WorldWideScience

Sample records for central asia market

  1. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  2. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere.

  3. Central banks' use in East Asia of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Emery

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the greater use in the past decade of money market instruments in the conduct of monetary policy by the central banks, or their equivalent, in six of the main East Asian developing economies. Some of these economies have been successful in using various money market instruments to control liquidity, while others have been much less successful. A common theme in the case of the successful economies has been one of employing money market instruments that have yields based on ...

  4. Multicultural Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  5. Constructing Market-based Economies in Central Asia: A Natural Experiment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomfret, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experience of the five Central Asian countries in the two decades since independence. In the 1990s the five countries looked like a natural experiment. They had similar initial conditions, but different transition strategies. Today that does not appear to have been a useful research agenda, which raises some broader questions for comparative economic studies.

  6. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    over 2,000 m) is not applicable to Central Asia, partly because the general hypsometric level of this region is high and unstable, as a consequence of...organic fossils in them, gastropods have been discovered. On the main territory of the Tarim massif, which evidently represented a weakly elevated...places seams of gypsum and rock salt, and, in a part to the west of the town of Aksu, also a bed of gray limestone with small fresh- water gastropods

  7. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  8. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengor, A.M.C. (Instanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey))

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  9. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers.

  10. SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ENERGY POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta NOWAKOWSKA-KRYSTMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.

  11. China-Central Asia Power Cooperation Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo

    2010-01-01

    After analyzing the basic information,distribution of energy resources and condition of power industry in Central Asia, the high feasibility for China to cooperate closely with Central Asia in transnational power interconnection, power investment and technology exchanges, etc. is studied. Furthermore, the forms, mechanisms, existing problems and suggestions for the improvement of current policies related to the power cooperation are proposed.

  12. Marketing Development Information in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethananda, Hemamalee

    1993-01-01

    Discusses adapting traditional marketing strategies for the nonprofit sector, including libraries and information centers, and describes experiences of the Development Information Network for South Asia in Sri Lanka. Topics addressed include librarians' value systems, including free access to information; the need for information marketing;…

  13. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been…

  14. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  15. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    dollars worth of illegal or unregistered cash, most of it associated with narcotics trafficking and unreported remittances from migrant labor , is...Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia month on some construction sites.32 Remittances from legal migrant labor are part of the Central Asian...farms and construction sites,36 since they rarely have any le- gal standing. Also, income from migrant labor is usually barely suffi- cient to cover

  16. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  17. Water Governance in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Assche, Van Kristof; Valentinov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    We develop a social systems theory perspective on Central Asian post-Socialist transition, placing particular emphasis on the coordination problems in transboundary water governance. The extensive Soviet water-energy infrastructure around the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers required coordination, bu

  18. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  19. COOPERATION VS. COMPETITION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica MIHALACHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the cooperation-competition ratio in the Central Asia region aiming at maintaining a force balance between Russia and China – as main state actors of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, and avoiding the dominance of a state over the other member states of the Organization. Our paper attempts to identify the theoretical arguments that might render a better insight in this organization as a framework meant to mutually balance influence between Russia and China, with the purpose of reciprocally monitoring and limiting their power in a region considered the core of SCO – from a geographical point of view and from the point of view of the two powers’ interest. On the other hand, we should take into account that promoting multipolarity in the global politics is a common interest of China and Russia; both countries started to exclude, to various extents, the Western powers’ interests in Central Asia.

  20. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  1. China-Central Asia Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The China-Central Asia Friendship Association(CCAFA) held its inaugural meeting in Beijing on December 18,2007. The CCAFA,founded at the initiation of the CPAFFC,is a national non-profit social organization with legal person status.It aims to further expand people-to-people contact between China and the five Central Asian countries,namely Kazakhstan,Kirghizstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan,enhance regional cooperation and deepen good-neighbourly relations so as to consolidate the social foundation for lasting friendship between China and these countries and promote common development.

  2. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  3. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  4. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohadjer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  5. Las conflictivas fronteras de Asia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Stanganelli, Isabel Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    Si bien el gran juego político del siglo XIX definió la frontera entre Rusia y Afganistán mediante un tratado firmado por Rusia y el Reino Unido, la vasta región que hoy constituyen las cinco restantes repúblicas de Asia Central fue incorporada a Rusia zarista en sucesivas etapas y en el período soviético dotada por Moscú de límites con funciones puramente administrativas. La sorpresiva independencia de las repúblicas en diciembre de 1991 transformó a esos límites en internacionales. Lejos...

  6. Representation of Central Asia and Traveling Self in Vambery’s Travels in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Gholi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the nineteenth century Arminius Vambery, an anglophile travel writer, in the guise of a mendicant dervish with a group of Tartar pilgrims departs to secluded and sealed Central Asia. After six months travel in the Khanates of Central Asia, he undertakes a journey to England where he offers his observations to the Royal Geographical Society and publishes his travelogue, Travel in Central Asia. Despite its literary merits and connection with British imperialism, the travelogue has not been scrutinized separately by the scholars of travel writing. To fill the gap, this article by drawing on the theories of post-structuralism: Orientalism and Postcolonialism, endeavors to unveil the political agenda behind the travel writer’s representation of his travelees, destination, and his own traveling self. Additionally, it argues that the travel writer in dialogue with other Western travel writers to deterritorialize his traversed region or justify the prospective presence of Britain in Central Asia, represents his journey destination as the locus of barbarity, a region under the grip of despotic rulers, as well as an area with frozen time, while to exhibit his Eurocentrism, he portrays his traveling subject as the a suffering hero and a benign traveler.

  7. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  8. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  9. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    deployed some two dozen troops to Iraq who served under Polish command and carried out water- purification , demining, and medical activities. They...one-fifth of opium and heroin produced in Afghanistan are transited through Central Asia to markets in Russia and Central Europe. Most of these

  10. Education, Markets and the Contradictions of Asia-Australia Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Don; Rizvi, Fazal

    1993-01-01

    The cultural politics of the export of educational services by Australia to Asia are examined, focusing on tension between the persistent economic development perspective and an emerging market ideology that sees education as a commodity. Issues of postcolonialism, globalization, educational traditions vs. market orientation, educational aid and…

  11. Kazakhstan: A Key Economic Driving Force of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Located strategically in the center of Eurasia, the Republic of Kazakhstan has been the largest country in terms of its territory, and also one of the most important economy and dynamic transport hub with abundant resources in Central Asia.

  12. THE GREATER CENTRAL ASIA PROJECT: PRESENT STATE AND EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tulepbergenova, Gulsana

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Central Asia (GCA) project initiated in 2005 confirmed that the United States treated the region as a foreign policy and security priority. The project was primarily promoted by the changed balance of forces in favor of Russia and partly China, which called for an adequate strategic and geopolitical response. At the same time, the Greater Central Asia idea can be viewed as a conceptual and ideological substantiation of what the United States is trying to accomplish in the region. ...

  13. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  14. Causes of early Holocene desertification in arid central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Liya [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); University of Kiel, Institute of Geosciences, Kiel (Germany); Chen, Fahu [Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Western China' s Environmental System, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Morrill, Carrie [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); NOAA' s National Climatic Data Center, Paleoclimatology Branch, Boulder, CO (United States); Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Rosenbloom, Nan [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Paleoclimate records of effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation, or P-E) show a dry (low effective moisture) period in mid-latitude arid/semi-arid central Asia during the early Holocene (11,000-8,000 years ago) relative to the middle and late Holocene, in contrast to evidence for greater-than-present precipitation at the same time in the south and east Asian monsoonal areas. To investigate the spatial differences in climate response over mid-latitude central Asia and monsoonal Asia we conducted a series of simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 coupled climate model for the early, middle and late Holocene. The simulations test the climatic impact of all important forcings for the early Holocene, including changes in orbital parameters, the presence of the remnant Laurentide ice sheet and deglacial freshening of the North Atlantic. Model results clearly show the early Holocene patterns indicated by proxy records, including both the decreased effective moisture in arid central Asia, which occurs in the model primarily during the winter months, and the increase in summer monsoon precipitation in south and east Asia. The model results suggest that dry conditions in the early Holocene in central Asia are closely related to decreased water vapor advection due to reduced westerly wind speed and less evaporation upstream from the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas in boreal winter. As an extra forcing to the early Holocene climate system, the Laurentide ice sheet and meltwater fluxes have a substantial cooling effect over high latitudes, especially just over and downstream of the ice sheets, but contribute only to a small degree to the early Holocene aridity in central Asia. Instead, most of the effective moisture signal can be explained by orbital forcing decreasing the early Holocene latitudinal temperature gradient and wintertime surface temperature. We find little evidence for regional subsidence related to a stronger summer Asian

  15. Dependence values of Asia-Pacific stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Return series of stock markets tend to have leptokurtic distribution thus making linear correlation an inappropriate measure of dependence. Copula theory can be used as an alternative to show the dependencies between return series. In this paper, we study the dependence structure of extreme returns between several Asia-Pacific stock markets by applying the Copula based marginal GARCH approach. The results of our study are discussed in this paper.

  16. IMPORTANCE OF TANAP IN COMPETITION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Varol Sevim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available TANAP natural gas which was initiated by Azerbaijan’s SOCAR and Turkey's BOTAŞ has altered the dynamics and strategies in the region. TANAP project not only formed new competition picture from Nabucco versus South Stream to TANAP versus South Stream but also triggered the competition between Russia and Central Asia in terms of pipeline strategies. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are landlocked countries in the east Caspian region and Azerbaijan is the only post-Soviet state that had succeeded to reach world markets by non-Russian routes. In this sense if TANAP would establish until 2018-2019, it would have an impact as in the case of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline which was considered as the “Contract of the Century” in the 1990s. In this paper, it is aimed to analyze how TANAP will affect upon Russian foreign energy policy strategy upon Central Asian states and Azerbaijan as well as emphasizing on the risks and opportunities of the project.

  17. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Pan

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  18. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  19. Oil and the geopolitics of Central Asia: A "new 'great game'"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sati, Saud M.

    The nineteenth century rivalry between the Russian Empire and Great Britain over Central Asia, known as the "great game," was triggered by the quest for power and dominance. This study revisits Sir Halford Mackinder's thesis, which viewed the "heartland," consisting of Russia and Central Asia, as being crucial for international politics. It also discusses the influence of Mackinder's ideas on twentieth century geopolitical thinking. The study also examines the common assumption that the new "great game" in Central Asia is evolving around the exploitation of energy resources, and analyzes the consequences of this new factor for the geopolitical significance of the region. The landlocked nature of the Central Asian countries makes it necessary for them to rely on their neighbors for the export of oil and gas to international markets. Thus, the political and economic interests of Russia, Iran, and Turkey motivate them to compete with each other for export routes through their territories. This study also shows that the estimates of Central Asian proven oil reserves are characterized by considerable ambiguity. Estimates vary from seven to twenty-two billion barrels. Despite the fact that these proven oil reserves are limited compared to those of other regions, such as the Middle East, continued exploration is compatible with the Western strategy of energy resource diversification. Another primary aim of American involvement is to prevent the reintegration of Central Asia into the Russian federation and to block Chinese influence in Central Asia. This study reveals that realities in today's Central Asia are different from those of the nineteenth century. Central Asia now consists of independent countries; the competing powers have changed, with the exception of Russia; and oil has emerged as a new factor. However, the perpetual quest for power and dominance that marked the historical "great game" is still at work in the last decade of the twentieth century. Finally, the

  20. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eWalker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving human welfare is a global concern, but not always easy to achieve. In this regard, challenges have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU, where socialist institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow. Economic adjustments have been difficult in the new nations of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by a lack of infrastructure, human capital, and financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asia is mostly landlocked, far from market centers. Despite these barriers, development potential exists, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia’s pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, a significant impediment to realizing the market potential of the region’s animal products. It next provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD and Brucellosis. Included is a success story involving FMD eradication in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers how wildlife might act as a disease reservoir, which presents a conservation issue for the Kazakhstani case. This is followed by a discussion of the role of science in threat reduction, particularly with respect to the potential offered by geospatial technologies. The article concludes with an assessment of the research that would be necessary to identify pathways to developing the economic potential of central Asia, as changes in policy are implemented and livestock health improves.

  1. Capital Markets Integration: The Case of Select South Asia Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Srinivasa Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In these days of globalization, liberalization and IT, nations have become mutually dependent across the globe. The volume of merchandise transactions as well as international capital mobility has been improved. The investors, both domestic and international, are able to optimize portfolio diversification through multi-country investments. Emerging market economies are removing the reins of investment and introduce investor responsive policies to draw overseas finance in the form of FDI or equity participation. Thus, free and perfect capital mobility has become the important feature of highly integrated financial markets. In this context we investigated the degree and direction of capital market integration among select South Asian countries. We found that the markets have long-run interdependency among themselves and the short-run dynamics is significant in few cases. Such findings will keep much relevance for managing international portfolios.

  2. The New Great Game in Muslim Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    New Players: Turkey and Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Geopoli t ics and Geoeconomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4. Conc lus...of this new great game in Central Asia--the geopolitical and geoeconomic dimensions. 3 An emphasis on geoeconomic objectives motivates a nation...alliance--a tbrmalized and differentiated sys tem-- it is indulging itself in geostrategic activities.) The geopolitical and geoeconomic aspecks of the

  3. Overview of Sustainable Energy in Central Europe and East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    JANDA, Karel; Tan, Tianhao

    2017-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief literature review of sustainable energy literature with focus on economic aspects of sustainability. This is followed by description of energy situation in Central Europe and East Asia with a focus on sustainable energy resources. Our analysis of energy sector describes energy sector and both fossil and renewable fuel energy supply with particular emphasize on electricity.

  4. Environmental Aesthetics, Social Engagement and Aesthetic Experiences in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the Youth Theatre for Peace (YTP) project in relation to environmental aesthetics and engaged participatory practices towards tolerance building in Central Asia. My main argument is that cultural histories of storytelling, "manas" (an oral and now literary Kyrgyz epic) and trickster tales incorporate ideas and…

  5. Peter Scheglov --- pioneer of site testing in the Central Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, A

    2011-01-01

    The multi-faceted contributions of Dr. Peter Scheglov (1932-2002) in the area of site testing are briefly reviewed. He discovered and studied astronomical sites in the Central Asia, developed new site-testing instruments, promoted new methods and techniques among his colleagues and teached new generation of observational astronomers.

  6. The Cultural and Ecological "Worlds" of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie; Allspaw, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    With a grant through Indiana University's Inner Asian & Uralic National Resource Center, the authors developed an online, five-week unit that discusses the cultural and ecological "worlds" of central Asia, specifically the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. There are two main ideas…

  7. Challenges in Contemporary Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzalieva, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Largely unknown to most of the world, Kyrgyzstan has a flourishing higher education (HE) sector, with more universities per head than other countries with similar populations. Kyrgyzstan is also a major regional importer of international students in Central Asia. This paper opens up this understudied country in three ways: first, through a brief…

  8. Historical Snow Cover and Water Resources Change in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, H.; Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a vital source of river runoff in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. Decrease of seasonal snow cover is one of the major consequences of climate change in central Asia. To quantify the historical snow cover change, its relationship to global and regional atmospheric processes, and its impact on water resources, a new database for cryospheric research in central Asia has been created in Asiacryoweb.org. It serves a data portal for snow cover, glacier, meteorology, hydrology and ice core data in central Asia, as well as a platform for further research collaborations. We analyze the historical snow cover change using data derived from AVHRR and MODIS images in 1986 - 2008. The results suggest that the snow cover extent in central Asia has declined significantly in general. We found significant decrease of seasonal snow cover in alpine regions surrounding major mountains (Tienshan, Pamir and Altai-Sayan) in summer; while in winter, northern part of Kazakhstan Steppe, mountains in Altai-Sayan and peripheral regions of Tienshan and Pamir mountains have seen significant strong increase of snow cover. Analysis of the relationship between snow cover extent and climate pattern indices shows a significant negative relationship between snow cover in Pamir mountains and Altai-Sayan mountains with Eastern Atlantic Pattern, and a significant negative relationship between snow cover in northern Aral-Caspian desert, Tienshan and the East Atlantic / West Russia pattern. And the Polar / Euraisa Pattern has a positive relationship with snow in Kazakhstan Steppe, Pamir, and Tienshan. The changing snow cover regime will affect not only the amount but also the timing of available water melting from snow.

  9. Central Asia: A New Great Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    southward from civil war, or of revolutionary slogans hitting a chord with Iran’s own ethnic minorities, can only be met by economic investment and reliance...concern, both public and private, over the impact of radiation drifting into Kazakhstan has also been quite vocal .108 Chinese concerns about Central

  10. Analisis Strategi Pemasaran Relasional dan Pengalaman Pelayanan Dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Kepuasan Nasabah yang Menggunakan Kartu Kredit pada PT Bank Central Asia Ttbk. Kantor Cabang Utama Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze and determine the effect of relationship marketing and service experience (experiential marketing) to increase customer satisfaction for credit card users Bank Central Asia Company Main Branch Office of Medan. The population in this study are all customers who have a credit card or clients who are actively using credit cards at Bank Central Asia Company Main Branch Office of Medan. The sampling technique using the Supramono formula, selected as 100 customers with ce...

  11. CHINA’S STRATEGY OF ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U.S.recently launched strategy of rebalancing to Asia worsens the atmosphere forChina’s energy security and increases the risks for energy transportation from Africa and theMiddle East. The diversification of energy sources is a reasonable strategic choice, so the importance of the Eurasian continent forChinaincreases. Central Asia does not play anymore a supporting role in the agenda ofChina’s energy security strategy. It is rather becoming a region of major strategic importance.

  12. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  13. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Franciscus Janz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  14. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  15. China, Russia and the Balance of Power in Central Asia. Strategic Forum, Number 223, November 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    migrant workers from the former Soviet countries, including Central Asia. While the exact statistics on migrant labor are difficult to come by...media reports suggest that this traffic has developed into a two-way dependency— Russia on migrant labor from Central Asia, and Central Asia on migrant

  16. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  17. Central bank operating frameworks and collateral markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Collateral markets have become increasingly important as demand for collateral assets has increased in recent years, driven by changing market practices and an evolving regulatory landscape. This report explores whether and how the design of central banks' operational frameworks influences private collateral markets, including collateral availability, pricing, related market practices, and market performance under stress. It studies these issues by reviewing available information from a range...

  18. Space Radar Image of Tuva, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia. This image shows the area just south of the republic's capital of Kyzyl. Most of the red, pink and blue areas in the image are agricultural fields of a large collective farming complex that was developed during the era of the Soviet Union. Traditional agricultural activity in the region, still active in remote areas, revolves around practices of nomadic livestock herding. White areas on the image are north-facing hillsides, which develop denser forests than south-facing slopes. The river in the upper right is one of the two major branches of the Yenesey River. Tuva has received some notoriety in recent years due to the intense interest of the celebrated Caltech physicist Dr. Richard Feynman, chronicled in the book 'Tuva or Bust' by Ralph Leighton. The image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band SyntheticAperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour onOctober 1, 1994. The image is 56 kilometers by 74 kilometers (35 miles by 46 miles) and is centered at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar fequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted andreceived; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and verticallyreceived. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to PlanetEarth program.

  19. Central Asia earthquake catalogue from ancient time to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya N. Mikhailova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the seismic catalogue compiled for Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA project. The catalogue from 2000 B.C. to 2009 A.D. is composed by 33,034 earthquakes in the MLH magnitude (magnitude by surface waves on horizontal components widely used in practice of the former USSR countries range from 1.5 to 8.3. The catalogue includes both macroseimic and instrumental constrained data, with about 32,793 earthquake after 1900 A.D. The main sources and procedure used to compile the catalogues are discussed, and the comparison with the ISC-GEM catalogue presented. Magnitude of completeness analysis shows that the catalogue is complete down to magnitude 4 from 1959 and to magnitude 7 from 1873, whereas the obtained regional b value is 0.805.

  20. Will climate change exacerbate water stress in Central Asia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegfried, Tobias; Bernauer, Thomas; Guiennet, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    unstable Fergana Valley. Targeted infrastructural developments will be required in the region. If the current mismanagement of water and energy resources can be replaced with more effective resource allocation mechanisms through the strengthening of transboundary institutions, Central Asia will be able......Millions of people in the geopolitically important region of Central Asia depend on water from snow- and glacier-melt driven international rivers, most of all the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. The riparian countries of these rivers have experienced recurring water allocation conflicts ever since...... the Soviet Union collapsed. Will climate change exacerbate water stress and thus conflicts? We have developed a coupled climate, land-ice and rainfall-runoff model for the Syr Darya to quantify impacts and show that climatic changes are likely to have consequences on runoff seasonality due to earlier snow...

  1. China-Central Asia Cooperation Forum Held in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Guangmei

    2014-01-01

    <正>The China-Central Asia Cooperation Forum on the theme of"Amity,Sincerity,Mutual Benefi t,Inclusiveness and Practical Cooperation"cosponsored by the CPAFFC and the Gansu Provincial People’s Government,was held in Lanzhou on July 6.About 400 people attended the event,including Chen Yuan,Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC);Wang Sanyun,

  2. Climate variations of Central Asia on orbital to millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Spötl, Christoph; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Sinha, Ashish; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Li, Xianglei; Yi, Liang; Peng, Youbing; Lv, Yanbin; Zhang, Pingzhong; Votintseva, Antonina; Loginov, Vadim; Ning, Youfeng; Kathayat, Gayatri; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-11-01

    The extent to which climate variability in Central Asia is causally linked to large-scale changes in the Asian monsoon on varying timescales remains a longstanding question. Here we present precisely dated high-resolution speleothem oxygen-carbon isotope and trace element records of Central Asia’s hydroclimate variability from Tonnel’naya cave, Uzbekistan, and Kesang cave, western China. On orbital timescales, the supra-regional climate variance, inferred from our oxygen isotope records, exhibits a precessional rhythm, punctuated by millennial-scale abrupt climate events, suggesting a close coupling with the Asian monsoon. However, the local hydroclimatic variability at both cave sites, inferred from carbon isotope and trace element records, shows climate variations that are distinctly different from their supra-regional modes. Particularly, hydroclimatic changes in both Tonnel’naya and Kesang areas during the Holocene lag behind the supra-regional climate variability by several thousand years. These observations may reconcile the apparent out-of-phase hydroclimatic variability, inferred from the Holocene lake proxy records, between Westerly Central Asia and Monsoon Asia.

  3. An Assessment of Future Patterns of Security in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, various social problems left over have emerged in some Central Asian states, thus threatening social stability in the region. Under globalization, the former Soviet republics in Central Asia have made great efforts to develop constructive relations with others in the hope of strengthening their security. However, the threat of terrorism, extremism and separatism still exists. These non-traditional security issues play a role in current international politics, and the countries in the region are trylng to meet new challenges.

  4. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced,…

  5. Capital Markets, Infrastructure Investment and Growth in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Regan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure investment activity, capital market development, the role of public institutions and economic development in the Asia Pacific. It adopts a review approach drawing on empirical evidence over recent decades. Infrastructure is shown to be an important asset class playing a central role in a nation’s output, growth, productivity and microeconomic performance. Infrastructure investment also requires investment and predictions of a widening gap in the future supply of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific will require new forms of capital from both traditional and new sources including wider use of private participation, institutional investment, asset recycling and revenue bonds. Capital market development is also necessary to raise long-term local currency finance and evidence suggests that progress with regional capital market integration is slow and a continuing reform agenda is required. The dividend for regional countries is the prospect of higher levels of economic growth with infrastructure investment, capital market development, and foreign direct investment shown to have a strong and positive association with growth. A crucial link in this association identified in the review is the part played by national and regional institutions in improving the efficiency with which infrastructure is managed and providing promising ground for further research where the importance of these links can be researched in greater depth.

  6. Lactase persistence in central Asia: phenotype, genotype, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Evelyne; Brazier, Lionel; Ségurel, Laure; Hegay, Tatiana; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Georges, Myriam; Pasquet, Patrick; Veuille, Michel

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to document the evolution of the lactase persistence trait in Central Asia, a geographical area that is thought to have been a region of long-term pastoralism. Several ethnic groups co-exist in this area: Indo-Iranian speakers who are traditionally agriculturist (Tajik) and Turkic speakers who used to be nomadic herders (Kazakh, Karakalpak, Kyrgyz, Turkmen). It was recently demonstrated that horse milking practice existed in the Botai culture of Kazakhstan as early as 5,500 BP ( Outram et al. 2009 ). However, the frequency of the lactase persistence trait and its genetic basis in Central Asian populations remain largely unknown. We propose here the first genotype-phenotype study of lactase persistence in Central Asia based on 183 individuals, as well as the estimation of the time of expansion of the lactase-persistence associated polymorphism. Our results show a remarkable genetic-phenotypic correlation, with the causal polymorphism being the same than in Europe (-13.910C>T, rs4988235). The lactase persistence trait is at low frequency in these populations: between 25% and 32% in the Kazakh population (traditionally herders), according to phenotype used, and between 11% and 30% in the Tajiko-Uzbek population (agriculturalists). The difference in lactase persistence between populations, even if small, is significant when using individuals concordant for both excretion of breath hydrogen and the lactose tolerance blood glucose test phenotypes (P = 0.018, 25% for Kazakh vs. 11% for Tajiko-Uzbeks), and the difference in frequency of the -13.910*T allele is almost significant (P = 0.06, 30% for Kazakhs vs. 19% for Tajiko-Uzbeks). Using the surrounding haplotype, we estimate a date of expansion of the T allele around 6,000-12,000 yrs ago, which is consistent with archaeological records for the emergence of agropastoralism and pastoralism in Central Asia.

  7. Reconstructing spatial and temporal patterns of paleoglaciation across Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeven, Arjen P.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the behaviour of mountain glaciers and ice caps, the evolution of mountain landscapes, and testing global climate models all require well-constrained information on past spatial and temporal patterns of glacier change. Particularly important are transitional regions that have high spatial and temporal variation in glacier activity and that can provide a sensitive record of past climate change. Central Asia is an extreme continental location with glaciers that have responded sensitively to variations in major regional climate systems. As an international team, we are reconstructing glacial histories of several areas of the Tibetan Plateau as well as along the Tian Shan, Altai and Kunlun Mountains. Building on previous work, we are using remote sensing-based geomorphological mapping augmented with field observations to map out glacial landforms and the maximum distributions of erratics. We then use cosmogenic nuclide Be-10 and Al-26, optically stimulated luminescence, and electron spin resonance dating of moraines and other landforms to compare dating techniques and to constrain the ages of defined extents of paleo-glaciers and ice caps. Comparing consistently dated glacial histories across central Asia provides an opportunity to examine shifts in the dominance patterns of climate systems over time in the region. Results to date show significant variations in the timing and extent of glaciation, including areas in the southeast Tibetan Plateau and Tian Shan with extensive valley and small polythermal ice cap glaciation during the global last glacial maximum in contrast to areas in central and northeast Tibetan Plateau that had very limited valley glacier expansion then. Initial numerical modelling attempting to simulate mapped and dated paleoglacial extents indicates that relatively limited cooling is sufficient to produce observed past expansions of glaciers across the Tibetan Plateau, and predicts complex basal thermal regimes in some locations that

  8. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  9. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  10. Transition in Central Asia: Growth with Increasingly Greater Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Spoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic evolution of the former Soviet states of Central Asia since their independence, especially in regard to growth and in comparison with growing inequality. The following topics are considered: first of all, the initial conditions in whichthe economic transition of these countries began; secondly, the transformations of widely varying scope (different “routes of transition” that these economies have experienced, from an almost non-reform (Turkmenistan or a gradual or partial reform (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to a large-scale reform (Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan; and thirdly, the economic performance of the Central Asian states, which, with the exception of Uzbekistan, has been quite poor and has generated what we could call two kinds of “duality”: one which is generated by the expansion of extracting industries (oil, gas and metals, to the detriment of other sectors fundamental to the countries’ development, and another one originating from the growingunequal distribution of income among the population. While the first of these “dualities” cannot be maintained as a long-term development strategy, the second one could culminate in social agitation and instability, even in the medium term, which could contribute to thedestabilisation of the already fragile and volatile region of Central Asia.

  11. Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

  12. Real convergence, financial markets, and the current account – Emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relevance of financial market characteristics for explaining the catching-up process in Europe and Asia. Global financial integration has been associated with divergent patterns of real convergence and the current account in emerging markets. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market chara...

  13. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  14. EU’S CENTRAL ASIA POLICY: THE ADOPTION OF A NEW STRATEGY PAPER 2007-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Norling, Nicklas

    2007-01-01

    As Germany took over the rotating presidency of the EU in the first half of 2007 one of its primary tasks was to redirect and reform EU’s Central Asia policy before the Council’s adoption of a new Strategy Paper for Central Asia in June. As Germany’s Presidency Program explicitly states: “The Presidency will pay particular attention to the strategically significant region of Central Asia. The EU plans to adopt a strategy on Central Asia defining its interests and objectives.” Moreover, follow...

  15. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  16. Biothreat Reduction and Economic Development: The Case of Animal Husbandry in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Blackburn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Improving human welfare is a critical global concern, but not always easy to achieve. Complications in this regard have been faced by the states of the Former Soviet Union, where socialist-style economic institutions have disappeared, and the transition to a market economy has been slow in coming. Lack of capital, ethnic conflict, and political instability have at times undermined the institutional reform that would be necessary to enable economic efficiency and development. Nowhere are such challenges more pronounced than in the new nation states of central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Here, a severe climate limits agriculture, and industrialization has been inhibited by lack of infrastructure, low levels of human capital, and a scarcity of financial resources. These conditions are aggravated by the fact that the central Asian states are landlocked, far from centers of market demand and capital availability. Despite these daunting barriers, development potential does exist, and the goal of the paper is to consider central Asia's pastoral economy, with a focus on Kazakhstan, which stands poised to become a regional growth pole. The article pursues its goal as follows. It first addresses the biothreat situation to central Asian livestock herds, the most significant existing impediment to realizing the full market potential of the region's animal products. Next, it provides an outline of interventions that can reduce risk levels for key biothreats impacting central Asia, namely foot and mouth disease (FMD), which greatly impacts livestock and prohibits export, and Brucellosis, a bacterial zoonosis with high incidence in both humans and livestock in the region. Included is an important success story involving the FMD eradication programs in Brazil, which enabled an export boom in beef. After this comes a description of the epidemiological situation in Kazakhstan; here, the article considers the role of wildlife in

  17. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  18. Bacterial Communities of Three Saline Meromictic Lakes in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatar, Bayanmunkh; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Rogozin, Denis Yu; Wu, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Ching-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Oyuntsetseg, Bolormaa; Degermendzhy, Andrey G; Tang, Sen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meromictic lakes located in landlocked steppes of central Asia (~2500 km inland) have unique geophysiochemical characteristics compared to other meromictic lakes. To characterize their bacteria and elucidate relationships between those bacteria and surrounding environments, water samples were collected from three saline meromictic lakes (Lakes Shira, Shunet and Oigon) in the border between Siberia and the West Mongolia, near the center of Asia. Based on in-depth tag pyrosequencing, bacterial communities were highly variable and dissimilar among lakes and between oxic and anoxic layers within individual lakes. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla, whereas three genera of purple sulfur bacteria (a novel genus, Thiocapsa and Halochromatium) were predominant bacterial components in the anoxic layer of Lake Shira (~20.6% of relative abundance), Lake Shunet (~27.1%) and Lake Oigon (~9.25%), respectively. However, few known green sulfur bacteria were detected. Notably, 3.94% of all sequencing reads were classified into 19 candidate divisions, which was especially high (23.12%) in the anoxic layer of Lake Shunet. Furthermore, several hydro-parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, H2S and salinity) were associated (P< 0.05) with variations in dominant bacterial groups. In conclusion, based on highly variable bacterial composition in water layers or lakes, we inferred that the meromictic ecosystem was characterized by high diversity and heterogenous niches.

  19. Lessons from two decades of health reform in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, B; Ahmedov, M; Akkazieva, B; Katsaga, A; Khodjamurodov, G; McKee, M

    2012-07-01

    Since becoming independent at the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, the countries of Central Asia have made profound changes to their health systems, affecting organization and governance, financing and delivery of care. The changes took place in a context of adversity, with major political transition, economic recession, and, in the case of Tajikistan, civil war, and with varying degrees of success. In this paper we review these experiences in this rarely studied part of the world to identify what has worked. This includes effective governance, the co-ordination of donor activities, linkage of health care restructuring to new economic instruments, and the importance of pilot projects as precursors to national implementation, as well as gathering support among both health workers and the public.

  20. Central bank conservatism and labor market reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jordahl, Henrik; Laséen, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    How does central bank conservatism affect labor market reform? In this paper we examine the economic forces at work. An increase in conservatism triggers two opposite effects. It reduces the inflation bias of discretionary monetary policy and hence the benefits of a reform. It also increases unemployment variability, which increases the precautionary benefits of a reform. In combination, the two effects produce a u-shaped relation between conservatism and labor market reform. An empirical inv...

  1. Financial markets and the current account: emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2009-01-01

    Financial globalisation has been associated with divergent current account patterns in emerging market economies. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market characteristics in explaining divergent current account patterns in emerging Europe and emerging Asia based on the assumption that both regions constitute two...

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  3. Transregional lineament of Central Asia, its magmatism, metallogeny and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, I.

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of the place and role of such large fault as Central Kyzylkum, North Nurata and South Ferghana, Atbashin, which were regarded earlier as separate independent structures led us to the idea that they are parts of a single global structure. We suggest that it should be called "Transregional lineament of Central Asia". Transregional lineament of Central Asia is multisutured long-term, and in the nodal points of some parts it is complicated by deep fault zones of «Anti Tien-Shan» trend.There are large gold ore deposits (Muruntau, Kokpatas, Kumtor) in the intersection of some of these faults. Within the lineament there are 4 mafite - ultramafite associations of different age, that are presented as isolated or combined blocks, zones and regions. The most ancient is ophiolite one (I association). Best of all it is developed in Sultanuvais and Northern Tamdytau, Uzbekistan. The second, rift association of this belt is picrite-gabbro-diabase-alkali-olivine-basalt is widespread within the belt (northern Bukantau, northern Nuratau, northern slope of the Altay ridge).The third association is peridotite-gabbroic. It is represented by the Tebinbulak intrusive of Sultanuvais. Coverings, small stocks, dikes and explosion tubes formed by potassic mafite-ultramafites ore related to much later inter-plate (P-T) occurrences of mafite-ultramafite magmatism (IY association). On Kyrgyzstan's territory the studied lineament is observed as a system of regional deep faults -Atbashi-Inylchek and Southern Ferghana, with which the ophiolite ultramafite-mafite formation is associated. The rocks have the traces of tectonic movements, which can be the ground to regard them as protrusions. Tectonically, the vast territory of Mongolia is divided into two large blocks: northern and southern. This part of the lineament called Transmongolian. This part is week studied-a special investigation was only carried out in its western part - Bulgan fault. Thus, in the presence of linear

  4. The HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHovitz, Jack; Uuskula, Anneli; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-06-01

    Eastern Europe and Central Asia represent one of the few regions globally where there is a continued increase in the incidence of HIV infection. For example, in Eastern Europe the rate of diagnosed cases of HIV infection per 100 000 population has increased from 11.7 in 2004 to 22.5 in 2011. Initially propelled by injection drug use, heterosexual transmission has now become a major driver of new infections in the region. Nonetheless substance use remains an important factor, with its control limited by challenges in scaling up harm reduction efforts. While most countries have implemented opioid substitution therapy programs, their scale remains very limited. Similarly, coverage of needles syringe programs across the region is variable. Complicating the control of HIV has been the emergence of non-injection drugs and inadequate access to antiretroviral therapy. In addition, structural barriers and stigma toward HIV infected people may contribute to the high proportion of late presentations for HIV care. Finally in the wake of the HIV epidemic, high rates of hepatitis C infection and tuberculosis have been noted.

  5. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  6. RUSSIAN AND WESTERN ACADEMICS ON CHINA’S POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ye. Malzev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia plays an essential role for China’s foreign policy. Beijing has recently increased its presence in the region and now is treated as one of the main powers. This article analyzes the key studies on China’s Central Asia strategy. It focuses on the most complicated problems that experts face researching the issue. Finally an author came to the conclusion that complex approach towards China’s policy in Central Asia is not worked out yet. Most of the scholars admit that China’s share in regional politics is increasing, but they are not sure about its final goal.

  7. Hydroclimate variations in central and monsoonal Asia over the past 700 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Keyan; Chen, Fahu; Sen, Asok K; Davi, Nicole; Huang, Wei; Li, Jinbao; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Hydroclimate variations since 1300 in central and monsoonal Asia and their interplay on interannual and interdecadal timescales are investigated using the tree-ring based Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstructions. Both the interannual and interdecadal variations in both regions are closely to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). On interannual timescale, the most robust correlations are observed between PDO and hydroclimate in central Asia. Interannual hydroclimate variations in central Asia are more significant during the warm periods with high solar irradiance, which is likely due to the enhanced variability of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the high-frequency component of PDO, during the warm periods. We observe that the periods with significant interdecadal hydroclimate changes in central Asia often correspond to periods without significant interdecadal variability in monsoonal Asia, particularly before the 19th century. The PDO-hydroclimate relationships appear to be bridged by the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and Tibetan Plateau, a key area of PDO. While, in some periods the atmospheric circulation between central North Pacific Ocean and monsoonal Asia may lead to significant interdecadal hydroclimate variations in monsoonal Asia.

  8. SEM in Central Asia: A Look at Professional Needs in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmareva, Larissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Private tuition-dependent universities in Central Asia compete for fee-paying students not only within the country and the region, but also internationally--in the CIS, East Asia, Europe, and the United States. In the universities where state financial support is limited or unavailable, steady student enrollment is the key to budget, development,…

  9. In the Margins: Minority Education in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimzade E.

    2011-03-01

    . Korostelina (2008 in researching history education across for countries (Ireland, Taiwan, China, and North Korea found that history textbooks reinforce ethnic loyalties and play an important role in shaping ethnic identity in History education. Specifically in Central Asia, Kissane (2005 found that history education reform in Kazakhstan has been an important part of shaping post-Soviet Kazak identity.

  10. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order...

  11. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  12. Temporal variation of the water budget in Central Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, K.; Taylor, P. A.; Szeto, K.

    2009-05-01

    Water budget terms for Central Southwest Asia (CSWA) have been computed using National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data for 60-years from 1948-2007 and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) reanalysis for the 44-year period from 1958-2001. First, observational rainfall data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) and the Iran Meteorological Organization (IMO) were compared with Global Prediction Climate Centre (GPCC) version-4 data. GPCC rainfall data appear close to the observational data of the region. GPCC rainfall data have then been used for comparison with both NCEP and ERA-40 reanalysis data sets and it was found that NCEP is closer to GPCC than ERA-40 for this region. The domain under study is located from 45-75E and 25-40N including parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and Kazakhstan. For realistic results only land areas has been used in the study. In the ERA-40 reanalysis data, evapotranspiration may have been overestimated in the system noting that evaporation exceeds rainfall. NCEP computes more precipitation than evaporation with moisture flux into the area providing the balance. This suggests that the ERA-40 data set is not suitable for computing water budget terms in this particular region. Moisture flux convergence is computed by using four daily readings (00, 06, 12 and 18z) up to 300 hPa. Finally, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) techniques are used to divide the domain into six areas and we discuss the temporal variation of rainfall for each area. The main contribution of rainfall in most of the areas is due to western disturbance weather systems moving from west to east. Also the area at the extreme southeast is getting rain though southwest monsoon in the month of July August. It is observed that rainfall decreases significantly after 1980 as a result of a dedcrease in moisture flux convergence.

  13. Surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kriti; Bolch, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Surge-type glaciers in High Mountain Asia are mostly observed in Karakoram and Pamir. However, few surge-type glaciers also exist in the Tien Shan, but have not comprehensively studied in detail in the recent literature. We identified surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan either from available literature or by manual interpretation using available satellite images (such as Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, SPOT, IRS) for the period 1960 to 2014. We identified 39 possible surge-type glaciers, showing typical characteristics like looped moraines. Twenty-two of them rapidly advanced during different periods or a surge was clearly described in the literature. For the remaining possible surge-type glaciers either the advance, in terms of time and length, were not mentioned in detail in the literature, or the glaciers have remained either stable or retreated during the entire period of our study. Most of the surge-type glaciers cluster in the Inner Tien Shan (especially in the Ak-Shiirak rage) and the Central Tien Shan, are in size and are facing North, West or North West. Pronounced surge events were observed for North Inylchek and Samoilowitsch glaciers, both of which are located in the Central Tien Shan. Samoilowitsch Glacier retreated by more than 3 km between 1960 (length ~8.9 km) and 1992 (~5.8 km), advanced by almost 3 km until 2006 and slightly retreated thereafter. The most pronounced advance occurred between 2000 and 2002. DEM differencing (based on SRTM3 data and stereo Hexagon and Cartosat-1 data) revealed a significant thickening in the middle reaches (reservoir area) of the glacier between 1973 and 2000 while the surface significantly lowered in the middle and upper parts of the glacier between 2000 and 2006. Hence, the ice mass was transferred to the lower reaches (receiving area) and caused the advance with a maximum thickening of more than 80 m. The ~30 km long North Inylchek Glacier retreated since 1943 and showed a very rapid advance of ~3.5 km especially in

  14. CENTRAL ASIA IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Omarov, Mels; Omarov, Noor

    2009-01-01

    The Soviet Union left behind a geopolitical vacuum in Central Asia which augmented the interest of outside powers in the region. Indeed, its advantageous geopolitical location, natural riches (oil and gas in particular), as well as transportation potential and the possibility of using it as a bridgehead in the counter-terrorist struggle have transformed Central Asia into one of the most attractive geopolitical areas. The great powers' highly divergent interests have led to their sharp rivalry...

