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Sample records for central anatolia turkey

  1. A new species of Marrubium (Lamiaceae) from Central Anatolia, Turkey

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    AYTAÇ, Zeki; AKGÜL, Gencay; EKİCİ, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Marrubium sivasense Aytaç, Akgül & Ekici sp. nova (Lamiaceae) is described and illustrated from Central Anatolia, Turkey. The new species most resembles Marrubium depauperatum, but it differs by 3-10 flowered verticillasters, crenate to crenulated leaf margins, and unequal calyx teeth. The ecology and phenology of the new species as well as its etymology, conservation status, and diagnostic features are discussed.

  2. [Evaluation of tularemia cases originated from Central Anatolia, Turkey].

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    Akıncı, Esragül; Ulgen, Fatmanur; Kılıç, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Sevim; Yıldız, Sümeyye; Ozdemir, Burcu; Alıravcı, Deniz; Celebi, Bekir; Eren, Selim Sırrı; But, Ayşe; Ongürü, Pınar; Yetkin, M Arzu; Bodur, Hürrem

    2011-10-01

    Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis with a worldwide distribution and diverse clinical manifestations. In recent years, tularemia cases are increasing in Turkey, with a special attention to Marmara, western Blacksea and Central Anatolia regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate tularemia cases admitted to our hospital during an outbreak emerged at Central Anatolia between December 2009 and September 2010, making a point for the disease. A total of 32 patients (17 female, 15 male; age range: 15-80 years, mean age: 41 ± 16 years) with fever, sore throat, cervical mass and failure to respond to beta-lactam antibiotics, were followed up with the preliminary diagnosis of tularemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific laboratory tests. Serum samples were obtained from 25 patients and in 17 (68%) of them microagglutination test yielded positive result (≥ 1/160) in their first serum samples. All of the 8 patients who had negative results in their first samples (< 1/160), revealed seroconversion in their second samples. In 10 (91%) of the 11 patients from whom lymph node aspirates were obtained, PCR performed with species specific (tul4) primers yielded positivity and subspecies differentiation done by RD1 primers identified the agent as F.tularensis subspecies holarctica. F.tularensis growth was not detected in the cultures of lymph aspirates and/or throat swabs of the cases (n= 16). All the patients had oropharyngeal tularemia and eight of them also had oculoglandular form. The mean duration of the symptoms were 25.6 ± 17.2 (2-60) days. They had a history of oral intake of contaminated water. Cervical or submandibular lymphadenopathy were detected in all patients. One patient had cervical abscess and the other one had erythema nodosum. Elevated sedimentation rate was found in 26 (81.3%) patients and elevated CRP in 24 (75%) patients. Spontaneous drainage was detected in nine cases during follow-up. Lymph node aspiration was performed in

  3. Liquefaction severity map for Aksaray city center (Central Anatolia, Turkey

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    A. Yalcin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey having a long history of large earthquakes have been subjected to progressive adjacent earthquakes. Starting in 1939, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ produced a sequence of major earthquakes, of which the Mw 7.4 earthquake that struck western Turkey on 17 August 1999. Following the Erzincan earthquake in 1992, the soil liquefaction has been crucial important in the agenda of Turkey. Soil liquefaction was also observed widely during the Marmara and the Düzce Earthquake in 1999 (Sönmez, 2003. Aksaray city center locates in the central part of Turkey and the Tuzgolu Fault Zone passes through near the city center. The fault zone has been generated to moderate magnitude earthquakes. The geology of the Aksaray province basin contains Quaternary alluvial deposits formed by gravel, sand, silt, and clay layers in different thickness. The Tuzgolu Fault Zone (TFZ came into being after the sedimetation of alluvial deposits. Thus, the fault is younger from lithological units and it is active. In addition, the ground water level is very shallow, within approximately 3 m from the surface. In this study, the liquefaction potential of the Aksaray province is investigated by recent procedure suggested by Sonmez and Gokceoglu (2005. For this purpose, the liquefaction susceptibility map of the Aksaray city center for liquefaction is presented. In the analysis, the input parameters such as the depth of the upper and lower boundaries of soil layer, SPT-N values, fine content, clay content and the liquid limit were used for all layers within 20 m from the surface. As a result, the category of very high susceptibility liquefaction class was not observed for the earthquake scenario of Ms=5.2, 4.9% of the study area has high liquefaction susceptibility. The percentage of the moderately, low, and very low liquefied areas are 28.2%, 30.2%, and 36.3%, respectively. The rank of non-liquefied susceptibility area is less than 1%.

