluation from “local government” to “local governence” which is in the process of reform into the center of the discussion. The purpose of the study is to reveal comperatively the institutional and functional changes emerging during process of decentralisation and gaining a place in the market in the countries where neoliberal policies  are implemented.

  17. The central government and local governments trapped in the market: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal policies after 1980 aimed at reforming public administration, especially owing to financial budget deficit, in terms of both central and local administrations. In this study, local administration reforms in Turkey, Germany and France have been studied comperatively taking method of change together into consideration. The comparison focuses on similarities and distinctness of the above-mentioned countries from two aspects, namely, the first one is functional change between central and local governments (with the help of vertical point of view and the second one is regulation of the relations between local governments and market or third sector (with the help of horizontal point of view. The second reconsideration surely positions evoluation from “local government” to “local governence” which is in the process of reform into the center of the discussion. The purpose of the study is to reveal comperatively the institutional and functional changes emerging during process of decentralisation and gaining a place in the market in the countries where neoliberal policies are implemented.

  18. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  19. Stock Market Consequences of the Suspension of the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Governor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sudden announcement of the suspension of the Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN on the 20th February 2014 created mixed reactions among analysts and market participants in Nigeria and beyond. The objective of this study is to empirically establish the reaction of listed firms’ stock prices to the announcement of the suspension of the Governor of the CBN. Using the standard event study methodology on a sample of 104 out of the 122 listed firms that traded on the floor of the NSE on the fateful day, the study sought to establish the significance of abnormal return and cumulative abnormal return on the announcement day, and fifteen trading days after the announcement became public. The study found the presence of statistically significant abnormal return and cumulative abnormal return of –0.06 percent and –5.95 percent on the announcement day. It also established the presence of statistically significant cumulative abnormal return of approximately –6.91 percent fifteen trading days after the announcement. The study concluded that the sudden announcement of the suspension of the Governor of the CBN gave rise to a negative market reaction by listed firms in Nigeria, and the negative trend persisted for the fifteen trading days after the announcement. It was recommended that subsequently, policy makers should as much as possible avoid sudden announcements of the suspension or removal of the Chief Executive Officers (CEOS of public institutions that have close links with the stock market. Where the need for such action becomes inevitable, the announcement should be preceded by the release of information that willminimize asymmetry between policy makers and the stock market.

  20. Seasonal deuterium excess in a Tien Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2003-01-01

    Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.

  1. The Future Prospects of the SCO in Central Asia in the Context of Strategic Cooperation Between Russia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khalanskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses at the analysis of the role, importance and future prospects of the SCO in Central Asian region in the contextof strategic cooperation between Russia and China. There are three views presented within regional academic discourse on Russian-Chinese relations as “China-ally”, “China-enemy”, “China-partner-companion.” The first “China-ally” approach is based on ashared vision of the US as an enemy that lays the foundation for future cooperation between Russia and China. The second “Chinaenemy”approach assumes that China is alreasy causes a threat to Russia’s national interests. The third “China-partner-companion”approach focuses on the need for Moscow to combine flexibility and agility in the relationships with Beijing to explore opportunitiesto enhance Russia’s ability to cope with the Chinese challenge in the future, if any, will pose a threat. The article explores someaspects of accelerated growth of the Chinese armed forces, migration issues and economic expansion of China and its implicationsfor cooperation between SCO member-states.

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of tropospheric NO2 over arid areas of Central Asia by OMI Satellite observations: Evidence for a strong contribution of soil biogenic nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Qi, Yue; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Meixner, Franz X.

    2013-04-01

    regard to recent/future agriculture development in the Taklimakan oases (80% of the current Chinese cotton production originates from there), biogenic NO emission from soils will provide an increasing contribution to tropospheric NO2 over Central Asia.

  3. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. PMID:23913410

  4. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback. (letter)

  5. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  6. Paleoenvironmental changes recorded in a luminescence dated loess/paleosol sequence from the Tianshan Mountains, arid central Asia, since the Penultimate Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Rao, Zhiguo; Duan, Yanwu; Xia, Dunsheng; Wang, Leibin; Madsen, David B.; Jia, Jia; Wei, Haitao; Qiang, Mingrui; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu

    2016-08-01

    Mid-latitude arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the driest regions in the world and is a key source area of global atmospheric dust. Loess records of paleoclimatic changes in ACA are complex and interpretations are problematic due primarily to the lack of robust chronologies. Quartz OSL and K-feldspar pIRIR dating methods were employed to date 8 quartz and 30 K-feldspar samples from a 30 m loess sequence (BYH10 section) on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, central ACA, northwest China. The reliability of quartz and K-feldspar ages was monitored by internal checks of luminescence characteristics and by comparison of the quartz and K-feldspar ages. The section lithology, proxy indexes of grain size and magnetic susceptibility, and the high resolution OSL chronology together indicate: (1) Quartz OSL dating can be used to date ACA loess samples less than 40 ka, while K-feldspar pIRIR dating is reliable for loess samples at least as old as ∼150 ka from ACA; (2) Aeolian loess began to be deposited on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains beginning at least ∼145 ka ago, and was deposited primarily during the penultimate and last glaciation periods; (3) Rapid loess deposition occurred during MIS 6, MIS 4 to early-mid MIS 3, and MIS 2, but little or no loess deposition occurred during MIS 5, MIS 3a and MIS 1; (4) This loess depositional sequence is comparable to previously published stalagmite growth records in the region on glacial-interglacial cycles. Rapid dust deposition and lack of stalagmite growth during glacials, and lack of loess deposition and stalagmite growth during interglacials, indicate a climatic pattern of wet-warm (interglacial) and dry-cold (glacial) climatic regimes on orbital cycles in ACA; (5) Variation in the loess deposition rates in ACA was much larger than in the central loess plateau during the last glaciation; (6) Depositional hiatuses of >50 kyr occur in ACA loess sequences, and high resolution chronologies are needed when

  7. Geochronology of Triassic-Jurassic granitoids in the southern frames of Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt and the principles of early mesozoic granitic formation in the Central and East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of U-Pb and U-Pb-Th-isotope dating of zircon from biotite and leucocratic granites in the southern frames of the Mongol-Okhotsk fold belt are presented. The similar estimates of the above mentioned granite ages (208±9 and 190±3 mln. years), the granites being referred traditionally to different intrusive complexes, permit defining essentially the scale of the early mesozoic magmatism manifestations in the Central and East Asia

  8. Market regulation in Central America and Bit-Energy.CEL as tool for improving the self regulating forces for a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    establishment of regional spot and contracts market comprising 6 Central American countries; 3. the introduction of a retail market, allowing auto generation for industrial consumers; 4. the introduction of a renewable and rural electrification support scheme; 5. the introduction of the stochastic planning tool Bit-Energy.CEL for making offers for the spot market less predictable and more flexible. The proposed paper will show more details on the history of market liberalisation in Central America, summarise ongoing activities for improving market efficiency and explain in more detail which role Bit-Energy.CEL plays in this process. (author)

  9. PCDD/F measurement at a high-altitude station in Central Taiwan: evaluation of long-range transport of PCDD/Fs during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Yang, Chang-Feng Ou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lin, Neng-Heui; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te

    2010-04-15

    Recent biomass burning in Southeast Asia has raised global concerns over its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. The concentrations of total suspended particles (TSPs) and other vapor-phase pollutants (CO and ozone) were monitored at Lulin, an atmospheric background station in central Taiwan in 2008. To evaluate the long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event, the atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also measured at Lulin station. The atmospheric PCDD/F and TSP concentrations measured at Lulin station ranged from 0.71-3.41 fg I-TEQ/m(3) and 5.32-55.6 microg/m(3), respectively, during the regular sampling periods. However, significantly higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TSPs, CO, and ozone were measured during the spring season. These high concentrations could be the result of long-range transport of the products of Southeast Asia biomass burning. During the Southeast Asia biomass burning event (March 18-24, 2008), an intensive observation program was also carried out at the same station. The results of this observation program indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased dramatically from 2.33 to 390 fg I-TEQ/m(3) (March 19, 2008). The trace gas (CO) of biomass burning also significantly increased to 232 ppb during the same period, while the particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the TSP increased from 28.7 to 109 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP at Lulin station during the burning event. We conclude that there was a significant increase in the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air at a high-altitude background station in central Taiwan during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event. PMID:20345091