  15. New species of the genus Phaonia R.-D., 1830 (Diptera, Muscidae) from Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, Vera S

    2015-09-11

    A list of species of Phaonia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 of Central Asia is given, and four new species of Phaonia are described from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan (P. babarabica sp. nov., P. juglans sp. nov., P. modesta sp. nov. and P. ninae sp. nov.). The male terminalia of all species and ovipositors of P. ninae sp. nov. and P. modesta sp. nov. are figured. Previous literature on the genus Phaonia in Central Asia is reviewed.

  16. Pyogenic liver abscess: Differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herwig; Cerwenka

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes,when possible,play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA).Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology.In this article,we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications.Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA),there ...

  17. RMB Exchange Market Pressure and Central Bank Exchange Market Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Liu; Jing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper uses the model-dependent and the model-independent approach to measure the RMB exchange market pressure (EMP) and the central bank's intervention using monthly data from January 1999 to June 2008. It is determined that the RMB has been under great appreciation pressure over the past decade. However, the pressure has been weakening since 2005. The two approaches provide significantly different results in terms of the estimated RMB EMP indices and the estimated central bank's interventions. The differences may lead to different predictions of potential currency crises. According to the estimation of the RMB EMP, and based on the model-independent approach, the paper shows that China has been under threat of an appreciation currency crisis since 2008. Therefore, China should adopt a more flexible exchange rate regime to prevent a potential crisis.

  18. Evolution, opportunity and challenges of transboundary water and energy problems in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lidan; Zhou, Haiwei; Xia, Ziqiang; Huang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy. Based on the analysis of water and energy distribution characteristics in Central Asia as well as demand characteristics of different countries, the complexity of local transboundary water problems was explored by reviewing corresponding historical problems of involved countries, correlated energy issues, and the evolution of inter-country water-energy cooperation. With references to experiences and lessons of five countries, contradictions, opportunities, challenges and strategies for transboundary water-energy cooperation between China and Central Asia were discussed under the promotion of the Silk Road Economic Belt construction based on current cooperation conditions.

  19. Implementation of harm reduction in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Stuikyte, Raminta; Bykov, Roman

    2007-03-01

    Harm reduction (HR) interventions began in Central-Eastern Europe and Central Asia in the mid-1980s with the establishment of substitution treatment (ST) in Yugoslavia. In the mid-1990s, the first needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) opened in selected countries following the outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs). The number of NSPs continues to increase via a combination of international and state funding with large expansions made possible via the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. While ST is still unaccepted in several countries, others have made some progress which is especially visible in South Eastern and Central Europe and the Baltic States. Development of regional networking including Central and Eastern European HR Network and a number of national networks helped to coordinate joint advocacy effort and in some cases sustain HR services. Activism of drug users and people living with HIV (PLWH) increased in the region in the last several years and helped to better link HR with the affected communities. Still a number of challenges remain important for the movement today such as repressive drug policies; stigma and discrimination of IDUs, PLWH, sex workers and inmates, including poor access to prevention and treatment; lack of important components of HR work such as naloxone distribution and hepatitis B vaccination, prevention in prisons; issues of quality control; sustaining services after finishing of major international projects; reaching of adequate coverage and others.

  20. Dynamic spanning trees in stock market networks: The case of Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2014-11-01

    This article proposes a new procedure to evaluate Asia Pacific stock market interconnections using a dynamic setting. Dynamic spanning trees (DST) are constructed using an ARMA-FIEGARCH-cDCC process. The main results show that: 1. the DST significantly shrinks over time; 2. Hong Kong is found to be the key financial market; 3. the DST has a significantly increased stability in the last few years; 4. the removal of the key player has two effects: there is no clear key market any longer and the stability of the DST significantly decreases. These results are important for the design of policies that help develop stock markets and for academics and practitioners.

  1. The Strategic Importance of Central Asia: An American View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    mainte- nance of access to airspace and territory in the heart of Asia; the development of alternative sources of energy; and the furthering of freedom and...www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav032806.shtml. 17. Martha Brill Olcott, “Druzhba Narodov v Mire Energetiki,” Pro et Contra, 10

  2. The power market in South-East Asia - demand, structure, changes, technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balling, L.; O`Leary, D. [Siemens Power Generation Asia Pacific Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1998-12-01

    The contribution comprises short notes on the power market in South East Asia, together with copies of the OHP/slides viewgraphs from the presentation. Topics covered include energy demand, natural gas, crude oil, supercritical steam power plants, fuel cells, and the role of new systems. 15 figs.

  3. Globalization on the Margins: Education and Post-Socialist Transformations in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    The essays in "Globalization on the Margins" explore the continuities and changes in Central Asian education development since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Reflecting on two decades of post-socialist transformations, they reveal that education systems in Central Asia responded to the rapidly changing political, economic, and…

  4. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  5. The Crustal and Mantle Velocity Structure in Central Asia from 3D Travel Time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    convergence between the Indian and the Eurasian Plates. As a result, large scale structures such as the Himalayas , Tibet, Hindu Kush-Pamir, and Zagros...DE-AC52-08NA28751 ABSTRACT The lithospheric structure in Central Asia features large blocks such as the Indian plate, the Afghan block...Asia features large blocks such as the Indian plate, the Afghan block, the Turan plate, and the Tarim block. This geologically and tectonically

  6. The European Union-Central Asia : in the light of the New Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamidova, Nurangez

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia is a region strategically located at the crossroads of the two continents: Asia and Europe. The region is represented by five states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) with different level of economic development and with the population amounting to over 60 million people. The region is rich in energy resources represented by oil, gas, coal and water resources. The thesis analyses, assesses and scrutinises one of the topical issues of the contempora...

  7. Discussion on Power Market Mode of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhaocheng; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Central China power system is one of the large regional power grids carrying out power market demonstrative project. Because of lacking power market experience, a lot of problems need to be thoroughly discussed.

  8. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N D; Kirk, E J; DeLaTorre, G

    2003-12-23

    On February 6, 2003, a workshop, was cosponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) to explore both the linkage between U.S. policy in Central Asia and science and technology (S&T) and the role of S&T in achieving U.S. security and development objectives in the region. A major outcome of the workshop is the identification of potential S&T initiatives that support U.S. Central Asia policy goals. This document summarizes the proceedings, conclusions, and recommendations from this workshop; it is a companion document to the full proceedings entitled Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia. The proceedings are also published by AAAS and a copy can be obtained from either AAAS (www.aaas.org), Sheri Abbott (AAAS; 202 326-6655), or Richard Knapp (LLNL; 925 423-3328; knapp4@llnl.gov).

  9. Increasing summer rainfall in arid eastern-Central Asia over the past 8500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bing; Gasse, Françoise; Uchida, Masao; Hong, Yetang; Leng, Xuetian; Shibata, Yasuyuki; An, Ning; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu

    2014-06-13

    A detailed and well-dated proxy record of summer rainfall variation in arid Central Asia is lacking. Here, we report a long-term, high resolution record of summer rainfall extracted from a peat bog in arid eastern-Central Asia (AECA). The record indicates a slowly but steadily increasing trend of summer rainfall in the AECA over the past 8500 years. On this long-term trend are superimposed several abrupt increases in rainfall on millennial timescales that correspond to rapid cooling events in the North Atlantic. During the last millennium, the hydrological climate pattern of the AECA underwent a major change. The rainfall in the past century has reached its highest level over the 8500-year history, highlighting the significant impact of the human-induced greenhouse effect on the hydrological climate in the AECA. Our results demonstrate that even in very dry eastern-Central Asia, the climate can become wetter under global warming.

  10. Integration versus Segmentation in Asian Financial Market: The Prospect of Regionalism in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Yoka Roida

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws the prospect of regionalism among inancial market in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,  Philippine,  Singapore,  China,  Hong  Kong,  Japan  and  South  Korea).  The  irst part  examines  the  correlation  among  them  that  lead  to  regional  integration.  The  second part shows the possibility of integration or segmentation between Asia countries and w...

  11. Carbon stock and its responses to climate change in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Zhang, Chi; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Maisupova, Bagila; Madaminov, Abdullo A; Han, Qifei; Djenbaev, Bekmamat M

    2015-05-01

    Central Asia has a land area of 5.6 × 10(6) km(2) and contains 80-90% of the world's temperate deserts. Yet it is one of the least characterized areas in the estimation of the global carbon (C) stock/balance. This study assessed the sizes and spatiotemporal patterns of C pools in Central Asia using both inventory (based on 353 biomass and 284 soil samples) and process-based modeling approaches. The results showed that the C stock in Central Asia was 31.34-34.16 Pg in the top 1-m soil with another 10.42-11.43 Pg stored in deep soil (1-3 m) of the temperate deserts. They amounted to 18-24% of the global C stock in deserts and dry shrublands. The C stock was comparable to that of the neighboring regions in Eurasia or major drylands around the world (e.g. Australia). However, 90% of Central Asia C pool was stored in soil, and the fraction was much higher than in other regions. Compared to hot deserts of the world, the temperate deserts in Central Asia had relatively high soil organic carbon density. The C stock in Central Asia is under threat from dramatic climate change. During a decadal drought between 1998 and 2008, which was possibly related to protracted La Niña episodes, the dryland lost approximately 0.46 Pg C from 1979 to 2011. The largest C losses were found in northern Kazakhstan, where annual precipitation declined at a rate of 90 mm decade(-1) . The regional C dynamics were mainly determined by changes in the vegetation C pool, and the SOC pool was stable due to the balance between reduced plant-derived C influx and inhibited respiration.

  12. Market Information and Signaling in Central Bank Operations, or, How Often Should a Central Bank Intervene?

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    A central bank must decide on the frequency with which it will conduct open market operations and the variability in short-term money market that it will allow. The paper shows how the optimal operating procedure balances the value of attaining an immediate target and broadcasting the central bank's intentions against the informational advantages to the central bank of allowing the free play of market forces to reveal more of the information available to market participants.

  13. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  15. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder

    2001-12-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogroups, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.

  16. Energy policy, economic cooperation, and sustainable development in Central Asia: the case of Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djakhangir, S.

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with a number of issues on the transformation process, sustainable development and regional cooperation in Central Asia. These areas of the research are discussed within the three models of development, i.e. national, regional, and global. Within the new concept on stability and conflict prevention, the author attempted to sort out the economic fundamentals affecting contemporary development of the states in the region. The main focus is made on Uzbekistan which is the most populated country in the region and whose socio-political and economic development has substantial impact on the regional situation. The analysis of the country's progress in domestic economic reforms in the past not only defines some conflict areas of development, but also tries to shape those fields where national strategy is confronted with difficulties on the long and pain-staking way from the plan system towards liberal market economy and democratic society. At the sector-specific level, particular attention is paid to the trends in Uzbekistan's energy sector. Simultaneously the work argues that national policy decisions in the energy field go much beyond national borders, and strongly correlated to intra-regional relations, as well as to those heated by geopolitical and geoeconomic considerations of the USA, Russia, Iran, China, the EU, and Turkey. Subsequently, the research concludes that Central Asia so far remains mainly as an object of expansion of great geopolitical interests rather than being a sovereign player in international relations. In this regard, sustainable development of the states in the region is expected to depend to a large extent on how the interests of the regional states will be put in line with those of non-regionals. Finally, the research emphasizes that in terms of limited domestic resources, investment and donor activities are desperately needed, both in Uzbekistan and the whole region, to modernize production process, raise

  17. China-Central Asia Cooperation Forum Produces Good Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the five Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, the CPAFFC

  18. 中国-中亚电力丝绸之路的探索%The Exploration of China-Central Asia Electric Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段秀芳; 张新

    2015-01-01

    The complementarity of China-Central Asia electric supply and demand provides favorable market conditions for Chi-na-Central Asia electric cooperation, which is one of important contents of establishing China-Central Asia electric silk road. From the analysis of current conditions of China-Central Asia electric development and concrete practical analysis of Chinese companies’ electric cooperation with Central Asia countries, this paper explores the problems of electric technique, talent and the lacking of funding of Central Asia countries, which restricts their economy development.And this paper puts forward this vision of China-Central Asia electric networking and suggests the government making policies, investing money, cultivating talents and establishing platform to support the electric development in Central Asia countries.%中国与中亚国家电力供求的互补性为中国与中亚国家开展电力合作提供了优越的市场条件,也使建设中国与中亚国家电力丝绸之路成为共建丝绸之路经济带的重要内容。本文分析了中国和中亚各国电力发展的现状以及以特变电工股份有限公司为代表的中国电力企业与中亚国家开展电力合作的实践,发现中亚国家电网建设中存在电力技术落后、人才短缺和资金匮乏等问题。为此,本文在对中国—中亚电力联网进行构想的基础上,从政策、资金、人才培养、合作平台建设等方面提出建设中国—中亚电力丝绸之路的建议。

  19. Leadership Transition in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan: Implications for Policy and Stability in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    54; Collins, “The Political Role of Clans in Central Asia,” 176. 100 Demian Vaisman, “Regionalism and Clan Loyalty in the Political Life of...Slovakia: UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 2005. 139 Vaisman, Demian . “Regionalism and Clan Loyalty in the

  20. Structur e and Functioning of Micr obial Community of Mineral Springs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsaraev B.B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial mats of dif ferent types of springs in Central Asia (Zabaikalye and Mongolia are described. The species diversity of mat-formed phototrophic bacteria was determined. The rates of microbial destruction processes (sulfate reduction and methane formation were measured. An important role of bacteria and algae in the formation of mineral water composition was shown.

  1. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  2. Basin evolution in a folding lithosphere: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan belts in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delvaux, D.; Cloetingh, S.; Beekman, F.; Sokoutis, D.; Burov, E.; Buslov, M.M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Central Asia is a classical example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay–Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. Both are

  3. PetroChina, Central Asia Oil Company Ltd Signed Oil Development Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ PetroChina and the Central Asia Oil Company Ltd signed a contract of oil development and production for Block 413 in Songliao Basin in Beijing on July 16. This is the first oil development and production contract signed by PetroChina for external cooperation this year.

  4. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  5. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  6. ANALISIS DANPENGUKURANTINGKAT EKSPOSUR RISIKO TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DENGAN METODE FMEA PADAPT. BANK CENTRAL ASIA , TBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Kurniawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to help the PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk in measuring the level of risk exposure and identify the need to control IT risk management at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Conducted research methodology, field observation, library research, interviews and gave questionnaires to the relevant parties, perform data analysis, as well as measuring the risk of using the approach of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. The results achieved in this study is to facilitate the management in making decisions related to the design, maintenance, and development of information technology at PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk and also minimize the risk of the failure so that the utilization of existing information technology can provide more optimal results. The conclusion from this study is that there is a risk of potential failure that could hamper the existing business processes in PT. Bank Central Asia, Tbk. Highest risk or potential failure according to the RPN (Risk Priority Number is a software and hardware damage, as well as the corrupted database due to the impact of operational risk.

  7. River flow regime and snow cover of the Pamir Alay (Central Asia) in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevallier, P.; Pouyaud, B.; Mojaisky, M.; Bolgov, M.; Olsson, O.; Bauer, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers, main tributaries of the Amu Darya River in the mountainous region of the Pamir Alay, play an important role in the water resources of the Aral Sea basin (Central Asia). In this region, the glaciers and snow cover significantly influence the water cycle and flow regime,

  8. NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  9. Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the Caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Rezvani

    2013-01-01

    Babak Rezvani studied ethno-territorial conflicts and peaceful coexistence between ethnic groups in (post-) Soviet Central Asia, the Caucasus and Fereydan (in Iran), all of which are ethnically, linguistically and religiously heterogeneous. The demographic dominance of titular groups in their autono

  10. National and ethnographic groups in Central Asia as reflected in ethnic statistics (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Y R

    1980-01-01

    This is the second part of an article in which the author examines trends in population growth and development among the national and ethnographic groups of the republics of Central Asia. The historical process of ethnic group consolidation is studied, with a focus on the roles of bilingualism, cross-national marriage, and socioeconomic development in inter-ethnic integration

  11. The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

  12. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  13. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  14. HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff; Matic, Srdan

    2005-01-01

    In the 1990s, HIV/AIDS became a major threat to health, economic stability and human development in countries in eastern Europe and central Asia. Social, political and economic transition exacerbated the structural conditions that allowed HIV/AIDS to flourish as dramatic changes led to increasing...

  15. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  16. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  17. Barriers to Coverage of Transborder Environmental Issues in the Ferghana Valley of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three former Soviet republics occupy Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, a region of serious transborder environmental problems, especially ones that involve water and energy. Most news organizations in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan provide little in-depth coverage of these issues. Journalists in one country usually do not seek news sources…

  18. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  19. Features and trends of the environmental change in the arid areas in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU KeFa; ZHANG Qing; CHEN Xi; SUN Li

    2007-01-01

    RS-monitoring index systems of ecological environment changes at a large scale, based on empirical data and trends in environmental change in Central Asia, are developed using NOAA and MODIS data.Moreover, with the help of mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis, the degrees, hazards and distribution extent of various possible ecological problems are discussed, environmental changes in Central Asia in 1990 and 2005 are separately evaluated, and dynamic changes in the environment in Central Asia over a 15-year period are analyzed. The results reveal that during the 15-year period from 1990 to 2005, areas of degenerated vegetation in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirghizstan and Tadzhikistan were enlarged by 0.069×105 km2, 0.081×105 km2, 0.296×105 km2, 0.022×105 km2 and 0.112×105 km2, respectively. The ecological environment in Central Asia was in the state of significant degeneration and even deterioration. This study proves that NOAA and MODIS data can be used to successfully monitor the environment and provide useful results.

  20. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  1. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  2. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  3. Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and Future Persian Gulf Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    alliances among Muslim states, were turning the ECO into a more meaningful economic group with immense regional potential. Moreover, the 12Moscow AU...markets.18 The Saudi business conglomerate Dallah al- Baraka also commenced the development of the country’s oil industry at the Tengiz oil field. The...three Kilo- class submarines for coastal defense in the Strait of Hormuz. The sale may have been a principal means to keep Russian-Iranian relations

  4. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  5. Power Industry Reliability Coordination in Asia in a Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai I. Voropai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of power supply reliability in a market environment. The specific features of economic interrelations between the power supply organization and consumers in terms of reliability assurance are examined and the principles of providing power supply reliability are formulated. The economic mechanisms of coordinating the interests of power supply organization and consumers to provide power supply reliability are discussed. Reliability of restructuring China's power industry is introduced. Some reliability data is provided. The data shows that the reliability level has increased significantly in the past two decades. More and more measures are being applied to guarantee reliability of the restructured power systems. The reliability issues and challenges that are facing the Chinese power industry are considered The paper, then examines the evolution of power grids in India, the establishment of a regulatory framework, and operational philosophy in reliability aspects of long-, mid- as well as short-term (operational / outage planning. Grid security, restoration, and mock trial for black start, etc. from the reliability angle are considered. Related issues for islanding operation to improve service reliability for Thailand's Electric Power System are then analyzed.

  6. Planning by Decree: The Soviet Language Policy in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorish, M. Mobin

    1984-01-01

    Identifies some ideological and political forces contributing to the Soviet dilemma caused by requiring a standardized proletarian culture (and language) amidst a multilingual and multicultural socialist society. Also focuses on linguistic planning, language change, and language development in the Central Asian part of the USSR. (SL)

  7. Studies on Phylogenetic Relationship of Sheep Population in East and South of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; GENG Rong-qing; LU Sheng-xia; DU Lei; NI Da-xing; FAN Bao-sheng; Tsunoda K

    2002-01-01

    This paper was based on the Hu sheep in China, after collecting the same data about 9 Asiasheep populations and 5 European sheep (breeds in Japan) populations. It clustered 15 populations in terms ofthe gene frequency of 10 loci and 33 allele in blood enzyme and other protein variations. The result of Hierar-chy Clustering showed that the sheep populations in the East and South of Central Asia could be classified intothree genetic groups: Mongolia sheep, South Asia sheep and European sheep, and the Hu sheep belonged toMongolia sheep.

  8. Independent news Web sites’ coverage of religion in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Eric; Walton, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    The five Central Asian governments tightly control religious freedom and practices. Most mass media remains state-owned or tightly controlled, and journalists exercise self-censorship, with or without official censorship. One result is a dearth of reporting by domestic media about religious freedom issues, which are culturally and politically sensitive for these authoritarian regimes. Western-based Web news sites like those of the Institute for War and Peace Reporting (www.iwpr.net), Eurasian...

  9. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  10. Hydrocarbon-Rich Territories in Central Asia: Producing Countries, Exporting Enclaves or Transit Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Mañé

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to qualify the different analyses and currents of opinion that are circulating with respect to Central Asia’s capacity to become one of the main exporters of hydrocarbons in the next decade. For this, it first examines whether or not, in quantitativeterms, the hydrocarbon-rich territories of Central Asia can become one of the main suppliers on a world scale; secondly, it explains why the countries of Central Asia will play a necessarily different role on the international energy scene than that played by the OPEC countries; and, finally, it indicates what the relevance of this area could be in the organisation (structure of the contemporary international energy scene. In this sense, it discusses not producing countries, but rather countries of passage.

  11. Toward a cross-border early-warning system for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stankiewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding urban areas in Central Asia are increasingly vulnerable to seismic risk; but at present, no earthquake early warning (EEW systems exist in the region despite their successful implementation in other earthquake-prone areas. Such systems aim to provide short (seconds to tens of seconds warnings of impending disaster, enabling the first risk mitigation and damage control steps to be taken. This study presents the feasibility of a large scale cross-border regional system for Central Asian countries. Genetic algorithms are used to design efficient EEW networks, computing optimal station locations and trigger thresholds in recorded ground acceleration. Installation of such systems within 3 years aims to both reducing the endemic lack of strong motion data in Central Asia that is limiting the possibility of improving seismic hazard assessment, and at providing the first regional earthquake early warning system in the area.

  12. The genus Colletes (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae) in Central Asia .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Michael; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

    2013-12-23

    Available information about bees of the genus Colletes in Central Asia is summarized. Eighty species are currently known from this area. Six new species are described: Colletes transitus sp. nov., C. askhabadoides sp. nov., C. kaline sp. nov., C. muellermotzfeldi sp. nov., C. pesenkoi sp. nov., and C. mirabilis sp. nov. Five species are newly recorded from Central Asia: Colletes idoneus Cockerell 1922, C. cunicularius (Linnaeus 1761), C. ebmeri Kuhlmann 2002, C. friesei Cockerell 1918, and C. impunctatus Nylander 1852. The subspecies C. tuberculatus anatolicus Noskiewicz 1959 syn. nov. and C. t. siculus Noskiewicz 1959 syn. nov. are synonymized with C. tuberculatus Morawitz 1894. Lectotypes are designated for Colletes arenarius Morawitz 1876 and C. flavicornis Morawitz 1876. Additionally one new species from Turkey and Iran, Colletes comatoides sp. nov., is here described as new and included due to its close relationship to the Central Asian C. bernadettae Kuhlmann and C. comatus Noskiewicz.

  13. Diversity of the Mountain Flora of Central Asia with Emphasis on Alkaloid-Producing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimjan Tayjanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.

  14. Integration versus Segmentation in Asian Financial Market: The Prospect of Regionalism in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Yoka Roida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws the prospect of regionalism among inancial market in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia,  Philippine,  Singapore,  China,  Hong  Kong,  Japan  and  South  Korea.  The  irst part  examines  the  correlation  among  them  that  lead  to  regional  integration.  The  second part shows the possibility of integration or segmentation between Asia countries and world. The  next  part,  tries  to  draw  whether  last  inancial  crises  1997  gave  different  result  to  the integration process. The correlation between Asia regional return and world return is tested by F-test (degree of signiicant 5%. The inal part of this paper gives a picture as to how the prospect  of  integration  or  segmentation  return  of Asia  and  world  can  initiate  a  process  of economic integration   towards a trade block development. ";} // -->activate javascript

  15. Central Asia Water (CAWa) - A visualization platform for hydro-meteorological sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Schroeder, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Water is an indispensable necessity of life for people in the whole world. In central Asia, water is the key factor for economic development, but is already a narrow resource in this region. In fact of climate change, the water problem handling will be a big challenge for the future. The regional research Network "Central Asia Water" (CAWa) aims at providing a scientific basis for transnational water resources management for the five Central Asia States Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. CAWa is part of the Central Asia Water Initiative (also known as the Berlin Process) which was launched by the Federal Foreign Office on 1 April 2008 at the "Water Unites" conference in Berlin. To produce future scenarios and strategies for sustainable water management, data on water reserves and the use of water in Central Asia must therefore be collected consistently across the region. Hydro-meteorological stations equipped with sophisticated sensors are installed in Central Asia and send their data via real-time satellite communication to the operation centre of the monitoring network and to the participating National Hydro-meteorological Services.[1] The challenge for CAWa is to integrate the whole aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations in a proper design of a monitoring infrastructure. The use of standardized interfaces to support data transfer and interoperability is essential in CAWa. An uniform treatment of sensor data can be realized by the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) , which makes a number of standards and interface definitions available: Observation & Measurement (O&M) model for the description of observations and measurements, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for the description of sensor systems, Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for obtaining sensor observations, Sensor Planning Service (SPS) for tasking sensors, Web Notification Service (WNS) for asynchronous dialogues and Sensor Alert Service

  16. Turkey’s Central Asia policy in the changing world: priorities, policies and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhad ALIMUKHAMEDOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s Central Asia policy offers an interesting perspective for analysing political and economic interests of Ankara in the region after the collapse of USSR. The political place of Central Asia in Turkish foreign policy priorities has changed slowly, but constantly from 90s to now. Although all Turkish governments and presidents followed friendly cooperation with Turkic speaking countries, the centrality of the region was lost and geoeconomic interests became dominant. However, among institutional cooperation possibilities TİKA has developed major arguments and increasingly intense activities towards the region. The article seeks to understand the reasons behind the changes of Turkish Foreign Policy and the role of Central Asian countries in Turkey’s agenda. Its objective is to underline how the geoeconomic interests may change foreign policy vectors of the countries and show the increasing dependence and involvements of Ankara on bordering countries. Besides enumerating the reasons, we also propose institutional cooperation between Turkey and Central Asian countries which seems to have more positive impact both in bilateral and multilaretal relations. The paper tries to frame the relations from Turkey’s perspective and explain the chronology of Ankara’s involvement post-Soviet Central Asia. The datas referring to the policies and starategies are primarily taken from the research articles, but also from reports. The literature review shows also that majority of research and papers are focused on early 90s and post 2000 period, indicating Turkey’s most active periods towards the region. The papers outcomes are based on qualitative method and try to explore foreign policy priorities and changes occurring based on geoeconomic interests. We try to describe the variations in Ankara’s policies and explain the relationships between Turkic capitals and leaders of Turkic states. We used open-ended questions such as followings to conduct

  17. Pyogenic liver abscess: differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-05-28

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients.

  18. The Emergence of Homo sapiens in South Asia: The Central Narmada Valley as Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anek R. Sankhyan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available :The emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens in South Asia is hotly debated due to a great gap in fossil record. A solitary partial cranium from Hathnora dated around 250 Kya is debated and conveniently interpreted as "evolved" Homo erectus or "archaic" Homo sapiens or Homo heidelbergensis or even Homo indet. Cranial fossils of Pre-Toba or post- Toba anatomically modern Homo sapiens are unknown barring the very late 30 Kya modern human remains from Sri Lanka. The present paper reviews the scenario of human evolution in South Asia with special reference to the cranial and recent postcranial fossil findings by the author in association with the archaeological evidences from Central Narmada valley. It is concluded that the Narmada fossils and archaeological findings support the presence of three hominins- two 'archaic' and one 'early modern'. The Mode 2 Acheulian hominin represented by the calvarium and the femur was a 'large-bodied' species akin to Homo heidelbergensis. It appeared first in the Central Narmada valley and was followed by a 'small-bodied' Mode 3 archaic type represented by two clavicles and the 9th rib, provisionally named here as Homo narmadensis. It likely continued and attained anatomical and behavioural modernity in South Asia as attested by the humerus and bone artifacts, and diversified to various short-bodied indigenous populations of South Asia supported by the genomic evidences.

  19. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.

  20. Coexistence in a multispecies assemblage of eagles in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, T.E.; Bragin, E.A.; Knick, S.T.; Smith, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated factors that permit species coexistence in an exceptional assemblage of similar raptor species at the Naurzum Zapovednik (a national nature reserve) in north-central Kazakhstan. White-tailed Sea-Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (A. chrysaetos), and Steppe Eagle (A. nipalensis) all breed at the Zapovednik. Steppe Eagle use of nesting resources was distinct from that of tree-nesting species. We evaluated differences in nest tree and nest habitat characteristics, nest dimensions and positions, and nest spacing among the three forest-dwelling eagle species to distinguish between the effects of inter- and intraspecific resource limitations on species coexistence. Although the different species bred in similar habitat and sometimes reused other species' nests, the dimensions, positions and locations of their nests often differed. These differences did not appear to result from interspecific competition. Nest spacing trends were also species specific; Imperial Eagles generally nested farther from other eagle nests than did Golden Eagles and White-tailed Sea-Eagles. Intraspecific variation in habitat, physical characteristics, and spacing patterns of Imperial Eagle nests was extensive throughout the nature reserve. Although interspecific partitioning of nesting habitat may allow coexistence of ground-nesting Steppe Eagles, interspecific competition did not appear to be a primary determinant of the use of nest habitat, space, or nests by tree-nesting species. Rather, interspecific effects appeared secondary to intraspecific effects in determining coexistence of tree-nesting eagles at this site.

  1. Commercial Interactions in the Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Buenos Aires Central Wholesale Produce Market (BACWM) in Argentina supplies 1,500,000 tons of produce yearly to more than 11 million consumers and receives about 13,000 trucks a week from areas within and outside the country. This market faced global transformations with the emergence of superma

  2. Central Asia’s Shrinking Connectivity Gap: Implications for U.S. Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Army Heritage and Education Center acquires, conserves, and exhibits historical materials for use to support the U.S. Army, educate an international...Central Asia, with major investments in construction, food production, hotel management, financial servic- es, energy, information technology (IT), and...This would reduce China’s dependence on the Indian Ocean and the Strait of Malacca patrolled by U.S. and Indian navies, undercutting the perceived

  3. Atmospheric Pb variations in Central Asia since 1955 from Muztagata ice core record, eastern Pamirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen; YAO Tandong; TIAN Lide; XU Baiqing; LI Yuefang

    2006-01-01

    A Muztagata ice core recovered at 7010 m altitude in East Pamirs provides a Pb concentration record from 1955 to 2000. The result reveals increasing Pb concentrations from 1955 to 1993, with two Pb concentration peaks in 1980 and 1993. After 1993, Pb concentrations in ice core show an obviously declining trend. Analysis shows that the lead in the Muztagata ice core mainly came from anthropogenic emissions from countries in Central Asia, while the local emission had little contribution.

  4. The Limits of Friendship: US Security Cooperation in Central Asia (Walker Paper, Number 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    ward Black, Lt Col Taft Blackburn, Jeannie Borden , Barbara Braese, Col Matt Brand, Lt Col David Brigham, Maj kent Broome, Maj Mark Campbell...collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Pres. George H . W. Bush sought to develop an aid program for the newly independent states in Eurasia...September 1995, 4. 43. Neil MacFarlane, Western Engagement in the Caucasus and Central Asia (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999

  5. Lights Out? The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It is very likely that an energy crunch could hit several countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) in the next five or six years. Before the financial crisis of 2008, several electricity importing countries in the region had begun to experience difficulties with supply; however, the crisis has reduced demand and created some breathing room. It has also created a window of opportu...

  6. The Balancing Role of Turkey for the Influence of China in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    however, “remains fragile and sometimes volatile [and] requires greater attention and a more sustained focus.”191 The Central Asia region, including the...sustaining regional stability, countering harmful spillover influence from Afghanistan, and securing energy resources (particularly gas from Turkmenistan...of its oil, much of it from the volatile Middle East region; therefore, securing its access to energy and diversifying its energy sources has

  7. Social media, cyber-dissent, and constraints on online political communication in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Brian; Freedman, Eric; Blom, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Recent world events have demonstrated that the Internet-and social media tools in particular-are increasingly useful for political organizing, not merely frivolous virtual spaces for youthful publics to connect socially. Rather, social media is touted as "the crucible in which repressed civil societies can revive and develop." For the people of Central Asia-where free expression is curtailed and news outlets are under official or non-state, non-official government censorship-information and c...

  8. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia : Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vandycke, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, and Central Asia, the poor faces three problems: 1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet adequately their needs; 2) the private cost of education has gone up, so that "education", as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and, 3) the perceived benefits of education (in terms of higher wage earning...

  9. Influences of recent climate change and human activities on water storage variations in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haijun; Chen, Yaning

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) change is an indicator of climate change. Therefore, it is helpful to understand how climate change impacts water systems. In this study, the influence of climate change on TWS in Central Asia over the past decade was analyzed using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites and Climatic Research Unit datasets. Results indicate that TWS experienced a decreasing trend in Central Asia from 2003 to 2013 at a rate of -4.44 ± 2.2 mm/a, and that the maximum positive anomaly for TWS (46 mm) occurred in July 2005, while the minimum negative anomaly (-32.5 mm) occurred in March 2008-August 2009. The decreasing trend of TWS in northern Central Asia (-3.86 ± 0.63 mm/a) is mainly attributed to soil moisture storage depletion, which is driven primarily by the increase in evapotranspiration. In the mountainous regions, climate change exerted an influence on TWS by affecting glaciers and snow cover change. However, human activities are now the dominant factor driving the decline of TWS in the Aral Sea region and the northern Tarim River Basin.

  10. Ammonium record over the last 96 years from the Muztagata glacier in Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO HuaBiao; YAO TanDong; XU BaiQing; LI Zhen; DUAN KeQin

    2008-01-01

    As a major alkaline gas in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. However, there is little knowledge about NH3 variations in the Central Asia. Here we ana-lyzed the ammonium (NH+4) history recorded in an ice core from the East Pamir in Central Asia, which was drilled on the Mt. Muztagata at the elevation of 7010 m a.s.I, in 2003. The core was carefully dated and NH+4 concentration history during 1907-2002 was reconstructed. The result shows that NH+4 con-centration remained approximately constant until the 1930s after a sudden decrease at the very begin-ning of the 20th century, followed by a minimum in 1940 before increasing steadily to the peak at the end of 1990s. It is found that the annual mean NH+4 concentration was strongly associated with the Northern Hemisphere temperature, suggesting the impact of temperature on NH3 emissions in the Central Asia. Moreover, an increase of NH+4 concentration after 1940 also reflects the enhancement of NH3 emissions from anthropogenic sources such as fertilizer applications and livestock wastes in the 20th century.

  11. High prevalence of an anti-hypertriglyceridemic variant of the MLXIPL gene in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Yanagisawa, Yoshiko; Ogawa, Ayumi; Ishizuka, Yuumi; Munkhtulga, Lkhagvasuren; Charupoonphol, Phitaya; Supannnatas, Somjit; Kuartei, Stevenson; Chimedregzen, Ulziiburen; Koda, Yoshiro; Ishida, Takafumi; Kagawa, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2011-12-01

    MLXIPL is a transcription factor integral to the regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis in the liver. Common variants of the MLXIPL gene (MLXIPL) are known to influence plasma triglyceride levels in people of European descent. As MLXIPL has a key role in energy storage, genetic variations of the MLXIPL may be relevant to physiological adaptations to nutritional stresses that have occurred during the evolution of modern humans. In the present study, we assessed the phenotypic consequences of the Q241H variant of MLXIPL in populations of Asian and Oceanian origin and also surveyed the prevalence of Q241H variant in populations worldwide. Multiple linear regression models based on 2373 individuals of Asian origin showed that the H allele was significantly associated with decreased concentrations of plasma triglycerides (P=0.0003). Direct genotyping of 1455 individuals from Africa, Asia and Oceania showed that the triglyceride-lowering H allele was found at quite low frequencies (0.00-0.16) in most of the populations examined. The exceptions were some Central Asian populations, including Mongolians, Tibetans and Uyghurs, which exhibited much higher frequencies of the H allele (0.21-0.26). The high prevalence of the H allele in Central Asia implies that the Q241H variant of MLXIPL might have been significant for utilization of carbohydrates and fats in the common ancestors of these populations, who successfully adapted to the environment of Central Asia by relying on nomadic livestock herding.

  12. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia, discussing the limitations of the available models and extrapolating these to future challenges and directions. After reviewing recent efforts, we conclude that the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change are the unreliable and incomplete data sets and the lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of glacierized catchments of central Asia. Runoff trends indicate a complex response to changes in climate. For future variation of water resources, it is essential to quantify the responses of hydrologic processes to both climate change and shrinking glaciers in glacierized catchments, and scientific focus should be on reducing uncertainties linked to these processes.

  13. Land surface phenological responses to land use and climate variation in a changing Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyeva, Jahan

    During the last few decades Central Asia has experienced widespread changes in land cover and land use following the socio-economic and institutional transformations of the region catalyzed by the USSR collapse in 1991. The decade-long drought events and steadily increasing temperature regimes in the region came on top of these institutional transformations, affecting the long term and landscape scale vegetation responses. This research is based on the need to better understand the potential ecological and policy implications of climate variation and land use practices in the contexts of landscape-scale changes dynamics and variability patterns of land surface phenology responses in Central Asia. The land surface phenology responses -- the spatio-temporal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation derived from the remotely sensed data -- provide measurements linked to the timing of vegetation growth cycles (e.g., start of growing season) and total vegetation productivity over the growing season, which are used as a proxy for the assessment of effects of variations in environmental settings. Local and regional scale assessment of the before and after the USSR collapse vegetation response patterns in the natural and agricultural systems of the Central Asian drylands was conducted to characterize newly emerging links (since 1991) between coupled human and natural systems, e.g., socio-economic and policy drivers of altered land and water use and distribution patterns. Spatio-temporal patterns of bioclimatic responses were examined to determine how phenology is associated with temperature and precipitation in different land use types, including rainfed and irrigated agricultural types. Phenological models were developed to examine relationship between environmental drivers and effect of their altitudinal and latitudinal gradients on the broad-scale vegetation response patterns in non-cropland ecosystems of the desert, steppe, and mountainous regional landscapes of Central Asia

  14. THE EU IN CENTRAL ASIA: STRATEGY IN THE CONTEXT OF EURASIAN GEOPOLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    Kassenova, Nargis

    2007-01-01

    The European Union is slowly but surely becoming an entity able to pursue a coordinated foreign policy. Every geopolitical actor needs a strategy that can be applied both to all other big actors (the U.S., Russia, and China) and to the regions affecting Europe's security and prosperity (Central Asia is one of them). The Central Asian region is unique in the fact that it is "impacted" between the EU's largest and most important neighbor (Russia) and an emerging megapower (China). This means th...

  15. The Geopolitics of Central Asia after the Annexation of Crimea in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razma Ainis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The annexation of Crimea accomplished by Russia in 2014 is the event that stands out sharply in the context of post-Cold War international relations: it was the first time after the end of WWII in Europe that a part of the territory of a sovereign state was forcefully annexed. This means that the re-drawing of borders and revisionism are back in international relations as the principles and ways of policy making. It would be plausible to assume that the consequences of an event of such scale would be noticeable not only in its direct neighborhood but as well in more distant, though geopolitically sensitive contexts. The article explores the impact that Russia‘s Crimea campaign has had on the geopolitics of Central Asia and what consequences could be deemed plausible in the future. It is assumed that, due to the annexation of Crimea, international relations started polarizing around the two centers of power: the West and Russia. This trend brings the mentality of strategic confrontation back into international relations. The polarization seemingly becomes a geopolitical factor, which influences the power dynamics in Central Asia in its cultural-informational, military and economic aspects. From the cultural-informational perspective, the polarization is incompatible with the provisions of multivector foreign policies, and pursued by the Central Asian states; therefore, they attempt to neutralize the trend by withholding from taking clear-cut positions with regard to the Ukrainian events. Such a stance, however, does not provide for hedging against military threats, which are perceived as rather real in Central Asia because of the Russian modus operandi in Ukraine, as well as due to the seemingly catalyzing impact of current Russian policies on the local separatist forces and radical Islamic groups. Apprehension about a replication of a Crimean scenario as well as the asymmetric character of military threat may push the Central Asian states to

  16. How US Filing Agents Expand Market in Asia?%How US Filing Agents Expand Market in Asia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luwei Xie

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to make an analysis on the USA filing agents, and describe the ways through which the USA filing agents can shift their business to Asia. The paper is a description of the USA filing agents, and how they operate. The paper also provides the description of the hurdles that might come in the operations of USA filing agents in case if they want to start their operations in Asia. It make emphasis on the different factors that might come in starting the operations in Asia like the communication factors, the differences in the cultural background, understanding of the SEC rules, and the professionals with which they have to deal. In the end, it is concluded that the main rationale behind the EDGAR, is to enlist the forms of the companies in order to provide the protection to the companies. There are a number of filing agents who perform their duties in terms of providing assistance for validating, updating and recording the files of the companies with Securities and Exchange Commission. If these filing agents need to expand their business in Asian market, then it is necessary for these filing agents to understand the culture, communication modes, SEC rules and the Other requirements. It is very necessary that the filling agents should keep in consideration the fact that the standard or the full disclosure does not provide the complete guarantee about the wastage of the money. Indeed, it is allowed to Securities Exchange Commission that it can bring in force the completeness of the disclosure, but it cannot bring any impact on the quality of the company or the stock of the company.