  4. Geochemical Constraints on Collision-related Intrusive Rocks in Central, Northwestern and Western Anatolia (Turkey)

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    Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2010-05-01

    The intrusive rocks in Anatolia occupy a broad petrological range from I- to A- type granitoids. Thus, Turkey is a natural laboratory to study collision-related magmatism, its geochemical characteristic, source region and also tectono-magmatic evolution. The central, northwestern and western Anatolian magmatic provinces are defined by a large number of Late Mesozoic to Late Cenozoic collision-related granitoids (Ilbeyli and Kibici 2009). Calc-alkaline, subalkaline and alkaline intrusive rocks in central Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, high-K and I- to A-types. They cover a petrological range from monzodiorite through quartz monzonite to granite/syenite. All these intrusive rocks are enriched in LILE and are also radiogenic in terms of Sr, and unradiogenic in terms of Nd, isotope ratios. Their geochemical characteristics show that the intrusive rocks originated from a mantle source containing large subduction components, and have experienced crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. Delamination of a thermal boundary layer, and/or slab breakoff is the likely mechanisms for the initiation of the diverse magmatism in the complex (Ilbeyli et al. 2009). Calc-alkaline plutonic rocks in northwestern Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, medium- to high-K and I-types. They are monzonite to granite, and all are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, showing features of arc-related intrusive rocks. Geochemical data reveal that these plutons were derived from partial melting of mafic lower crustal sources. These rocks are related to subduction of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Sakarya microcontinent during Cretaceous-Paleocene times (Kibici et al. 2008). Calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in western Anatolia are metaluminous, high-K and I-types. They have a compositional range from granodiorite to granite, and are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE. Geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks indicate that they could have originated

  5. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

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    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  6. Longhorned Beetles Collection of the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey (Coleoptera,Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDİKMEN, Hüseyin; ŞAHİN, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, specimens of Cerambycidae were examined in the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of identification of these specimens, thirty-eight species and two subspecies belonging to twenty-eight genera of five subfamilies were determined. With this paper, new faunistic data and some zoogeographical evaluations were presented on longhorned beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Turkey. The faunistic data in the pr...

  7. Organic facies characteristics of the Pliocene coaly units, central Anatolia, Ilgin (Konya / Turkey)

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    Altunsoy, Mehmet; Ozdoğan, Meltem; Ozcelik, Orhan; Ünal, Neslihan

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to determine organic facies characteristics of the Pliocene coaly units in the Ilgın (Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey) area. Pliocene units (Dursunlu Formation) are composed of sandstone, siltstone, marl, mudstone and coal in the region. Lignite layers where coals are found and has a varying thickness between 100 - 300 m. Organic matter is composed predominantly of terrestrial material, with a minor contribution of algal and amorphous material. Organic matter in these units have generally low hydrogen index (HI) values and high oxygen index (OI) values, mostly characteristics type III kerogen (partly type II kerogen). Organic matters in the samples are immature to marginally mature in terms of organic maturation. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 0.03 and 51.7 %, but reach 53.4 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 392 and 433 °C. Organic facies type C, CD and D were identified in the investigated units. C, CD and D facies are related to marl, mudstone and coal lithofacies. These facies are characterized by average values of HI around 102 (equivalent to type II/ III kerogene), TOC around 12.2 %, and an average of S2 of 14.6 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is terrestrial, partly oxidized / oxidized / highly oxidized , decomposed and reworked. Organic facies C and CD are the "gas-prone" facies but Organic facies D is nongenerative. Keywords: Central Anatolia, Pliocene, Organic Facies, Ilgın, Coal

  8. Estimating the horizontal diffuse solar radiation over the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present study is to develop new hybrid models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface over Turkey's Central Anatolia Region (CAR), which covers the 12 provinces (Afyon, Ankara, Cankiri, Corum, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas and Yozgat), as an example. The models proposed by many investigators to estimate the diffuse solar radiation were reviewed. Although the global solar radiation and sunshine duration have been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) over all the country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The twelve new hybrid models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in the CAR were validated, and thus, the most accurate model was selected for guiding future projects

  9. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

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    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:27169173

  10. The Frequency of Exfoliation Syndrome in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

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    Raşit Kılıç

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and to evaluate its relationship with cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Methods. Patients over the age of 45 years who presented to the clinic were included in the study. All cases underwent a comprehensive ophthalmology examination. Exfoliation syndrome was diagnosed with the presence of exfoliative material on the lens anterior capsule or iris on slit lamp examination. The patients were divided into two groups as the exfoliation syndrome group and nonexfoliation syndrome group according to the presence of exfoliative material. Results. Exfoliative material was found in one or both eyes of 212 of the 2103 patients (10.1% evaluated within the scope of the study. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and increasing age and male gender. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and phacodonesis. While no relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and hypertension or diabetes mellitus, a significant relationship was found with coronary artery disease. Conclusion. The unilateral or bilateral exfoliation syndrome frequency was 10.1% in this hospital-based study. A statistically significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and advancing age, gender, and coronary artery disease.

  11. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Catalhoyuk, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Axel K Schmitt

    Full Text Available A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ overlaps closely with (14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka. Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard.