  10. Evaluation of a Modified SEBAL Algorithm to Estimate Actual Evapotranspiration in Cotton Ecosystems of Central Asia using Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Conrad, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Being recognized as an essential component of both the water and the energy cycle, actual evapotranspiration (ETa) plays in important role in order to describe the complex interactions within the climate system of the Earth. Here, remote sensing is a powerful tool to estimate regional ETa to support the regional water management. For instance, the water withdrawal of the agricultural sector in OECD countries is on average about 44 %, but in the states of Central Asia it achieves more than 90 %. This fact is identified as one of the main reasons for the increasing water scarcity in this region. An accuracy assessment of the methods used for determining ETa is necessary concerning an appropriate use of the model results to support agriculture and irrigation management. Within Central Asia the Khorezm region in Uzbekistan is a case study region for the problems of irrigated agriculture. For Khorezm the seasonal ETa based on MODIS data was calculated for the years 2009 - 2011 using a partly modified surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL). SEBAL was implemented based on MODIS time series to calculate the energy balance components like net radiation (Rn), sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE), and soil heat flux (G). Whilst SEBAL is using an empirical equation for the estimation of G, a more physically based method was introduced in this study. This method uses microwave soil moisture products (ASAR and ASCAT-SSM) as an additional model input. The input parameters and the model results of all energy balance components (Rn, H, LE, and G) were intensively validated by field measurements with an eddy covariance system and soil sensors. The model shows very good performance for Rn with average model efficiency (NSE) of 0.68 and small relative errors (rRMSE) of about 10%. For turbulent heat fluxes good results can be achieved with NSE of 0.31 for H and 0.55 for LE, the rRMSE are about 21% (H) and 18% (LE). Soil heat flux estimation could be improved using the

  11. Vicariant patterns of fragmentation among gekkonid lizards of the genus Teratoscincus produced by the Indian collision: A molecular phylogenetic perspective and an area cladogram for Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, J R; Wang, Y; Ananjeva, N B; Larson, A; Papenfuss, T J

    1999-08-01

    A well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis is presented for gekkonid lizards of the genus Teratoscincus. Phylogenetic relationships of four of the five species are investigated using 1733 aligned bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence from the genes encoding ND1 (subunit one of NADH dehydrogenase), tRNA(Ile), tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Met), ND2, tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), and COI (subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase). A single most parsimonious tree depicts T. przewalskii and T. roborowskii as a monophyletic group, with T. scincus as their sister taxon and T. microlepis as the sister taxon to the clade containing the first three species. The aligned sequences contain 341 phylogenetically informative characters. Each node is supported by a bootstrap value of 100% and the shortest suboptimal tree requires 29 additional steps. Allozymic variation is presented for proteins encoded by 19 loci but these data are largely uninformative phylogenetically. Teratoscincus species occur on tectonic plates of Gondwanan origin that were compressed by the impinging Indian Subcontinent, resulting in massive montane uplifting along plate boundaries. Taxa occurring in China (Tarim Block) form a monophyletic group showing vicariant separation from taxa in former Soviet Central Asia and northern Afghanistan (Farah Block); alternative biogeographic hypotheses are statistically rejected. This vicariant event involved the rise of the Tien Shan-Pamir and is well dated to 10 million years before present. Using this date for separation of taxa occurring on opposite sides of the Tien Shan-Pamir, an evolutionary rate of 0.57% divergence per lineage per million years is calculated. This rate is similar to estimates derived from fish, bufonid frogs, and agamid lizards for the same region of the mitochondrial genome ( approximately 0.65% divergence per lineage per million years). Evolutionary divergence of the mitochondrial genome has a surprisingly stable rate across vertebrates. PMID

  12. NATO'S ROLE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Catranis, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    In the years after the Cold War NATO "operates in an environment of continuing change" and has undergone a deep rooted transformation concerning its strategy, membership and operations. Initially NATO was conceived as an alliance with the aim of protecting its members' territory from a large-scale aggression emanating from an "enemy" (after 1955 the Warsaw Pact became such an enemy). Its planning was based on the classical concept of war, i.e. confrontation of big military units on a broad th...

  13. Roman Empire and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Lugli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at retracing the interrelations of ancient Roman and Asian civilizations; a key focus is made on Asian cultural heritage. The commercial and trade commercial relations are considered, which led the way to development of both as well as military clashes and claiming territories by both civilizations. A due attention is paid to the influence of different ancient establishments on the Asian territory, converting thereafter Rome into a truly multicultural and cosmopolitan empire.