  17. Did Focusing on Asia Pacific Emerging Markets Provide Much Benefit to Portfolio Diversification during the Late 2000s Recession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Hermanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the international co-movement among Asia Pacific emerging markets stock price indices during the late 2000s recession by using the monthly observations start from 1st October 2001 until 1st April 2011. The co-integration analysis and parsimonious Vector Error Correction Model employed in this research reveal a long-term relationship and inter-dependencies among seven Asia Pacific emerging market stock price indices. This research finds that the unique co-integration exists on the equations. Specifically, two indices from China and Taiwan having meteor shower potential while the rest indices from Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia are known to have heat waves effects or country specific factors on the equation. Finally, all the results are linked to the international diversification strategies. Keywords: Co-movement, co-integration, emerging market, heat waves, meteor shower, Asia Pacific, inter-dependencies, Vector Error Correction Model, international diversification

  18. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  19. Cloud removing method for daily snow mapping over Central Asia and Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Qiu, Yubao; Guo, Huadong; Chen, Lijuan

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia and Xinjiang, China are conjunct areas, located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, where the snowfall is an important water resource supplement form. The induced seasonal snow cover is vita factors to the regional energy and water balance, remote sensing plays a key role in the snow mapping filed, while the daily remote sensing products are normally contaminated by the occurrence of cloud, that obviously obstacles the utility of snow cover parameters. In this paper, based on the daily snow product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS A1), a cloud removing method was developed by considering the regional snow distribution characteristics with latitude and altitude dependence respectively. In the end, the daily cloud free products was compared with the same period of eight days MODIS standard product, revealing that the cloud free snow products are reasonable, while could provide higher temporal resolution, and more details over Center Asia and Xinjiang Province.

  20. The phylogeographic system survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W; Chang, H; Tsunoda, K; Musa, H H; Yang, Z P; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J

    2010-08-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogenetic survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia were assessed in the present study. The clustering, principal components, structure and F statistics all demonstrate that the native sheep breeds in these regions be classified into two genetic groups: Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group and South-Southeast Asia sheep group. The Mongolia sheep group and the Tibetan sheep group had a certain degree of gene communication from the ancient times. In the present study we demonstrated that the Chinese native sheep populations belonged to Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group. However, the relationships among the sheep populations in Mongolia sheep group in China were not closely related to the geographical distance among sheep populations.

  1. Challenges in the clinical development requirements for the marketing authorization of new medicines in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alex

    2009-03-01

    A rapid growth of investment into clinical research and new drug development has manifested itself by an exponential increase of new products coming onto the worldwide market. The emerging pharmaceutical and biotech markets in Southeast Asia are believed to be extremely promising from a commercial point of view in the next decade. The unique position of the Asian market and the diversity in clinical research initiatives are linked with diverse regulatory requirements for clinical development and registration of new medicines. Some of these differences have an impact on timelines for marketing authorizations in South Korea, China, Thailand, Japan, Singapore, and other countries. One of the approaches to streamlining regulatory strategy in different countries is the initiation of multicountry international clinical trials trying to address requirements and allowing registration in several regional countries simultaneously. Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries in relation to regulatory requirements and clinical development will facilitate the registration of innovative medicines in this rapidly developing region of the world and enable improved cohesiveness between countries in a drug safety framework.

  2. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  3. Central Bank Policies and the Behavior of the Money Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.; Yap, Josef T.; Zingapan, Socorro; Untalan, Teodoro S.

    1990-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative analysis of three measures of operating efficiency, this study attempts to relate the Central Bank’s policies with the behavior of the money market. Results indicate that prior to 1981, the financial market is relatively stable but less efficient. Afterwards, the stability of monetary system has been achieved at the expense of operating efficiency. Clearly, there has been a trade-off between operating efficiency and stability.

  4. Science and Technology in Support of U.S. Policy in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R B

    2003-11-04

    The current war with Iraq, international interventions in Afghanistan, and the continuous and seemingly insolvable problems in the Middle East emphasize the importance of supporting stable, healthy countries throughout the Middle East and South and Central Asia. The political alliances and foreign aid promulgated by the Cold War have been seriously strained, creating a more uncertain and unstable international environment. We must stay engaged with this part of the world. New partnerships must be forged. Central Asia represents a mix of political systems - from totalitarian rule to nascent democracy; of economic resources from natural to human; and of cultures from ancient to modern - making it of strategic importance to U. S. national and economic security. The U.S. must remain committed and proactively engaged in the region to promote open and democratic societies attractive to outside investment and to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and extremist groups. The U.S is admired for its science and technology and its flexibility in innovation and applying S&T to solve problems. The inherent value that S&T can contribute to advancing U.S. policy goals is the underlying assumption of this report. Science and technology and their applications have much to contribute to social, economic, and environmental sustainability and, therefore, provide a strong foundation for helping the U.S. to implement its policies abroad. The application of concepts such as competition and peer review, open sharing of scientific information through the use of the internet and other information technologies, and the development of international scientific collaborations and networks, can make major contributions to healthy and stable societies in Central Asia. U.S. scientific and technical know-how has much to contribute to U.S. policy goals and easing regional tensions. Science and technology truly can build bridges between nations and cultures while serving the

  5. Understanding post 9/11 drug control policy and politics in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Alisher

    2009-09-01

    This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices.

  6. Multilevel stigma as a barrier to HIV testing in Central Asia: a context quantified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Alex; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-10-01

    Central Asia is experiencing one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world, with some areas' infection rates doubling yearly since 2000. This study examines the impact of multilevel stigma (individual, family, and community) on uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV testing results among women in Central Asia. The sample consists of 38,884 ever-married, Central Asian women between the ages of 15 and 49. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), HIV stigma variables at the individual, family, and community levels were used to assess the significance of differences in HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results among participants while adjusting for possible confounding factors, such as age, wealth, and education. MLM results indicate that HIV stigma is significantly associated with decreased HIV testing uptake at the individual, family, and community levels and with a decrease in receipt at the community level. A one standard deviation increase in individual, family, and community level composite stigma score was associated with a respective 49 %, 59 %, and 94 % (p < 0.001) decrease in the odds of having been tested for HIV. A one standard deviation increase in community composite stigma score was associated with a 99 % (p < 0.001) decrease in the odds of test receipt. HIV stigma operates on the individual, family, and community levels to hinder HIV testing uptake and at the community level to hinder receipt. These findings have important interventions implications to improve uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results.

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  8. Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Almarzoqi; Sami Ben Naceur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we use a bank-level panel dataset to investigate the determinants of bank interest margins in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) over the period 1998–2013. We apply the dealership model of Ho and Saunders (1981) and its extensions to assess the extent to which high spreads of banks in the CCA can be related to bank-specific variables, to competition, and to macroeconomic factors. We find that interest spreads are affected by operating cost, credit risk, liquidity risk, bank ...

  9. Derechos emergentes en regiones emergentes: el derecho al agua potable y al saneamiento en Asia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Estapà, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    El derecho humano al agua potable y al saneamiento viene afirmándose de manera cada vez más rotunda en el plano internacional. Supone la capacidad de cada ser humano de acceder a agua limpia y segura de manera asequible, y la obligación correlativa de los Estados de garantizar y proteger este derecho. Los Estados de Asia Central disponen de agua suficiente para garantizar este derecho a todos sus ciudadanos, pero la mala gestión y el despilfarro hace que algunas zonas, sobre todo rurales, ten...

  10. The Golden Crescent and HIV/AIDS in Central Asia: deadly interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has become the world's largest producer of illicit opiates. Opium and its derivative heroin are widespread substances of use, abuse and dependency in Central Asia. The region is currently undergoing expanding HIV epidemics driven largely by needle sharing among people who use drugs, in contexts where public health interventions to reduce the harms associated with substance use are limited by policy, law and legalistic and repressive approaches to drug users. Evidence-based approaches to drug treatment are lacking or limited in multiple states. Urgent reform is needed. The massive volumes of Afghan's illicit opiate exports are having serious impacts on the health of the region.

  11. STRATEGIC INITIATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES AND CHINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram A. Umarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the U.S. strategy “New Silk Road” and the project of China to establish economic belt “Silk Road”, as well as their implementation in Central Asia. However, the unstable situation in Afghanistan, the lack of sources of financing capital-intensive infrastructure projects, the existence of various contradictions between the countries of this region and other reasons prevent the full implementation of the U.S. strategy. At the same time, the Chinese project faces a lack of precision uncertainty of funding.

  12. New data on Apteroloma (Coleoptera: Agyrtidae) of central Asia and the Himalayas with a new synonymy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Jan; Latella, Leonardo; Schawaller, Wolfgang

    2014-06-19

    The distribution of Apteroloma anglorossicum (Semenov, 1890), A. harmandi (Portevin, 1903) and A. sillemi Jeannel, 1935 in central Asia and along the Himalayas is summarized, and the collecting circumstances and ecology of all three species from Gilgit District, Pakistan are described in detail. Revised diagnoses of all three species are provided, habitus and important morphological structures are illustrated, and available types have been examined. Apteroloma jankovskii Semenov and Znojko in Semenov, 1932 is confirmed as junior subjective synonym of A. anglorossicum. Apteroloma heinzi Schawaller, 1991 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of A. harmandi.

  13. Early Pleistocene climate in western arid central Asia inferred from loess-palaeosol sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Haitao; Taheri, Mehdi; Khormali, Farhad; Danukalova, Guzel; Chen, Fahu

    2016-02-03

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4-1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets.

  14. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges

  15. Glocalization and the Marketing of Christianity in Early Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Watson Andaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of European commercial interests into Southeast Asia during the early modern period was commonly justified by the biblical injunction to spread Christian teachings, and by the “civilizing” influences it was said to foster. In focusing on areas where Christianity gained a foothold or, in the Philippines and Timor Leste, became the dominant faith, this article invokes the marketing concept of “glocalization”, frequently applied to the sociology of religion. It argues that the historical beginnings of the processes associated with the global/local interface of Christianity are situated in the sixteenth century, when Europe, Asia and the Americas were finally linked through maritime connections. Christian missionizing was undertaken with the assumption that the European-based “brand” of beliefs and practices could be successfully transported to a very different environment. However, the application of these ideas was complicated by the goal of imposing European economic control, by the local resistance thus generated, and by competition with other religions and among Christians themselves. In this often antagonistic environment, the degree to which a global product could be “repackaged” and “glocalized” so that it was appealing to consumers in different cultural environments was always constrained, even among the most sympathetic purveyors. As a result, the glocalization of Christianity set up “power-laden tensions” which both global institutions and dispersed consumers continue to negotiate.

  16. Russians in Post-Soviet Central Asia: More "Cold" than the Others? Exploring (Ethnic) Identity under Different Sociopolitical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmarskaya, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the identity and the social/political behaviour of Russians in post-Soviet Central Asia through a comparison with the Baltic countries via a "hot and cold ethnicity" paradigm. Central Asian Russians are more likely, ceteris paribus, to be found at the "cold" end of the spectrum of "ethnic…

  17. From the Party/State to Multiethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews anecdotal and field experience in Europe and Central Asia in meeting the challenges of social cohesion and draws some comparisons between the social cohesion of education systems in the European and Central Asian regions and that of the United States. Outlines ways in which public education has contributed to social cohesion in the West.…

  18. Decreased vegetation growth in response to summer drought in Central Asia from 2000 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao-jie; Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Xiao-xiao

    2016-10-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that Central Asia may experience an increase in the frequency and magnitude of temperature and precipitation extremes by the end of the 21st century, but the response regularity of different types of vegetation to climate extremes is uncertain. Based on remote-sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the period of 2000-2012, we examined the diverse responses of vegetation to climate mean/extremes and differentiated climatic and anthropogenic influence on the vegetation in Central Asia. Our results showed that extensive vegetation degradation was related to summer water deficit as a result of the combined effect of decreased precipitation and increased potential evapotranspiration. Water was a primary climatic driver for vegetation changes regionally, and human-induced changes in vegetation confined mainly to local areas. Responses of vegetation to water stress varied in different vegetation types. Grasslands were most responsive to water deficit followed by forests and desert vegetation. Climate extremes caused significant vegetation changes, and different vegetation types had diverse responses to climate extremes. Grasslands represented a symmetric response to wet and dry periods. Desert vegetation was more responsive during wet years than in dry years. Forests responded more strongly to dry than to wet years due to a severe drought occurred in 2008. This study has important implications for predicting how vegetation ecosystems in drylands respond to climate mean/extremes under future scenarios of climate change.

  19. Managerial and Educational Features of a Turkish University in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gagbansua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly independent states occur after the collapse of Soviet Union. A number of Turkish Higher Education Institutes were opened in Central Asia after this event. One of them is the International Ataturk Alatoo University. The International Ataturk Alatoo University is one of the first private universities established in the Kyrgyz Republic that started its educational activity in 1996. International Ataturk Alatoo University aims at being the best model for higher education depending on the highest education standards and norms in newly reshaping Central Asia. The International Atatürk Alatoo University has an education mentality motivating free thinking and personal skills in a world in which paradigms are rapidly changing. In this paper, in order to find the answer for ‘what makes International Atatürk Alatoo University different from other institutes’; the strategies and features of International Atatürk Alatoo University were examined from the managerial and educational perspectives, interviews were made with students, lecturers and businessmen. Opinions of those people who have different University experiences (one International Atatürk Alatoo University experience and one local or International were collected and discussed. By this way success factors and problems faced in the region were explained.

  20. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris B. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regional sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51 and the fine particle mass fraction (64%. Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.

  1. Review of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of Central Asia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrin, Alexey V

    2015-06-19

    A taxonomic review of the genus Lesteva Latreille, 1797 of the Central Asia is presented. The type material of the following species was revised: L. bucharica Fauvel, 1900, L. fasciata Luze, 1903, L. nova Bernhauer, 1902, L. transcaspica Bernhauer, 1935 and L. turkestanica Luze, 1904. Lectotypes for L. bucharica and L. turkestanica, a lectotype and paralectotype for L. transcaspica are designated. One species is described as new: L. (s.str.) schuelkei sp. n. (Tajikistan, NW Pamir: Peter-I Mts. and Hissar Mts.). Three synonyms are proposed: L. (s.str.) fasciata=L. (s.str.) turkestanica, syn n.=L. (s.str.) transcaspica, syn. n., L. nova=L. (s.str.) aculeata Shavrin, 2010, syn. n. Three species are redescribed: L. (s.str.) bucharica, L. (s.str.) fasciata and L. (s.str.) nova. All species are illustrated and their distribution mapped. A key to species known from Central Asia, as well as new provincial records for L. (s.str.) barsevskisi Shavrin, 2010, L. (s.str.) bucharica and L. (s.str.) fasciata are provided.

  2. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia.

  3. Central Asia: Kyrgyzstan and the learning experience in the design of pastoral institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymov, U; Undeland, A; Dörre, A; Mackinnon, A

    2016-11-01

    The authors analyse the nature of policy development to understand the reasons for institutional change in pasture management in Kyrgyzstan. They use the concept of intentional institutional change, emphasising its incremental nature and the important relationship between belief systems and institutions. The paper explores the relationship between the perceptions and beliefs of policy-makers, the policy interventions they undertake, and the consequences for pastoral migration and practices. The study reveals the gap between the intentions behind such policies and their outcomes, the persistence and importance of pastoral migration, and the learning process that policy-makers undergo. This close look at the development and institutionalisation of new dominant societal beliefs highlights the possible direction of the future development of formal pastoral institutions in Central Asia. Policy-makers should respond better to changes in pastoral mobility and the unsustainable increase in intensified use of natural pastures. Policy-makers must also respond to the growth in conflict over pasture use by becoming more aware of the need for inter-sectoral cooperation. The authors argue that a crucial test for the new formal institutions still lies ahead. The key questions are: whether policy-makers and pasture users can eventually come to hold the same beliefs about what is needed in their society, and what new effective institutions will emerge to define the future of pastoralism in Central Asia.

  4. Decentralized Markets versus Central Control: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Akkermans, H; 10.1613/jair.627

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) promise to offer solutions to problems where established, older paradigms fall short. In order to validate such claims that are repeatedly made in software agent publications, empirical in-depth studies of advantages and weaknesses of multi-agent solutions versus conventional ones in practical applications are needed. Climate control in large buildings is one application area where multi-agent systems, and market-oriented programming in particular, have been reported to be very successful, although central control solutions are still the standard practice. We have therefore constructed and implemented a variety of market designs for this problem, as well as different standard control engineering solutions. This article gives a detailed analysis and comparison, so as to learn about differences between standard versus agent approaches, and yielding new insights about benefits and limitations of computational markets. An important outcome is that "local information plus market communica...

  5. On the Rule of the Arab Empire in Central Asia%阿拉伯帝国在中亚的统治初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永伦

    2011-01-01

    阿拉伯帝国征服中亚以后,设置国家暴力机器,镇压中亚人民的反抗,维持阿拉伯人的统治;实行政治控制和压迫,大量移民中亚,与中亚地主贵族进行联合统治;在实行残酷的经济掠夺的同时采取措施促进中亚经济的发展;摧毁中亚原有文化,强制中亚人民改宗伊斯兰教,实行宗教迫害政策。如此种种,全面体现了阿拉伯帝国在中亚的统治。%The Arab Empire established national violent institutions as powerful ruling means to repress the rising of people of Central Asia by force in order to maintain the rule of The Arab Empire in Central Asia after it conquered Central Asia.It controlled and oppressed Central Asia in politics and transferred Arabian to Central Asia and rule people of Central Asia in cooperation with landlord of Central Asia.It exploited cruelly Central Asia in economy on one hand and took measures to develop economy of Central Asia on the other hand.It destroyed the culture of Central Asia and compelled people of Central Asia to converted to Islam.All above-mentioned embodied wholly the rule of the Arab Empire in Central Asia.

  6. Central bank independence and its effect on money market stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Anera Alishani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990s many countries have moved toward greater central bank independence (CBI by either amending their Central Bank’s laws or writing them de novo. Also countries of Western Balkans and many other transition countries have moved toward greater CBI. There are many potential benefits associated with greater CBI, and one of them is stable growth of money and liquidity. For a given level of money market development the hypothesis is that a more independent CB is likely to promote more stable growth of money supply (Dželetović et al., 2008. As a result the main research task of this work is to estimate the effects of CBI on money market growth for five Western Balkans countries and five other European transition countries. Because the empirical studies were very limited for the relationship between CBI and money market growth, there were no clear conclusions. In addition, there were different measuring methodologies that attempt to quantify the extent of legal and actual CBI. Related to the main research task, this dissertation has examined the effects of CBI on money market stability (proxied by bank deposit growth for a sample of 10 countries for a period from 1999-2009 by using fixed effect model. Through this methodology different regressions have been estimated, but the results were not robust and there are no clear finding on the relationship between CBI and money market growth.

  7. Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie BAI; Xi CHEN; Liao YANG; Hui FANG

    2012-01-01

    Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia.Therefore,the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities,and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research.This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period.The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s,TM images from the early 1990s,ETM + images in the late 1990s,and TM images in 2007.The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area,from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007.As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part,the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east.There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions.The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions.Most significantly,the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975.The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007.The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types.The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%,and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%.Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period.Due to global climate warming,vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked,resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan,and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000.The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff.Consequently,the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.

  8. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15

  9. A long-term context (931-2005 C.E.) for rapid warming over central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davi, N. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Cook, E. R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Nachin, B.; Rao, M. P.; Leland, C.; Oelkers, R.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of long-term temperature variability and its causes is extremely limited in remote Central Asia, due to short and sparse meteorological data, as well as a paucity of long-term, high-resolution, temperature-sensitive proxy records. Instrumental records, typically only reaching back to the 1940s or later, show that temperatures in central Asia have been increasing rapidly, particularly since the mid 1990's, and are currently warmer then at any other time in recorded history. We develop a millennium length (931-2005 C.E.) tree-ring width chronology from larch trees (Larix sibirica) growing at elevational treeline (2400 meters) sites in Mongolia, where the dominant limiting factor for growth is temperature. The chronology and reconstruction, from a site named Ondor Zuun Nuruu (OZN; meaning 'High East Ridge'), has a large sample depth (> 200 samples) and can be calibrated and validated using regionalized meteorological data from Mongolia and Russia. The reconstruction allows us to evaluate temperature variability and extremes over the past millennium in Central Asia, a region that is warming faster then many places on Earth. It also places recent warming trends into a long-term context, contributes to our understanding of spatial patterns of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age across Asia, and provides evidence of significant volcanic influence on Central Asia temperature. We also present preliminary results from novel Blue Light Intensity methods that demonstrate that blue intensity reflectance significantly improves the climate signal of temperature sensitive tree-ring width chronologies from Central Asia and will lead to additional millennial length reconstructions from several sites that were not previously possible using ring-width alone.

  10. Subjective Well-being Across the Lifespan in Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jan Michael; Levin, Victoria; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria;

    2016-01-01

    controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, this pattern generally remains robust for most of our cross-sectional and panel analyses. Hence, despite significant heterogeneity in the pattern of well-being across the lifespan within the ECA region, we do not observe high levels of cross-country or cross......sing data from the Integrated Values Survey (IVS), the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS), and the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we analyse the relation between age and subjective well-being in the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region and compare it to that in Western...... Europe. Although our results generally confirm previous studies’ findings of a U-shaped relation between subjective well-being and age for most of the lifecycle, we also find that well-being in ECA declines again after the 70s, giving rise to an S-shape relation across the entire lifespan. When...

  11. Quinoa for marginal environments: Towards future food and nutritional security in MENA and Central Asia regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane eChoukr-allah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a means to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries.

  12. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDA BABAYEVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant associations with seed yield per plant. Cluster analyses based on drought tolerance index (DTI grouped accessions into five subgroups with different numbers of accessions in each group. Three groups out of five were characterized by high DTI values and high yields were observed in both, under irrigated and rainfed conditions. This collective group of genotypes demonstrated valuable germplasm traits under stress and may therefore serve as source of useful genes in breeding lentils for drought tolerance.

  13. Numerical simulation of tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peryshkin, A. Yu., E-mail: alexb700@yandex.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Makarov, P. V., E-mail: bacardi@ispms.ru; Eremin, M. O., E-mail: bacardi@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    An evolutionary approach proposed in [1, 2] combining the achievements of traditional macroscopic theory of solid mechanics and basic ideas of nonlinear dynamics is applied in a numerical simulation of present-day tectonic plates motion and seismic process in Central Asia. Relative values of strength parameters of rigid blocks with respect to the soft zones were characterized by the δ parameter that was varied in the numerical experiments within δ = 1.1–1.8 for different groups of the zonal-block divisibility. In general, the numerical simulations of tectonic block motion and accompanying seismic process in the model geomedium indicate that the numerical solutions of the solid mechanics equations characterize its deformation as a typical behavior of a nonlinear dynamic system under conditions of self-organized criticality.

  14. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  15. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  16. NPP-VIIRS DNB-based reallocating subpopulations to mercury in Urumqi city cluster, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Feng, X. B.; Dai, W.; Li, P.; Ju, C. Y.; Bao, Z. D.; Han, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate and update assignment of population-related environmental matters onto fine grid cells in oasis cities of arid areas remains challenging. We present the approach based on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) to reallocate population onto a regular finer surface. The number of potential population to the mercury were reallocated onto 0.1x0.1 km reference grid in Urumqi city cluster of China’s Xinjiang, central Asia. The result of Monte Carlo modelling indicated that the range of 0.5 to 2.4 million people was reliable. The study highlights that the NPP-VIIRS DNB-based multi-layered, dasymetric, spatial method enhances our abilities to remotely estimate the distribution and size of target population at the street-level scale and has the potential to transform control strategies for epidemiology, public policy and other socioeconomic fields.

  17. A previously unrecognized group of Middle Jurassic triconodontan mammals from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas; Averianov, Alexander O.

    2007-01-01

    Ferganodon narynensis gen. et sp. nov. is represented by a lower molariform tooth from the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Balabansai Svita in Kyrgyzstan. The new genus is allied with Klamelia zhaopengi Chow and Rich 1984 from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Xinjiang, northwest China to the new family Klameliidae based on parallelogram-shaped lower molariforms, imbricating rather than interlocking of cusps e- d- f, by a peculiar distolabial cingulid cusp, and by vertical folding of the enamel on the labial crown side. The new family Klameliidae fam. nov. is most similar to Gobiconodontidae by the structure of the molariform teeth and represents a previously unrecognized radiation of eutriconodontan mammals possibly endemic to Central Asia.

  18. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  19. Subjective Well-being Across the Lifespan in Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jan Michael; Levin, Victoria; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    sing data from the Integrated Values Survey (IVS), the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS), and the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we analyse the relation between age and subjective well-being in the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region and compare it to that in Western...... Europe. Although our results generally confirm previous studies’ findings of a U-shaped relation between subjective well-being and age for most of the lifecycle, we also find that well-being in ECA declines again after the 70s, giving rise to an S-shape relation across the entire lifespan. When...... controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, this pattern generally remains robust for most of our cross-sectional and panel analyses. Hence, despite significant heterogeneity in the pattern of well-being across the lifespan within the ECA region, we do not observe high levels of cross-country or cross...

  20. Influences of deglaciation on the river run-off in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Glazyrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers form a great deal of runoff of rivers in Central Asia. It is clear that amount of melted water directly depends on total area of glaciers in the river basins – their glaciation. It is well known that at present the area quickly reduces. The complete inventory of glaciers was performed in former Soviet Union in the middle of last century. Airphoto images were used as a basis for our calculations. The inventory was repeated later for several river basins using airphoto- and space images. Unfortunately only three inventories is performed in several river basins for the last half of XX century. Amount of water, coming to a river network from glaciers, can be divided into two parts. The first is usual annual melting. It exists under stationary glaciation condition. The second, being part of the first, is caused by reduction of the glaciation volume. It can be negative in some years when glaciers volume is increasing as a result of favorable meteorological conditions. In these cases the part of water containing in seasonal snow cover does not go to river network. Two components of the glacial feeding were calculated for six rivers located in various regions of Central Asia. It is shown that present day glaciers reduction does not lead to disastrous consequences for river run-off. It leads only to the changes of annual distribution in the run-off. The results should be considered as preliminary because of low accuracy of hydrometeorolological data and number of admissions during calculation.

  1. Humid Little Ice Age in arid central Asia documented by Bosten Lake,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; HUANG Xiaozhong; ZHANG Jiawu; J.A.Holmes; CHEN Jianhui

    2006-01-01

    Short sediment cores retrieved from Bosten Lake,the largest inland freshwater lake in China,were used to explore humidity and precipitation variations in arid central Asia during the past millennium.The chronology of the cores was established using 137Cs,210Pb and AMS 14C dating results.Multi-proxy high-resolution analysis,including pollen ratios of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae (A/C),carbonate content and grain size,indicates that the climate during the past millennium can be divided into three stages: a dry climate between 1000-1500 AD,a humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (c.1500-1900 AD),and a warm dry period after 1900 AD.On centennial timescales,the climate change in northwestern China during the past 1000 years is characterized by oscillations between warm-dry and cold-humid climate conditions.All the proxies changed significantly and indicate increased precipitation during the LIA,including increased pollen A/C ratios and pollen concentrations,decreased carbonate content and increased grain size.The humid period during the LIA recorded by the Bosten Lake sediments is representative of arid central Asia and is supported by numerous records from other sites.During the LIA,the water runoff into the Keriya River and Tarim River in the Tarim Basin increased,while the ice accumulation in the Guliya ice core increased.Additionally,the lake levels of the Aral and Caspian Sea also rose,while tree-ring analysis indicates that precipitation increased.We hypothesize that both the lower temperature within China and the negative anomalies of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during this period may have contributed to the humid climate within this area during LIA.

  2. Tapping the Late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental change and alluvial geoarchaeology in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark; Panyushkina, Irina; Toonen, Willem; Chang, Claudia; Seitkaliyev, Meyram; Voyakin, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    We integrate the environmental history derived from spatial-temporal variability of multi proxies and the prehistory of arid lands from archaeological data in Central Asia in order to determine the relationship between the Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming. This study addresses to developing fluvial achieves and geoarcheological records from the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River and the Talas catchment, a east-bank tributary of the Syr Darya River, in the southern Kazakhstan. The catchments of these steppe rivers flowing northwest had favorable habitats for farming from the Eneolithic to the medieval period as appears from human settlement histories documented with archaeological surveys and in some cases excavations. The river development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and the key archaeological sites have been dated with radiocarbon. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water in downstream Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds, and in the Talas River during the medieval period. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming is proposed, which explains settlement patterns since the first documented use of irrigation in the Iron Age and medieval times. The undertaken research highlights the Holocene human adaptations to the environmental change of floodplains in Central Asia.

  3. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  4. Fungal root endophyte associations of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Szymon; Nobis, Marcin; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Mleczko, Piotr; Nowak, Arkadiusz

    2011-06-01

    The fungal root endophyte associations of 16 species from 12 families of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia are presented. The plants and soil samples were collected in Zeravshan and Hissar ranges within the central Pamir Alay mountain system. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was found in 15 plant species; in 8 species it was of the Arum type and in 4 of the Paris type, while 3 taxa revealed intermediate arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphology. AMF colonization was found to be absent only in Matthiola integrifolia, the representative of the Brassicaceae family. The AM status and morphology are reported for the first time for all the species analyzed and for the genera Asyneuma, Clementsia, and Eremostachys. Mycelia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) accompanied the AMF colonization in ten plant species. The frequency of DSE occurrence in the roots was low in all the plants, with the exception of Spiraea baldschuanica. However, in the case of both low and higher occurrence, the percentage of DSE root colonization was low. Moreover, the sporangia of Olpidium spp. were sporadically found inside the root epidermal cells of three plant species. Seven AMF species (Glomeromycota) found in the trap cultures established with soils surrounding roots of the plants being studied were reported for the first time from this region of Asia. Our results provide information that might well be of use to the conservation and restoration programmes of these valuable plant species. The potential application of beneficial root-inhabiting fungi in active plant protection projects of rare, endemic and endangered plants is discussed.

  5. Inter-Comparison of High-Resolution Satellite Precipitation Products over Central Asia

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    Hao Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the spatial error structures of eight precipitation estimates derived from four different satellite retrieval algorithms including TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA, Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH, Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN. All the original satellite and bias-corrected products of each algorithm (3B42RTV7 and 3B42V7, CMORPH_RAW and CMORPH_CRT, GSMaP_MVK and GSMaP_Gauge, PERSIANN_RAW and PERSIANN_CDR are evaluated against ground-based Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE over Central Asia for the period of 2004 to 2006. The analyses show that all products except PERSIANN exhibit overestimation over Aral Sea and its surrounding areas. The bias-correction improves the quality of the original satellite TMPA products and GSMaP significantly but slightly in CMORPH and PERSIANN over Central Asia. 3B42RTV7 overestimates precipitation significantly with large Relative Bias (RB (128.17% while GSMaP_Gauge shows consistent high correlation coefficient (CC (>0.8 but RB fluctuates between −57.95% and 112.63%. The PERSIANN_CDR outperforms other products in winter with the highest CC (0.67. Both the satellite-only and gauge adjusted products have particularly poor performance in detecting rainfall events in terms of lower POD (less than 65%, CSI (less than 45% and relatively high FAR (more than 35%.

  6. [The distribution of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) in Central Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Goriacheva, I I; Ezhov, M N

    2014-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, cytogenetic analysis, and investigation of egg exochorion have indicated that three representatives of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (subgenus Anopheles): An artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Falleroni, and An. marinius Shingarev. An. messeae is a European-Siberian species that has extended the southern border of its habitat and has been distributed in the south of Kazakhstan and in the north of Kyrgyzstan. In, Kyrgyzstan, An. messeae inhabiting the plains of Europe and Siberia is encountered rather high up in the mountains: the highest point where this species is found is at 1,879 m above sea level. An. artemievi is present in the highland and piedmont regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan, and northern Tajikistan) and in the intermountain basins (Naryn and Fergana ones). The single finding of this species is in south-eastern Turkmenistan. On the contrary, An. martinius tends to be in the plains and occurs in north-eastern Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Kazakhstan (Kzyl-Orda). On the other hand, a population of this species is found in proximity to the foothills of the Gissar Range in the east of Uzbekistan. An.maculipennis s.str. is not seen in Central Asia. Early evidence for the presence of both An. maculipennis s.str. and An. martinius in Kopet Dag (Southern Turkmenistan) is rather questionable. It is not improbable that these data are appropriate for either the newly described species An.persiensis or the scientifically new representative of the An. maculipennis complex.

  7. Climate changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in an alpine grassland of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zengyun; Li, Qingxiang; Chen, Xi; Teng, Zhidong; Chen, Changchun; Yin, Gang; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-11-01

    The natural ecosystem in Central Asia is sensitive and vulnerable to the arid and semiarid climate variations, especially the climate extreme events. However, the climate extreme events in this area are still unclear. Therefore, this study analyzed the climate variability in the temperature and precipitation extreme events in an alpine grassland (Bayanbuluk) of Central Asia based on the daily minimum temperature, daily maximum temperature, and daily precipitation from 1958 to 2012. Statistically significant ( p < 0.01) increasing trends were found in the minimum temperature, maximum temperature at annual, and seasonal time scales except the winter maximum temperature. In the seasonal changes, the winter temperature had the largest contribution to the annual warming. Further, there appeared increasing trends for the warm nights and the warm days and decreasing trends for the cool nights and the cool days at a 99 % confidence level. These trends directly resulted in an increasing trend for the growing season length (GSL) which could have positively influence on the vegetation productivity. For the precipitation, it displayed an increasing trend for the annual precipitation although it was not significant. And the summer precipitation had the same variations as the annual precipitation which indicated that the precipitation in summer made the biggest contribution to the annual precipitation than the other three seasons. The winter precipitation had a significant increasing trend (1.49 mm/10a) and a decreasing trend was found in spring. We also found that the precipitation of the very wet days mainly contributes to the annual precipitation with the trend of 4.5 mm/10a. The maximum 1-day precipitation and the heavy precipitation days only had slight increasing trend. A sharp decreasing trend was found before the early 1980s, and then becoming increase for the above three precipitation indexes. The climate experienced a warm-wet abrupt climate change in the 1980s

  8. Statistical inference on genetic data reveals the complex demographic history of human populations in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Friso P; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    The demographic history of modern humans constitutes a combination of expansions, colonizations, contractions, and remigrations. The advent of large scale genetic data combined with statistically refined methods facilitates inference of this complex history. Here we study the demographic history of two genetically admixed ethnic groups in Central Asia, an area characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and a history of recurrent immigration. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation, we infer that the timing of admixture markedly differs between the two groups. Admixture in the traditionally agricultural Tajiks could be dated back to the onset of the Neolithic transition in the region, whereas admixture in Kyrgyz is more recent, and may have involved the westward movement of Turkic peoples. These results are confirmed by a coalescent method that fits an isolation-with-migration model to the genetic data, with both Central Asian groups having received gene flow from the extremities of Eurasia. Interestingly, our analyses also uncover signatures of gene flow from Eastern to Western Eurasia during Paleolithic times. In conclusion, the high genetic diversity currently observed in these two Central Asian peoples most likely reflects the effects of recurrent immigration that likely started before historical times. Conversely, conquests during historical times may have had a relatively limited genetic impact. These results emphasize the need for a better understanding of the genetic consequences of transmission of culture and technological innovations, as well as those of invasions and conquests.

  9. National independence and nonproliferation in the new states of Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, G.

    1993-12-01

    Five independent states emerged in Central Asia from the breakup of the USSR. One of these states, Kazakhstan, possesses nuclear weapons. The other four of these states, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, are not known to possess nuclear weapons, however they occupy a geostrategic position which makes them important to non-proliferation efforts. The present report profiles the capabilities and intentions of these four Central Asian states. The analysis of capabilities suggests that none of these states has the capability to develop a usable nuclear weapon. However, all of these countries-- especially Uzbekistan--have components of the old Soviet nuclear weapons complex which are now orphans. They have no use for these facilities and must either re-profile them, destroy them, or transfer them. The analysis of intentions suggests that the dynamics of national independence have created a situation in which Uzbekistan has hegemonic designs in the region. Implications for retarding nuclear proliferation in the Central Asian region are examined. Opportunities for outside influence are assessed.

  10. A Study on International Multimodal Transport Networks from Korea to Central Asia: Focus on Secondhand Vehicles

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    Ying Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, high-income countries use multimodal transportation to export large quantities of secondhand vehicles to low-income countries. Secondhand vehicle export has shown its highest growth in recent years, especially in Korea. The problem of transporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asia is becoming an important issue, but few researchers are interested in it. The objective of this research is to determine the optimal transport network for exporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by combining experts’ opinions and real data from existing transport networks. The fuzzy Delphi method was applied to obtain factors to evaluate alternative multimodal transport networks for moving secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by judgment from experts. The analysis shows that among the five factors (total cost, total time, reliability, security, and transportation capability, total cost is the most considerable factor, followed by reliability, transportation capability, total time, and security. Additionally, in the mainly three multimodal transport networks, the sea+Trans-China Railway route is ranked first, followed by the sea+Trans-Siberian Railway and sea+truck routes.

  11. Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia

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    Nina Omani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to simulate five glacierized river basins that are global in coverage and vary in climate. The river basins included the Narayani (Nepal, Vakhsh (Central Asia, Rhone (Switzerland, Mendoza (Central Andes, Argentina, and Central Dry Andes (Chile, with a total area of 85,000 km2. A modified SWAT snow algorithm was applied in order to consider spatial variation of associated snowmelt/accumulation by elevation band across each subbasin. In previous studies, melt rates varied as a function of elevation because of an air temperature gradient while the snow parameters were constant throughout the entire basin. A major improvement of the new snow algorithm is the separation of the glaciers from seasonal snow based on their characteristics. Two SWAT snow algorithms were evaluated in simulation of monthly runoff from the glaciered watersheds: (1 the snow parameters are lumped (constant throughout the entire basin and (2 the snow parameters are spatially variable based on elevation bands of a subbasin (modified snow algorithm. Applying the distributed SWAT snow algorithm improved the model performance in simulation of monthly runoff with snow-glacial regime, so that mean RSR decreased to 0.49 from 0.55 and NSE increased to 0.75 from 0.69. Improvement of model performance was negligible in simulations of monthly runoff from the basins with a monsoon runoff regime.

  12. Continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in Central Asia, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, A; Kasymbekov, Y; Khan, E; Daulbayeva, K; Asanova, S; Zhumatov, K; Seidalina, A; Sayatov, M; Fereidouni, S R

    2014-09-01

    Equine influenza (EI) continues to be an important respiratory pathogen of horses worldwide. Since 2007 several outbreaks of EI have occurred in Central Asian countries, including Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, India and western China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) isolates from Kazakhstan, A/equine/Almaty/26/2007 and A/equine/South Kazakhstan/236/12, were related to Florida sublineage 2, with high similarity to EIVs circulating in the same period in neighbouring countries. New outbreaks of EI during 2011 and 2012 in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries were caused by viruses of the same lineage. Genetic characterization of the viruses showed formation of a small EIV cluster with specific genetic signatures and continued evolution of this lineage in Central Asia between 2007 and 2012. The main genetic changes were observed in hemagglutinin gene without any antigenic drift. Although no vaccination policy was carried out in Kazakhstan, application of Florida clade 2-based vaccines is recommended.

  13. Halal banking in post-soviet central Asia: Antecedents and consequences

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    Bilal Ahmad Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region perceived a considerable rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Nowadays, lots of Central Asian Muslims need to be aware of what Islam has termed legal (Halal and illegal (Haram. The process of Islamic revival occurred rapidly soon after the unification of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC and other similar organizations. This interaction tended to be an essential push factor to the previously existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. Besides many other needs, Muslim customer demand appeared as navel movement in the market generally and in banking and financial sector particularly. To satisfy this need, the governments of Muslim majority Central Asian states, namely Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan presented Halal banking and financial goods in the market. In this work, it has been attempted to recognize the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the region and also to investigate the effect of these causes considering the development and progress of Halal banking and financial industry.

  14. Surface wave propagation in central Asia: Observations of scattering and multipathing with the Kyrgyzstan broadband array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Gary L.; Mahdi, Hanan

    1996-04-01

    We studied the propagation of Rayleigh waves at regional distances in central Asia using a combination of array processing techniques and surface wave analysis. We present results from the detailed analysis of three representative events recorded by a 10-station, broadband network that has been running in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan since 1991: an Ms = 5.1 event near Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan; an Ms = 5.8 event in south central Tibet; and the October 7, 1994, nuclear explosion at Lop Nor. We find there is a remarkable difference in the propagation characteristics of surface waves along these three paths. The path from the event in Turkmenistan is simple and is well approximated by propagation through a laterally homogeneous medium. Array processing shows the entire Rayleigh wave train stacks coherently and arrives from an azimuth close to that predicted by a great circle path. Furthermore, estimates of dispersion curves and fundamental mode signals determined for individual stations show little variation across the array. The Tibet and Lop Nor paths are completely different. We find strong evidence for complicated multipathing and scattering effects along both of these paths. We observe a three-stage pattern in the Tibet case: (1) the early, lowest-frequency part of the Rayleigh wave packet arrives as a coherent signal from close to the great circle path azimuth; (2) this is overpowered in the period range around 20 s by a strong multipath signal that propagates across the array from a much more southerly azimuth; and (3) periods below 20 s rapidly become incoherent, and the signal does not have a well-defined direction of propagation. The Lop Nor path shows similar complexity. On this path there is little dispersion for measurable periods greater than 10 s, so the low-frequency energy arrives in an Airy phase. The Airy phase stacks somewhat coherently (it stacks, but significant power is lost in the best beam), and slowness analysis shows it arrives from

  15. Geopolitical Constructs Understanding and Survey with Constructivism Geography Approach Case Study: IRI and Its Confronting Challenges in Central Asia

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    Zahra Pishgahifard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: After dissolution of Soviet Union, both of political geography system and dominance ideational structure have deconstructed in central Asia region. In year of 1979 with revolution, Iranian actors was accepted the Islamic republic system in their country, so new actors, structure and exigencies were revealed in Iran and central Asia relations, that cause create new challenges in confronting of Islamic republic of Iran government. Our fundamental question in this research is that: How geopolitical constructs have constituted confronting challenges for Islamic republic of Iran in Central Asia region? Approach: Therefore in this study we tried to explain the question in geographical framework and constructivism approach (on ground as constructivism geography. We had utilized qualitative research method and hermeneutic-positivist procedure in this study. As attention implicated question, the purpose of this article is understand challenges how constitute in reason of geopolitical constructs. Results: Differences in geopolitical constructs, between Iran and countries of central Asia region and also being harmonious construct, these countries with the present actors in the region, has caused an opposition in regional anarchic system between IRI and these countries in region and actors in the region and also form of distribution of capabilities between actors which has caused challenges for IRI. Conclusion: For following its goals against, high level fruition enemies of IRI like USA, Israel and Russian, China competitors from distribution of capabilities in national and international caused many challenges and double-deficiency for IRI.

  16. Wound response and ROS production in blue mold resistant wild apple germplasm from Kazakhstan and central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most destructive pathogen of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apples, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central Asia maintained in a germplasm collection in Geneva, NY. We ini...

  17. Overview of the Higher Education Systems in the Tempus Partner Countries: Central Asia. A Tempus Study. Issue 05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang; Manthey, Anja; Reichboth, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the Tempus programme is to support the modernisation of higher education in Partner Countries outside the European Union. The targeted regions include Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western Balkans and the Southern Mediterranean, with a total of 29 Partner Countries participating in the programme. In the field of cooperation in…

  18. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  19. The Search for Quality: A Five Country Study of National Strategies to Improve Educational Quality in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D.W.; Weidman, J.; Cohen, M.; Mercer, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the strategies employed over the last decade by governments of five Central Asia republics-Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan-to raise educational quality at the primary and secondary levels. Data are drawn from a 2002 cross-national study sponsored by the Asian…

  20. How To Establish Effective Book Marketing and Distribution Systems in Asia/Pacific. Report of the Regional Training Course on Book Production in Asia/Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, September 21-October 9, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The participants in this 1994 regional training course examined the issue of book distribution and marketing. They focused on book marketing together with the development of distribution in order to prepare practical action plans for improvement. Twenty-three experts from 20 countries in Asia/Pacific and Africa analyzed problems, exchanged…

  1. Are South East Asia Countries Capital Markets Characterized by Nonlinear Structures? An Investigation from Indonesia, Philippine and Singapore Capital Market Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarnita Yanti Verawati Bakara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research paper tries to detect the nonlinear structure in the South East Asia Countries Capital Markets. The capital markets of three South East Asia Countries are chosen: Indonesia, Philippine, and Singapore. Daily return data of Capital Markets composite indices are observed: Straits Times Index (STI of Singapore Exchange from January 04, 1985 to December 31, 2007, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index (PSEi of Philippines Stock Exchange from March 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007 and Jakarta Composite Index (JCI of Indonesia Stock Exchange from January 05, 1988 to December 31, 2007.Should nonlinearity be found, the outcomes of each observation are compared to analyze the implications of each country in global, regional and local position of their competition in the continuously changing world of interdependency environment. The implications of nonlinearity finding in the three ASEAN countries capital markets to the current issues of AFAS on Financial Services, Harmonization among ASEAN countries capital markets in the ASEAN region and ASEAN integration and liberalization on Financial Services are analyzed.BDS statistic and R/S Analysis as our tools for nonlinearity testing are applied. Nonlinearity evidences in Jakarta Composite Index, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index and Straits Times Index are found.

  2. Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Marius; Golding, Nick; Zhou, Hang; Wint, G R William; Robinson, Timothy P; Tatem, Andrew J; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Sheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Danhuai; Huang, Zhi; Messina, Jane P; Xiao, Xiangming; Linard, Catherine; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Martin, Vincent; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-06-17

    Two epidemic waves of an avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have so far affected China. Most human cases have been attributable to poultry exposure at live-poultry markets, where most positive isolates were sampled. The potential geographic extent of potential re-emerging epidemics is unknown, as are the factors associated with it. Using newly assembled data sets of the locations of 8,943 live-poultry markets in China and maps of environmental correlates, we develop a statistical model that accurately predicts the risk of H7N9 market infection across Asia. Local density of live-poultry markets is the most important predictor of H7N9 infection risk in markets, underscoring their key role in the spatial epidemiology of H7N9, alongside other poultry, land cover and anthropogenic predictor variables. Identification of areas in Asia with high suitability for H7N9 infection enhances our capacity to target biosurveillance and control, helping to restrict the spread of this important disease.

  3. Characteristics and dynamic settings of the Central-east Asia multi-energy minerals metallogenetic domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    That more than 82 percent of proved sandstone-type uranium deposits coexist with proved oil-gas or coalfields in the world reflects the fact of coexistence and accumulation of multi-energy minerals including oil, gas, coal and uranium in the same basin. Especially, this phenomenon is most typical in the Central-east Asia energy basins. Across China, Mongolia and some central Asian countries, the giant Central-east Asia metallogenetic domain (CEAMD) stretches more than 6,000 km from Songliao Basin of China in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west. The multi-energy minerals distribution characteristics of the domain include: their spatial distribution is complicated and ordered; the ore-bearing horizon relates closely to the geographical region; the accumulation/mineralization and localization time is the same or close; the occurrence setting and accumulation/mineralization have close correlation; and they have rich provenance for all the minerals. All of these imply that they have close relations between each other under a unified geodynamic background. The exogenetic uranium mineralization process in CEAMD can be divided into five phases using time limits of 100 Ma, (50±2) Ma, 20±(2―4) Ma, 8―5 Ma. The major mineralization periods and their differences in each primary uranium-bearing basin are identical to the oil-gas accumulation and localization periods and phases in the same basin, and are also in response to regional tectonics and controlled in general by the regional geodynamic environment. For industrial application and commercial exploitation, it is suggested that an important period for coexistence, accumulation and localization of oil, gas, coal and uranium and their interaction mainly occur in the late/last and post basin evolution. Through generalized analysis and comparison of accumulation/mineralization environment of the energy basins in CEAMD, the authors propose that the relatively stable regional tectonic background and moderate (weaker

  4. Identifying Changing Snow Cover Characteristics in Central Asia between 1986 and 2014 from Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Dietz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia consists of the five former Soviet States Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, therefore comprising an area of ~4 Mio km2. The continental climate is characterized by hot and dry summer months and cold winter seasons with most precipitation occurring as snowfall. Accordingly, freshwater supply is strongly depending on the amount of accumulated snow as well as the moment of its release after snowmelt. The aim of the presented study is to identify possible changes in snow cover characteristics, consisting of snow cover duration, onset and offset of snow cover season within the last 28 years. Relying on remotely sensed data originating from medium resolution imagers, these snow cover characteristics are extracted on a daily basis. The resolution of 500–1000 m allows for a subsequent analysis of changes on the scale of hydrological sub-catchments. Long-term changes are identified from this unique dataset, revealing an ongoing shift towards earlier snowmelt within the Central Asian Mountains. This shift can be observed in most upstream hydro catchments within Pamir and Tian Shan Mountains and it leads to a potential change of freshwater availability in the downstream regions, exerting additional pressure on the already tensed situation.

  5. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: database and attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, R; Lucas, E; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-one registries in 17 countries submitted data for systematic and centralized scrutiny. Data on 564 606 cases of different cancers ranging 1-56 sites/types from 27 registries in 14 low-/medium-resource countries in Eastern and Western Africa, the Caribbean, Central America and four regions of Asia, registered during 1990-2001 (period varying for individual registries) were reported. The database for this survival study comprised data that were classified as mandatory and optional. Mandatory variables provided by all registries included case-ID, age at diagnosis, sex, incidence date, most valid basis of diagnosis, cancer site/type (ICD-10 codes C00-96), vital status at follow-up and corresponding date. Clinical extent of disease was prominent among the optional variables provided by 17 registries and analysed. The grouping of cancer sites for analysis was based on standard norms, and only categories with at least 25 cases were reported. Cases registered based on a death certificate only, cases lacking any follow-up after initial registration, or cases rejected based on validation checks were excluded from the survival analysis. An easy guide to contents in subsequent chapters, especially tables and graphs describing data quality indices, survival statistics and online dynamic functions, is provided.

  6. Structural Mapping of Folded Sedimentary Environments from Satellite Images: an Example from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the Tadjik Depression, in Soviet Central Asia, in the absence of existing geologic or topographic maps, an enhanced LANDSAT multispectral scanner image was used in combination with field data to produce a 1:250000 geologic map of the Vakhsh fold-and-thrust belt and adjacent autochthon. Several structural conclusions are reached as a result of this mapping. Deformation of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of the fold-and-thrust belt is, in the central Tadjik Depression, conspicuously absent north of a buried basement fault that marks the hinge-zone of the Late Mesozoic passive margin. But, in the eastern half of the depression, thrusting has moved coherent sheets northward, over the block fault, these sheets now lie flat atop the autochthon to the north. The crustal structure inherited from the Mesozoic extensional phase has strongly influenced the Late Cenozoic pattern of deformation, producing the fold-and-thrust belt that is markedly asymmetric. The development of the thrust system has included the progressive overlapping of thrust: the later thrusts apparently formed internal to the older thrusts, and subsequently overrode them.

  7. Central Banks Leadership and their Influence over Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mihai Leoveanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years after the global financial crisis, central banks have undergone to a tremendous pressure from financial markets, from the real economy, but also from the population and politicians. Each part is interrelated with each other, but is in different positions in terms of the influence exerted on the other, in terms of the means and instruments through which their interest must prevail against the other parties. In this context, the leadership of a central bank is the key to the proper functioning of a central bank and also to its effectiveness and efficiency. Based on the central bank functions and on some important principles of decision and action, such as independence, transparency and accountability, the leaders of the central banks should provide guidance for the national economy in turbulent times. As a result, the main focus must be concentrate on aspects like: monitoring policy performance, monitoring efficiency of resources, setting functional goals, managing capital adequacy, balance sheet and liquidity, awareness of external perceptions and reputational risks, ensuring good institutional governance.

  8. Aerosol optical depth over central north Asia based on MODIS-Aqua data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousta Foutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). The central Asia region (mainly the Caspian and Aral sea basins), the arid and semi-arid regions of Western China as well as Siberia are of great interest due to the significant natural sources of mineral aerosols originating from local deserts and biomass burning from wildfires in boreal forests. What is of particular interest in the region is the phenomenal shrinking and desertification of the Aral Sea that drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions with important implications in regional air quality. Anthropogenic particles are also observed due to fossil-fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD at 550 nm over central Asia, Siberia and western China, in the region located between 35° N - 65° N and 45° E - 110° E. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest collection (006), available in a 1°×1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002-2014. Our results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AODs are observed over the Aral Sea year-round, with extreme values reaching 2.1 during July. In the rest of our study region a clear seasonal cycle with highest AOD values (up to 1.2 over the Taklamakan Desert) during spring and summer is observed. The arid parts of central north Asia are characterized by larger aerosol loads during spring, lower but still high AOD in summer and much lower values in autumn and spring

  9. Seasonal dynamics of threshold friction velocity and dust emission in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Sokolik, Irina N

    2015-02-27

    An improved model representation of mineral dust cycle is critical to reducing the uncertainty of dust-induced environmental and climatic impact. Here we present a mesoscale model study of the seasonal dust activity in the semiarid drylands of Central Asia, focusing on the effects of wind speed, soil moisture, surface roughness heterogeneity, and vegetation phenology on the threshold friction velocity (u*t ) and dust emission during the dust season of 1 March to 31 October 2001. The dust model WRF-Chem-DuMo allows us to examine the uncertainties in seasonal dust emissions due to the selection of dust emission scheme and soil grain size distribution data. To account for the vegetation effects on the u*t , we use the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer monthly normalized difference vegetation index to derive the dynamic surface roughness parameters required by the physically based dust schemes of Marticorena and Bergametti (1995, hereinafter MB) and Shao et al. (1996, hereinafter Shao). We find the springtime u*t is strongly enhanced by the roughness effects of temperate steppe and desert ephemeral plants and, to less extent, the binding effects of increased soil moisture. The u*t decreases as the aboveground biomass dies back and soil moisture depletes during summer. The u*t dynamics determines the dust seasonality by causing more summer dust emission, despite a higher frequency of strong winds during spring. Due to the presence of more erodible materials in the saltation diameter range of 60-200 µm, the dry-sieved soil size distribution data lead to eight times more season-total dust emission than the soil texture data, but with minor differences in the temporal distribution. On the other hand, the Shao scheme produces almost the same amount of season-total dust emission as the MB scheme, but with a strong shift toward summer due to the strong sensitivity of the u*t to vegetation. By simply averaging the MB and Shao model experiments, we obtain a mean

  10. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V.LOBODA; Louis GIGLIO; Luigi BOSCHETTI; Christopher O.JUSTICE

    2012-01-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass-and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia.This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually.Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia.Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region.Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution.Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data.We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001and 2009.The results show that on average ~15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area bumed in August and September in grasslands.Fire is used as a comrnon crop residue management practice across the region.Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan,where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands,respectively,are burned annually.

  11. The Inylchek Glacier in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia: Insight on Surface Kinematics from Optical Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nobakht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain chains of Central Asia host a large number of glaciated areas that provide critical water supplies to the semi-arid populated foothills and lowlands of this region. Spatio-temporal variations of glacier flows are a key indicator of the impact of climate change on water resources as the glaciers react sensitively to climate. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery is an efficient method for studying ice-velocity fields on mountain glaciers. In this study, temporal and spatial changes in surface velocity associated with the Inylchek glacier in Kyrgyzstan are investigated. We present a detailed map for the kinematics of the Inylchek glacier obtained by cross-correlation analysis of Landsat images, acquired between 2000 and 2011, and a set of ASTER images covering the time period between 2001 and 2007. Our results indicate a high-velocity region in the elevated part of the glacier, moving up to a rate of about 0.5 m/day. Time series analysis of optical data reveals some annual variations in the mean surface velocity of the Inylchek during 2000–2011. In particular, our findings suggest an opposite trend between periods of the northward glacial flow in Proletarskyi and Zvezdochka glacier, and the rate of westward motion observed for the main stream of the Inylchek.

  12. Combustion metamorphic events as age markers of orogenic movements, in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I.S.; Sokol, E.V. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-15

    Combustion metamorphic (pyrometamorphic) complexes produced by prehistoric natural coal fires are widespread in Central Asia, namely at the interfaces between mountain systems and the flanking sedimentary basins. Large-scale and prolonged fires accompanied the initial orogenic stages as unweathered coal-bearing formations became exposed into the aeration zone. Pyrometamorphic rocks are comparable to sanidinite facies rocks in formation conditions and in alteration of sedimentary material but, unlike these, their protolith underwent different melting degrees to produce either ferrous basic paralavas or glazed clinkers. The phase composition of the newly-formed melted rocks are favorable for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of combustion metamorphic events which are coeval to the onset of the main stage of recent orogenic events. We suggest a new algorithm providing correct Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of pyrometamorphic rocks followed by well-grounded geological interpretation. We applied it to pyrometamorphic rocks in the western Salair zone of the Kuznetsk coal basin where combustion metamorphism under temperatures above 1000 degrees C acted upon large volumes of coal-bearing sediments.

  13. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  14. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation.

  15. Conservation Agriculture for combating land degradation in Central Asia: a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.A. Lamers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reviews scientific findings on agricultural systems, associated land degradation and selected remedies such as Conservation Agricultural (CA practices to counterbalance these. In particular, this review addresses the research findings onCA practices conducted in the rainfed and irrigated systems in Central Asia. The arid and semi-arid croplands in this region are vulnerable to different types of soil and environmental degradation, and particularly to degradation caused by intensive tillage, irrigation water mismanagement, and cropping practices, especially in the Aral Sea Basin. Overall, the evidence shows that various CA elements, such as permanent beds, seems to be technically suitable for the major cropping systems and despite the heterogeneous conditions in the region. CA practices can contribute to combating on-going land degradation. No-till seeding along with the maintenance of a permanent soil coverage e.g. by residue retention, reduces wind and water erosion, increases water infiltration and storage which can reduce crop water stress, improve soil quality and increase soil organic matter. Further, CA practices can lead to similar or even higher crop yields while reducing production resource needs and costs considerably, including fuel, seeds, agrochemicals, water and labour. Nevertheless, the growing research evidence on the productivity, economic and environmental benefits that can be harnessed with CA, still is from a limited number of studies and hence more research at local scale is needed.

  16. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Silva; Saglam, Didem; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Reynolds, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain filling, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68% of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could still improve GY in a wide range of environments. However, in Iranian sites, taller genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain filling. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  17. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    The dearth of reliable survival statistics from developing countries was very evident until the mid-1990s. This prompted the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to undertake a project that facilitated hands-on-training and thereby transfer of knowledge and technology on cancer survival analysis to a majority of researchers from the participating population-based cancer registries, which culminated in the publication of the first volume of the IARC scientific publication on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries in 1998. The present study is the second in the series with wider geographical coverage and is based on data from 27 registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. The calendar period of registration of incident cases for the present study ranges between 1990 and 2001. Data on 564 606 cases of 1-56 cancer sites from different registries are reported. Data from eleven registries were utilized for eliciting survival trend and seventeen registries for reporting survival by clinical extent of disease. Besides chapters on every registry and general chapters on methodology, database and overview, the availability of online comparative statistics on cancer survival data by participating registries or cancer site in the form of tables or graphs is an added feature (available online at http://survcan.iarc.fr).

  18. Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betto-Colliard, C; Sermier, R; Litvinchuk, S; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2015-03-01

    Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates.

  19. A genetic landscape reshaped by recent events: Y-chromosomal insights into central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerjal, Tatiana; Wells, R Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2002-09-01

    Sixteen Y-chromosomal microsatellites and 16 binary markers have been used to analyze DNA variation in 408 male subjects from 15 populations in Central Asia. Large genetic differences were found between populations, but these did not display an obvious geographical or linguistic pattern like that usually seen for Y-chromosomal variation. Nevertheless, an underlying east-west clinal pattern could be detected by the Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis and admixture analysis, and this pattern was interpreted as being derived from the ancient peopling of the area, reinforced by subsequent migrations. Two particularly striking features were seen: an extremely high level of Y-chromosomal differentiation between geographically close populations, accompanied by low diversity within some populations. These were due to the presence of high-frequency population-specific lineages and suggested the occurrence of several recent bottlenecks or founder events. Such events could account for the lack of a clear overall pattern and emphasize the importance of multiple recent events in reshaping this genetic landscape.

  20. Reconstruction of a 50-Year Record of Seasonal Snow Cover in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmichenok, V.; Khalsa, S.; Surazakov, A. B.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E.

    2006-12-01

    Water resources in the mountains of interior Eurasia are highly vulnerable to climate change because the closed drainage basins are very sensitive to the changes in energy and mass fluxes at the land surface and, as a result, the near-surface physical conditions such as snow cover which affect river. Current and further expected declines in the water resources of the central Asian mountains are related to factors such as degradation of glaciers and seasonal snow cover extent, the changes in precipitation partitioning among land surface stores, and evaporation fluxes. To study snow cover impact on river runoff formation in the Tien Shan mountains of central Asia for the last half a century, we have applied to a combination of remote sensing, in situ snow course, and meteorological data. Here we present preliminary results of comparing AVHRR-derived Snow Covered Area (SCA) with the ground data over selected Tien Shan representative basins for the period of overlap between in situ and remote observations from 1979 to 1991. For the runoff modeling purposes maximum SCA was determined for each year at the dates of maximum snow accumulation determined by snow surveys data in the studied basins. From 1991 to present the maximum SCAs were determined independently from AVHRR and MODIS data and validated with Landsat data. The MODIS fractional snow cover product for the 5 seasons (2000/01 through 02005/06) characterized the spatial and temporal patterns of snow cover in each studied basin which we relate to the surface observational data (air temperature, and larger scale synoptic patterns revealed in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) products. This SCA pattern analysis is applied to in situ snow course, and meteorological data for the period 1950 to 1979 to estimate maximum SCA for runoff modeling.

  1. A statistically based seasonal precipitation forecast model with automatic predictor selection and its application to central and south Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlitz, Lars; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Merz, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    The study presents a statistically based seasonal precipitation forecast model, which automatically identifies suitable predictors from globally gridded sea surface temperature (SST) and climate variables by means of an extensive data-mining procedure and explicitly avoids the utilization of typical large-scale climate indices. This leads to an enhanced flexibility of the model and enables its automatic calibration for any target area without any prior assumption concerning adequate predictor variables. Potential predictor variables are derived by means of a cell-wise correlation analysis of precipitation anomalies with gridded global climate variables under consideration of varying lead times. Significantly correlated grid cells are subsequently aggregated to predictor regions by means of a variability-based cluster analysis. Finally, for every month and lead time, an individual random-forest-based forecast model is constructed, by means of the preliminary generated predictor variables. Monthly predictions are aggregated to running 3-month periods in order to generate a seasonal precipitation forecast. The model is applied and evaluated for selected target regions in central and south Asia. Particularly for winter and spring in westerly-dominated central Asia, correlation coefficients between forecasted and observed precipitation reach values up to 0.48, although the variability of precipitation rates is strongly underestimated. Likewise, for the monsoonal precipitation amounts in the south Asian target area, correlations of up to 0.5 were detected. The skill of the model for the dry winter season over south Asia is found to be low. A sensitivity analysis with well-known climate indices, such as the El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, reveals the major large-scale controlling mechanisms of the seasonal precipitation climate for each target area. For the central Asian target areas, both

  2. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review we describe in detail the successes, challenges and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  3. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M; Richards, Allen L

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

  4. The possible pivotal role of the eastward dust transport from Central Asia in the global temperature decrease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingzhe; WEI Wenshou

    2006-01-01

    It is generally considered that the occurrence of glacial-interglacial gyrations can be explained with the Milankovitch theory. However, the solutions of some problems in the theory are currently not derived yet. After researching the eastward dust transport from Central Asia, we have found that there is a positive feedback mechanism between the eastward dust transport and the global temperature decrease. This magnifies the effect of solar radiation change in the high-latitude area of the Northern Hemisphere, and results in the occurrence of the global glacial epoch. The positive feedback mechanism starts with the reduction of solar radiation in the high-latitude area of the Northern Hemisphere. Subsequently, the global temperature decreases and global glacial epoch occurs, in which the pivotal factor is the eastward dust transport from Central Asia.With the theory of the positive feedback mechanism,some problems in the Milankovitch theory can be solved well.

  5. A Study to Promote a Collaboration of R and D for Nuclear Energy Technology Development between Korea and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Si Pyo; Kim, Cheol Jung; Yoo, Bung Duk; Kim, Jae Woo; Lee, Myung Ho; Kim, Kyung Pyo

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this research work is to promote the cooperation in the field of nuclear related works with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan which are main countries in the central Asia. To make a basis on exchanging researchers, a staff in KAERI had visited INP NNC RK, touring research reactors, and make a discussion with the staffs in INP. With this, there is a efforts to make an arrangement between KAERI and NNC RK, signing will be made in near futures. To understand the level of nuclear technology in Uzbekistan, Dr. Rho had made a trip to INP. He visited the Gamma-radiation facility, a research reactor. In Nov. 2005, the chairman of Science Academy visited Korea to discuss the future cooperation in the field of peaceful use of the nuclear energy. By doing so, Korea will make an effort to cooperate with countries in the Central Asia.

  6. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, John; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Shapieva, Zhanna; Omasheva, Gulnara; Deryabin, Pavel; Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Ayazbayev, Timur; Andryushchenko, Alexei; Zhunushov, Asankadyr; Hewson, Roger; Farris, Christina M.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and resources to independently conduct hypothesis driven, peer-review quality research. Strides have been made, however, to increase scientific engagement and capability. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are examples of countries where biosurveillance research has been successfully conducted, particularly with respect to especially dangerous pathogens. In this review, we describe in detail the successes, challenges, and opportunities of conducting biosurveillance in Central Asia as exemplified by our recent research activities on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:26870722

  7. Climate model performance and change projection for freshwater fluxes: Comparison for irrigated areas in Central and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa M. Asokan; Peter Rogberg; Arvid Bring; Jerker Jarsjö; Georgia Destouni

    2016-01-01

    Study region: The large semi-arid Aral Region in Central Asia and the smaller tropical Mahanadi River Basin (MRB) in India. Study focus: Few studies have so far evaluated the performance of the latest generation of global climate models on hydrological basin scales. We here investigate the performance and projections of the global climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) for freshwater fluxes and their changes in two regional hydrological basins, which a...

  8. Risk management practices in Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan - the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulchmanov, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The study explores the risk management and reporting practices in selected Islamic and conventional banks in Kazakhstan, the Islamic finance hub of the Central Asia. The Government of Kazakhstan has planned to transform the economy to a Shari’ah complaint economic system. As risk management is one of the important challenges for banks, this study explores the preparedness of the banking industry in Kazakhstan facing the risk management challenges. Design/methodology/approach – T...

  9. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: insights into the worldwide expansion of Central Asia plague foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU, Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA

  10. Biosurveillance in Central Asia: Successes and Challenges of Tick-Borne Disease Research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    John eHay; Yeh, Kenneth B.; Debanjana eDasgupta; Zhanna eShapiyeva; Pavel eDeryabin; Christina eFarris; Roger eHewson; Allen eRichards; Gulnara eOmasheva; Talgat eNurmakhanov; Timur eAyazbayev; Asankadyr eZhunushov; Alexei eAndryushchenko

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is a vast geographic region that includes five former Soviet Union republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The region has a unique infectious disease burden, and a history that includes Silk Road trade routes and networks that were part of the anti-plague and biowarfare programs in the former Soviet Union. Post Soviet Union biosurveillance research in this unique area of the world has met with several challenges, including lack of funding and ...

  11. Epidemiology and control of echinococcosis in central Asia, with particular reference to the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Wu, Weiping; Shi, Baoxin; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xiaonong; Wen, Hao; McManus, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    At least 270 million people (58% of the total population) are at risk of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Central Asia including areas of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and western China. The annual surgical incidence rate in Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan has been estimated to be as high as 25-27 cases/100,000 with the highest prevalence reaching 10% (range from 0.8 to 11.9%) in some Tibetan communities in western China. Echinococcus transmission in the region is largely associated with social factors including limited community knowledge of echinococcosis, small-scale household animal production, home killing of livestock, and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is also endemic in Central Asia and is recognized as a major problem in some Tibetan communities with up to 6% of villagers infected in some villages. In western China, 5-30% of the population are seropositive against E. granulosus antigens, indicating that a large number of individuals have been exposed to the parasite. Although echinococcosis control programs have been initiated in some countries in Central Asia, control efforts are generally fragmented and uncoordinated. Monthly deworming of dogs with praziquantel (PZQ), as a key measure to control the Echinococcus parasites, has been used in western China. However, the approach has proven difficult in local semi-nomadic communities. Additional control measures including health education, domestic livestock animal treatment/vaccination and dog vaccination are needed in CE-endemic areas to accelerate progress.

  12. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  13. International Gold Market, Stock Market and Business Cycles: the Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Chirila

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During theeconomic recession periods, gold investments seem to become very importantbecause gold is considered a means to preserve the investment value. Gold has also maintained thisfeature during the financial and economic crisis that occurred at the end of theyear 2007. Althoughthe inflation rate has recorded significant increases, the investment in gold has kept its value becausethe price of gold has increased. After the beginning of the financial and economic crisis the price ofgold has also recorded a significant increase in volatility. The aims of this study focus on thecomparative analysis of the gold price cycles and the stock market cycles in the Central and EastEurope as well as the determination of the return of gold investment on the return and risk of stockmarkets in these countries. The results obtained confirm that both the return and the risk in some ofthe stock markets under analysis are influenced by the return of gold investment.

  14. Statistical prediction of seasonal discharge in the Naryn basin for water resources planning in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Gafurov, Abror; Gerlitz, Lars; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merkushkin, Aleksandr; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid regions of Central Asia crucially depend on the water resources supplied by the mountainous areas of the Tien-Shan and Pamirs. During the summer months the snow and glacier melt water of the rivers originating in the mountains provides the only water resource available for agricultural production but also for water collection in reservoirs for energy production in winter months. Thus a reliable seasonal forecast of the water resources is crucial for a sustainable management and planning of water resources.. In fact, seasonal forecasts are mandatory tasks of national hydro-meteorological services in the region. Thus this study aims at a statistical forecast of the seasonal water availability, whereas the focus is put on the usage of freely available data in order to facilitate an operational use without data access limitations. The study takes the Naryn basin as a test case, at which outlet the Toktogul reservoir stores the discharge of the Naryn River. As most of the water originates form snow and glacier melt, a statistical forecast model should use data sets that can serve as proxy data for the snow masses and snow water equivalent in late spring, which essentially determines the bulk of the seasonal discharge. CRU climate data describing the precipitation and temperature in the basin during winter and spring was used as base information, which was complemented by MODIS snow cover data processed through ModSnow tool, discharge during the spring and also GRACE gravimetry anomalies. For the construction of linear forecast models monthly as well as multi-monthly means over the period January to April were used to predict the seasonal mean discharge of May-September at the station Uchterek. An automatic model selection was performed in multiple steps, whereas the best models were selected according to several performance measures and their robustness in a leave-one-out cross validation. It could be shown that the seasonal discharge can be predicted with

  15. The regime of aerosol optical depth over Central Asia based on MODIS Aqua Deep Blue data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floutsi, Athina; KorrasCarraca, Marios; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is therefore important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD over the climatically sensitive region of Central Asia (36° N - 50° N, 46° E - 75° E), which has significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles. The primary source of anthropogenic particles is fossil fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Natural particles originate mostly from the two deserts in the region (namely Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-Kum), where persistent dust activity is observed. Another source is the Aral Sea region, which due to its phenomenal desertification also drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions. This transport is of particular interest because of health-hazardous materials contained in the Aral Sea sea-bed. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest MODIS collection (006), available in 1° x 1° resolution (about 100 km x 100 km) over the period 2002-2014.Our first results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with large aerosol load being associated with strong dust activity during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.5), and low during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.4). In spring and summer significant aerosol load is observed in the Garabogazköl basin, Northeast and South-southeast Caspian Sea (offshore North Iran and Azerbaijan), as well as southwest of the Aral Sea. In the later region, the high AOD values can be explained by export of

  16. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy

    2008-03-01

    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  17. Utility of regional Chinese seismograms for source and path studies in central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Harris, D.B.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    Regional surface waves recorded at the Urumchi station located about 700 km north of the Tibetan Plateau in the Sinkiang Province are used to study East Kazakh explosions and wave propagation in central Asia. The data consist of broadband (flat to displacement between 0.1 and 10 Hz), photographic records from an SK Kirnos galvanometric system. Simultaneous inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities for the path from East Kazakh through the Dzhungarian Basin yields a crustal model dominated by the presence of very low velocities and a strong positive velocity gradient above 15 km depth. Velocities below 15 km depth are not significantly different from other continental structures underlain by Paleozoic or Precambrian basement. This model is consistent with geologic evidence indicating that most of the path is characterized by the presence of up to 10 km of sediments overlying a Paleozoic basement. Source studies were made on seven East Kazakh explosions detonated in the time period between June 1980 and April 1981. These studies involved estimation of seismic moments using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. The largest explosion studied occurred on 9/14/80 and had an m/sub b/ of 6.2 and a seismic moment of 2.7 x 10/sup 23/ dyn-cm. The observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves are richer in high frequencies than predicted by explosion source models with tectonic release. This could be caused by a path effect involving seismic wave focusing by the large sedimentary basin between East Kazakh and the Urumchi station, although source medium effects cannot be ruled out. 30 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Environmental Drivers of NDVI-Based Vegetation Phenology in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahan Kariyeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the application and use of geospatial data, this study aimed to detect and characterize some of the key environmental drivers contributing to landscape-scale vegetation response patterns in Central Asia. The objectives of the study were to identify the variables driving the year-to-year vegetation dynamics in three regional landscapes (desert, steppe, and mountainous; and to determine if the identified environmental drivers can be used to explain the spatial-temporal variability of these spatio-temporal dynamics over time. It was posed that patterns of change in terrestrial phenology, derived from the 8 km bi-weekly time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellites (1981–2008, can be explained through a multi-scale analysis of a suite of environmental drivers. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses and address the objectives of the study. The annually computed phenological response variables or pheno-metricstime (season start, season length, and an NDVI-based productivity metric were modeled as a function of ten environmental factors relating to soil, topography, and climate. Each of the three studied regional landscapes was shown to be governed by a distinctive suite of environmental drivers. The phenological responses of the steppe landscapes were affected by the year-to-year variation in temperature regimes. The phenology of the mountainous landscapes was influenced primarily by the elevation gradient. The phenological responses of desert landscapes were demonstrated to have the greatest variability over time and seemed to be affected by soil carbon content and year-to-year variation of both temperature regimes and winter precipitation patterns. Amounts and scales of observed phenological variability over time (measured through coefficient of variation for each pheno-metrictime in each of the regional

  19. Holocene moisture changes in western China, Central Asia, inferred from stalagmites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanjun; Chiang, John C. H.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Tan, Liangcheng; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; An, Zhisheng

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia lies at the convergence between the Mediterranean and Asian monsoon climates, and there is a complex interaction between the westerlies with the monsoon to form the climate of that region and its variability. The region is highly vulnerable to changes in rainfall, highlighting the need to understand the underlying controls. We present a stalagmite-based δ18O record from Kesang Cave in western China, using MC-ICP-MS U-series dating and stable isotope analysis. Stalagmite calcite δ18O largely documents changes in the δ18O of precipitation. δ18O in stalagmites was low during the early and middle Holocene (10.0-3.0 ka BP), and shifted to higher values between 3.0 and 2.0 ka BP. After 2.0 ka BP, δ18O fluctuates with distinct centennial-scale variations. Drawing from results of state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model simulations for the preindustrial period and 9 ka BP, we propose that changes in moisture source regions and the wetter climate both contributed to the isotopic depletion of precipitation during the early and middle Holocene. Multiple records from surrounding regions indicate a generally wetter climate during the early and mid- Holocene, supporting our interpretation on the speleothem δ18O. Changes in precipitation seasonality do not appear to be a viable explanation for the observed changes, nor increased penetration of monsoonal moisture to the study site. We speculate that the climatic regime shifted around 3.0-2.0 ka BP towards a drier climate, resulting in temperature having dominant control on precipitation δ18O. The demise of three settlements around 500AD at the margin of Tarim Basin coincided with a period of decreased precipitation and increased temperature that likely affected local water resources, underscoring the potential impact of climate on human habitation in this region.

  20. Nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia in the reclamation of degraded croplands of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzina, Asia; Lamers, John P A; Vlek, Paul L G

    2009-06-01

    Extensive degradation of irrigated croplands, due to increasing soil salinity and depletion of soil nutrient stocks, is a major problem in Central Asia (CA), one of the largest irrigated areas in the world. To assess the potential for improving the productive capacity of degraded lands by afforestation, we examined N(2) fixation of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. in mixed plantations with non-fixing Populus euphratica Oliv. and Ulmus pumila L. Fixation of N(2) was quantified by the (15)N natural abundance technique based on both foliar and whole-plant sampling during five consecutive growing seasons. Despite elevated root-zone soil salinity (6-10 dS m(-1)) and deficiency in plant-available P (4-15 mg kg(-1)), N(2) fixation (%Ndfa) increased from an initial value of 20% to almost 100% over 5 years. Within each growing season, %Ndfa steadily increased and peaked in the fall. Annual N(2) fixation, determined using foliar delta(15)N, initially averaged 0.02 Mg ha(-1), peaked at 0.5 Mg ha(-1) during the next 2 years and thereafter stabilized at 0.3 Mg ha(-1). Estimates based on whole-plant delta(15)N were angustifolia plots than in P. euphratica and U. pumila plots. Increases in the concentrations of organic C (19%), total N (21%) and plant-available P (74%) in the soil were significant irrespective of tree species. This improvement in soil fertility is further evidence that afforestation with mixed-species plantations can be a sustainable land use option for the degraded irrigated croplands in CA.

  1. Contribution of oceanic and vegetation feedbacks to Holocene climate change in Central and Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dallmeyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of vegetation-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere interactions on the mid- to late Holocene climate change as well as their synergy is studied for different regions in Central and Eastern Asia (60–140° E, 0–55° N, giving consideration to the large climatic and topographical heterogeneity in that area. With main focus on the Asian monsoon, we concentrate on both, temperature and precipitation changes. For our purpose, we analyze a set of coupled numerical experiments, performed with the Earth system model ECHAM5/JSBACH-MPIOM under present-day and mid-Holocene (6 k orbital configurations (Otto et al., 2009. Like expected, the temperature change caused by the insolation forcing reveals an enhanced seasonal cycle, with a pronounced warming in summer (0.7 K and autumn (1 K and a cooling in the other seasons (spring: −0.8 K; winter −0.5 K. Most of this change can be attributed to the direct response of the atmosphere, but the ocean, whose reaction has a lagged seasonal cycle (warming in autumn and winter, cooling in the other seasons, strongly modifies the signal. The simulated contribution of dynamic vegetation is small and most effective in winter, where it slightly warms the near-surface atmosphere (≈0.05 K. Concerning the precipitation, the most remarkable change is the postponement and enhancement of the Asian monsoon (0.27 mm/d in summer, 0.23 mm/d in autumn, mainly related to the direct atmospheric response. On regional average, the ocean (ca. 0.05 mm/d amplifies the direct effect, but tends to weaken the East Asian summer monsoon and strongly increases the Indian summer monsoon rainfall rate (0.68 mm/d. The influence of dynamic vegetation and synergy effects on precipitation is comparatively small.

  2. Improved Algorithm of SCS-CN Model Parameters in Typical Inland River Basin in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin J.; Ding, Jian L.; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Wen Q.

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important factor for hydrological structures, social and economic development on the background of global warmer, especially in arid regions. The aim of this paper is find the suitable method to simulate the runoff in arid area. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) is the most popular and widely applied model for direct runoff estimation. In this paper, we will focus on Wen-quan Basin in source regions of Boertala River. It is a typical valley of inland in Central Asia. First time to use the 16m resolution remote sensing image about high-definition earth observation satellite “Gaofen-1” to provide a high degree accuracy data for land use classification determine the curve number. Use surface temperature/vegetation index (TS/VI) construct 2D scatter plot combine with the soil moisture absorption balance principle calculate the moisture-holding capacity of soil. Using original and parameter algorithm improved SCS-CN model respectively to simulation the runoff. The simulation results show that the improved model is better than original model. Both of them in calibration and validation periods Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency were 0.79, 0.71 and 0.66,038. And relative error were3%, 12% and 17%, 27%. It shows that the simulation accuracy should be further improved and using remote sensing information technology to improve the basic geographic data for the hydrological model has the following advantages: 1) Remote sensing data having a planar characteristic, comprehensive and representative. 2) To get around the bottleneck about lack of data, provide reference to simulation the runoff in similar basin conditions and data-lacking regions.

  3. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint.

  4. Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity

  5. Improving semi-automated glacial mapping with a multi-method approach: areal changes in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smith

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia has been strongly impacted by climate change, and will continue to be impacted by diverse climate stressors in the coming decades. This study aims to decipher the impact of climate change on glaciers in the central Tien Shan Mountain Range, a large and understudied region located northeast from the Pamir Knot. To address glacier characteristics over a wide swath of Central Asia, the authors designed and implemented a glacial mapping algorithm which delineates both clean glacial ice – methods which are well documented – and glacial debris tongues, which often require extensive manual digitization. This research improves upon methods developed to automatically delineate glacial areas using spectral, topographic, velocity, and spatial relationships. The authors found that the algorithm misclassifies between 2 and 10% of glacial areas, as compared to a ~750 glacier control dataset. After validating the algorithm against multiple manually digitized control datasets, the authors applied it to a study area encompassing eight Landsat scene footprints stretching from the central Pamir through the central Tien Shan. A statistically significant, though minor, gradient in glacier area loss was found, where glaciers in the west of the study area have shrunk less than those glaciers in the east. This gradient is explained by differences in regional climate, where extratropical cyclones propagating from the west weaken and disband under continued topographic influence, as well as differences in topography, where high-elevation glaciers are thermally insulated from some of the impacts of changing temperatures in the region.