  14. The Determinants of China’s Direct Investment in Central Asia Based on a Comprehensive Research on Economic and Institutional Perspective%论中国在中亚地区直接投资的影响因素--基于经济与制度视角的综合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国婷; 任荣明

    2015-01-01

    Firstly,this paper summed up the economic factors and institutional factors affecting China's outward foreign di-rect investment in Central Asia,based on the review of OFDI theory and other relevant literatures.Furthermore,the empiri-cal research on foreign direct investment stock and various factors was conducted with the panel data of the Central Asian country from 2003 to 2012.The study found that China's FDI in Central Asia was to seek low -cost labor and the vast size of the market,followed by the motivation of getting rich oil and gas resources.In addition,Chinese companies tend to in-vest in those countries which have similar regulatory quality,legal systems and the containment corruption efforts with Chi-na.%在回顾对外直接投资理论等相关文献的基础上,总结影响中国在中亚地区直接投资的各项经济因素和制度因素。以中亚国家2003年至2012年的面板数据为样本,就对外直接投资存量与各因素进行实证研究。研究发现,中国在中亚的直接投资首先是为了寻求低成本劳动力和广阔的市场规模,其次才是获取中亚丰富的油气资源;此外,中国企业倾向于在与中国监管质量、法律制度以及遏制腐败力度方面相类似的国家进行投资。

  15. Identifying and implementing gas-fired private power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach to emerging energy markets in Asia of Enron, one of the major independent producers and developers of natural gas, is described. The interest of the company has been stimulated both by the availability of gas resources in Asia and the interest shown in many countries in using natural gas as a fuel for power generation. Possibilities for development are being created by plans for major new pipelines from Russia and the central Asian states and the availability of liquefied natural gas. (UK)

  16. Fast Lagrangian relaxation for constrained generation scheduling in a centralized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a fast Lagrangian relaxation (FLR) for constrained generation scheduling (CGS) problem in a centralized electricity market. FLR minimizes the consumer payment rather than the total supply cost subject to the power balance, spinning reserve, transmission line, and generator operating constraints. FLR algorithm is improved by new initialization of Lagrangian multipliers and adaptive adjustment of Lagrangian multipliers. The adaptive subgradient method using high quality initial feasible multipliers requires much less number of iterations to converge, leading to a faster computational time. If congestion exists, the alleviating congestion index is proposed for congestion management. Finally, the unit decommitment is performed to prevent excessive spinning reserve. The FLR for CGS is tested on the 4 unit and the IEEE 24 bus reliability test systems. The proposed uniform electricity price results in a lower consumer payment than system marginal price based on uniformly fixed cost amortized allocation, non-uniform price, and electricity price incorporating side payment, leading to a lower electricity price. In addition, observations on objective functions, pricing scheme comparison and interpretation of Lagrangian multipliers are provided. (author)

  17. Distribution and interannual variability of supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains, Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supraglacial lakes are widely formed on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains (KTTM), Tianshan, Central Asia. Study of their distribution characters based on regional-wide remote sensing investigations is still lacking, but it can promote our understanding about the influence of supraglacial lakes on the surface melting, hydrology and dynamics of debris-covered glaciers in this region. This study presents results of the supraglacial lake inventory in the KTTM region, based on multi-year Landsat images. We focus on the glacio-geomorphological characters of the supraglacial lakes and their late summer conditions, since all suitable Landsat images were acquired between August and September during 1990–2011. With a minimum threshold extent of 3600 m2 for conservative mapping results, we totally mapped 775 supraglacial lakes and 38 marginal glacial lakes on eight huge debris-covered glaciers. Supraglacial lakes are concentrated on the Tumor Glacier and the South Inylchek Glacier, two biggest glaciers in this region. Although most supraglacial lakes are short-lived, a number of lakes can be repeatedly identified between different Landsat images. Detailed investigation of these ‘perennial’ lakes on the Tumor Glacier indicates that their filling frequency and area contributions have increased since 2005. Analysis of the area-elevation distributions for all mapped supraglacial lakes shows that they predominantly occur close to the altitude of 3250 m a.s.l., as high as the lowest reach of clean ice where surface debris begins to appear, and can further develop upglacier to a limit of about 3950 m a.s.l.. Total and mean area of supraglacial lakes in the KTTM region during the late summer seasons show great variability between years. Correlation analysis between the annual lake area and the observed nearby meteorological conditions suggests that warmer springs seem related to the draining of some supraglacial lakes during the following seasons, due