  6. Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 μg m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 μg m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 μg m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 μg m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 μg m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 μg m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  7. Seasonal snow cover regime and historical change in Central Asia from 1986 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Aizen, Elena; Aizen, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    A series of statistics describing seasonal Snow Cover Extent and timing in Central Asia (CA) have been derived from AVHRR satellite images for the time period from 1986 to 2008. Analysis of long term mean snow cover statistics shows that the area weighted mean of long term Snow Covering Days (SCD) for the whole CA is 95.2 ± 65.7 days. High elevation mountainous areas above 3000 m in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir, which account for about 2.8% of total area in CA, have SCD > 240 days. Deserts (Karakorum Desert, Taklamakan Desert, Kumtag Desert) and rain shadow areas of major mountains, accounting for 27.0% of total area in CA, have SCD in the range of 0-30 days. Factors affecting snow cover distribution have been analyzed using simple linear regression and segmented regression. For plain regions and windward regions, the SCD rate is + 5.9 days/100 m, while for leeward regions, the rate jumps from + 0.7 days/100 m to + 10.0 days/100 m at about 2335 m. Latitude affects the SCD, especially in plain regions with insignificant change of elevation, with rates of 9-10 days/degree from south to north. The Mann-Kendal test and the Theil-Sen regression methods have been applied to analyze the spatial heterogeneous trends of change of SCD, Snow Cover Onset Date (SCOD), and Snow Cover Melt Date (SCMD). Area weighed mean SCD in the whole CA does not exhibit significant trend of change from 1986 to 2008. Increase of SCD was observed in the northeastern Kazakh Steppe. Low elevation areas below 2000 m in Central Tien Shan and Eastern Tien Shan, as well as mid-elevation areas from 1000 m to 3000 m in Western Tien Shan, Pamiro-Alai and Western Pamir, also experienced increase of SCD, associated with both earlier SCOD and later SCMD. Decrease of SCD was observed in mountainous areas of Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir, and vast areas in plains surrounding the Aral Sea.

  8. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  9. Busworld Asia的营销之殇%A Glance of Pitfall of Busworld Asia Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲涛

    2008-01-01

    @@ 对Busworld Asia 2008的感受 Busworld Asia 2008是历届展会中笔者参观时间最短的一次,在展场内只停留了2 h,没有充足的时间仔细看车,但是,总体感觉同以往没有太大差异,除了因大金龙和宇通的联袂缺席而使展场缺少了一些氛围.

  10. Geochemical Changes to Arc Magmatism in South Central Tibet During the India-Asia Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, W. R.; Ducea, M. N.; Kapp, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    To study the changes in arc magmatism of the India-Asia collision, we focused on three geologic units in southern Tibet which span the transition from subduction to collision: (a) The Linzizong Formation, a 3-5 km thick volcanic-bearing succession (69 -40 Ma) within the Gangdese arc, (b) detrital zircons from the Kailas Formation, an alluvial fan-lacustrine unit (20-24 Ma) that was primarily sourced from the Linzizong Formation and the Gangdese plutonic arc and (c) the Lamuka Formation, a potassic calc-alkaline volcanic unit (11-12 Ma), which unconformably overlies the Linzizong Formation. Two sampling transects in the Sangsang area of south central Tibet were systematically described and sampled to produce a chemical, isotopic and chronostratigraphic section that examine the changing arc chemistry over time. New isotopic data from these transects show that the Cenozoic volcanic rocks of southern Tibet can be divided into three trends based on isotopic data. The first trend is from 70 to 55 Ma. 87Sr/86Sri ratios increase from 0.705 to 0.728 and the ɛHf(t) of individual zircons decreases from 6.1 to -6.0 during this period. The ɛNdo value of -6.0 is relatively constant during this the period. From 55 to 50 Ma, 87Sr/86Sri ratios decrease to 0.708 and ɛHf(t) increase to 13.9 at 50 Ma.ɛNdo values increase to -2.8. The third period includes samples <50 Ma. ɛHf(t) values from detrital zircons immediately decrease to ɛHf(t) 2.4 at 47 Ma and continue to decrease down to ɛHf(t) -7.6 at 45 Ma and ɛHf(t) -12.4 at 11 Ma. Lamuka Formation rocks have 87Sr/86Sri ratios as low as 0.7239 and ɛNdo of -14.3, in agreement with the Hf isotopic data from detrital zircons during this period. There is a consensus between Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic systems that there was an increased contribution of juvenile material to the melt from 55 to 50 Ma followed by a increase in crustal contributions to the melt by 48 Ma and that the crustal contributions increase through the through the

  11. Considerations for the Design of a central counterparty for the Mexican Money Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Lascurain M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has brought the problems of regulatory failure and unbridled counterparty risk to the forefront in financial discussions. In the last decade, central counterparties have been created in order to face those insidious problems. In Mexico, both the stock and the derivatives markets have central counterparties, but the money market has not. This paper addresses the issue of creating a central counterparty for the Mexican money market. Recommendations that must be followed in the design and the management of risk of a central counterparty, given by international regulatory institutions, are presented in this study. Also, two different conceptual designs for a central counterparty, appropriate for the Mexican market, are proposed. Final conclusions support the creation of a new central counterparty for the Mexican money market.

  12. Land use change and carbon cycle in arid and semi-arid lands of East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic changes in land use have occurred in arid and semi-arid landsof Asia during the 20th century. Grassland conversion into croplands and ecosystem degradation is widespread due to the high growth rate of human population and political reforms of pastoral systems. Rangeland degradation made many parts of this region vulnerable to environmental and political changes. The collapse of the livestock sector in some states of central Asia, expansion of livestock inChina and intensive degradation of grasslands in China are examples of the responses of pastoral systems to these changes over the past decades. Carbon dynamics in this region is highly variable in space and time. Land use/cover changes with widespread reduction of forest and grasslands increased carbon emission from the region.

  13. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  14. Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Ceren Caner; Dinc, Havva; Sekeryapan, Ceran; Togan, Inci

    2008-05-01

    In the evolutionary history of modern humans, Anatolia acted as a bridge between the Caucasus, the Near East, and Europe. Because of its geographical location, Anatolia was subject to migrations from multiple different regions throughout time. The last, well-known migration was the movement of Turkic speaking, nomadic groups from Central Asia. They invaded Anatolia and then the language of the region was gradually replaced by the Turkic language. In the present study, insertion frequencies of 10 Alu loci (A25 = 0.07, APO = 0.96, TPA25 = 0.44, ACE = 0.37, B65 = 0.57, PV92 = 0.18, FXIIIB = 0.52, D1 = 0.40, HS4.32 = 0.66, and HS4.69 = 0.30) have been determined in the Anatolian population. Together with the data compiled from other databases, the similarity of the Anatolian population to that of the Balkans and Central Asia has been visualized by multidimensional scaling method. Analysis suggested that, genetically, Anatolia is more closely related with the Balkan populations than to the Central Asian populations. Central Asian contribution to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans was quantified with an admixture analysis. Furthermore, the association between the Central Asian contribution and the language replacement episode was examined by comparative analysis of the Central Asian contribution to Anatolia, Azerbaijan (another Turkic speaking country) and their neighbors. In the present study, the Central Asian contribution to Anatolia was estimated as 13%. This was the lowest value among the populations analyzed. This observation may be explained by Anatolia having the lowest migrant/resident ratio at the time of migrations.

  15. Locations and magnitudes of earthquakes in Central Asia from seismic intensity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.; Gómez-Capera, A.; Locati, M.; Kalmetyeva, Z.; Mikhailova, N.

    2014-01-01

    We apply the Bakun and Wentworth ( Bull Seism Soc Am 87:1502-1521, 1997) method to determine the location and magnitude of earthquakes occurred in Central Asia using MSK-64 intensity assignments. The attenuation model previously derived and validated by Bindi et al. ( Geophys J Int, 2013) is used to analyse 21 earthquakes that occurred over the period 1885-1964, and the estimated locations and magnitudes are compared to values available in literature. Bootstrap analyses are performed to estimate the confidence intervals of the intensity magnitudes, as well as to quantify the location uncertainty. The analyses of seven significant earthquakes for the hazard assessment are presented in detail, including three large historical earthquakes that struck the northern Tien-Shan between the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries: the 1887, M 7.3 Verny, the 1889, M 8.3 Chilik and the 1911, M 8.2 Kemin earthquakes. Regarding the 1911, Kemin earthquake the magnitude values estimated from intensity data are lower (i.e. MILH = 7.8 and MIW = 7.6 considering surface wave and moment magnitude, respectively) than the value M = 8.2 listed in the considered catalog. These values are more in agreement with the value M S = 7.8 revised by Abe and Noguchi ( Phys Earth Planet In, 33:1-11, 1983b) for the surface wave magnitude. For the Kemin earthquake, the distribution of the bootstrap solutions for the intensity centre reveal two minima, indicating that the distribution of intensity assignments do not constrain a unique solution. This is in agreement with the complex source rupture history of the Kemin earthquake, which involved several fault segments with different strike orientations, dipping angles and focal mechanisms (e.g. Delvaux et al. in Russ Geol Geophys 42:1167-1177, 2001; Arrowsmith et al. in Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 86(52), 2005). Two possible locations for the intensity centre are obtained. The first is located on the easternmost sub-faults (i

  16. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 ?? 105, 5.4 ?? 105 and 0.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Mapping Glacial Lake Changes in Mountain Areas of Central Asia with Landsat Imagery during 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Junli; Chen, Xi; Bao, Anming

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia is one of the world most vulnerable areas responding to global change. Glacier lakes in alpine regions remain sensitive to climatic change and fluctuate with temperature and precipitation variations. Study shows that glaciers in Central Asia have retreated dramatically, leading to the expansion of the existing glacial lakes and the emergence of many new glacial lakes. The existence of these lakes increases the possibility of outburst flood during the ice melting season, which can bring a disaster to the downstream area. Mapping glacial lakes and monitoring their changes would improve our understanding of regional climate change and glacier related hazards. Glacial lakes in Central Asia are mainly located at the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and Kunlun Mountains with average elevation more than 1500 meters. Most of these lakes are supplied with the glaciers and snowmelt water during the summer seasons. Satellite remote sensing provides an efficient and objective tool to analyse the status and variations of glacial lakes. The increased availability of remote sensing sensors with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, broad coverage makes lake investigations more feasible and cost-effective. The paper intends to map glacier lake changes in the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and Kunlun Mountains with Landsat imagery. About 400 scenes of Landsat images in circa 1990, circa 2000 and 2010 are used to map the glacial lakes over the Central Asia, and the temporal processes and spatial patterns of these lake changes are also analysed, so as to find the relations between lake changes and region climate change. Over 12 000 glacial lakes were mapped in circa 2010, and the most of them are located the Altai Mountains and the Tianshan Mountains. The result shows that the numbers and areas of the glacial lakes in the Altai Mountain remain stable. The Tianshan Mountain have experienced changes in the last two decades, and about a half number

  18. China’s Strategy Toward South and Central Asia: An Empty Fortress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    counterpart Abdul Rahim Wardak in March 2010, PRC Minister of National Defense Liang Guanglie announced that, the “Chinese military will continue assistance...5, 2011, p. 4; Syed Fazl-e-Haider, “Chinese Shun Pakistan Exodus,” Asia Times, September 11, 2009. 70 On the threat to Chinese Citizens in Pakistan...Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, Summer 2007. Fazl-e-Haider, Syed , “Chinese Shun Pakistan Exodus,” Asia Times, September 11, 2009. Fei Hongyuan, “The True

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations and expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedi-Ardekani Behnoush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC shows geographic variations in incidence, with high incidences (>50/105 person-years in central Asia, including North Eastern Iran (Golestan and Northern India (Kashmir. In contrast to Western countries, smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for ESCC in central Asia. In lung adenocarcinoma, activating mutations in the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are frequent in tumors of never smokers of Asian origin, predicting therapeutic sensitivity to Egfr-targeting drugs. Methods In this study 152 cases of histologically confirmed ESCC from Iran (Tehran and Golestan Province and North India (Kashmir Valley have been analyzed for EGFR mutation by direct sequencing of exons 18–21. Egfr protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 34 samples from Tehran and HER2 mutations were analyzed in 54 cases from Kashmir. Results A total of 14 (9.2% EGFR variations were detected, including seven variations in exons. Among those, four (2.6% were already documented in lung cancers, two were reported as polymorphisms and one was a potentially new activating mutation. All but one variation in introns were previously identified as polymorphisms. Over-expression of Egfr was detected in 22/34 (65% of tested cases whereas no HER2 mutation was found in 54 cases from Kashmir. Conclusion Overall, EGFR mutations appear to be a rare event in ESCC in high incidence areas of central Asia, although a very small proportion of cases may harbor mutations predicting sensitivity to anti-Egfr drugs.

  20. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission: potential role for people who inject drugs in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairy, Margaret L; Deryabina, Anna; Hoos, David; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2013-11-01

    Interest in the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention stems from mounting evidence from research studies demonstrating that ART is associated with a decrease in sexual HIV transmission among serodiscordant couples and, perhaps, in other populations at risk. There is paucity of data on the efficacy of ART for prevention in key populations, including persons who inject drugs (PWID). In this paper, we examine the current status of HIV services for PWID in Central Asia, the use of ART by this population and explore ART for prevention for PWID in this context. We also discuss research and implementation questions with relevance to such a strategy in the region.

  1. The New Great Game: A Phase Zero, Regional Engagement Strategy for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-23

    College Quarterly, Carlisle. Summer 2006. Barylski, Robert V. The Russian Federation and Eurasias’ Islamic Crescent. JSTOR , Europe- Asia Studies... database of federal legislation) <http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s109- 2749> (accessed May 1, 2007) Commonwealth of Australia

  2. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  3. The Northeast Asia LNG Market Analysis%东北亚液化天然气市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌

    2013-01-01

      在全球能源新格局之下,传统的液化天然气卖方市场已经开始出现松动。在美国、澳大利亚新增液化天然气供给的冲击下,俄罗斯未来对东北亚的天然气出口将面临更多的竞争对手,其价格下降将有着明确的预期。2015年以后,随着更多液化天然气实现实质供给,东北亚的天然气市场将出现新的局面,届时中俄有可能达成一种双赢的价格安排。%In the new global energy pattern, the traditional LNG (liquefied natural gas) sellers’ market has changed bit by bit. Under the impact from the new supply of U.S.A. and Australia , Russia will face more competitors in the Northeast Asia market in the future, the declining price has clear expectation. After 2015, with more LNG supply materiality, the LNG market will have a new situation. Then, China and Russia will reach a win-win price arrangement.

  4. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kulkarni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD values (annual mean value ∼0.2 in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m−3 also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2–90 μg m−3. Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC (mean value ∼0.1 μg m−3 show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST and Bishkek. The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  5. Multi-proxy evidence for late Pleistocene-Holocene environ-mental change in arid Central Asia: An overview of the RACHAD 2001 symposium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fahu; J. A. Holmes

    2003-01-01

    @@ This special issue of Chinese Science Bulletin arose from a symposium entitled "Abrupt Environmental Changes in Arid Asia--History and Mechanisms" (RACHAD 2001) held at Lanzhou University in October 2001. This international event was attended by over 70 scientists from Australia, China, Germany, India, Mongolia, Russia, the UK and the USA. More than fifty papers were given over a three-dayperiod on all aspects of the mechanisms and history of environmental change in Asia's drylands. Most of the papers presented in the symposium are the preliminary results of the INQUA working group called "Rapid Climatic Changes in the Central-Asia's Drylands" (RACHAD).

  6. Effects of projected climate change on the glacier and runoff generation in the Naryn River Basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong; Luo, Yi; Zuo, Qiting; Sun, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is a major environmental concern and the melting processes of the glaciers and snowpacks are sensitive to climate change. The ultimate effect of the future changes on the glacier and hydrology is unclear and poorly investigated for Central Asia. Here, we use results from the latest ensemble of climate models in combination with a glacier-enhanced Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model to assess the hydrological impact of climate change in the Naryn River Basin, Central Asia. Results indicate that small glaciers suffer from larger relative area losses than large glaciers. Only 8% of the originally glaciated area for small glaciers will retain glaciers by 2100 for RCP8.5. The rate of area retreat for small glaciers (with an area change in precipitation, snowmelt and higher evapotranspiration. Glacier melt is mainly derived by future temperature changes, while the runoff and snowmelt component are determined by future precipitation. The timing of peak runoff is advancing about one month as a result of earlier snowmelt due to the warming temperature. Runoff is projected to increase during the spring and decrease for the summer season for the future periods. Thus water availability on the time will likely undergo significant changes.

  7. Mongolian plateau: Evidence for a late Cenozoic mantle plume under central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Brian F.; Allen, Mark B.

    1993-04-01

    The 2500 x 700 km Mongolian plateau (average elevation 2000 m) is situated between the Altai orogen and the Siberian craton and occupies much of Mongolia and Transbaikalia in Russia. The plateau is characterized by (1) basin and range topography and two major domes(Hentai, 600 x 300 km, and Hangai, 800 x 550 km), where altitudes reach 3905 m; (2) lithosphere that is thinner than adjacent areas (minimum ˜50 km); (3) elevated heat flow (up to 120 mW/m2); (4) dominantly alkaline basaltic volcanism in the form of cones, lava fields, and volcanic plateaus mostly of Miocene-Quaternary age, and (5) rifts, including Baikal (main evolution in the Pliocene-Quaternary), Tunka (Oligocene-early Miocene), and Hobsogol (Pliocene-Quaternary). Existing models explain these features in terms of diapiric upwelling of a mantle asthenolith below the main rifts and/or as a long-distance effect of the India-Asia collision. We propose that the late Cenozoic uplift of the whole Mongolian plateau and associated rifting, magmatism, high heat flow, and lithospherec thinning are not externally driven by the India-Asia collision, but are the expression of the interaction of a mantle plume with overlying lithosphere. Some rifts link and interact with major strike-slip faults, such as the Bolnai. Such faults may be the major expression of the India-Asia collision in this region.

  8. Central Bank Transparency and Financial Market: Evidence for the Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira de Mendonça

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is an empirical analysis concerning the effects caused by Central Bank of Brazil transparency on the Brazilian financial market. Furthermore, a brief review of the literature regarding central bank transparency is presented. The effects of the different dimensions of the monetary authority’s transparency on yield interest are examined. Moreover, the consequences regarding changes in the country risk are considered in this study. The findings denote that the Central Bank of Brazil transparency works as a guide for the future interest rate market and that the different dimensions of transparency contribute to a better market efficiency.

  9. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...

  10. 中国对中亚地区投资现状及其比较分析%The Status Quo of Chinese Investment in Central Asia and the Comparative Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钦; 许云霞

    2012-01-01

    通过对中国与中亚五国的投资现状及比较分析发现:中国与中亚地区经济贸易互补性强,投资发展势头良好。当前的主要问题是缺少对中亚国家经济实力和资源禀赋的深入分析,投资在地区分布上不均衡,层次低、规模小、效益差等不足;中亚各国投资和政策的环境不断改善,但投资保障和优惠力度却与经济实力成反比;中亚各国外高投资政策法律规范性较差,投资环境存在风险因素。中国政府应综合运用各种手段,促进经济技术对接;通过对中亚地区的援助项目,加强技术输出,推动经贸与投资的有机结合;充分发挥新疆的区位优势,促进中国对中亚地区和投资发展,稳固开拓中亚市场。%Analyzing the status quo of China's investment in five Central Asia countries, we find that China and Central Asia have strong economic and trade complementarity with favorable investment trend. However, problems are to be resolved, including a lack of in-depth analysis on the economic strength and resource endowment of Central Asia countries; and uneven, low level, small scale and poor efficient regional investment. Although these countries' investment and policy environments are improving, the investment safeguard measures and privileges have an inverse relationship with the economic strength. In addition, the investment policies and laws are poorly standardized, bringing about investment environmental risk factors. In order to expand the Central Asia market, Chinese government should take mea- sures to strengthen economic and technical links; promote technical output and integration between economy, trade and investment by means of aid projects in this region; give full play to the geographical advantages of Xinjiang to promote the investment in Central Asia.

  11. Market Concentration and Profitability of the Grocery Retailers in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Špička

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to internationally compare the market concentration of grocery retailers in the six countries of Central Europe – Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The market concentration was measured by CR4 ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the GRS index. Data covered the period 2010 – 2015. The secondary data came from the Euromonitor International and Bureau van Dijk databases. The results showed that the market structure of the Central European grocery retailers has mostly a character of asymmetric oligopoly. The pairwise correlation did not reveal any strong relationship between the market power and profitability of the grocery retailers. The Central European grocery market is controlled by strong national retail chains and multinational companies which operate modern grocery retail formats. However, traditional grocery retailers are still popular in Hungary while traditional individual grocers in other countries are disappearing or gradually joining the networking system based on franchising.

  12. Contemporary changes of water resources, water and land use in Central Asia based on observations and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Prousevitch, A.; Sokolik, I. N.; Lammers, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Water is a key agent in Central Asia ultimately determining human well-being, food security, and economic development. There are complex interplays among the natural and anthropogenic drivers effecting the regional hydrological processes and water availability. Analysis of the data combined from regional censuses and remote sensing shows a decline in areas of arable and irrigated lands and a significant decrease in availability of arable and irrigated lands per capita across all Central Asian countries since the middle of 1990thas the result of post-Soviet transformation processes. This change could lead to considerable deterioration in food security and human system sustainability. The change of political situation in the region has also resulted in the escalated problems of water demand between countries in international river basins. We applied the University of New Hampshire - Water Balance Model - Transport from Anthropogenic and Natural Systems (WBM-TrANS) to understand the consequences of changes in climate, water and land use on regional hydrological processes and water availability. The model accounts for sub-pixel land cover types, glacier and snow-pack accumulation/melt across sub-pixel elevation bands, anthropogenic water use (e.g. domestic and industrial consumption, and irrigation for most of existing crop types), hydro-infrastructure for inter-basin water transfer and reservoir/dam regulations. A suite of historical climate re-analysis and temporal extrapolation of MIRCA-2000 crop structure datasets has been used in WBM-TrANS for this project. A preliminary analysis of the model simulations over the last 30 years has shown significant spatial and temporal changes in hydrology and water availability for crops and human across the region due to climatic and anthropogenic causes. We found that regional water availability is mostly impacted by changes in extents and efficiency of crop filed irrigation, especially in highly arid areas of Central Asia

  13. Globalization and Institutional Change : Are Emerging Market Economies in Europe and Asia Converging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that globalization leads to a smaller world by institutional convergence. Politico-economic orders become alike across the world. The article analyzes institutional change triggered by the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 and compares developments in emerging markets in Europe

  14. The Development and Impact of Marketing Capabilities in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    John Fahy; Graham Hooley; Tony Cox; Jozsef Beracs; Krzysztof Fonfara; Boris Snoj

    2000-01-01

    The industrial organisation and evolutionary economics traditions in international business and the resource-based view of the firm in strategic management provide a rich and related set of perspectives on the question of performance in an international environment. This paper draws on these perspectives to examine the nature of marketing capabilities across a range of firm types in Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. A number of key strategic capabilities are examined including market orientation,...

  15. Turquía en Asia Central: un área geoestratégica para la Unión Europea

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Fernández, David

    2011-01-01

    Asia Central representa un objetivo primordial en la actual política exterior turca, al igual que para la diplomacia rusa, china, estadounidense y europea. Turquía ha fortalecido su acercamiento hacia las ex-repúblicas soviéticas firmando importantes acuerdos que pueden ayudar a la Política de Vecindad que desarrolla la Unión Europea en la región. Pero Turquía, tampoco se olvida de Rusia, actor fundamental de Asia Central, con quién ha estrechado relaciones desde la llegada del AKP al poder. ...

  16. A new species of the genus Polyodaspis Duda, 1933 (Diptera: Acalyptratae: Chloropidae) from Central Asia with a key to the Palaearctic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartshuk, E P

    2016-01-28

    A new species, Polyodaspis ferulae n. sp., from Central Asia (Uzbekistan) is described. The species was collected on inflorescences of Ferula foetida (Apiaceae). Siphonella levicola Becker in Becker and Stein, 1913 described from Iran is synonymized with Polyodaspis sulcicollis (Meigen, 1838) based on investigation of the holotype. A key to 9 species of the genus Polyodaspis Duda, 1933 is proposed with illustrations of male genitalia. Polyodaspis and Anacamptoneurum Becker, 1903 are treated as separate genera. New localities of P. sulcicollis (Meigen, 1838) from Kazakhstan and Central Asia are given.

  17. Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in the Middle East and genetic similarity with populations in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Ordoñez, M E; Manisterski, J; Anikster, Y

    2011-07-01

    Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common and widespread disease in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in the Middle East region and to compare the population from the Middle East with the previously characterized population from Central Asia to determine whether genetically similar groups of isolates are found in the two regions. In total, 118 isolates of P. triticina collected from common wheat and durum wheat in Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Kenya were tested for virulence on 20 lines of wheat with single genes for leaf rust resistance and for molecular genotypes with 23 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After removal of isolates with identical virulence and SSR genotype in each country, 103 isolates were retained for further analysis. Clustering of SSR genotypes based on two-dimensional principal coordinates and virulence to wheat differential lines grouped the isolates into four Middle East (ME) groups. The two largest ME groups had virulence phenotypes typical of isolates collected from common wheat and two smaller ME groups had virulence typical of isolates collected from durum wheat. All pairs of ME groups were significantly differentiated for SSR genotype based on R(ST) and F(ST) statistics, and for virulence phenotype based on Φ(PT). All ME groups had observed values of heterozygosity greater than expected and significant fixation indices that indicated the clonal reproduction of urediniospores in the overall population. Linkage disequilibria for SSR genotypes was high across the entire population. The overall values of R(ST) and F(ST) were lower when isolates were grouped by country of origin that indicated the likely migration of isolates within the region. Although the two ME groups with virulence typical of isolates from common wheat were not differentiated for SSR genotype from groups of isolates from Central Asia based on

  18. Erica Marat, The Military and the State in Central Asia: From Red Army to Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Petric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Erica Marat is a one of the United States’ most brilliant Central Asian political scientists. She has offered numerous analyses of political transformations as presented by different think tanks and American foundations. In this book, Marat focuses on the role of the army in building state processes in contemporary Central Asian states. The book offers a wide panorama of Central Asian armies, compiling sources already published (books, reports in Russian and English etc. and some original da...

  19. Global Shared Service Trends in the Central and Eastern European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert MARCINIAK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research is to disclose what kind of trends are present in the global business service markets and which appear in the Central and Eastern European (CEE business market. The research determines the most important business service trends that emerged in shared service organizations in the CEE region.

  20. Positive selection of protective variants for type 2 diabetes from the Neolithic onward: a case study in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frederic; Toupance, Bruno; Gautier, Mathieu; Kelley, Joanna L; Pasquet, Patrick; Lonjou, Christine; Georges, Myriam; Voisin, Sarah; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Vitalis, Renaud; Heyer, Evelyne

    2013-10-01

    The high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its uneven distribution among human populations is both a major public health concern and a puzzle in evolutionary biology. Why is this deleterious disease so common, while the associated genetic variants should be removed by natural selection? The 'thrifty genotype' hypothesis proposed that the causal genetic variants were advantageous and selected for during the majority of human evolution. It remains, however, unclear whether genetic data support this scenario. In this study, we characterized patterns of selection at 10 variants associated with type 2 diabetes, contrasting one herder and one farmer population from Central Asia. We aimed at identifying which alleles (risk or protective) are under selection, dating the timing of selective events, and investigating the effect of lifestyle on selective patterns. We did not find any evidence of selection on risk variants, as predicted by the thrifty genotype hypothesis. Instead, we identified clear signatures of selection on protective variants, in both populations, dating from the beginning of the Neolithic, which suggests that this major transition was accompanied by a selective advantage for non-thrifty variants. Combining our results with worldwide data further suggests that East Asia was particularly prone to such recent selection of protective haplotypes. As much effort has been devoted so far to searching for thrifty variants, we argue that more attention should be paid to the evolution of non-thrifty variants.

  1. Impacts of climate gradients on the vegetation phenology of major land use types in Central Asia (1981-2008)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan KARIYEVA; Willem J.D.van LEEUWEN; Connie A.WOODHOUSE

    2012-01-01

    Time-series of land surface phenology (LSP)data offer insights about vegetation growth patterns.They can be generated by exploiting the temporal and spectral reflectance properties of land surface components.Interannual and seasonal LSP data are important for understanding and predicting an ecosystem's response to variations caused by natural and anthropogenic drivers.This research examines spatio-temporal change patterns and interactions between terrestrial phenology and 28 years of climate dynamics in Central Asia.Long-term (1981-2008) LSP records such as timing of the start,peak and length of the growing season and vegetation productivity were derived from remotely sensed vegetation greenness data.The patterns were analyzed to identify and characterize the impact of climate drivers at regional scales.We explored the relationships between phenological and precipitation and temperature variables for three generalized land use types that were exposed to decadelong regional drought events and intensified land and water resource use:rainfed agriculture,irrigated agriculture,and non-agriculture.To determine whether and how LSP dynamics are associated with climate patterns,a series of simple linear regression analyses between these two variables was executed.The three land use classes showed unique phenological responses to climate variation across Central Asia.Most of the phenological response variables were shown to be positively correlated to precipitation and negatively correlated to temperature.The most substantial climate variable affecting phenological responses of all three land use classes was a spring temperature regime.These results indicate that future higher temperatures would cause earlier and longer growing seasons.

  2. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentai Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in the inland arid area of Central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang has recently received heightened concerns over soil water erosion, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Data from the national soil erosion survey of China (1985–2011 and Xinjiang statistical yearbook (2000–2010 was used to analyze the trend, intensity, and serious soil water erosion regions. Results showed that the water erosion area in Xinjiang was 87.6×103 km2 in 2011, mainly distributed in the Ili river valley and the northern and southern Tian Mountain. Soil erosion gradient was generally slight and the average erosion modulus was 2184 t/(km2 a. During the last 26 years, the water erosion area in Xinjiang decreased by 23.2%, whereas the intensity was still increasing. The driving factors from large to small impact included: population boom and human activities>vegetation degradation>rainfall and climate change>topography and soil erodibility>tectonics movement. Soil water erosion resulted in eco-environmental and socioeconomic losses, such as destroying farmland and grassland, triggering floods, sedimentation of reservoirs, damaging transportation and irrigation facilities, and aggravating poverty. A landscape ecological design approach is suggested for integrated control of soil erosion. Currently, an average of 2.07×103 km2 of formerly eroded area is conserved each year. This study highlighted the importance and longevity of soil and water conservation efforts in Xinjiang, and offered some suggestions on ecological restoration and combating desertification in arid regions of Central Asia.

  3. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  4. The Impacts of the Global Financial Crisis on Agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe and in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KADLEČÍKOVÁ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of financial crises has been growing in the world according to the International Monetary Fund. The recent global financial crisis caused a considerable slowdown in many countries in the world. The results have included the collapse of housing prices, massive unemployment, and the spread of distress throughout financial markets and economies around the globe. The economic slowdown hit the agricultural sector as well. The purpose of the presented article is to evaluate the impacts of the global economic and financial crisis on the agri-food sector and to present solutions for the existing problems.

  5. Paths to policy coherence to create market economies in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana

    2011-01-01

    centralized economies of Central and Eastern Europe into market-driven ones. It shows that government characteristics with likely impact on the quality of policy-making, such as accountability and institutional constraints, are associated with coherent policies only in a limited number of cases. It also shows...

  6. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, Lawrence G.; Kabir, Rezaul

    2002-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market

  7. Correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 and estimated mercury emissions in China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia derived from observations in northwest and southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.; Zhou, L. X.; Fang, S. X.

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis between atmospheric mercury (Hg) and other trace gases are useful for identification of sources and constraining regional estimated Hg emissions. Emissions of Hg in Asia contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric Hg. However, due to the lack of reliable data on the source strength, large uncertainties remain in the emission inventories of Hg in Asia. In the present study, we calculated the correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia using the ground-based observations at three remote sites in northwest and southwest China, and applied the values to estimate GEM emissions in the four source regions. The geometric mean of the GEM / CO correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were 7.3 ± 4.3, 7.8 ± 6.4, 7.8 ± 5.0, and 13.4 ± 9.5 pg m-3 ppb-1, respectively. The values in the same source regions were 240 ± 119, 278 ± 164, 315 ± 289 pg m-3 ppm-1 for the GEM / CO2 correlation slopes; and 33.3 ± 30.4, 27.4 ± 31.0, 23.5 ± 15.3, and 20.5 ± 10.0 pg m-3 ppb-1 for the GEM / CH4 correlation slopes, respectively. These values were the first reported correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in four important source regions of Asia except the GEM / CO ratios in mainland China. The correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2 and GEM / CH4 in Asia were relatively higher than those observed in Europe, North America and South Africa, which may highlight GEM emissions from non-ferrous smelting, mercury mining, natural sources and historical deposited mercury (re-emission) in Asia. Using the observed GEM / CO and GEM / CO2 slopes, and the recently reported emission inventories of CO and CO2, the annual GEM emissions in mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were estimated to be in the ranges of 1071-1187 t, 340-470 t, 125 t, and 54-90 t, respectively. The estimate

  8. Correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 and estimated mercury emissions in China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia derived from observations in northwest and southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis between atmospheric mercury (Hg and other trace gases are useful for identification of sources and constraining regional estimated Hg emissions. Emissions of Hg in Asia contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric Hg. However, due to the lack of reliable data on the source strength, large uncertainties remain in the emission inventories of Hg in Asia. In the present study, we calculated the correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia using the ground-based observations at three remote sites in northwest and southwest China, and applied the values to estimate GEM emissions in the four source regions. The geometric mean of the GEM / CO correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were 7.3 ± 4.3, 7.8 ± 6.4, 7.8 ± 5.0, and 13.4 ± 9.5 pg m−3 ppb−1, respectively. The values in the same source regions were 240 ± 119, 278 ± 164, 315 ± 289 pg m−3 ppm−1 for the GEM / CO2 correlation slopes; and 33.3 ± 30.4, 27.4 ± 31.0, 23.5 ± 15.3, and 20.5 ± 10.0 pg m−3 ppb−1 for the GEM / CH4 correlation slopes, respectively. These values were the first reported correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in four important source regions of Asia except the GEM / CO ratios in mainland China. The correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2 and GEM / CH4 in Asia were relatively higher than those observed in Europe, North America and South Africa, which may highlight GEM emissions from non-ferrous smelting, mercury mining, natural sources and historical deposited mercury (re-emission in Asia. Using the observed GEM / CO and GEM / CO2 slopes, and the recently reported emission inventories of CO and CO2, the annual GEM emissions in mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were estimated to be in the ranges of 1071–1187 t, 340–470 t, 125 t, and 54

  9. Mapping lake level changes using ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry data: a case study in arid regions of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JunLi; Fang, Hui; Yang, Liao

    2011-12-01

    Lakes in arid regions of Central Asia act as essential components of regional water cycles, providing sparse but valuable water resource for the fragile ecological environments and human lives. Lakes in Central Asia are sensitive to climate change and human activities, and great changes have been found since 1960s. Mapping and monitoring these inland lakes would improve our understanding of mechanism of lake dynamics and climatic impacts. ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry provides an efficient tool of continuously measuring lake levels in these poorly surveyed remote areas. An automated mapping scheme of lake level changes is developed based on GLAS altimetry products, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of 9 typical lakes in Central Asia are analyzed to validate the level accuracies. The results show that ICESat/GLAS has a good performance of lake level monitoring, whose patterns of level changes are the same as those of field observation, and the max differences between GLAS and field data is 3cm. Based on the results, it is obvious that alpine lakes are increasing greatly in lake levels during 2003-2009 due to climate change, while open lakes with dams and plain endorheic lakes decrease dramatically in water levels due to human activities, which reveals the overexploitation of water resource in Central Asia.

  10. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of education…

  11. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associate

  12. From the Party/State to Multi-Ethnic Democracy: Education and Its Influence on Social Cohesion in the Europe and Central Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles S.

    In the last 6 years, 27 countries have emerged anew in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Many countries have moved away from having a single political party manage the state and its economic apparatus. This paper aims to answer whether educational mechanisms can lower social tension and help achieve social cohesion in these countries, and how these…

  13. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of…

  14. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  15. Central Asia Since 1991: The Experience of the New Independent States. OECD Development Centre Working Paper, No. 212 (Formerly Technical Paper, No. 212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfret, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The five former Soviet republics of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan) have become separate states, developing at different rates and in different directions, and with different political and economic regimes. As a result, the cohesion of the region has broken down and economic development is…

  16. An exchange rate determination model for central banks'interventions in financial markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林浚清; 黄祖辉; 战明华

    2002-01-01

    We establish an exchange rate determination model for central banks' interventiorm in financial markets.The model shows that central banks can adjuct exchange rate by several policy instruments and that different instruments may have different effects on exchange rate determination.It specifies potetial policy instruments for central banks as well as their policy effects.Based on these effects,feasible matches of policy instruments in contingent intervention are put forth.

  17. An exchange rate determination model for central banks' interventions in financial markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林浚清; 黄祖辉; 战明华

    2002-01-01

    We establish an exchange rate determination model for central banks' in terventions in financial markets. The model shows that central banks can adjust exchange rate by several policy instruments and that different instruments may h ave different effects on exchange rate determination. It specifies potential pol icy instruments for central banks as well as their policy effects. Based on thes e effects, feasible matches of policy instruments in contingent intervention are put forth.

  18. Effectiveness of central bank intervention on the foreign exchange market

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Karl; Reitz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to academic recommendations monetary authorities all over the world intervene on the foreign exchange market to actively manage the exchange rate. Particularly in the aftermath of the global financial crisis the exchange rate is abused by some countries in a currency war to artificially improve the own competitiveness and thereby harming trading partners. Aside from these heavily debated activities a number of open economies try to shield their currency from irrational exuberance ...

  19. Globalizing Social Welfare and Labor Markets in East and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour......-based social organisations. Another aspect is the extent of so-called "a-typical" work such as part time employment and fixed term contracts. A third impact is the overall change of social welfare from a cohesive compact to a more loose type of organization....

  20. Russia, China, and the United States in Central Asia: Prospects for Great Power Competition and Cooperation in the Shadow of the Georgian Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Studies, and Perspectives Chinoises. She is the author of Mending Fences : The Evolution of Moscow’s China Policy from Brezhnev to Yeltsin (Seattle...United States needs to redress the imbalance in aid to Central Asian states. Although security assistance to the region is needed in support of U.S. and...14. 109. Bruce Pannier, “Central Asia: Beijing Flexes Economic Muscle across Region,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, May 29, 2008, www.rferl.org

  1. CHINESE STRATEGY TOWARD CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA: ENERGY INTERESTS AND ENERGY SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Marketos, Thrassyvoulos

    2012-01-01

    As China's economy has grown and become integrated into the global market, both have become interdependent. Therefore China's long-term development goals will only be possible with increasing and stable access to foreign trade, resources, and energy. The latter has become a pressing issue as the country's dependence on international energy imports rapidly increases and might impose a limit on its growth if left unmet. This is especially important given supply shortages as a result of the rece...

  2. Power's promise: electricity reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampietti, J. (ed.)

    2004-06-01

    This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries in the Europe and East Asia region - Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Hungary; Kazakhstan and POland. It finds sector deficits have been falling over the last decade and that the savings from lower sector deficits did not translate into higher social spending. More emphasis must be placed on monitoring deficits and tailoring policy reform to country specific circumstances. The impact of reform on utility efficiency, as measured by the cost of generation, system loss collections, and operational efficiency, is ambiguous. While overall revenue per kilowatt hour increased in almost all countries, problems continue with losses, collection rates, and staffing. In terms of social impacts, electricity spending as a share of income increased, especially for the poor, while consumption stayed the same. In terms of environmental impacts, reforms did slightly improve energy efficiency in power plants though this has little direct impact on human health because the electricity sector's share of the total health damage from air pollution is negligible. Several lessons emerge from the analysis. Undertaking simple ex ante simulations of reform impacts will allow better identification of potential reform benefits and costs. Placing more emphasis on outcome-based indicators of service quality would help ensure that future operations produce the intended end-user benefits. In many cases, tariff increases can and should be explicitly timed to coincide with service quality improvements. 24 figs., 15 tabs., 10 annexes.

  3. Comparison Of Patterns Of Convergence Among “Emerging Markets” Of Central Europe, Eastern Europe And Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POZNAŃSKA JOANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of economic growth indicators for 1989-2014, this article distinguishes the “emerging markets” of Central and Eastern Europe (with Russia included, from the other economies that fall in the broad ‘emerging markets’ category. Following the post–1989 reforms, the countries of the region share many of the same typical institutional features as other “emerging economies”, but not necessarily the associated economic outcomes. What characterizes “emerging economies” is that they grow fast enough to systematically close the distance dividing them from the advanced economies, creating convergence. Departing from this pattern, Central and Eastern Europe (and Russia have so far fallen short in terms of the growth rates, and the region as a whole has not made much progress in catching up. By more than doubling its national product Poland is the only notable exception in the region, although Slovenia may fit in the same category. At the other extreme, some of the economies actually lost two decades in terms of reducing the gaps, and some even fell further behind (e.g., Serbia, Ukraine. These findings have potentially serious implications for economic theory in general and for the presumption that globalization processes act as a unifying developmental force.

  4. Security Policy and Developments in Central Asia : Security Documents Compared with Security Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and

  5. State Response to Religious Revivalism in Post-Soviet Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev's Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments' push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.

  6. State Response to Religious Revivalism in Post-Soviet Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After gaining independence from the USSR in 1991, the Islamic heritage of the Central Asian Republics became an alternative ideology to fill the political and social vacuum. Islam gradually started to take its place on the social scene following Gorbachev’s Glasnost, as it partially eased the communist oppression towards religious belief and expression. Religious education institutions, mosques, and other religiously affiliated organizations began to emerge. Some of these organizations steadily led their way to political parties with Islamic agendas, and politicization of Islam became a prominent reality. While religious revivalism took sway in Central Asian societies, their governments had an instrumentalist view of religion. Religious expressions were encouraged where they contribute to the goal of nation-building and legitimization of the dominant power coalitions as defined by the power holders. Yet, Central Asian governments proceeded in the opposite direction implementing oppressive policies against extra-governmental religious groups and institutions perceived as a threat. It was anticipated for the Central Asian societies to revive their Islamic heritage that has been suppressed under the Soviet regime and combine religion with nationalist sentiments as a catalyst in the nation-building process and political transition. However, the suppressive state response to this religious revivalism was unpredicted and led to prolonged conflict between state and society. This article seeks to identify the factors that explain the competing courses of the governments’ push for secularization through historical institutionalism and cultural and national values approaches.

  7. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  8. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  9. Westerly jet stream and past millennium climate change in Arid Central Asia simulated by COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Bijan; Sodoudi, Sahar; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study tackles one of the most debated questions around the evolution of Central Asian climate: the "Puzzle" of moisture changes in Arid Central Asia (ACA) throughout the past millennium. A state-of-the-art Regional Climate Model (RCM) is subsequently employed to investigate four different 31-year time slices of extreme dry and wet spells, chosen according to changes in the driving data, in order to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution of the moisture variability in two different climatological epochs: Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). There is a clear regime behavior and bimodality in the westerly Jet phase space throughout the past millennium in ACA. The results indicate that the regime changes during LIA show a moist ACA and a dry East China. During the MCA, the Kazakhstan region shows a stronger response to the westerly jet equatorward shift than during the LIA. The out-of-phase pattern of moisture changes between India and ACA exists during both the LIA and the MCA. However, the pattern is more pronounced during the LIA.

  10. Migratory movements of waterfowl in Central Asia and avian influenza emergence: sporadic transmission of H5N1 from east to west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Gavrilov, Andrei; Katzner, Todd E.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miller, Tricia A.; Hagemeijer, Ward; Mundkur, Taej; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; DeMattos, Carlos C.; Ahmed, Lu'ay S.; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl in the genera Anas and Tadorna are suspected as vectors in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. The former Soviet Republics of Central Asia are situated at an important migratory crossroads for these and other species of birds that bridges regions where the disease is prevalent. However, waterfowl movements through Central Asia are poorly quantified. In this study, historical data derived from over 80 years of bird ringing are combined with recent satellite tracking data to delineate migration routes, movement chronology and habitat use patterns of waterfowl in relation to H5N1 outbreak locations. Results confirm migratory linkage between breeding and moulting areas in northern Kazakhstan and southern Siberia, with nonbreeding areas in the Caspian, Black and eastern Mediterranean Sea basins, as well as with South Asia. However, unlike the situation in neighbouring regions, most notably western China, H5N1 outbreaks have not been recurrent in Central Asia after they were first reported during summer 2005 and spring 2006. These findings have implications in relation to potential sampling biases, species-specific variation in migratory behaviour and continuing regional H5N1 transmission risks.

  11. The Hydraulic Option in Former Soviet Central Asia. Historical Perspective and Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vea Rodríguez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the situation of water resource management in the five Central Asian republics that formed part of the USSR. By way of introduction, it lists the characteristics of water as a resource and then analyses the uses and distribution of water in the region.For this, it outlines a brief historical approach which helps to understand, in all its magnitude, the current situation of ecological degradation and how it determines living conditions in the region. Likewise, it deals with the policies of intervention in water resource management of the Central Asian states and of international institutions, and it includes the description of two specific case studies which form part of initiatives devoted to reversing a processwhich has led to the greatest ecological disaster on the planet, the most well-known aspect of which is the practical disappearance of the Aral Sea.

  12. Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavkat Rakhmatullaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan favor the reservoirs’ operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan.

  13. From the Silk Road to Chevron: The Geopolitics of Oil Pipelines in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fishelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the struggle between Iran, Russia, China, and the US over their preferred pipeline routes for Central Asian oil and gas gives a good glimpse as to the world's future geopolitical order. Despite the formidable difficulties in building pipelines, those four powers are converging upon the region with an eagerness that is almost desperate. In previous eras, a country's military was the sole arbiter of her strength, but today her economy has become nearly as important, if not more so, and all industrial economies – and militaries – run on oil and gas. The US and China desire those resources to fuel their power plants, factories, automobiles, aircraft, and armored vehicles. Iran and Russia want the pipelines to go through their territory in order to claim transit fees and use the resources as political tools. For each country wresting control of the Central Asian oil and gas is necessarily a vital part of its grand strategy.

  14. REGIONAL SECURITY AND COOPERATION ISSUES IN U.S. POLICY TOWARD POST-SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    MAKHMUDOV, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    It stands to reason that at the early stage of independence the five republics in the Central Asian region-Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan-previously closely linked to the Soviet economic and political systems, faced a number of challenges, most of which were inherited from the Czarist-Soviet regimes. Coping with the challenges posed by the transition period required foreign support, and all the republics, except Turkmenistan, have been engaged in active coope...

  15. Networking for Overcoming on Viral Hepatitis in Middle East and Central Asia: Asian Hepatitis Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2007-11-01

    professionals and practioners in hepatitis in the Middle East and Asia. We have developed from a local association in Iran (Iran Hepatitis Network to an international one in a very short time. We are delighted to be able to share our findings with other researchers and let them share theirs with us. The principle goals of the "Asian Hepatitis Network" are to transform the advances of basic science in virology, pharmacology, pharmaceutical drugs, supporting for advancing and furthering the study researches, education, academic exchanges of knowledge in the profession of hepatology, managing principles of clinical research and basic sciences in the field of hepatology, integrating national and international projects to develop all important aspects of hepatology, facilitating coalition activities among members by circulating information on research through scientific conferences and workshops, providing global facilities, avoiding parallel works and practicing for team work, and planning for a database to register scientists, projects and laboratories engaged in activities in the field of hepatology."Asian Hepatitis Network" is a virtual network on hepatitis in the Middle East and Asia. This is a coalition of independent member research centers and groups that serve the interests of scientists in the field of hepatology in the Middle East and Asia. This network was first approved and organized by Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases (BRCGL and Tehran Hepatitis Center (THC and after that by Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran and its deputies for health and research & technology and nine research centers in Iran.This network has a scientific research journal for all Asian scientists in the field of hepatology; "Hepatitis Monthly" (www.HepMon.com. "Hepatitis Monthly" is an internationally recognized scientific research journal which serves as a forum for exchange of scientific information in the field of liver diseases with special

  16. The Karakul depression in Pamirs: The first impact structure in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, E. P.; Gurova, H. P.; Rakitskaya, R. B.; Yamnichenko, A. YU.

    1993-01-01

    The Karakul depression was picked out as the possible impact structure by the study of space images of Tadjikistan. Its striking similarity with some complex impact craters such as Dellen and Gosses Bluff is evident. Our investigations of the Karakul depression in 1987 and 1989-1991 years allowed to determine it as the impact crater with the central uplift. The target of the crater is presented by slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, intensively folded and intruded with granites during the Gercynian orogeny. The modern structure of north-eastern Pamirs was formed by Alpinian orogeny; the raise of the area in Neogene was about 4000-7000 m.

  17. The Role of Central and High Asia in Northern Hemisphere Short-term Climate Variability - a Paleoclimate Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalett, B.; Oches, E. A.; Lai, Z.; Endlicher, W.

    2010-12-01

    Past and present climate dynamics, i.e. large-scale ocean circulation and coupled synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns, associated with the Eurasian continent are well studied and receive ongoing scientific interest. However, the impact of intrahemispheric-scale climate variability on the entire Eurasian landmass, as well as the self-generated effects of the continent on the global climate system, is still a matter of considerable debate. While western Atlantic polar and tropical air masses penetrate into the continent and are modified and transformed as they cross Eurasia, the interior regions of Eurasia strongly influence Earth’s climate system. Significant cooling and heating of Central and High Asia (Tibetan Plateau) drive interactions between atmosphere and ocean processes and regulate teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere. This paper utilizes high resolution particle size analyses from the Central Asian loess sequence at Remisowka, Kazakhstan, to reconstruct the dynamics of past synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns and aeolian dust transport within interior Eurasia since the onset of the last interglacial period. The observed dynamics in aeolian dust transport (particle size record) closely mirror δ18O and fine dust variations seen in Greenland ice cores, suggesting a correlation with short-term climate oscillations (Dansgaard-Oeschger - DO events) recorded therein. An Asian origin of fine aeolian dust preserved in Greenland ice cores has been discussed previously, and recent papers reveal a close link between Central and East Asian aeolian dust dynamics and DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores. The onsets of individual DO events were slightly preceded by decreasing Greenland dust deposition [e.g., Steffensen et al. (2008), Science 321]. In this context, our data represent the first Central Asian aeolian dust record in which DO events are recorded, providing a means to verify hypothesized links between short-term climate

  18. Energy in Asia. An Outline of Some Strategic Energy Issues in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    The Asian countries are expected to generate 45% of the world energy consumption and Japan is the absolutely greatest consumer in Asia, but China is the country that will be most important as a new consumer on the world energy markets. China, like India and later possibly even Japan try to change to natural gas as a source of energy as much as possible. This is causing a competition about the resources that can be reached by pipelines for gas, which in practice means those in Russia and Central Asia. Russia is trying to control the gas in Central Asia. The competition is also increasing about oil. China is becoming heavily dependent on Muslim countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. This also leads to an effort to increase the safety along the sea lanes, which may collide with the interests of other countries. Territorial conflicts with gas and oil as underlying elements exist in Asia. USA is a player on the energy market, who is using military means as well, but it is possible that in the short perspective, the American acting may not seriously disturb European interests. In the long term perspective, however, the American activity can cause potential conflicts between USA and the Muslim world, that also affects the relations between Europe and its Muslim neighbours. China and other Asian countries may choose a more pro-lslamic line of policy in order to gain advantages in the competition about oil and gas. Europe (and Sweden) ought not to wait until the countries of Asia have finalised their negotiations with Russia and Central Asia about access to resources of natural gas but instead form a clear strategy for negotiations built on its own present demand and act accordingly.

  19. Opportunities and constraints of adopting market governance in protected areas in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona M. Otto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the transition from the traditional hierarchical governance of natural resources in Central and Eastern Europe towards the new forms of market governance of protected areas, including the introduction of fees and compensation. Our conceptual framework suggests that markets can be effective in governing transactions that involve low asset specificity and low frequency of disturbances. However, the introduction of markets should be accompanied by appropriate rules of market organization that particularly regulate their monitoring and impose sanctions in cases of mismanagement. The analysis of market governance in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia reveals that in the face of decreasing funding for biodiversity protection and state budgetary problems, markets are more a necessity than a means to improve resource management. Although markets should complement rather than substitute traditional forms of governance, for certain types of transactions, markets are useful. They can be effectively implemented, provided that property rights are recognized and legal settings that regulate the monitoring and enforcement of market rules are set up.

  20. TESTING CAPM MODEL ON THE EMERGING MARKETS OF THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Džaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines if the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is adequate for capital asset valuation on the Central and South-East European emerging securities markets using monthly stock returns for nine countries for the period of January 2006 to December 2010. Precisely, it is tested if beta, as the systematic risk measure, is valid on observed markets by analysing are high expected returns associated with high levels of risk, i.e. beta. Also, the efficiency of market indices of observed countries is examined.

  1. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  2. High resolution leaf wax carbon and hydrogen isotopic record of late Holocene paleoclimate in arid Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aichner

    2014-11-01

    precipitation (including snow-melt and thus leaf wax δ D values must also respond to shifts in the proportion of moisture derived from westerly storms during late winter/early spring. Downcore results give evidence for a gradual shift to cooler and wetter climates between 3.5 and 2.5 cal kyr BP, interrupted by a warm/dry episode between 3.0–2.7 kyr BP. Further cool and wet episodes occur between 1.9–1.5 kyr BP and between 0.6–0.1 kyr BP, the latter coeval with the Little Ice Age. Warm and dry episodes between 2.5–1.9 kyr BP and 1.5–0.6 kyr BP coincide with the Roman Warm Period and Medieval Climate Anomaly, respectively. Finally, we find a drying tend in recent decades. Regional comparisons lead us to infer that the strength and position of the Westerlies, and wider Northern Hemispheric climate dynamics control climatic shifts in arid Central Asia.

  3. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  4. Folded Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia: Altai-Sayan and Tien Shan basins in a folding lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Cloetingh, Sierd; Beekman, Fred; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Burov, Evguenii; Buslov, Misha; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbeck

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia is a classic example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz Tien Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz Tien Shan suggests that these basins were initiated in an extensional context and later inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. They deformed by a combination of lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence, together with upper crustal fault-controlled deformation. They are good examples of Folded Lithospheric Basins (FLB) which typically form in a buckling lithosphere. Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime and time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results. Both regions of active lithospheric folding have a heterogeneous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene - early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures.

  5. Quantifying the anthropogenic dust emission from agricultural land use and desiccation of the Aral Sea in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Sokolik, Irina N.

    2016-10-01

    A regional dust model system is applied to quantify the anthropogenic dust emission in the post-Soviet Central Asia from 2000 to 2014. Two physically based dust schemes suggest that a proportion of 18.3-32.8% of total dust emissions is contributed by agricultural land use and the desiccation of Aral Sea, whereas a simplified dust scheme yields higher estimates in the range of 49.7-56.5% depending on whether a static or dynamic preferential dust source function is used. The dust schemes also differ greatly in the spatial distribution of anthropogenic dust and the sensitivity to the use of land use intensity in separating natural and human-made source areas, suggesting that the model representation of erosion threshold velocity, especially the role of vegetation, is a key source of model uncertainty in quantifying anthropogenic dust. The relative importance of agriculture and dried Aral Sea bed (Aralkum) differs greatly among the dust schemes. Despite the increased dust from the expansion of Aralkum, there is a negative trend in the anthropogenic dust proportion, indicating a shift of dust emission toward natural source areas. All dust schemes show a decrease in anthropogenic dust in response to land cover changes over agricultural lands.

  6. Seasonal quality profile and production of foliage from trees grown on degraded cropland in arid Uzbekistan, Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, J P A; Khamzina, A

    2010-10-01

    Feed shortages hamper livestock rearing and thus impede the development of rural livelihoods in Central Asia. The production and in vitro quality of foliage from Ulmus pumila, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Populus euphratica on degraded cropland were examined to determine the potential of these species to supplement diary cattle diets. Leaf dry matter (DM) production of the species, respectively, averaged 6, 8 and 17 t DM/ha, 4 years after planting. Over seasons and years, crude protein concentrations (g/kg DM) ranged within 151-257 for E. angustifolia, 70-241 for U. pumila and 92-187 for P. euphratica. The metabolizable energy concentrations (MJ/kg DM) were the highest in U. pumila and ranged within 9-10, followed by 7-10 of E. angustifolia and 7-9 of P. euphratica. The organic matter digestibility (%) ranged within 58-70, 54-66, and 51-66, respectively, for these species. These indicators combined denoted a medium-to-good feed quality of E. angustifolia and U. pumila leaves as a cheap protein supplement to roughages. The foliage of P. euphratica was the least suitable. The seasonal profile of in vitro indicators revealed the highest feed quality in spring but early fall seems most appropriate for forage collection given the peak leaf production and an adequate quality.

  7. Challenges in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Evaluation of 18 Years of Swiss Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bonvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSwitzerland’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO has been working in the energy sectors of Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1992, financing 41 projects to the value of CHF 316 million. In 2009 an independent evaluation was commissioned to assess the effects of these projects in the region and to draw lessons for future project funding. The evaluation found the projects to be highly satisfactory in terms of relevance, satisfactory in terms of effectiveness and sustainability, and — because of external factors relating to governance, transparency and political stability in a country — generally unsatisfactory in terms of efficiency.Lessons drawn from the successful projects will be used to further improve them in the future. With limited financial resources governments are attempting to find a balance between energy security and environmental sustainability. SECO will support this mission by helping to reduce inefficient consumption, to increase the share of renewable energy, to strengthen the sustainability of utility companies and to develop effective energy policies.

  8. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan mountains, central Asia, by ground penetrating radar survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Puyu Wang; Zhongqin Li; Shuang Jin; Ping Zhou; Hongbing Yao; Wenbin Wang

    2014-04-01

    The results of radar survey for three times are presented, aiming to determine ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan Mountains, central Asia. Results show that the distribution of ice is more in the center and lesser at both ends of the glacier. The bedrock is quite regular with altitudes decreasing towards the ice front, showing the U-shaped subglacial valley. By comparison, typical ice thinning along the centerline of the East Branch of the glacier was 10–18 m for the period 1981–2006, reaching a maximum of ∼30 m at the terminus. The corresponding ice volume was 10296.2 × 104 m3, 8797.9 × 104 m3 and 8115.0 × 104 m3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is the direct result of glacier thinning. In the same period, the ice thickness, area and terminus decreased by 12.2%, 10.3%, and 3.6%, respectively. These changes are responses to the regional climatic warming, which show a dramatic increase of 0.6°C (10 a)−1 during the period 1981–2006.

  9. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  10. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  11. Climate Change in Central and West Asia. Routes to a More Secure, Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    ADB's Central and West Asian countries are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Geoclimatic and environmental factors make this region highly vulnerable to the risks and hazards of climate change. For example, accelerated glacial melt has serious implications for agriculture, water supply, and energy generation - problems exacerbated by overexploitation of natural resources. Countries may find it difficult to shift to low-carbon growth, since many have abundant fossil fuel and tend to use energy inefficiently. ADB is responding to these climate hazards and low-carbon pathways with a comprehensive strategy that strengthens policies, governance, and capacity support; expands the use of clean and renewable energy; encourages sustainable transport and urban development; promotes development that will be more resilient to climate change, especially in water-dependent sectors; and manages land use and forests for carbon sequestration. ADB's support is helping its developing member countries face the challenges of climate change and, with partners, is providing innovative solutions, while continuing to work to reduce poverty.

  12. Changes in Diversity of Fish Fauna of the Chu River Basin (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Byrlykzhanovna Kozhabaeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chu River originates in the Central Tien Shan Mountains and dissipates into the Muyunkum desert. The first information about the fish of the river was received in the middle 19-th century. Several expeditions collected data during 20-th century. Results of our investigations last decade in comparison with previous data allow tracking changes in the fish fauna after growing human impact. In the main, our data concern of the Kazakhstan part of the river. About 34 species and subspecies were discovered here; about 19 species between them are native. Origin or taxonomy of some species are disputable. In the last publications of the XX-th century 38 fish species and subspecies were mentioned. Native fish species as Aral barbel Barbus brachycephalus and Bulatmai barbel Barbus capito, Chu sharpray Capoetobrama kuschakewitschii and alien Sea trout Salmo trutta, Sevan trout Salmo ischchan were not found last decade in the Kazakhstan part of the river. Distribution area of native Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus and alien Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii were reduced. The most widespread and numerous fish species are native roach, carp, dace, gudgeon and alien stone moroco. Native fishes like pike, asp, Aral ide, striped bystranka, golden spiny loach, southern ninespine stickleback and others were found only in certain sites. Fish species composition for each investigated site was not stable during recent years. Significant variations in fish composition were observed between different water bodies of the basin too. It reflects diversity of human impacts and unsteady water regimen here.

  13. Advocating for opioid substitution therapy in Central Asia: much still to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Danielle; Burrows, Dave; Bolotbaeva, Aisuluu

    2014-11-01

    Opioid substitution therapy (OST) was first introduced in the formerly-Soviet Central Asian Republics as an HIV prevention intervention for people who inject drugs (PWID) in 2002. Presently, pilot programs function in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan has scaled-up from the pilot phase to the operation of over 20 OST sites nation-wide. All three countries have taken steps towards lower-threshold programs, allowing clients to enroll regardless of HIV status, and, in some cases, without documentation of failure to complete other drug treatment programs. However, OST programs remain exclusively funded by international donors, and political and societal opposition to these programs threaten their stability. In order to counter negative campaigns and political attacks on OST, organized advocacy efforts are needed. This commentary explores efforts undertaken by international donor partners supporting advocacy efforts to scale-up OST and assure a sustainable future for programming. It examines both proactive and reactive efforts, and the variety of target audiences that need to be reached to conduct effective advocacy. Ultimately we find that, while a range of tools are available for OST advocacy in the hostile environments of the former Soviet Union, the strengthening of advocacy groups is needed to assure an optimized platform exists for using the evidence and developing relevant materials in the appropriate languages (including, but not limited to, Russian) for both proactive and reactive efforts; and that more robust monitoring is desirable to bring sharper focus to replicable methods.

  14. The Eastern Turk Empire in Central Asia 620–630 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam T. Ganiev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Chinese written sources the author analyzes the internal and the external policies of Xieli Qaghan, the ruler of the Eastern Turkic Empire from 620 through 630. All throughout the history of the Empire the name of Xieli Qaghan is closely associated with the aggressive foreign policy of the Turks against China, as is the final defeat of the Eastern Turks and their troops by the Tang Emperor Taizong in 630. This article is the first attempt to see the events of the said period in a different light that is based on new information received from Chinese written sources, as well as the results of the modern climate research undertaken by Russian and foreign scientists. The article highlights the first stage of Xieli's rule (620–626 with its strong central government and its aggressive foreign policy towards its neighbors as a consequence, and the second period (627–630, when the Eastern Turkic Empire came under the rule of the Tang Emperor Taizong. The author analyzes the reasons of rising tension in the country of the Turks in 627–629, which led to the total collapse of the entire policy of Xieli Qaghan.

  15. Field relationships and geochemistry of pre-collisional (India-Asia) granitoid magmatism in the central Karakoram, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. B.; Searle, M. P.

    1992-05-01

    In the central Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan, seven major granitic units which were emplaced prior to the Eocene (ca. 50 Ma) India-Asia collision have been mapped and analysed geochemically. The mid-Cretaceous Hunza plutonic complex dominates the Karakoram batholith in the west and is composed of quartz diorite-granodiorite plutons which have been deformed in the south by later collision-related thrusting. The Sost and Khunjerab plutons intrude the Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic sediments north of the batholith. In the east pre-collision magmatic units occur both north of (K2 gneiss, Broad Peak quartz diorite, Muztagh Tower unit) and south of (Hushe gneiss) the batholith which is dominated by a Miocene monzogranite-leucogranite pluton (Baltoro unit). The plutonic units to the north of the batholith are mid- to late Cretaceous with an age range of ca. 115-80 Ma whereas the Hushe gneiss to the south is dominantly Jurassic spanning the age range 200-145 Ma. All the pre-collision magmatic units display similar chemical and isotopic characteristics. Major, trace and REE variations in the Hunza plutonic complex are controlled by high-level fractionation of clinopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase, biotite, ilmenite and allanite. High LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, together with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies suggest an ultimate source in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios (0.7055-0.7157) in the Hunza plutonic complex can best be explained by contamination of a mantle-derived magma by a crustal component with highly radiogenic Sr. All the units except the Hushe gneiss are probably related to subduction during closure of a back-arc basin between the Karakoram to the north and the Kohistan-Dras arc to the south during the mid- to late Cretaceous, and correlate with widespread plutonism from the same period in Kohistan, Ladakh and southern Tibet along the southern margin of Asia. The Hushe gneiss is probably related to an earlier northward

  16. Econometric analyses of horticultural production and marketing in Central and Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaleta Debello, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: vegetables, food and cash crops, land and labour allocations, crop and market outlet choice, price information, farm households, Ethiopia.The central item of this research is to examine the development of less-favoured areas through commercializing small-scale agriculture that produces cro

  17. 新疆高校图书馆建设中亚文库的思考%Thoughts on Constructing Central Asia Library by University Libraries in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾燕玲; 刘晖; 张沛黎

    2015-01-01

    中亚是中国的重要邻邦,也是中国周边合作的重点地区,更是中国提升安全与能源保障的重要地缘战略依托.文章阐述了新疆高校图书馆建设中亚文库的必要性及意义.%Central Asia is an important neighbor of China, as well as the key area for China's cooperation and the more important geopolitical strategy support on enhancing China's security and energy security. The article discussed the significance of constructing Central Asia Library by university libraries in Xinjiang.

  18. Review of the genus Oncopsis Burmeister, 1838 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries with description of a new species from Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2017-01-11

    Illustrated descriptions and data on host plants and distribution for 21 species of Oncopsis of Russia and adjacent countries are given, and O. abdykulovi sp. n. from Central Asia is described. Conspecificity of O. planiscuta from East Siberia and Sakhalin,of O. tristis from Moscow Area, Alati Mts., and Sakhalin, and of O. burjatica from East Siberia and Sakhalin is corroborated by male calling signal analysis.

  19. US POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA: TWO APPROACHES ADMINISTRATION OF GEORGE. BUSH (2005-2009 GG. AND BARACK OBAMA (2009-2010 BIENNIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Troitsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evolution of the U.S. strategy towards Central Asia in the second half of the 2000s was defined greatly by the development of the war in Afghanistan. However, since the middle of the decade the course of its implementation depended on the necessity to compensate or overcome consequences of the deterioration of the U.S. relations with Uzbekistan.

  20. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  1. Important Crustal Growth in the Phanerozoic: Isotopic Evidence of Granitoids from East-Central Asia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bor-ming Jahn; Fuyuan Wu; Dawei Hong

    2000-03-01

    The growth of the continental crust is generally believed to have been essentially completed in the Precambrian, and the amount of juvenile crust produced in the Phanerozoic is considered insignificant. Such idea of negligible growth in the Phanerozoic is now challenged by the revelation of very large volume of juvenile crust produced in the period of 500 to 100 Ma in several orogenic belts. While appreciable volumes of juvenile terranes in North America (Canadian Cordillera, Sierra Nevada and Peninsular Range, Appalachians) have been documented based on Nd isotopic data, the mass of new crust formed in the East-Central Asian Orogenic Belt (ECAOB), eastern part of the Altaid Tectonic Collage, appears to be much greater than the above terranes combined. New and published Nd-Sr isotope data indicate that the Phanerozoic granitoids from the southern belt of the ECAOB (Xinjiang-West Mongolia-Inner Mongolia-NE China) as well as from Mongolia and Transbaikalia were generated from sources dominated by a depleted mantle component. These granitoids represent a significant growth of juvenile crust in the Phanerozoic. Although most plutons in this huge orogenic belt belong to the calc-alkaline series, the ECAOB is also characterized by the emplacement of voluminous A-type granites. The origin of these rocks is probably multiple and is still widely debated. However, the isotopic data (Sr-Nd-O) and trace element abundance patterns of A-type granites from the ECAOB clearly indicate their mantle origin. The evolution of the ECAOB and the entire Altaid Collage is most likely related to successive accretion of arc complexes. However, the emplacement of a large volume of post-tectonic A-type granites requires another mechanism, probably through a series of processes including underplating of massive basaltic magma, partial melting of these basic rocks to produce granitic liquids, followed by extensive fractional crystallization. The proportion of juvenile to recycled, as well as

  2. Towards a Multi-Resolution Model of Seismic Risk in Central Asia. Challenge and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Bindi, D.; Parolai, S.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing seismic risk, defined as the probability of occurrence of economical and social losses as consequence of an earthquake, both at regional and at local scale is a challenging, multi-disciplinary task. In order to provide a reliable estimate, diverse information must be gathered by seismologists, geologists, engineers and civil authorities, and carefully integrated keeping into account the different levels of uncertainty. The research towards an integrated methodology, able to seamlessly describe seismic risk at different spatial scales is challenging, but discloses new application perspectives, particularly in those countries which suffer from a relevant seismic hazard but do not have resources for a standard assessment. Central Asian countries in particular, which exhibit one of the highest seismic hazard in the world, are experiencing a steady demographic growth, often accompanied by informal settlement and urban sprawling. A reliable evaluation of how these factors affect the seismic risk, together with a realistic assessment of the assets exposed to seismic hazard and their structural vulnerability is of particular importance, in order to undertake proper mitigation actions and to promptly and efficiently react to a catastrophic event. New strategies are needed to efficiently cope with systematic lack of information and uncertainties. An original approach is presented to assess seismic risk based on integration of information coming from remote-sensing and ground-based panoramic imaging, in situ measurements, expert knowledge and already available data. Efficient sampling strategies based on freely available medium-resolution multi-spectral satellite images are adopted to optimize data collection and validation, in a multi-scale approach. Panoramic imaging is also considered as a valuable ground-based visual data collection technique, suitable both for manual and automatic analysis. A full-probabilistic framework based on Bayes Network is proposed to

  3. Marketing patterns of agricultural commodities in an upland area of Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. van Ommeren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the uplands of Central Java a wide variety of dry cultivated crops are produced for subsistence as well as for cash. The marketing channels for these crops are also diverse. The producers can choose between selling at the market place or at their farms; either to consumers or traders; or they can sell their products to wholesalers in the towns. However, this freedom of choice is not absolute and is determined by the quantity of the merchandise. Farmers/who can sell large amounts of produce are able to bypass some steps in the hierarchical order of market places or traders. Thus, producers with relatively large farmlands can sell their commodities in more profitable ways compared to those with /smaller farms. Moreover, the latter are often forced to sell their produce below market value to traders who provided them with advance or who bought the crop before harvest (tebasan, because of their need for cash

  4. Assessment of Simulated Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation over Central Asia via Multi-Model Ensemble Means of CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Tufan Turp, M.; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we conducted a multi-model ensemble mean approach in order to investigate the projected changes in surface air temperatures and precipitation totals over Central Asia. Even though there are totally sixty seven different models of thirty modeling groups all around the world participating in the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), forty four models among them were used due to data availability. Central Asia (known as Region 8), which is one of twelve domains of the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), was chosen as a domain of study. In this respect, we focused on two distinct scenarios (i.e. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for three different future periods (i.e. 2010-2040, 2040 - 2070 and 2070 - 2100) to examine accurately the foreseen changes in two fundamental climate variables (surface air temperature and precipitation total) for the Central Asia region. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  5. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  6. 欧盟中亚政策的演变、特征与趋向%Evolution, Characteristics and Tendency of EU’s Policy towards Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚

    2016-01-01

    冷战结束后很长一段时间里,欧盟作为重要的国际力量没有出台明确的中亚战略,也并非中亚事务的积极参与者,直到2007年首份系统的中亚战略文件出台后这一情况才出现改变。从阶段上划分,欧盟中亚政策大体分为1991—2006年的认知探索期、2007—2013年的集中强化期以及2014年以来的调整提升期。从核心特征来看,欧盟中亚政策的主要实现手段是援助外交,主要目的是价值输出和利益共享,但援助工具在不同时期、对不同国家有所差别。经过20余年的发展,欧盟在中亚地区形成了一定的影响,援助政策取得了一定的效果,诸多领域的合作机制相继确立,但总体影响有限,仍然属于相关者的次要行为体。未来较长一段时期,欧盟中亚政策的调整空间不大,仍将在现有援助框架内发展与中亚国家关系。%For a long time after the end of Cold War, EU as an important international force did not unveil definite strategy on Central Asia or take an active part in the Central Asia affairs. Such condition did not change until the first document of systematic strategy on Central Asia was released. Divided in stages, EU’s policy towards Central Asia is generally divided into the cognition exploration stage during 1991-2006, concentrated consolidation stage during 2007-2013 and adjustment and improvement stage after 2014. Seen from the core characteristics, the main implementation means of EU’s policy towards Central Asia is aid diplomacy, the major objective is value output and interest sharing, but the aid tools are different in different periods and for different countries. After over 20 years of development, EU has formed certain influence in the Central Asia area, the aid policy achieved certain effects, and the cooperation mechanism is established in many fields in succession, but the overall influence is limited and it still belongs to the minor

  7. Long term spatio-temporal analyses of snow cover in Central Asia using ERA-Interim and MODIS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. P.; Zhang, W. C.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, an approach for generating a long term series of snow-cover products from 1979 to 2015 was proposed by integrating the data of ERA-Interim snow-depth and 8-day cloud-free MODIS snow-cover derived by removing cloud from MOD10A2/MYD10A2 product. On the basis of the spatio-temporal analyses and evaluation of snow-cover duration (SCD) during the hydrological year from 1979/1980 to 2014/2015 over Central Asia, the average start and melt date of snow-cover (SCS and SCM, respectively) were estimated using the long term snow-cover product. The results suggested that the snow-cover product derived by this approach is fairly satisfactory with the mean bias error (MBE) of -.55%±5.03%. The SCD, SCS and SCM all presented an apparent north-south towards gradient as long as mountainous regions and waterbodies were avoided. The mean SCD over the high-latitude and high-mountainous regions were all beyond 122 days, however, it gradually became shorter with a significant level of a < 0.05 or even a < 0.001 from 1979/1980 to 2014/2015. In contrast, the SCD over low-latitude and low-altitude regions, like Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, were evidently shorter than the former, but it became significantly longer with a significant level of a < 0.05 or even a < 0.001 in the southwestern, northern Turkmenistan and most of Uzbekistan in the same duration. Notably, most of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, where snow-cover usually appeared late and melting out early, even always stay snow-free throughout the year.

  8. Reconstruction and prediction of climate and vegetation change in the Holocene in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E I [V N Sukachev Institute of Forests, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, 50/28, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Blyakharchuk, T A, E-mail: ncheby@forest.akadem.r, E-mail: tarun5@rambler.r [Institute for Monitoring Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademichesky Prospekt 10/3, 643055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    Two quantitative methods were used to reconstruct paleoenvironments and vegetation in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia, during the Holocene. The 'biomization' method of Prentice et al (1996 Clim. Dyn. 12 185-96), applied to the surface pollen record, worked fairly well in the reconstructions of current vegetation. Applying this method to fossil pollen data, we reconstructed site paleovegetation. Our montane bioclimatic model, MontBioCliM, was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. The differences between site paleo and current climates served as past climate change scenarios. The climatic anomalies for 2020, 2050, and 2080 derived from HadCM3 A1FI and B1 of the Hadley Centre, UK, served as climate change scenarios in the 21st century. MontBioCliM was applied directly to all climate scenarios through the Holocene to map past and future mountain vegetation over the Altai-Sayan mountains. Our results suggest that the early Holocene ca 10 000 BP was cold and dry; the period between 8000 and 5300 BP was warm and moist; and the time slice ca 3200 BP was cooler and drier than the present. Using kappa statistics, we showed that the vegetation at 8000 BP and 5300 BP was similar, as was the vegetation at 10 000 BP and 3200 BP, while future vegetation was predicted to be dissimilar to any of the paleovegetation reconstructions. The mid-Holocene is frequently hypothesized to be an analog of future climate warming; however, being known as warm and moist in Siberia, the mid-Holocene climate would likely impact terrestrial ecosystems differently from the projected warm and dry mid-century climate.

  9. Influence of strong electromagnetic discharges on the dynamics of earthquakes time distribution in the Bishkek test area (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tosi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available From 08/01/1983 to 28/03/1990, at the Bishkek ElectroMagnetic (EM test site (Northern Tien Shan and Chu Valley area, Central Asia, strong currents, up to 2.5 kA, were released at a 4.5 km long electrical (grounded dipole. This area is seismically active and a catalogue with about 14100 events from 1975 to 1996 has been analyzed. The seismic catalogue was divided into three parts: 1975-1983 first part with no EM experiments, 1983-1990 second part during EM experiments and 1988-1996 after experiments part. Qualitative and quantitative time series non- linear analysis was applied to waiting times of earthquakes to the above three sub catalogue periods. The qualitative approach includes visual inspection of reconstructed phase space, Iterated Function Systems (IFS and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA. The quantitative approach followed correlation integral calculation of reconstructed phase space of waiting time distribution, with noise reduction and surrogate testing methods. Moreover the Lempel- Ziv algorithmic complexity measure (LZC was calculated. General dynamics of earthquakes’ temporal distribution around the test area, reveals properties of low dimensional non linearity. Strong EM discharges lead to the increase in extent of regularity in earthquakes temporal distribution. After cessation of EM experiments the earthquakes’ temporal distribution becomes much more random than before experiments. To avoid non valid conclusions several tests were applied to our data set: differentiation of the time series was applied to check results not affected by non stationarity; the surrogate data approach was followed to reject the hypothesis that dynamics belongs to the colored noise type. Small earthquakes, below completeness threshold, were added to the analysis to check results robustness.

  10. Estimating Spatial and Temporal Variability in Surface Kinematics of the Inylchek Glacier, Central Asia, using TerraSAR–X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Neelmeijer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use 124 scenes of TerraSAR–X data that were acquired in 2009 and 2010 to analyse the spatial and temporal variability in surface kinematics of the debris-covered Inylchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan mountain range in Central Asia. By applying the feature tracking method to the intensity information of the radar data and combining the results from the ascending and descending orbits, we derive the surface velocity field of the glaciated area. Analysing the seasonal variations over the upper part of the Southern Inylchek branch, we find a temperature-related increase in velocity from 25 cm/d up to 50 cm/d between spring and summer, with the peak occurring in June. Another prominent velocity peak is observable one month later in the lower part of the Southern Inylchek branch. This area shows generally little motion, with values of approximately 5–10 cm/d over the year, but yields surface kinematics of up to 25 cm/d during the peak period. Comparisons of the dates of annual glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs of the proglacial Lake Merzbacher suggest that this lower part is directly influenced by the drainage, leading to the observed mini-surge, which has over twice the normal displacement rate. With regard to the GLOF and the related response of Inylchek Glacier, we conclude that X–band radar systems such as TerraSAR–X have a high potential for detecting and characterising small-scale glacial surface kinematic variations and should be considered for future inter-annual glacial monitoring tasks.

  11. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  12. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns.

  13. Spatial-temporal variation of near-surface temperature lapse rates over the Tianshan Mountains, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan-Jun; Shen, Yanjun; Goetz, Jason; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Adequate estimates of near-surface temperature lapse rate (γlocal) are needed to represent air temperature in remote mountain regions with sparse instrumental records such as the mountains of central Asia. To identify the spatial and temporal variations of γlocal in the Tianshan Mountains, long-term (1961-2011) daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperature (Tmax, Tmean, and Tmin) data from 17 weather stations and 1 year of temperature logger data were analyzed considering three subregions: northern slopes, Kaidu Basin, and southern slopes. Simple linear regression was performed to identify relationships between elevation and temperature, revealing spatial and seasonal variations in γlocal. The γlocal are higher on the southern slopes than the northern slopes due to topography and regional climate conditions. Seasonally, γlocal are more pronounced higher in the summer than in the winter months. The γlocal are generally higher for Tmax than Tmean and Tmin. The Kaidu Basin shows similar seasonal variability but with the highest γlocal for Tmean and Tmin occurring in the spring. Formation of γlocal patterns is associated with the interactions of climate factors in different subregions. Overall, annual mean γlocal for Tmax, Tmean, and Tmin in the study's subregions are lower than the standard atmospheric lapse rate (6.5°C km-1), which would therefore be an inadequate choice for representing the near-surface temperature conditions in this area. Our findings highlight the importance of spatial and temporal variations of γlocal in hydrometeorological research in the data-sparse Tianshan Mountains.

  14. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF INTRACONTINENTAL AREAS: INSTRUMENTAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND DEFORMATION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Sankov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of recent geodynamics have been conducted by the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, SB RAS since 1998. Present-day crustal deformations are monitored at the geodynamic GPS polygon established by the Laboratory of Recent Geodynamics in the Mongol-Baikal region. Original methods and techniques using specialized equipment are applied to research intra-continental tectonic deformation and have already provided original scientific results. Independent data are received concerning the onset and character of processes of neotectonic activation and the state of stresses and deformation of the crust in the southern part of Siberia and in Mongolia. A model of the Late Cenozoic and contemporary geodynamics of the Mongol-Siberian mobile area is proposed. With application of GPS geodesy methods, quantitative parameters of present-day horizontal movements and deformations are determined for Central Asia and a part of the Far East at different scale levels. Present-day velocities of extension of the Baikal rift are estimated, and parameters of rotation of the Amur plate relative to Eurasia are calculated. Data on long-term and contemporary deformation are subject to comparative analyses. The Laboratory develops studies of present-day and historical seismicity in relation to processes of contemporary faulting in active tectonic zones of inter-plate boundaries and diffusive activation of subactive intraplate territories. The first results are obtained in studies of local crustal deformation by methods of satellite radar interferometry and ground polygonometry. Jointly with other institutes of SB RAS, the Laboratory conducts instrumental studies of interaction between the lithosphere and the ionosphere. Looking further ahead, the main scientific fields and prospects of the Laboratory are highlighted.  