  18. Distribution and recent variations of supraglacial lakes on dendritic-type glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tomur Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Mayer, C.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Supraglacial lakes are widely distributed on glaciers in the Tomur-Khan Tengri Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia. The existence and development of supraglacial lakes play an important role in the processes of ice melting and also in the storage and release of glacial runoff. Here we mapped the supraglacial lakes in the lower region of eight typical debris-covered dendritic-type glaciers around the Tomur-Khan Tengri peaks based on 9 Landsat TM/ETM+ images acquired in summers during 1990 and 2011. With a lower limit of 3600 m2 for the conservative identification of glacial lakes, we mapped 775 supraglacial lakes and 38 marginal glacial lakes in total. Our results indicate that supraglacial lakes in the study region are developed never beyond an elevation of about 3850 m a.s.l., 800 meter lower than the upper boundary of debris cover (4650 m a.s.l.). For the total area-elevation distribution, these lakes are prominently happened near the altitude of 3250 m a.s.l., where the clean ice is simultaneously vanished. The majority of the supraglacial lakes are found on the Tomur Glacier and the South Inylchek Glacier, two typical debris-covered dendritic-type glaciers in the region. As for the multi-year variation of lake area, the annual summer total and mean areas of supraglacial lakes show variability from 1990 and 2005 but expanded obviously during 2005 and 2011. The mean area of these lakes reached maximum in 2010. We found that the area of supraglacial lakes is positively correlated to the total precipitation in summer (July to September) but negatively to the mean air temperature over pre-summer (April to June). Air temperature fluctuations during the pre-summer likely have more impact on the different evolution proceedings of the development of glacial drainage from unconnected to connected systems, which may lead to the drainage of some larger supraglacial lakes and resulted in shrinkage of the total and mean lakes area over the summer seasons. Correlations between

  19. Distribution and recent variations of supraglacial lakes on dendritic-type glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tomur Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supraglacial lakes are widely distributed on glaciers in the Tomur-Khan Tengri Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia. The existence and development of supraglacial lakes play an important role in the ice melting processes and also in the storage and release of glacial melt water. Here we mapped the supraglacial lakes of eight typical debris-covered dendritic-type glaciers around the Tomur-Khan Tengri peaks based on 9 Landsat TM/ETM+ images acquired in the summers of 1990 until 2011. With a lower area limit of 3600 m2 for a conservative identification of glacial lakes, we mapped 775 supraglacial lakes and 38 marginal glacial lakes in total. Our results indicate that supraglacial lakes (area > 3600 m2 in the study region never develop beyond an elevation of about 3850 m a.s.l., 800 m lower than the maximum upper boundary of debris cover (4650 m a.s.l.. The area-elevation distribution shows that lakes are predominantly occured close to the altitude of 3250 m a.s.l., where the clean ice simultaneously disappears. The majority of the supraglacial lakes are found on the Tomur Glacier and the South Inylchek Glacier, two strongly debris-covered dendritic-type glaciers in the region. As for the multi-year variation of lake area, the summer total and mean areas of supraglacial lakes show some variability from 1990 and 2005 but increased noticeably between 2005 and 2011. The mean area of the mapped lakes reached a maximum in 2010. We found that the area of supraglacial lakes is positively correlated to the total precipitation in summer (July to September but negatively correlated to the mean spring air temperature (April to June. Pre-summer air temperature fluctuations likely have a stronger impact on the different evolution processes of glacial drainage, evolving from unconnected to connected systems, which may lead to the drainage of larger supraglacial lakes and results in shrinkage of the total and mean lake area during the summer.

  20. Distribution and interannual variability of supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liu; Mayer, Christoph; Liu, Shiyin

    2015-01-01

    Supraglacial lakes are widely formed on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains (KTTM), Tianshan, Central Asia. Study of their distribution characters based on regional-wide remote sensing investigations is still lacking, but it can promote our understanding about the influence of supraglacial lakes on the surface melting, hydrology and dynamics of debris-covered glaciers in this region. This study presents results of the supraglacial lake inventory in the KTTM region, based on multi-year Landsat images. We focus on the glacio-geomorphological characters of the supraglacial lakes and their late summer conditions, since all suitable Landsat images were acquired between August and September during 1990-2011. With a minimum threshold extent of 3600 m2 for conservative mapping results, we totally mapped 775 supraglacial lakes and 38 marginal glacial lakes on eight huge debris-covered glaciers. Supraglacial lakes are concentrated on the Tumor Glacier and the South Inylchek Glacier, two biggest glaciers in this region. Although most supraglacial lakes are short-lived, a number of lakes can be repeatedly identified between different Landsat images. Detailed investigation of these ‘perennial’ lakes on the Tumor Glacier indicates that their filling frequency and area contributions have increased since 2005. Analysis of the area-elevation distributions for all mapped supraglacial lakes shows that they predominantly occur close to the altitude of 3250 m a.s.l., as high as the lowest reach of clean ice where surface debris begins to appear, and can further develop upglacier to a limit of about 3950 m a.s.l.. Total and mean area of supraglacial lakes in the KTTM region during the late summer seasons show great variability between years. Correlation analysis between the annual lake area and the observed nearby meteorological conditions suggests that warmer springs seem related to the draining of some supraglacial lakes during the following seasons, due to