  15. Impacts of SST Warming in tropical Indian Ocean on CMIP5 model-projected summer rainfall changes over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Huqiang

    2016-05-01

    Based on the historical and RCP8.5 experiments from 25 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) on the projected change in summer rainfall over Central Asia (CA) are investigated. The analysis is designed to answer three questions: (1) Can CMIP5 models reproduce the observed influence of the IO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the CA rainfall variations and the associated dynamical processes? (2) How well do the models agree on their projected rainfall changes over CA under warmed climate? (3) How much of the uncertainty in such rainfall projections is due to different impacts of IO SSTs in these models? The historical experiments show that in most models summer rainfall over CA are positively correlated to the SSTs in the IO. Furthermore, for models with higher rainfall-SSTs correlations, the dynamical processes accountable for such impacts are much closer to what have been revealed in observational data: warmer SSTs tend to favor the development of anti-cyclonic circulation patterns at low troposphere over north and northwest of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These anomalous circulation patterns correspond to significantly enhanced southerly flow which carries warm and moisture air mass from the IO region up to the northeast. At the same time, there is a cyclonic flow over the central and eastern part of the CA which further brings the tropical moisture into the CA and provides essential moist conditions for its rainfall generation. In the second half of twenty-first century, although all the 25 models simulate warmed SSTs, significant uncertainty exists in their projected rainfall changes over CA: half of them suggest summer rainfall increases, but the other half project rainfall decreases. However, when we select seven models out of the 25 based on their skills in capturing the dynamical processes as observed, then the model projected changes

  16. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  17. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-09-02

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia.

  18. Central Asia After 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Russia may have few other op- tions than to return to this partnership with a harder economic and security agenda. The BRIC (Brazil, Rus- sia, India...Disputes With China.” 73 55. “The Ural Summits: BRIC and the SCO,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, June 22, 2009. 56. “Naznachen novy spredstaviltel...Summits: BRIC and the SCO”; and “BRIK za ShOSom,” Rossiyskaya Gazeta, June 18, 2009, available from www. rg.ru/2009/06/18/shos.html. 60. “Iran vodyat za

  19. Structural and geochronological record of India-Asia suturing in the Lopu Kangri Range, south-central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, A. K.; Kapp, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Better constraining the geological evolution of the India-Asia suture zone is vital to our comprehension of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. This study presents new mapping, igneous U-Pb geochronology, and detrital zircon geochronology from suture zone rocks exposed in the Lopu Kangri Range. Located ~50 km NW of Saga in south-central Tibet, this range exposes a >1.5 km thick panel of suture zone architecture that was exhumed by late Cenozoic orogen-parallel extension across two N-S, moderate-angle normal faults. The Lopu Kangri Range and its surroundings expose all of the major suture-zone assemblages. In the north, Cretaceous--Eocene Gangdese arc granitoids are unconformably overlain by nonmarine, conglomerate-bearing strata of the Eocene (?)--Miocene Kailas Fm. Metaconglomerate exposed in the same structural position within the Range contains garnet porphyroblasts. Gangdese arc and metaconglomerate rocks are confined to the footwall of the north-directed Great Counter Thrust system, which carried Cretaceous-Early Eocene Xigaze forearc, suture zone mélange, and Indian passive margin (Tethyan) strata northwards across three major NE-SW fault strands during the Miocene. Tethyan strata in the Range consist of locally garnet- and sillimanite-bearing calc-gneiss and schist that display N-S stretching lineations and top-N s-c fabrics. These rocks are exposed in the southern half of the range beneath suture zone mélange in the footwall of a moderately N-dipping, normal-sense shear zone. Six detrital zircon samples from the Xigaze forearc, metaconglomerate and meta-Tethyan strata were analyzed to confirm our lithologic correlations and provenance interpretations made in the field. 12 igneous U-Pb samples were analyzed to characterize granitoids that intrude the Range. They reveal a suite of 50-40 Ma granitoids that display a general younging trend from north to south across the suture. Five samples of 35-10 Ma leucogranites contain inherited zircon cores whose age spectra

  20. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  1. From Latifundia to Central Planning and Onward to Agribusiness: A Rejoinder to Joachim Singelmann's Presidential Address on "From Central Planning to Markets"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelenyi, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's rejoinder to Joachim Singelmann's presidential address on "From Central Planning to Markets." Joachim Singelmann in his presidential address challenged the received wisdom: socialism was doomed to fail; during the market transition all of its basic institutions had to be abolished and replaced by the…

  2. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  3. Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jihyung Hong,1 Diego Novick,1 Tamás Treuer,2 William Montgomery,3 Virginia S Haynes,4 Shenghu Wu,5 Josep Maria Haro61Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, US; 5Eli Lilly China, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 6Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD from Central Europe and East Asia.Patients and methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and East Asia. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE. Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI, changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE.Results: Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in East Asia were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from East Asia was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In East Asia, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional

  4. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components

  5. Multi-Layer Strain Rate Field Controlled by Netlike Plastic-Flow in the Lithosphere in Central-Eastern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sheng-zu

    2006-01-01

    According to the "Netlike Plastic-Flow (NPF)" continental dynamics model, the transition of the deformation regime from brittle in shallow layers to ductile in deep layers in the lithosphere, and the controlling effect of NPF in the lower lithosphere result in intraplate multilayer tectonic deformation. NPF is a viscous (plastic) flow accompanied by shear strain localization, forming a plastic-flow network in the lower lithosphere. The strain rates in the seismogenic layer can be estimated using the "earthquake-recurrence-interval" method, in which the strain rate is calculated in terms of the recurrence interval of two sequential carthquakes and the seismic probability of the second earthquake. The strains in the lower lithosphere are estimated using the "conjugate-angle" method, which takes the relationship between the conjugate angles and the compressive strains of the network, and calculates the characteristic strain rates in this layer from the strains and the durations of deformation inferred. The contour map of characteristic maximum principal compressive strain rates in the lower lithosphere in central-eastern Asia given in the paper shows strain rates with magnitudes on the order of 10-15 ~ 10-14/s in this region. The strain rates within the plastic-flow belts,which control seismic activities in the seismogenic layer, are greater than the characteristic strain rates of the network and, in addition, the strain rates and seismic activities in the seismogenic layer are also influenced by other factors, including the directive action of driving boundary along the upper crust, the effects of plastic-flow waves and the existence of the transitional weak layer distributed discontinuously between the upper and lower layers. The comparison between the strain rates in the seismogenic layer and the characteristic strain rates in the lower lithosphere for 11 potential hypocenter areas in the region from the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau to the North China plain

  6. The value of snow cover maps for hydrological model calibration in snow dominated catchments in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duethmann, Doris; Güntner, Andreas; Peters, Juliane; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the value of snow cover data in addition to discharge data for the calibration of a hydrological model in six headwater catchments of the Karadarya basin, Central Asia. If a hydrological model is to be used for the investigation of potential impacts of climate change, it is important that also internal variables are simulated correctly. Snow melt is of particular relevance, as it is probably the most important runoff generation process in these catchments. The study investigates whether there is a trade-off between good simulations with respect to discharge and with respect to snow cover area. Furthermore, we are interested in the information content of snow cover data, i.e. how many snow cover images would be sufficient for effective calibration of a hydrological model. As suitable precipitation data for the study area are only available up to 1990, MODIS snow cover data could not be used and we instead resorted to AVHRR data. Processing of the AVHRR snow cover data is time consuming, because georeferencing has to be performed manually. If only few images could already exclude parameter sets resulting in low model performance with respect to snow cover area, this would be a very valuable piece of information. In order to investigate this, a varying number of snow cover images is used for model calibration within a Monte-Carlo framework, and the effect on model performance with respect to snow cover area in the validation period is evaluated. The selected study period is 1986-1989, in which both AVHRR data and other input data are available. It is split into two parts with up to around 20 snow cover scenes for model calibration and about the same number for model validation. In most of the catchments we found only a small trade-off between good simulations with respect to discharge and with respect to snow cover area, but if the parameters were selected based on the discharge objective function only, this could also include

  7. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  8. Comparison of Source Time Functions Retrieved from Various Regional Waves and Coda Using Moderate Earthquakes in East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Torpey, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Source time functions may vary with various P and S wave types. Regional Lg waves have been used to estimate radiated energy and apparent stress. In nuclear explosion seismology, the practice of discriminating Earthquake and explosions using regional wave spectra and spectral ratios relies on a fundamental assumption that Earthquakes and explosions excite various regional waves in a systematically-different manner. We have been carrying out a systematic study to retrieve source time functions (STFs) from seismic sources using the empirical Green's function (EGF) approach. In phase 1 of the study, we focus on retrieving STFs from moderate earthquakes in east and central Asia using regional Lg, Pg, Lg coda, and Sn and Pn waves to see whether or not the shape of the STFs varies with the wave type. We explored various methods to reduce the noise in the deconvolved STFs which tend to be higher for the relatively weaker Pg, Sn, Pn and coda waves. For example, an array-stacking method is used to enhance source pulses and reduce the level of side-lobes. Preliminary results suggest that Lg and Lg coda STFs may be similar, as generally believed. Pg STF is less similar to Lg STF. For example, when a stacked Lg STF is clearly asymmetric with a sharp-rise time, the stack Pg STF seems to be fairly symmetric. In general, our confidence on this kind of dissimilarity is still limited by the non-diminishing deconvolution noise in the retrieved Pg STFs, and by the small number of events studied. We are trying to further reduce the deconvolution noise for each regional wave, and find and analyze more moderate events. We will present newly-retrieved STFs from each of the various regional waves and coda, and compare the pulse widths and shapes of the STFs from different waves. We will also present estimates of source-radiated energy and apparent stresses using the estimated Lg STFs without using various simplified source models and Q corrections.

  9. Water Productivity Mapping (WPM Using Landsat ETM+ Data for the Irrigated Croplands of the Syrdarya River Basin in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabirjan Isaev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this paper was to espouse methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM using high spatial resolution Landsat remote sensing data. In a world where land and water for agriculture are becoming increasingly scarce, growing “more crop per drop” (increasing water productivity becomes crucial for food security of future generations. The study used time-series Landsat ETM+ data to produce WPMs of irrigated crops, with emphasis on cotton in the Galaba study area in the Syrdarya river basin of Central Asia. The WPM methods and protocols using remote sensing data consisted of: (1 crop productivity (ton/ha maps (CPMs involvingcrop type classification, crop yield and biophysical modeling, and extrapolating yield models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2 crop water use (m3/ha maps (WUMs (or actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET developed through Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB model; and (3 water productivity (kg/m3 maps (WPMs produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs. The SSEB model calculated WUMs (actual ET by multiplying the ET fractionby reference ET. The ETfraction was determined using Landsat thermal imagery by selecting the “hot” pixels (zero ET and “cold” pixels (maximum ET. The grass reference ET was calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data. The WPMs for the Galaba study area demonstrated a wide variations (0-0.54 kg/m3 in water productivity of cotton fields with overwhelming proportion (87% of the area having WP less than 0.30 kg/m3, 11% of the area having WP in range of 0.30-0.36 kg/m3, and only 2% of the area with WP greater than 0.36 kg/m3. These results clearly imply that there are opportunities for significant WP increases in overwhelming proportion of the existing croplands. The areas of low WP are spatially pin-pointed and can be used as focus for WP improvements

  10. Inorganic nitrogen leaching from organic and conventional rice production on a newly claimed calciustoll in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21-42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32-0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21-0.34 kg N Mg(-1) rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be maintained.

  11. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.

  12. Historical Influences and a Modern Alternative for Leadership Models in Central Asia = Orta Asya'da Liderlik Modellerinde Tarihsel Etkiler ve Modern Alternatifler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael COX

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1991 demise of the Soviet Union that led to the emancipation of many Central Asian states, also led to a grab for power by a variety of leadership types. Although the characteristics of leadership types in the 1990s were diverse, few followed the pattern of Samuel Huntington's Third Wave of authoritarian transition, whereby authoritarian regimes were abandoned in favor of democratically elected and democratically oriented governments. Historically, Eurasia has had little experience with popular government. This is reflected in the general characteristics of leadership types in the post-Soviet era, which closely follow three regional historical influences - the early Islamic Emperors, the Mongolian Khans and the Russian Tsars (and later Soviet leaders. This article examines the historic influences on Eurasian leadership types and the impact of these types on the politics, societies and economies of these same states. It will be argued that at the current stage of political development, it would ultimately benefit the states of Central Asia to follow, at this time, the most successful Eurasian model to date, that of Kemal Atatürk and Turkey, rather than to push for a fully participatory democracy or sustain the post-Soviet personal dictatorships that have prospered throughout Central Asia.

  13. Legislative and policy analysis of HIV prevention, treatment and care for people who use drugs and incarcerated people in Central Asia and Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozac, David; Elliott, Richard

    2011-04-01

    In January 2011, the Regional Office for Central Asia of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released an extensive report assessing the legislative and policy environment affecting the response to HIV in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The report, which draws in part upon the work of a national expert group in each country, puts forward dozens of recommendations for legislative and policy reform, including recommendations for specific reform tailored to the situation in each of the participating countries, with a particular focus on addressing the fast-growing HIV epidemic linked to injection drug use and in prisons.

  14. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles-Evidence from China's Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China's stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank's policymaking.

  15. Commercialization and marketing of non-wood forest products in Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of return to nature and its original values is increasingly common worldwide in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. In this context, it is particularly important to pay attention to organic products, as well as the increased demand for healthy food. In these circumstances non-wood forest products (NWFPs emerge as forestry products that meet the criteria of organic farming and as such are placed on the market. The aim of this research was to acquire knowledge about the behavior of the marketing mix elements of NWFPs in Central Serbia in the period from 2007 to 2011. The purpose of this paper was to point to the opportunities for the development of enterprises, and the overall potential of Serbia for the development of companies engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs. The research object were the quantities of products purchased and placed on both domestic and foreign markets, the types of promotional activities, the prices of final products and distribution of the products among the enterprises engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs in Central Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji

  16. COUNTRIES’ SUSTAINABILITY TO ECONOMIC SHOCKS: THE STUDY OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturas Jurgelevicius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze economic “shock” impact on Central and Eastern European countries’ sustainable economic development. Design/methodology/approach – Statistical data has been analyzed and sustainability theory has been applied to Central and Eastern European countries during economic downturn 2008 – 2012. Findings – Findings suggest that commonly used macroeconomic indicators do not reflect stable social economic development. Moreover, usually high economic growth during economic cycle is determent by high level of recession in economic cycle. This finding suggests that investors and other financial decision makers should take into account the sustainability of economic performance before taking financial decisions so that during financial economic recession could mitigate risks and loses in Central and Eastern European markets. Also the impact of intangible capital on countries’ sustainability was identified. There is a relationship between social and economic sustainability and intangible capital. Research limitations/implications – Research is applied in the theory of sustainable economic development. The economic and social performance is being considered in the research. Although the concept of sustainable economic development is quite controversial in scientific literature, the aspects of economic and social indicators are taken into account not considering much of ecological aspects of sustainable development. The research logic is based on sustainability as constant and smooth social and economic development than the development through natural limitations and human being needs combinations. Practical implications – Practical implications might be broad enough. Identification of reaction of economies to natural economic “shock” during economic downturn might be applied for governments decision makers, investors, banks, exporters to evaluate future economic financial decisions in Eastern and Central European

  17. Islamic Influence in Central Asia and China in Central Asia Energy Cooperation deal with Initiatives —— for Example XIE Wen-xin%伊斯兰在中亚的影响及中国在中亚能源合作中的应对举措——以土耳其、伊朗为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文心

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, regardless of geographical loca tion or its rich oil and gas reserves have become an important stage of the game in countries and various interest groups, the influence of the religion of Islam which has traditional strengths in the region can not be ignored . This paper attempts to the most typical of Islamic Turkey and Iran's influence in Central Asia and the penetration analy sis, in order to make some comments on China in Central Asia's energy cooperation, it is recommended.%中亚地处欧亚大陆腹地,无论地缘位置还是其丰富的油气储备都成为各国及各种利益集团博弈的重要舞台,这其中具有传统优势的伊斯兰教对该地区的影响力是不容忽视的。本文试图通过对伊斯兰国家中最具典型的土耳其与伊朗在中亚的影响与渗透进行分析,以期对中国在中亚的能源合作中的对策提出一些意见、建议。

  18. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  19. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  20. E-business and its Application in Conditions of Central European Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Tolga Saruc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is highlighting possibilities in effective utilization of Information and Communication Technologies for supporting entrepreneurship (e-business for Small and Medium enterprises. The core research carried on for duration of twelve months covered analysis and following presentation of possibilities of practical utilization of e-business applications. Furthermore research was oriented towards innovative forms of marketing communication in Real Corporation conducting business in Central European market. Analyzing data on collected findings can add value towards gaining a significant competitive advantage in form of better understanding of real facts influencing entrepreneurship in principle. This can lead consequently to positive influence on corporate effectiveness in the environment of Small and Medium enterprises.

  1. Contributing to Sustainable Mountain Development by Facilitating Networking and Knowledge Sharing through ICT - Collaboration between Rocky Mountain States and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights new opportunities for sharing knowledge and networking through the use of information and communication technologies to better contribute to Sustainable Mountain Development and Millennium Development Goals. It analyzes current challenges in mountain countries in Central Asia where political instability and weak governance, in addition to their challenging natural conditions, constitute major constraints for peoples’ lives. The authors examine possible ways to tackle the major obstacles through IT-enabled knowledge sharing and networking. They discuss a number of collaborative initiatives between Rocky Mountain States in the United States and mountain nations in Central Asia aimed at promoting the values of a democratic society and good governance through networking between educators, legislators. Also, these initiatives are aimed at fostering critical thinking through independent e-media. Based on the analysis, they suggest further ways in facilitating networking and knowledge sharing for Sustainable Mountain Development through the use of information and communication technologies by joining the efforts of all active players and also eliciting more contribution from the mountainous communities of the United States.

  2. Alteration in the etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions in the last decade; a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A Majzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile fracture is a well-recognized, relatively uncommon medical condition and its etiology differs according to geographic area. In this review article, we evaluated literature reported in the past decade, aiming to verify whether there has been any change in the etiology of this condition. A literature review was done for studies published in the past 10 years and focusing on the etiology of penile fracture. Inclusion criteria comprised articles in English language, of sample size more than 10 patients and originating from the Middle East and Central Asia. Data relating to the studied population, etiology of penile fracture, clinical presentation, investigations, management, and outcome was analyzed. One thousand six hundred and twenty-nine patients from 21 original articles were included in the study. The mean age ΁ standard deviation of the patients was 33.3 ΁ 3.23 years. Etiologies of penile fracture were vigorous sexual intercourse, manual bending of erect penis, vigorous masturbation, rolling over in bed and blunt trauma in 41%, 29%, 10%, 14% and 6% patients, respectively. Treatment choices were surgery and conservative, in 1580 (95%, 83 (5% patients, respectively. A higher incidence of complications was found in conservatively treated patients. As a conclusion, in the last 10 years, vigorous sexual intercourse was the commonest etiology of penile fracture in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. Surgery remains the preferred treatment option for patients diagnosed with penile fracture.

  3. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  4. 丝绸之路经济带与中亚发展%The Silk Road Economic Belt and Central Asia Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卡什巴耶夫·卡尤哈克; 塔季扬娜·费利波娃

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current state and prospects of economic cooperation between China and the central Asia countries, especially the corporation between China and Kazakhstan, and points out the differences between the old Silk Road and modern Silk Road economic belt which is built under complicated conditions. The tremendous program of Silk Road economic belt covers quite a few areas, including the northwest provinces of China, central Asia, Caucasus and central and east Europe. It concludes that the world is no longer single-polarized and the multi-polarization has intensified the competitions between leading countries of global economy, such as the United States of America, China, Russia and the European Union.%该文分析出中国与中亚国家之间经济合作的现状和前景,重点探讨了中国与哈萨克斯坦之间的合作,并指出古丝绸之路与现代复杂条件下建立的丝绸之路经济带新格局之间的差异.丝绸之路经济带这一新的经济巨型项目,包括许多区域——中国西北部省份,中亚、高加索和欧洲中东部.该文得出结论:世界不再单极化,多极化加剧了全球经济主导国家之间的竞争,诸如美国、中国、俄罗斯,也包括欧盟在内.

  5. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  6. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  7. Unification of South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    Asia: for example, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christians. The Hindus are the descendants of the Aryans, nomadic people of Central Asia who... traditions . There are hundred thousands of people from Bangladesh who have, illegally, crossed over to India, over the years in pursuit of a better economic...festival of Urns. Such tradition is believed common even at the few Muslim ’dargahs’ at Priol Ponda and Cuncolim." "Prof Robert S. Newman, a

  8. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia.

  9. La posición energética de China en Asia Central ante la pérdida progresiva de influencia de Rusia: consecuencias para los intereses de la UE

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc-Altemir, A. (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    Durante los últimos años, China está reforzando sus posiciones en Asia Central con el objetivo primordial de diversificar sus fuentes de suministro de hidrocarburos. Tanto el petróleo kazajo, como el gas turkmeno se han constituido como factores muy relevantes para incrementar la seguridad energética china. Esta progresiva presencia de China en Asia Central coincide con una pérdida, también progresiva, de la influencia de Rusia en la región centroasiática. Hasta el momento, la presencia de...

  10. Ekonomik Büyümenin Belirleyicileri ve 2008 Krizi: Orta Asya Ülkeleri ve Türkiye Ekonomisi İçin Panel Veri Analizi(The Determinats of Economic Growth and 2008 Crisis: Panel Data Analysis for Central Asia Countries and Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MERCAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the determinants of economic growth and the effects of 2008 global economic crisis on growth were analysed by using 1990-2012 periods’ annual data in the sample of Turkey and Central Asia Countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The 2008 crisis started in the USA in mid-2008 in mortgage markets and also affected the financial markets and the reel sector and it spread all over European Countries (EU and the world from September 2008 and it caused a shrink in world economy by 2.3 % and distorted the macroeconomic balances of countries including in particular the economic growth. According to the empirical findings of the analysis the government expenditures, the export and the private consumption expenditure in order made the most contribution to the countries’ economic growth. Effect of the crisis on economic growth was negative and statistically significant.

  11. Effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance in a data-scarce glacierized catchment in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, L.; Knoche, M.; Dietrich, J.; Merz, R.

    2016-06-01

    Glacierized high-mountainous catchments are often the water towers for downstream region, and modeling these remote areas are often the only available tool for the assessment of water resources availability. Nevertheless, data scarcity affects different aspects of hydrological modeling in such mountainous glacierized basins. On the example of poorly gauged glacierized catchment in Central Asia, we examined the effects of input discretization, model complexity, and calibration strategy on model performance. The study was conducted with the GSM-Socont model driven with climatic input from the corrected High Asia Reanalysis data set of two different discretizations. We analyze the effects of the use of long-term glacier volume loss, snow cover images, and interior runoff as an additional calibration data. In glacierized catchments with winter accumulation type, where the transformation of precipitation into runoff is mainly controlled by snow and glacier melt processes, the spatial discretization of precipitation tends to have less impact on simulated runoff than a correct prediction of the integral precipitation volume. Increasing model complexity by using spatially distributed input or semidistributed parameters values does not increase model performance in the Gunt catchment, as the more complex model tends to be more sensitive to errors in the input data set. In our case, better model performance and quantification of the flow components can be achieved by additional calibration data, rather than by using a more distributed model parameters. However, a semidistributed model better predicts the spatial patterns of snow accumulation and provides more plausible runoff predictions at the interior sites.

  12. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  13. Effect of TV and radio family planning messages on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim; Zainiddinov, Hakim

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of family planning message broadcast on radio and TV on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia. Viewing family planning messages on TV improves the chances of using modern contraception for a woman who actually saw the messages by about 11 and 8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. If every woman in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had an opportunity to watch a family planning message on TV, then the likelihood of using modern contraception would have improved by 10 and 7 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. By contrast, the effect of hearing family planning messages on radio is not significant in both countries. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  15. Holocene climate changes in the central Asia mountain region inferred from a peat sequence from the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Meyers, Philip A.; Liu, Xingtu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xuehui; Li, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Wen, Bolong

    2016-11-01

    A continuous peat sequence collected in the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang Province, northwestern China, provides a new opportunity to reconstruct the Holocene climate history in the arid central mountain region of Asia. Based on AMS 14C dating, high resolution records of the humification degree and n-alkane distributions reveal that the region experienced a relatively warm and dry early Holocene (10.0-8.0 ka) and a cold and wet early mid-Holocene (8.0-6.3 ka), followed by a warm and dry mid-Holocene (6.3-5.5 ka). A shift to cold and wet conditions occurred between 5.5 and 4.0 ka, and then the climate entered into a warmer period from 4.0 to 2.5 ka. In the late Holocene (2.5-1.0 ka), the region experienced a colder and wetter climate. A gradual shift to warm and dry conditions occurred during the last 1.0 ky in this region. The regional climate patterns have been generally dominated by alternations of warm-dry and cold-wet episodes during the Holocene that were quite different from the warm-wet and cool-dry episodes in the Asian summer monsoon region. Regional comparisons indicate that the climate changes in arid central Asia have been mainly influenced by the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) via the westerlies. However, owing to the mountainous character of the study areas, glacial meltwater, and other local factors, the climate changes in the Altai Mountains region have not always been concordant with variations of North Atlantic Ocean SSTs. We postulate that the history of moisture balance between regional precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, and evaporation has been modulated by air temperatures that were mainly influenced by changes in the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere.

  16. Projected changes in temperature and precipitation climatology of Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated projected future changes in seasonal mean air temperature (°C) and precipitation (mm/day) climatology for the three periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100, with respect to the control period of 1971-2000 for the Central Asia domain via regional climate model simulations. In order to investigate the projected changes in near future climate conditions, the Regional Climate Model, RegCM4.3.5 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was driven by two different CMIP5 global climate models. The HadGEM2-ES global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and the MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of the Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model projects relatively high warming in the warm season with a decrease in precipitation in almost all parts of the domain. A warming trend is notable, especially for the northern part of the domain during the cold season. The results of our study show that surface air temperatures in the region will increase between 3 °C and about 7 °C on average, according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2071-2100 with respect to past period of 1971-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation might adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment.

  17. Hidrocarburos en Kazajastán: nuevas realidades y enfoques para el estudio de las relaciones energéticas de Asia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurèlia Mañé Estrada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1994 se ha hablado mucho acerca del potencial de las antiguas repúblicas soviéticas de Asia Central, como exportadoras de hidrocarburos. Sin embargo, como se argumentará en el artículo, la mayoría de los análisis se basan en dos premisas obsoletas: a que las relaciones energéticas son como las que el paradigma energético dicotómico (PED describe - Los países productores frente a países consumidores-, y b que la función y los objetivos de los países productores en la economía mundial siguen siendo los mismos que en la década de 1970.Después de explicar por qué han quedado obsoletas estas premisas, el objetivo del artículo es triple: a mostrar por qué los hidrocarburos de Asia Central constituyen un nuevo tipo de caso de estudio en la economía mundial contemporánea; b describir la realidad de las relaciones energéticas en Kazajastán y cuál podría ser el futuro modelo de alianzas con el mundo de la Compañías Petroleras Internacionales (IOC y Nacionales (NOC, tanto de países consumidores y productores, e c inferir de este caso de estudio algunos de los elementos constitutivos de un nuevo paradigma energético-más centrado en la idea de estructura de governanza que en el PED.

  18. An 800-year record of atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb in central Asia in high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungmin; Lee, Khanghyun; Hou, Shugui; Hur, Soon Do; Ren, Jiawen; Burn, Laurie J; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2009-11-01

    As, Mo, Sn, and Sb have been determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) in 143 depth intervals of high-altitude ice cores from Mt. Everest, covering an 800-year time period from 1205 to 2002 AD. The results clearly demonstrate the long-term historical record of atmospheric transport and deposition of As, Mo, Sn, and Sb that has prevailed at high altitudes in the central Himalayas. Natural contributions, mainly from mineral dust, have dominated the atmospheric cycles of As, Mo, Sn, and to some extent Sb during the 700 years prior to the 20th century. Compared to those of the pre-1900 period, pronounced increases of both concentrations and crustal enrichment factors are observed since the 1970s, with the highest increase factor for Sn and the lowest for As. Such increases are attributed to anthropogenic emissions of these elements, largely from stationary fossil fuel combustion and nonferrous metals production, particularly in India. Our central Himalayan ice core record provides an explicit recognition of rising atmospheric As, Mo, Sn, and Sb pollution in response to rapid economic growth in central Asia.

  19. THE DEEP STRUCTURE AND PALEOGEODYNAMICS OF SIBERIA AND CENTRAL ASIA IN STUDIES OF THE INSTITUTE OF THE EARTH’S CRUST, SB RAS (2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Gladkochub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The deep structure and paleogeodynamics of the Siberian craton and the Central Asian folded belt are studied by two specialized laboratories of the Institute of the Earth’s Crust, SB RAS – the Laboratory of Complex Geophysics and the Laboratory of Paleogeodynamics. A variety of modern geophysical methods is applied. Surface wave tomography is focused on determination of 3D velocity structure of the upper mantle. Seismic, gravimetric and electrical surveys are aimed at stu­dies of structures of the crust and the upper mantle. Geothermic parameters of the lithosphere in Central Asia are measured. In search for mineral resources, new geophysical prospecting technologies are developed. Quality paleogeodynamics reconstructions require a proper understanding of the structural evolution of the Siberian craton and the Central Asian folded belt. Researches in this scientific field are conducted by the Laboratory of Paleogeodynamics. Besides, the Laboratory studies new minerals and conditions of their formation. Some of the scientific research projects are jointly implemented by the two laboratories, and research results are regularly published in Russia and abroad.  

  20. The influence of Late Pleistocene geomorphological inheritance and Holocene hydromorphic regimes on floodwater farming in the Talgar catchment, southeast Kazakhstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Chang, Claudia; Tourtellotte, Perry A.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Wang, Hong; Prins, Maarten A.

    2015-12-01

    In comparison to Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming in Central Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a multi-disciplinary research project was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken investigations of Holocene human adaptations to changing hydromorphic regimes in the Tien Shan piedmont region, Central Asia. Fluvial geochronologies have been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years using Optically Stimulated Luminescence and 14C dating, and are compared with human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the medieval period. Phases of Late Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradation at c. 17,400-6420, 4130-2880 and 910-500 cal. BC and between the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were coeval with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes. Entrenchment and floodplain soil development (c. 2880-2490 cal. BC and cal. AD 1300-1640) coincided with warmer and drier conditions. Prior to the modern period, floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400 cal. BC - cal. AD 1) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds. This period of agricultural expansion corresponds to a phase of reduced flooding, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan Mountains. Late Iron age agriculturists appear to have been opportunistic by exploiting a phase of moderate flows within an alluvial fan environment, which contained a series of partially entrenched distributary channels that could be easily 'engineered' to facilitate floodwater farming. Holocene climate change was therefore not a proximate cause for the development and demise of this relatively short-lived (c. 200 years) period of Iron Age farming. River dynamics in the Tien Shan piedmont are

  1. A survey of East Palaearctic-Lycosidae (Araneae). 10. Three new Pardosa species from the mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusik, Yuri M; Nadolny, Anton A; Omelko, Mikhail M

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Pardosa, P. svatoni sp. n. (dy, SE Kazakhstan), P. fengisp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) and P lii sp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) are described and illustrated. The two former species cannot be placed in any species group. Pardosa lii sp. n. belongs to the P. wagleri species group. It is compared with P. italica Tongiorgi, 1966, whose embolic division has not previously been illustrated.

  2. The Incremental Marketization and Centralization of State Control of Public Higher Education: A Hermeneutic Interpretation of Legislative and Administrative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford P. Harbour

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author reports on an analysis and interpretation of institutional accountability legislation enacted by the Colorado General Assembly from 1985 to 2005. The method of inquiry for the study was grounded in the principles of hermeneutics and narrative policy analysis. Analysis and interpretation of legislative and administrative texts reveal how they rationalize marketized higher education and centralized state control of public colleges and universities. This interpretation also explains how a new integrated funding and accountability framework creates de facto institutional missions validated by marketization and secured by centralization of state control.

  3. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets.

  4. Bear Market Coercion: Russian Use of Energy as a Coercive Tool in Central Asia and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    411en_US,1,9&docsInCategory=8 &csi=6742&docNo=3 (accessed May 3, 2009). Krugman , Paul , and Maurice Obstfeld. International Economics. 4th ed...34 In CIA - The World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kz.html (accessed April 6, 2009). Kennedy, Paul M

  5. The fog problem in Central Asia - Deficiencies in international community research to support water and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froebrich, J.; Wegerich, K.

    2007-01-01

    Central Asian water planning following international policy recommendations and `blue prints¿ has caused more harm rather than benefiting local communities. International research has not been sufficient to contribute in practical terms to water and food security. This paper reflects potential facto

  6. Reconstruction of Pleistocene Paleo-Hydrology and Climate Variations in Western Asia as Recorded in Speleothems from West-Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehterian, S.; Pourmand, A.; Sharifi, A.; Lahijani, H. A. K.; Naderi, M.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Extending from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the northwest Indian Ocean and modern Iran, West Asia represents one of the most climatically dynamic regions in the northern hemisphere. The regional climate of West Asia is governed by interactions between the mid-latitude Westerlies, the Siberian Anticyclone and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon. In recent years, sparse records of Pleistocene climate variability have emerged from cave deposits (speleothems) in East Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Mediterranean. However, there remains a large gap in our understanding of abrupt and long-term climate variability in this region. We present for the first time δ18O data from speleothem and water samples that were collected from two cave systems in west-central Iran at similar latitudes, 60km apart: Qaleh Kord Cave (QKC, 35°47'50"N, 48°51'25"E) and Kataleh Khor Cave (KKC, 35°50'09"N, 48°09'41"E). U-Th geochronometry in two stalagmites from QKC yielded ages that range from 73,000 to 118,000 years B.P. Likewise, two stalagmites dated from KKC yielded ages 214,000-260,000 years B.P. and 300,000-500,000 years B.P. The analysis of additional speleothems from these caves should help to establish a continuous half million year multi-proxy record of δ18O variations, trace metal composition (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca), and radiogenic Sr isotopes in these cave systems. High-resolution δ18O analyses of QKC stalagmites show patterns of variation that can be attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and 5b. Since both these caves sit at relatively high elevations (QKC: 2,160 masl, KKC: 1,695 masl) far from major seas (1,100km from Mediterranean Sea, 1,500km from North Indian Ocean), this record potentially reflects the synoptic interactions between the Westerlies and the Siberian Anticyclone during this time interval, as opposed to direct variations caused by sea level fluctuations. Measurements of drip water composition and modern environmental parameters (temperature, relative

  7. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex.We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics.Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants.Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  8. Mongolians in the Genetic Landscape of Central Asia: Exploring the Genetic Relations among Mongolians and Other World Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissenden, Jane E; Kidd, Judith R; Evsanaa, Baigalmaa; Togtokh, Ariunaa J; Pakstis, Andrew J; Friedlaender, Françoise; Kidd, Kenneth K; Roscoe, Janet M

    2015-04-01

    Genetic data on North and Central Asian populations are underrepresented in the literature, especially for autosomal markers. In the present study we used 812 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across all the human autosomes and extensively studied at Yale to examine the affinities of two recently collected samples of populations: rural and cosmopolitan Mongolians from Ulaanbaatar and nomadic, Turkic-speaking Tsaatan from Mongolia near the Siberian border. We compare these two populations with each other and with a global set of populations and discuss their relationships to New World populations. Specifically, we analyze data on 521 autosomal loci (single SNPs and multi-SNP haplotypes) studied in 57 populations representing all the major geographical regions of the world. We conclude that these North and Central Asian populations are genetically distinct from all other populations in our study and may be close to the ancestral lineage leading to the New World populations.

  9. TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA AND CENTRAL ASIA IN THE CONTEXT FORMATION OF TRANS-EURASIAN TRANSPORT CORRIDORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In accordance with its economic interests, China advances coherent policy for development of transport infrastructure both on its own territory and in neighbouring countries. Throughout the last two decades it facilitated the widening trade activity and broader economic cooperation between Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Central Asian states. Its further development foresees a network of Trans-Eurasian links, which will connect China not only with all nearby countries, but with European region as well.

  10. Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central Tien Shan, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Glacioclimatological research in the central Tien Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central Tien Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the Tien Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in Tien Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Water resources in Central Asia - status quo and future conflicts in transboundary river catchments - the example of the Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Michael; Opp, Christian; Kulmatov, Rashid; Normatov, Inom; Stulina, Galina; Shermatov, Nurmakhmad

    2014-05-01

    Water is the most valuable resource in Central Asia and due to its uneven distribution and usage among the countries of the region it is also the main source of tension between upstream and downstream water users. Due to the rapidly shrinking glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alai mountains, the available water resources will, by 2030, be 30% lower than today while the water demand of the growing economies will increase by 30%. This will further aggravate the pressure on the water resources and increase the water deficit caused by an unsustainable water use and political agendas. These challenges can only be overcome by an integrated water resource management for the important transboundary river catchments. The basis for such an IWRM approach however needs to be a solid data base about the status quo of the water resources. To that end the research presented here provides a detailed overview of the transboundary Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan), the lifeline for more than 6 mln people. The Zarafshan River is well suited for this as it is not only one of the most important rivers in Central Asia but because the public availability of hydrological and ecological data is very limited, Furthermore the catchment is characterized by the same imbalances in the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus as most river systems in that region, which makes the Zarafshan a perfect model river for Central Asia as a whole. The findings presented here are based on field measurements, existing data from the national hydrometeorological services and an extensive literature analysis and cover the status quo of the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Zarafshan as well as the most important water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, arsenic, chromate, copper, zinc, fluoride, petroleum products, phenols and the aquatic invertebrate fauna). The hydrology of the Zarafshan is characterized by a high natural discharge dynamic in the mountainous upper parts of

  12. Simulated Future Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology in the Central Asia Cordex Region 8 BY Using RegCM 4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2071-2100 in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology and variability over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. Hadley Global Environment Model 2 (HadGEM2) of the Met Office Hadley Centre was downscaled for the Cordex Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by usingtwo different emission scenario datasets for three future periods. The regional model is capable of reproducing the observed climate with few exceptions, which are due to the meteorological and physical geographical complexities of the domain. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation amounts almost all part of the domain. The results of our study showed that surface air temperatures in the region will increase from 3° C up to more than 7° C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. In the future, a decrease in the amount of precipitation is also predicted for the region. The projected warming and decrease in precipitation for the domain may strongly affect the ecological and socio-economic systems including agriculture, natural biomes, hydrology and water resources of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  13. Monitoring of vegetation condition using the NDVI/ENSO anomalies in Central Asia and their relationships with ONI (very strong) phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Toderich, Kristina; Jarihani, Ben; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2016-10-01

    An investigation of temporal dynamics of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and spatial patterns of dryness/wetness period over arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia and their relationship with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values (1982-2011) have explored in this article. For identifying periodical oscillations and their relationship with NDVI values have selected El Nino 3.4 index and thirty years of new generation bi-weekly NDVI 3g acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellites time-series data. Based on identification ONI (Oceanic Nino Index) is a very strong El Nino (warm) anomalies observed during 1982-1983, 1997-1998 and very strong La Nino (cool) period events have observed 1988-1989 years. For correlation these two factors and seeking positive and negative trends it has extracted from NDVI time series data as "low productivity period" following years: 1982-1983, 1997 -1998; and as "high productivity period" following years: 1988 -1989. Linear regression observed warm events as moderate phase period selected between moderate El Nino (ME) and NDVI with following periods:1986-1987; 1987-1988; 1991-1992; 2002-2003; 2009-2010; and moderate La Niña (ML) periods and NDVI (1998-1999; 1999-2000; 2007-2008) which has investigated a spatial patterns of wetness conditions. The results indicated that an inverse relationship between very strong El Nino and NDVI, decreased vegetation response with larger positive ONI value; and direct relationship between very strong La Niña and NDVI, increased vegetation response with smaller negative ONI value. Results assumed that significant impact of these anomalies influenced on vegetation productivity. These results will be a beneficial for efficient rangeland/grassland management and to propose drought periods for assessment and reducing quantity of flocks' due to a lack of fodder biomass for surviving livestock flocks on upcoming years in rangelands. Also results demonstrate

  14. Spatio-temporal development of high-mountain lakes in the headwaters of the Amu Darya River (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Müller, Johannes P.; Schneider, Jean F.

    2013-08-01

    The sources of the Amu Darya, one of the major Central Asian rivers draining to the Aral Sea, are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. There, climate change and the resulting retreat of glaciers have led to the formation of numerous new glacial lakes. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes (erosion lakes) or retained by block or debris dams (e.g., Lake Sarez). A multi-temporal lake inventory is prepared and analysed, based on remotely sensed data. Corona images from 1968 are used as well as more up-to-date ASTER and Landsat 7 scenes. 1642 lakes are mapped in total, 652 out of them are glacial lakes. 73% of all lakes are located above 4000 m a.s.l. Glacial lakes, abundant in those areas where glacier tongues retreat over flat or moderately steep terrain, have experienced a significant growth, even though changes are often superimposed by short-term fluctuations. The analysis results also indicate a shifting of the growth of glacial lakes from the south western Pamir to the central and northern Pamir during the observation period. This trend is most likely associated with more elevated contribution areas in the central and northern Pamir. The lakes of the other types have remained constant in size in general. The lake development reflects changes in the state of the water resources in the study area on the one hand and determines the level of lake outburst hazards on the other hand.

  15. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  16. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE IMPROVEMENT OF MARKETING ACTIVITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IN BUCHAREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After a prolonged and complex process of reconstruction, extension and modernization, Central University Library "Carol I" in Bucharest has re-opened to public access in November 2001, bringing a new concept on what library services should mean. Under these auspicious circumstances, the library's offer has widened, the quality of services offered has improved, gradually displaying an interest in developing a closer relationship with its customers. The necessity of being more oriented to the marketing tools and techniques has become more apparent. Therefore, the top managers of the Central University Library have included in their three general development strategies produced so far, specific objectives, such as: an increase of the volume of paid serviced provided, promoting the services and work elaborated by its specialists through leaflets, presentations, albums, folders with press extracts. Beyond these actions with positive effects, the efforts of Central University Library for strengthening its position on the market of the providers of information services are diminished by the various malfunctions that characterize the marketing activity of this institution. Therefore, this work intends to contribute to the improvement of the marketing activity of the library by coming up with some solutions that could remove or at least diminish these weak points.

  17. Theming Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erb, Maribeth; Ong, Chin Ee

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on Theme Parks in Asia with reflections on how the various theoretical ideas on theming and theme parks that are found in the social science literature can help us to understand the proliferation of theming and theme parks in contemporary Asia. How does theming

  18. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  19. Molecular genome tracking of East, Central and South African genotype of Chikungunya virus in South-east Asia between 2006 and 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonlers; Yong Poovorawan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To understand the epidemiology of the East, Central and South African(ECSA) genotype of Chikungunya virus(CHIKV)in terms of emerging and re-emerging infections, this study has been aimed at investigating the evolutionary parameters, genomic signatures and molecular tracking of theCHIKV ECSA genotype in South-east Asia and coastal areas of the Indian Ocean between 2006 and 2009 by using phylogenetic analysis and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC) evolutionary estimation.Methods: Nearly complete genome sequences of53 CHIKV isolates from all genotypes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary parameter estimation. The amino acids of67of ECSA genotype during2006 to2009 were compared for finding molecular signature tracking. The ECSA genotype signatures were visualized to find the possible transmission root was projected onto a geographic map.Results:Phylogenetic analysis showed theECSA genotype was divided into2 groups. The first group comprises viruses from India and Southeast Asian countries. The second group consists of strains typically circulating in Sri Lanka in2008. The evolutionary parameters of these groups depicted the time of the most recent common ancestor at approximately 7.5years ago. The genomic signatures revealed the positions of amino acid variation in each group.Conclusions:The molecular evolution projected onto a geographical map showed the routes ofCHIKVtransmission from 2006 to2009. Molecular tracking will assist in understanding transmission routes, epidemiology and molecular evolution ofCHIKV.

  20. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses.

  1. An overview of cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: the case for investment in cancer health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Jayant, K; Brenner, H

    2011-01-01

    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are reported from 27 population-based cancer registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. In China, Singapore, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey, the 5-year age-standardized relative survival ranged from 76-82% for breast, 63-79% for cervical, 71-78% for bladder, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancer. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia, or 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%) in Uganda. For localized cancers of the breast, large bowel, larynx, ovary, urinary bladder and for regional diseases at all sites, higher survival rates were observed in countries with more rather than less developed health services. Inter- and intra-country variations in survival imply that the levels of development of health services and their efficiency to provide early diagnosis, treatment and clinical follow-up care have a profound impact on survival from cancer. These are reliable baseline summary estimates to evaluate improvements in cancer control and emphasise the need for urgent investment to improve awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources in these countries in the future.

  2. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  3. Comparative analysis of two hydrological models with different glacier parameterisations for climate impact assessment and water resources management in the Syrdarya Basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Abror; Duethmann, Doris; Agaltseva, Natalya; Merkushkin, Alexander; Pak, Alexander; Kriegel, David; Huss, Matthias; Güntner, Andreas; Merz, Bruno; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy; Mannig, Birgit; Paeth, Heiko; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2014-05-01

    Central Asian river basins in general and zones of run-off formation in particular are currently experiencing the impact of increasing temperatures and changes in precipitation. The headwaters thus exhibit negative glacier mass balances, decreasing glacierisation, changes in snow cover characteristics and changing runoff response. These changes are likely to intensify in future under the changing climate. Both hydropower industry and irrigated agriculture in the downstream areas strongly depend on the water amount, its seasonal and long-term distribution. This fact calls for an effort to reliably assess water availability in the runoff formation zone of Central Asia in order to improve water management policy in the region. One of the approaches to assessment of water resources is the evaluation of climate scenarios with the climate-and-hydrology model chain. Application of several models allows reducing the modeling uncertainty and proceeding with more robust water balance components assessment. We present the comparison of the two hydrological models AISHF (Automated Information System for Hydrological Forecasting) developed at the Centre for Hydrometeorology of Uzbekistan and WASA run at GFZ Potsdam, implemented for the Naryn and Karadarya basins (Syrdarya). These models use different parameterization and calibration schemes. Whereas in the AISHF model glacier dynamics is considered in scenarios of glacier area loss, the WASA model simulates continuous glacier mass balance, glacier area and volume evolution based on meteorological drivers. Consideration of initial glacier volume and its temporal dynamics can be essential for climate impact assessment in transient model simulations. The impact of climate change scenarios, developed with the regional climate model REMO at the University of Würzburg, are compared with respect to total discharge dynamics and runoff contributions from glacier, snowmelt and rainfall. Implications of water availability assessment

  4. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  5. Seasonal deuterium excess in a Tien Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2003-01-01

    Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.

  6. Comparison of key absorption and optical properties between pure and transported anthropogenic dust over East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-12-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD440 ≥ 0.4) and a low Ångström wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (α TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (α < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < α < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and mineral-transported (mineral-tran.) modes. Therefore, we are convinced that our results hold promise for updating and improving accuracies of Asian dust characteristics in present-day remote sensing applications and regional or global climate models.

  7. Critical Analysis of Cardiovascular and Central Nervous System Fixed Dose Combinations Available in Indian Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Krunal; Shah, Samidh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) are being increasingly used to improve compliance and achieve greater benefits of the two or more active ingredients given together than the corresponding individual drug components given separately. Aim To analyse the rationality of Cardiovascular (CV) and Central Nervous System (CNS) FDCs available in Indian market. Materials and Methods CVS and CNS FDCs, enlisted in Indian Drug Review, 2014, were analysed by a pretested validated eight point criteria tool. Each FDC was assessed for number of active pharmacological ingredients, approval by regulatory authority, listing in WHO Essential Medicine List. While efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic interactions and advantages of each FDC were analysed by literature search. The total score of the tool was 12 and score ≥7 was considered rational. FDCs were divided in four groups as per rationality and DCGI approval. ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and p45 belonged to CNS group and 40 had documented evidence of efficacy and safety. Majority of FDCs showed advantage of being convenient by reducing pill count and only 32 showed reducing adverse drug reactions. Out of 107 CV FDCs, 46 were rational and 61 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.72±2.82 (CI– 95 %, 3.90 - 9.54). While out of 45 CNS FDCs, 8 were rational and 37 were irrational with a mean rationality score of 6.22±2.08 (CI – 95 %, 4.14 - 8.30). A significant difference in mean rationality score of group A (DCGI approved + rational) was observed as compared to group B (DCGI approved + irrational) and group C (DCGI unapproved + rational) as compared to group D (DCGI unapproved + irrational) (p<0.05). Conclusion The absence of watertight pre-requisite, critical analysis of the scientific validity of the formulations and ‘convenience’ category has resulted into proliferation of irrational FDCs. This calls for strict regulatory approval process to avoid miserable FDC scenario in

  8. Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages of marble-hosted ruby deposits from Central and South-east Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, V.; Giuliani, G.; Maluski, H.; Ohnenstetter, D.; Deloule, E.

    2003-04-01

    zircons from the Karakorum batholith (95 Ma). Asian marble-hosted ruby deposits are directly linked with the tectonometamorphic activity of Cenozoic structures resulting from deformation of the Asian plate during India-Asia collision. Geochemical studies evidence that these rubies have a metamorphic origin and thus dating of these deposits provide an essential clue to decipher the timing of continental collision in Central and South-east Asia.

  9. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on the strengthening of the resource/energy industrial basis of CIS Central Asia (the Republic of Kazakhstan); 1993 nendo CIS Chuo Asia (Kazafusutan kyowakoku) no shigen energy sangyo kiban kyoka ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The paper grasps the present situation of economy and industry in Kazakhstan and studies a policy for developing the industrial machine manufacturing industry of the country. Since the independence in 1992, the country is now at the great turning point in politics, economy, society and industry. The country is forced to convert from the industrial structure of one local area where much of its own discretion had not been given under the economy system of power centralization to the industrial structure which meets the international economic market system as an independent country. Making good use of agricultural and industrial property in the former U.S.S.R., the country needs to export energy resource like oil, natural gas and coal, and abundant ore resource like iron and non-ferrous metal, which were added with values. As the technical base for it, fostering and strengthening of the industrial machine manufacturing industry is important. At present, the situation is that because of the economic sluggishness, the country cannot manufacture domestically even basic mechanical parts and simply-manufactured parts which are required by the domestic energy industry, machine manufacturing industry, and other industries. The technical program to be proposed by Japan is planned to be worked out later based on the basic research made in fiscal 1993. 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Paleoenvironmental changes recorded in a luminescence dated loess/paleosol sequence from the Tianshan Mountains, arid central Asia, since the Penultimate Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Rao, Zhiguo; Duan, Yanwu; Xia, Dunsheng; Wang, Leibin; Madsen, David B.; Jia, Jia; Wei, Haitao; Qiang, Mingrui; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu

    2016-08-01

    Mid-latitude arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the driest regions in the world and is a key source area of global atmospheric dust. Loess records of paleoclimatic changes in ACA are complex and interpretations are problematic due primarily to the lack of robust chronologies. Quartz OSL and K-feldspar pIRIR dating methods were employed to date 8 quartz and 30 K-feldspar samples from a 30 m loess sequence (BYH10 section) on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, central ACA, northwest China. The reliability of quartz and K-feldspar ages was monitored by internal checks of luminescence characteristics and by comparison of the quartz and K-feldspar ages. The section lithology, proxy indexes of grain size and magnetic susceptibility, and the high resolution OSL chronology together indicate: (1) Quartz OSL dating can be used to date ACA loess samples less than 40 ka, while K-feldspar pIRIR dating is reliable for loess samples at least as old as ∼150 ka from ACA; (2) Aeolian loess began to be deposited on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains beginning at least ∼145 ka ago, and was deposited primarily during the penultimate and last glaciation periods; (3) Rapid loess deposition occurred during MIS 6, MIS 4 to early-mid MIS 3, and MIS 2, but little or no loess deposition occurred during MIS 5, MIS 3a and MIS 1; (4) This loess depositional sequence is comparable to previously published stalagmite growth records in the region on glacial-interglacial cycles. Rapid dust deposition and lack of stalagmite growth during glacials, and lack of loess deposition and stalagmite growth during interglacials, indicate a climatic pattern of wet-warm (interglacial) and dry-cold (glacial) climatic regimes on orbital cycles in ACA; (5) Variation in the loess deposition rates in ACA was much larger than in the central loess plateau during the last glaciation; (6) Depositional hiatuses of >50 kyr occur in ACA loess sequences, and high resolution chronologies are needed when

  11. Brief Analysis of Evolution Paths and Prospect of American and Russian Policies on Central Asia%试析美俄中亚政策演变路径与前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许涛

    2015-01-01

    The special geographical features of Central Asia determine that the inf l u ence of strong extraterritorial power center plays a vital role for the political and economic development directions in this region. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, America and Russia have always been the two strategic forces posing great influence to the Central Asia. With the changes of overall international circumstance and the surrounding situation, the policies of America and Russia on Central Asia are also adjusted actively or passively.%中亚地区所具有的特殊地缘特性,决定了域外强大权力中心影响力对这一地区政治、经济发展方向影响的至关重要作用。苏联解体后,美国和俄罗斯一直是对中亚地区产生重大影响的两大战略力量。随着国际大环境和地区周边形势的变化,美俄对中亚地区采取的政策也在发生主动或被动的调整。

  12. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  13. Metallogenesis of the Ertix gold belt, Xinjiang and its rela-tionship to Central Asia-type orogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Huayong; (

    2001-01-01

    fluidization and mineralization under intracontinental collision regime, Advance in Earth Sciences (in Chinese), 1995, 10(4): 18.[12]Chen, Y. J., Progress in the study of Central Asian type orogenesis-metallogenesis in northwest China, Geological Journal of China Universities (in Chinese), 2000, 6(1): 18.[13]Gao, Z. M., Yi, S. F., Qi, F. R. et al., New Progress in Study of Gold Deposits in China (Vol.1, the last of two), Beijing: China Seismological Press, 1994, 1-76.[14]Rui, X. J. (ed.), Treatises on Gold Deposits in Altay, Xinjiang, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 259.[15]Tu, G. C. (ed.). Geochemistry of Strata-bound Deposits in China, Vol.3, Beijing: Science Press, 1988, 388.[16]Kerrich, R., Feng, R., Archean geodynamics and the Abitibi-Pontiac collision: implications for advection of fluids at transpressive collisional boundaries and the origin of giant quartz vein systems, Earth Science Reviews, 1992, 32: 33.[17]Hu, S. X., Wang, H. N., Wang, D. .Z. et al., The Geology and Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Eastern China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1998, 267-338.[18]Hu, A. Q., Wang, Z. G., Tu, G. C. et al., The Geological Evolution and Diagenesis-Mineralization Features in Northern Xinjiang, China, Beijing: Science Press, 1997, 246.[19]Yu, X.Y., Mineralization and Volcanics in Ertix, Beijing: Science Press, 1995, 17-153.[20]Chen, Y. J., Constraints and their mechanism on the petrogenic and metallogenic model for collision orogenesis, Earth Science Frontiers (in Chinese), 1998, 5(Supplement): 109.

  14. PCDD/F measurement at a high-altitude station in Central Taiwan: evaluation of long-range transport of PCDD/Fs during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Yang, Chang-Feng Ou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lin, Neng-Heui; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te

    2010-04-15

    Recent biomass burning in Southeast Asia has raised global concerns over its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. The concentrations of total suspended particles (TSPs) and other vapor-phase pollutants (CO and ozone) were monitored at Lulin, an atmospheric background station in central Taiwan in 2008. To evaluate the long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event, the atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also measured at Lulin station. The atmospheric PCDD/F and TSP concentrations measured at Lulin station ranged from 0.71-3.41 fg I-TEQ/m(3) and 5.32-55.6 microg/m(3), respectively, during the regular sampling periods. However, significantly higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TSPs, CO, and ozone were measured during the spring season. These high concentrations could be the result of long-range transport of the products of Southeast Asia biomass burning. During the Southeast Asia biomass burning event (March 18-24, 2008), an intensive observation program was also carried out at the same station. The results of this observation program indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased dramatically from 2.33 to 390 fg I-TEQ/m(3) (March 19, 2008). The trace gas (CO) of biomass burning also significantly increased to 232 ppb during the same period, while the particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the TSP increased from 28.7 to 109 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP at Lulin station during the burning event. We conclude that there was a significant increase in the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air at a high-altitude background station in central Taiwan during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

  15. WEAK EFFICIENCY AND LINEAR REGRESSION OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davtyan Azat

    2013-07-01

    Those findings can be used for deeper investigation of market efficiency by highlighting convergence processes of CEE countries with EU old member states. Also effective capital allocation channels, institutional foundations of markets and strengthening of corporate governance should be highlighted. Finally, the outcomes of my paper will be useful for researchers in the field of finance.

  16. Marketing Informal Education Institutions in Israel: The Centrality of Customers' Active Involvement in Service Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the…

  17. An Empirical Analysis Of Stock Returns And Volatility: The Case Of Stock Markets From Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okičić Jasmina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate the behaviour of stock returns in the case of stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, focusing on the relationship between returns and conditional volatility. Since there is relatively little empirical research on the volatility of stock returns in underdeveloped stock markets, with even fewer studies on markets in the transitional economies of the CEE region, this paper is designed to shed some light on the econometric modelling of the conditional mean and volatility of stock returns from this region. The results presented in this paper provide confirmatory evidence that ARIMA and GARCH processes provide parsimonious approximations of mean and volatility dynamics in the case of the selected stock markets. There is overwhelming evidence corroborating the existence of a leverage effect, meaning that negative shocks increase volatility more than positive shocks do. Since financial decisions are generally based upon the trade-off between risk and return, the results presented in this paper will provide valuable information in decision making for those who are planning to invest in stock markets from the CEE region.

  18. Large Igneous Provinces of the Central Asia: data on geochronology, geochemistry and petrology of the Tien Shan and Junggar basaltic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, V.; Mikolaichuk, A.

    2012-04-01

    During last years Large Igneous Provinces of the Central Asia were an object of steadfast attention of researchers. It was established that on a formation and development of continental earth crust a great influence was rendered by deep magmatic systems of mantle plumes of various age. Undoubtedly that these global processes of basaltic magmatism had in many respects crucial importance for ecology, climate and life development. Our researches of magmatic associations of the Tien Shan and Junggar have allowed to accumulate a considerable volume of new data on geochronology, geochemistry and physico-chemical parameters of petrogenesis of within-plate basaltic complexes of the Central Asia, which area of distribution covers territory over than 285000 km2. Analysis with the help of 40Ar/39Ar method has shown that the basaltic complexes of the Tien Shan have Cretaceous-Paleogene age (61-76 Ma). Basalts of the Southeast Kazakhstan (North Tien Shan) corresponds to Paleozoic age: 305-312 Ma. Rather close values of 40Ar/39Ar data are received for basalts of the Altynemel Ridge (South Junggar) - 282 Ma. Isotope 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalts of the Alakol site (Junggar) has shown Mesozoic age (186-198 Ma). As a whole, the carried out researches testify to formation of Tien Shan and Junggar within-plate basalt complexes as a result of influence of three plumes, operating in various time: Tarim (282-312 Ma), Junggar (186-198 Ma) and Tien Shan (61-76 Ma). Data on petrochemistry, geochemistry of trace and rare-earth elements and mineralogy shows an enriched plume characteristics (close to OIB) of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basalts and presence of group of Paleozoic rocks close to continental and oceanic plateau basalts. As a whole, successive evolution in time of geodynamics of within-plate basalt magmatism of Tien Shan and Junggar is established. Paleozoic - plateau basaltic magmatism like Siberian traps or oceanic plateau basalts of Ontong Java. Mesozoic - development of more local hot

  19. Evaluation of a Modified SEBAL Algorithm to Estimate Actual Evapotranspiration in Cotton Ecosystems of Central Asia using Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Conrad, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Being recognized as an essential component of both the water and the energy cycle, actual evapotranspiration (ETa) plays in important role in order to describe the complex interactions within the climate system of the Earth. Here, remote sensing is a powerful tool to estimate regional ETa to support the regional water management. For instance, the water withdrawal of the agricultural sector in OECD countries is on average about 44 %, but in the states of Central Asia it achieves more than 90 %. This fact is identified as one of the main reasons for the increasing water scarcity in this region. An accuracy assessment of the methods used for determining ETa is necessary concerning an appropriate use of the model results to support agriculture and irrigation management. Within Central Asia the Khorezm region in Uzbekistan is a case study region for the problems of irrigated agriculture. For Khorezm the seasonal ETa based on MODIS data was calculated for the years 2009 - 2011 using a partly modified surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL). SEBAL was implemented based on MODIS time series to calculate the energy balance components like net radiation (Rn), sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE), and soil heat flux (G). Whilst SEBAL is using an empirical equation for the estimation of G, a more physically based method was introduced in this study. This method uses microwave soil moisture products (ASAR and ASCAT-SSM) as an additional model input. The input parameters and the model results of all energy balance components (Rn, H, LE, and G) were intensively validated by field measurements with an eddy covariance system and soil sensors. The model shows very good performance for Rn with average model efficiency (NSE) of 0.68 and small relative errors (rRMSE) of about 10%. For turbulent heat fluxes good results can be achieved with NSE of 0.31 for H and 0.55 for LE, the rRMSE are about 21% (H) and 18% (LE). Soil heat flux estimation could be improved using the

  20. Dune-scale distribution pattern of herbaceous plants and their relationship with environmental factors in a saline-alkali desert in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Wu, Gan-Lin; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-01-15

    Sand dunes are the main landforms in modern deserts worldwide. As an important type of desert vegetation, herbaceous plants have long been acknowledged for their important ecological functions. We focus on the dune-scale distribution pattern of herbaceous plants and their relationship with the environment. During the early summer of 2010, the herbaceous plant density, coverage, aboveground biomass and eighteen environmental factors were surveyed from 214 plots (5m×5m) across two linear sand dunes (220m×110m) located in the Gurbantunggut Desert, China, a typical saline-alkali desert in Central Asia. Data were analyzed using univariate, ordination, and geostatistical techniques. Three vegetation variables represent a significant clumped distribution (P<0.01) across the entire study site. Obvious differences were observed among different slope positions/transects, with the lowest values observed at the summit. Geostatistics indicated that all of the variables showed a moderate spatial dependence and obvious zonal distribution along the sand dunes. The ranges (lag distance) of density (32.2m) and coverage (33.5m) were close to the average width (31.4m) of the transects. The biomass range (74.1m) was almost equal to the average width (75m) of the sand dunes. Pearson's correlation analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis consistently demonstrated that the distributions of herbs on sand dunes were dominantly influenced by sand dune topography (slope position, convexity, and relative height), soil nutrients (total nitrogen and phosphorus) and deep-rooted shrubbery (Ephedra distachya). Compared to large, mobile and steep sand dunes, low, fixed and gentle sand dunes contribute to herbaceous plant abundance and distribution as well as the stability maintenance of the whole desert ecosystem.

  1. Multi-drug resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the Middle East and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is common in developing countries, with an estimated 120 million infections and 700 000 annual deaths, worldwide. Fluoroquinolones have been the treatment of choice for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi. However, alarming reports of fluoroquinolone-resistance and failure of typhoid fever treatment have recently been published. To determine the proportion of S. Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC from six countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, 968 S. Typhi isolates collected between 2002 and 2007 from Egypt, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Qatar, Jordan and Iraq were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to five antibiotics using the disc-diffusion method. MDR was defined as resistance to amicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The E-test was employed to determine the MIC of ciprofloxacin only. Nalidixic acid resistance was evaluated as a marker for RSC. Interpretations were made according to CLSI guidelines. MDR strains were considerably more prevalent in Iraq (83% and Pakistan (52% compared with the other countries studied (13–52%. Nearly all isolates were susceptible (99.7% to ceftriaxone. RSC was detected in a total of 218 isolates (22%, mostly from Iraq (54/59, 92%, Uzbekistan (98/123, 80%, Qatar (23/43, 54% and Pakistan (31/65, 47%. Many of these (21% were also MDR. Use of nalidixic acid resistance as an indicator for RSC was 99% sensitive and 98% specific. This study reinforces the need for routine antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of enteric fever isolates and close review of current therapeutic policies in the region.

  2. Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~ 1970), Landsat (~ 2000), and ALOS (~ 2007) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Kääb, Andreas; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2010-03-01

    Geographic variability of the recent changes of glacier coverage in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, is assessed using Corona KH-4B satellite photographs for 1968-1971, Landsat 7 ETM+data for 1999-2002, and ALOS/PRISM and AVNIR data for 2006-2008. The four mountain regions investigated (Pskem, Ili-Kungöy, At-Bashy, and SE-Fergana) cover several distributed glacierized areas in the Tien Shan Mountain system, a region that is affected by highly variable local precipitation regimes. Over the 30 years investigated between ~ 1970 and ~ 2000, glacier area decreased by 19% in the Pskem region, 12% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 12% in the At-Bashy region, and 9% in the SE-Fergana region. In the last 7 years (~ 2000 to ~ 2007), glacier area shrank by 5% in the Pskem region, 4% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 4% in the At-Bashy region, and 0% in the SE-Fergana region. Glacier behavior has varied markedly in these regions. The most dramatic glacier shrinkage has occurred in the outer ranges of the Tien Shan Mountains. Recent glacier area loss has resulted from rising summer temperatures. Regional differences of glacier-area changes related to local climate conditions, to the altitudinal distribution of glacier areas, and to the relative proportion of glaciers in different size classes. The observed accelerated glacier shrinkage is expected to have two impacts on the more populated outer ranges: 1) water shortages during summer and 2) increased threat from glacier hazards such as glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and ice avalanches.

  3. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  4. Integrated Geohazard Screening Using Remote Sensing, Including Satellite and Helicopter Based Imagery, LiDAR, and Geophysics, in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, A. M.; Kozaci, O.; Hitchcock, C. S.; Konieczny, G.; Garrie, D.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a detailed geohazard investigation of a 5 km-wide, 650km-long corridor through Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. The study area includes the Rasht and Alai valleys at the boundary between the Pamir Mountains and the Alai Range of the southern Tien Shan. Ongoing collision between the India and Eurasia plates has resulted in the Tien Shan orogenic belt and the Pamir Mountains. Thus the study area is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Rapid uplift, erosion, and steep slopes give rise to widespread landsliding and massive rock slope failures in both the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains. Our integrated data acquisition and interpretation plan used airborne and remote sensing methods including satellite based DEMs and high resolution imagery, LiDAR, aerial photography, and helicopter based electromagnetic resistivity (HEM). Analysis of these data sets allowed us to delineate potential geohazards through surficial geologic mapping. Initial desktop geohazard screening included 1:50,000-scale mapping for potential faults, landslides, and liquefiable deposits, which included traffic light-style susceptibility maps for route refinement and hazard mitigation. As part of detailed investigations, continuous HEM data was collected and processed at a spatial sampling interval of approximately 3m. Apparent resistivity was calculated for each of the five operating frequencies over the entire survey area. For the purposes of this study, resistivity values at 10 m and 20 m depths were sliced from the interpolated 3D Differential Resistivity model for use in the analysis. Using GIS, we compared these results with mapped Quaternary units and found good correlation between resistivity contrasts and the boundaries of mapped surficial units. With this confidence, the HEM measurements were further analyzed to identify subsurface features and to develop a 3D geologic model. Based on this analysis we provided a framework for an optimized geotechnical

  5. The perfect storm: incarceration and the high-risk environment perpetuating transmission of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altice, Frederick L; Azbel, Lyuba; Stone, Jack; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Dvoriak, Sergii; Taxman, Faye S; El-Bassel, Nabila; Martin, Natasha K; Booth, Robert; Stöver, Heino; Dolan, Kate; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-09-17

    Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons. Evidence-based primary and secondary prevention of HIV using opioid agonist therapies such as methadone and buprenorphine is available in prisons in only a handful of EECA countries (methadone or buprenorphine in five countries and needle and syringe programmes in three countries), with none of them meeting recommended coverage levels. Similarly, antiretroviral therapy coverage, especially among people who inject drugs, is markedly under-scaled. Russia completely bans opioid agonist therapies and does not support needle and syringe programmes-with neither available in prisons-despite the country's high incarceration rate and having the largest burden of people with HIV who inject drugs in the region. Mathematical modelling for Ukraine suggests that high levels of incarceration in EECA countries facilitate HIV transmission among people who inject drugs, with 28-55% of all new HIV infections over the next 15 years predicted to be attributable to heightened HIV transmission risk among currently or previously incarcerated people who inject drugs. Scaling up of opioid agonist therapies within prisons and maintaining treatment after release would yield the greatest HIV transmission reduction in people who inject drugs. Additional analyses also suggest that at least 6% of all incident tuberculosis cases, and 75% of incident tuberculosis cases in people who inject drugs are due to incarceration. Interventions that reduce

  6. Towards measurement of political pressure on central banks in the emerging market economies: the case of the central bank of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim L. Awad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether the legal independence granted to the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE under the latest legislation is factual. I followed Fry’s methodology, which assumes that the level of independence of the central bank is determined by fiscal attributes. In an attempt to develop Fry’s method, I used a simple criterion to assess the central bank’s independence, namely, that the central bank is actually independent if it can fulfill its money supply target. Applying this criterion to the CBE and some other CBs in the developed countries and emerging market economies, we find that: (i the legal independence granted to the CBE under the latest legislation is not factual; although the final objective of monetary policy is to achieve price stability, the CBE failed to fulfill its money supply target and achieve price stability, because it was responsive to political pressure and did not react to fulfill its money supply target; (ii such political pressure on the CBE is due to fiscal attributes, as measured by domestic credit to the government; (iii CBs whose independence is factual, according to our criterion, showed a negative relationship between the legal indices, as measured by the GMT index, and the fiscal attributes measured by DCGY. However, the relationship was anomalous when measured by the rate of inflation

  7. HIGHER EDUCATION MARKET IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE IN THE POST-CRISIS PERIOD. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

    OpenAIRE

    HALANGESCU CONSTANTIN

    2015-01-01

    With a target (failed, by the way) to become the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world, Europe has scaled the market of higher education. Adopting a questioning approach in research methodology, based on interrogations such as „How the economic crisis has affected the Higher Education market in Emerging Europe?”, „How much the European Union regulations in the field of student fees, ante, during and post-crisis time affecting the employment market and equitable access at fair educ...

  8. An Empirical Study on the Real Effective Exchange Rates of RMB and the Trade of China-Central Asia Countries%人民币实际有效汇率与中国对中亚五国贸易收支的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of the development of trade between China and Central Asia countries and the real effective exchange rates of RMB, the paper empirically analyzes the relationship among the real effective exchange rates(REER) of RMB, real GDP of China, real GDP of Central Asia countries and trade of China-Central Asia countries according to co-integration. The study shows that there is no causal relationship between REER of RMB and trade of China-Central Asia countries; the trade of China-Central Asia countries is helpful to the growth of China;income and Central Asia countries' income; and under the ex- pectation of revaluation of the RMB, trade of China-Central Asia countries is developing because of the complementary economic structure of China and Central Asia countries.%在分析中国对中亚五国的贸易收支特点和人民币实际有效汇率变化的基础上,运用协整理论,实证分析了中国对中亚五国贸易收支与人民币实际有效汇率、中国国内实际收入、中亚五国国内实际收入的关系。研究结果表明:中国对中亚五国贸易收支与人民币汇率之间不存在因果关系;中国对中亚五国贸易收支变化有利于中国与中亚五国国内收入的增长;在人民币升值的情况下,中国对中亚五国贸易收支的改善,主要是因为双方经济结构的互补性强。

  9. An Initial Probe into the Centralized Urbanization in Southeast Asia%东南亚城市一极化现象初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶本忠

    2004-01-01

    The exceeding development of mega - polises is a universal practice in the course of urbanization. Many developed cities such as london, Paris, Tokyo and New York have experienced this phase. Many big cities grow very fast, as of 1994, 22 cities in the world have a population of over 8 million, among them, 12 is in Asia and 3, i.e. Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila, in Southeast Asia. This articles elaborates the causes of this phenomenon and the status.

  10. China’s Rise and Reconfiguration of Central Asia’s Geopolitics: A Case for U.S. Pivot to Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    domestic product (GDP) than the output of the rest of the BRICS ’ (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Af- rica) economies combined.2 Today...and by enhancing pressures toward multi-polarity in the international system. With its BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) partners, China has...problems of Asia, and uphold the security of Asia.”80 But it is in the economic area where it has most succeeded. Along with BRICS ( BRIC plus South Africa

  11. The Emerging Markets of Africa: Business Opportunities for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cook

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the increasing importance of emerging markets, particularly those in Africa, in terms of international business opportunities in the post-financial crisis period; while BRIC economies have received a lot of attention in the preceding decade, other emerging markets – especially in Africa – show indications of taking on more prominence in the upcoming period. In fact, at present, the continent of Africa represents one of the fastest growing markets in the world. This paper focuses on growth indicators and trends in the African markets as well as potential future international business opportunities; specifically, it examines the competitiveness of African nations, the business environments of countries in Africa, the continent’s international trade situation and urbanization in Africa. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on existing business opportunities together with some challenges which remain on the continent.

  12. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in the Lower Siniaian), during the whole Middle Paleozoic, and from the Upper Permian to the present time). As a result of the predominance of uplift...and, in some sections, even the Upper Permian period* Therefore the processes of soil formation "began here very long ago. However, this pro- longed...completely extinct while others have survived only in small, areas here and there along.the "boundaries of the desert (deer). Only a com- paratively

  13. Roman Empire and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Lugli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at retracing the interrelations of ancient Roman and Asian civilizations; a key focus is made on Asian cultural heritage. The commercial and trade commercial relations are considered, which led the way to development of both as well as military clashes and claiming territories by both civilizations. A due attention is paid to the influence of different ancient establishments on the Asian territory, converting thereafter Rome into a truly multicultural and cosmopolitan empire.

  14. The Struggle for Military Bases in Central Asia Between U.S. and Russian Since 2005%2005年以来美俄中亚军事基地之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗笋

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, Russia and the United States increase geopolitical competition in Central Asia. Although Russia and the U.S. agreed to cooperate, jointly tackle the threat posed by the situation from the turmoil in Afghanistan, but distinct strategic interests of the two countries led to their so-called "military base race", the purpose is to obtain a military foothold in Central Asia. U.S. bases in Central Asia is used to implement the northern transportation network, which is a serious threat to the Russian military and security in Central Asia's traditional influence, prompting Russia's attempt to contain U,S. expansion. This new geo- political phenomenon allows the Central Asian countries to implement a "diversification" diplomatic strategy, aimed at Central Asia geopolitical competitors, enhance military and economic cooperation, to ensure internal stability and security, maintaining the political status quo.%在过去的几年里,俄罗斯与美国在中亚的地缘政治竞争不断加剧。虽然俄美同意进行合作,共同应对来自阿富汗动荡形势所造成的威胁,但两国殊异的战略利益导致他们进行所谓“军事基地竞赛”,目的是获取在中亚的军事立足点。美国在中亚的基地是用来实施北方运输网络,这对俄罗斯在中亚军事和安全领域的传统影响是个严重威胁,促使俄罗斯试图遏制美国的扩张势头。这个新的地缘政治现象允许中亚国家实施一种“多元化”的外交战略,中亚国家的目的是在地缘政治竞争者中,增强军事和经济合作,确保内部稳定和安全,保持政治现状。

  15. The Bilateral and Multilateral Relationship between Central Asia and Japan, and the Enlightenment on China%中亚-日本双边、多边关系及其对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉素甫·阿布来提

    2014-01-01

    Since the Middle Asian countries established diplomatic relations with Japan, the bilateral partnership began to develop steadily with the increasing ofifcial contacts. In 1997 the“Silk Road”Diplomacy concept revealed Japan’s policy toward Central Asia. In the beginning of 21st century, new partners were mainly welcomed in the region. During the two decades the partnership between Central Asian nations and Japan began to increase steadily, including cooperation in education, economic development of the region, political reforms, as well as energy resources. Japan's effort in creating the“Central Asia plus Japan”dialogue is part of its multilateral diplomacy. Building the conception of“Silk Road Economic Belt”demonstrates the importance the Chinese leaders attach on Central Asia policy, relfecting China’s strategy in Central Asia. Japan’s Central Asian policy may cause some negative inlfuence to China. Therefore, the policy should be positively handled, but not be regarded as a policy to restrain China. There might be some enlightenment to China.%中亚各国与日本建立外交关系以来,随着官方交往水平的提高,其伙伴关系稳步发展。1997年,“新丝路外交”这一概念总结了日本的中亚政策。21世纪伊始,新的地区伙伴开始受到中亚的欢迎。20多年间,日本与中亚的合作突出了几个特别的领域,即教育、区域经济发展、政治改革以及能源资源,其多边外交关系提升到了建立“中亚+日本”的对话机制。构建“丝绸之路经济带”的构想,反映了中国领导人对中亚政策的重要体现,反映了中国的中亚战略。日本的中亚政策,会在一定程度上给中国与中亚国家合作关系的发展造成一些影响,但是不能看作遏制中国与中亚国家合作关系的政策,应从中获得一定的启示。

  16. What drives forex interventions? Evidence from the Brazilian Central Bank interventions on the BRL/USD market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Wolk Teixeira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study what drives buy-side and sell-side probabilities of intervention by the Brazilian Central Bank (BCB on the USD/BRL spot market between 1999 and 2010. BCB’s forex interventions seem to be related to the exchange rate returns and volatility as well as to the spread between domestic and foreign interest rates. Lagged interventions also appear to have an effect on current interventions. Our findings suggest that the operation of the policymaker in the forex market may serve as a signaling of a possible coordination between BCB’s foreign and monetary policies along with the possibility of an unofficial adoption of an exchange rate band.

  17. Focusing on Technology and Services, Competing in China Die Casting Market Report on visits with five companies participating in the Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition 2005, organized by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES), was held in INTEX Shanghai, China on August 14-17, 2005. On August 16th, the journalists of CHINA FOUNDRY journal visited five exhibitors on the spot of exhibition.

  18. Development of cross-border transmission lines in Poland and their significance for the Central East Europeam energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruszkiewicz, Jerzy

    2010-09-15

    This publication presents the existing cross-border transmission lines connecting Poland with neighbouring countries and their use in the currently applied mechanisms for making available the transfer capacities. The prospects and the considered options of development in cross-border interconnections were presented, taking into account their role in the integration of the European market and of the trade relations with neighbouring counties other than members of the European Community. The role of the planned interconnections in solving the problems of central European countries connected with the implementation of European strategy that reduce CO2 emissions in the area of electricity generation was discussed.

  19. Tomographic images of subducted oceans matched to the accretionary records of orogens - Case study of North America and relevance to Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.; Hosseini, Kasra

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are the surface record of subduction on the 100-million-year timescale; they aggregate buoyant crustal welts that resisted subduction. The other record of subduction is found in the deep subsurface: oceanic lithosphere preserved in the mantle that records ocean basin closure between successive generations of arcs. Seismic tomography maps out these crumpled paleo-oceans down to the core-mantle boundary, where slab accumulates. One such accumulation of enormous scale is under Eastern Asia, recording the assembly of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Deep CAOB slab has hardly been explored because tomographic image resolution in the lowermost mantle is limited, but this is rapidly improving. We present new images of the CAOB slabs from our P-wave tomography that includes core-diffracted waves as a technical novelty. The previous slab blur sharpens into the type of elongated geometries expected to trace paleo-trench lines. Since the North American Cordillera is younger than the CAOB (mostly 10,000 km long. North America converged on the two microcontinents by westward subduction of two intervening basins (which we name Mezcalera and Angayucham oceans), culminating in diachronous suturing between ~150 Ma and ~50 Ma. Hence geophysical subsurface evidence negates the widely accepted "Andean-style" model of Farallon-beneath-continent subduction since at least 180 Ma, and supports a Jura-Cretaceous paleogeography closer to today's Southwestern Pacific, or to the Paleozoic CAOB. Though advocated since the 1970's by a minority of geologists, this scenario had not gained wide acceptance due to a record obscured by overprinting, margin-parallel translation, and oroclinal bending. The new subsurface evidence provides specific indications where to seek the decisive Mezcalera-Angayucham suture. The suture is evident in a trail of collapsed Jura-Cretaceous basin relics that run the length of the Cordillera. Reference: Sigloch, K., & Mihalynuk, M. G. (2013

  20. Distribution and recent variations of supraglacial lakes on dendritic-type glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tomur Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supraglacial lakes are widely distributed on glaciers in the Tomur-Khan Tengri Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia. The existence and development of supraglacial lakes play an important role in the ice melting processes and also in the storage and release of glacial melt water. Here we mapped the supraglacial lakes of eight typical debris-covered dendritic-type glaciers around the Tomur-Khan Tengri peaks based on 9 Landsat TM/ETM+ images acquired in the summers of 1990 until 2011. With a lower area limit of 3600 m2 for a conservative identification of glacial lakes, we mapped 775 supraglacial lakes and 38 marginal glacial lakes in total. Our results indicate that supraglacial lakes (area > 3600 m2 in the study region never develop beyond an elevation of about 3850 m a.s.l., 800 m lower than the maximum upper boundary of debris cover (4650 m a.s.l.. The area-elevation distribution shows that lakes are predominantly occured close to the altitude of 3250 m a.s.l., where the clean ice simultaneously disappears. The majority of the supraglacial lakes are found on the Tomur Glacier and the South Inylchek Glacier, two strongly debris-covered dendritic-type glaciers in the region. As for the multi-year variation of lake area, the summer total and mean areas of supraglacial lakes show some variability from 1990 and 2005 but increased noticeably between 2005 and 2011. The mean area of the mapped lakes reached a maximum in 2010. We found that the area of supraglacial lakes is positively correlated to the total precipitation in summer (July to September but negatively correlated to the mean spring air temperature (April to June. Pre-summer air temperature fluctuations likely have a stronger impact on the different evolution processes of glacial drainage, evolving from unconnected to connected systems, which may lead to the drainage of larger supraglacial lakes and results in shrinkage of the total and mean lake area during the summer.