  12. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

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    Ahmet Sami Erol; Evgeny Shein; Evgeny Milanovskiy; Fariz Mikailsoy; Fatih Er; Sabit Ersahin

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district) has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay), low organic carbon content (less than 1%), but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil...

  13. Isotope and geochemical survey of geothermal systems of Yozgat province in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Central Anatolia, which is subject to this project area, there are many geothermal fields. Turkish State Planning Organization (DPT) gives priority and encouragement to the investments of tourism and energy production. Our studies, in Central Anatolia are planned to focus on mainly Yozgat- Nevsehir region. But only Yozgat province results will be given in this paper. Detailed hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies have been carried out and periodic hydrogeochemical analyses made in Hacettep University International Research and Application Center for Karst Water Resources (UKAM) Laboratories. Analyses of samples (2H, 18O, 3H) which were periodically collected from thermal and cold water spots in the project area have been made in IAEA. Hydrogeologic models for important geothermal fields in Yozgat region have been realized as a result of this study. Following are the results obtained from the isotopic evaluations of the geothermal fields: According to the δ18O vs. δ2H relation of rain and snow water samples, the project area represents a climatic transition zone between the East Mediterranean and Central Anatolia Climatic - Geographic Regions by the local meteoric line equation of δ2H=8*δ18O+14; according to the tritium analyses, thermal waters have deep and long groundwater flow paths and these waters are generally older than 50 years; according to the δ18O vs. δ2H relation, there are 18O shift in Yozgat-Saraykent, Bogazliyan and Sorgun; Yozgat-Saraykent, Sorgun and Bogazliyan geothermal fields are important for geothermal applications as mainly central heating and balneological utilization possibilities. (author). 21 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

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    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  15. Intraplate Deformation of the Anatolian Micro Plate on the Amasya Branch Fault in Central Anatolia, Turkey

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    Okumura, K.

    2010-12-01

    The discrepancy between geologic and geodetic slip rate along the North Anatolian fault has been more evident as solid incremental (Kondo et al. 2010) and cumulative (Kozaci et al. 2009, Okumura et al. 2010) slip rate data are accumulated. The strain transient effect (Kozaci et al. 2009) could be a plausible cause for the discrepancy. At the same time, the seismicity, crustal deformation, and active structures indicate significant amount of distributed tectonic strain far inside the Anatolian micro plate. The accumulation and release of the distributed strain may affect the seismic cycle of the plate boundary. However, there is almost no quantitative information on the earthquakes and faults in central Anatolia. Considering the magnitude of the discrepancy, it is important to understand the intra-plate tectonics and to prepare for the seismic hazard in less active intra-plate areas. For this purpose, the author carried out detailed survey of the Amasya fault. Amasya fault is the only major branch of the North Anatolian fault in Central Anatolia. While the main strand of the North Anatolian fault steps at the Niksar basin, the Amasya fault is the westward continuation of the North Anatolian fault along the Kerkit river valley in the east. The fault extends to southwest over 250 km into the Anatolian micro plate. In 1939 about 100 km long eastern portion of the Amasya fault ruptured together with the 200 km long main strand between Niksar and Erzincan. The location and slip distribution of the 1939 ruptures, as well as slip-rate and paleoseismicity on the Amasya fault have been studied very little. Preliminary fault mapping between 36° E and 37° E was done with Google-Earth satellite photos and 1939 rupture locations were confirmed on site by interviews to aged local people. Cumulative slip measurement and slip-rate estimation were conducted in east of Canbolat (37.6228° E) and east of Findicak (36.4572° E). At Canbolat, 11.4 m cumulative offset was measured on

  16. Eocene benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Central Anatolia (Turkey): Biostratigraphy, stable isotope data, paleoenvironmental and paleontological interpretations

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    Dinçer, Feyza

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) values from Eocene aged shallow marine deposits in two different basins (Haymana and Kırşehir-Kaman) of Central Anatolia and benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy's corresponding sequences were analyzed to determine paleontological and paleoenvironmental changes. The shallow marine units (Çayraz and Altıpınar formations), deposited as a result of different geological processes in the same period, show differences in paleontological and geochemical properties of the tests. The geological process controlled by environmental factors affect the formation of the chemical structure of foraminiferal calcite. These Lutetian and Bartonian aged formations are represented by five Shallow Benthic Zones. While, the Çayraz section is represented by SBZ 14-18, Boztepe section is represented by SBZ 13-17. With an increase in temperature, the variety of benthic foraminifera decreased, and Assilina exponens became the dominant species in the warm conditions. The most important proxy is δ13C, which reflects the paleoproductivity (food supply) where benthic foraminifera lived. In addition, food supply can be considered to be a more important factor than temperature, as it controls the diversity and abundance of benthic foraminifera.

  17. A survey study on hantavirus, cowpox virus, and Leptospira infections in Microtus hartingi in Kırşehir Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey

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    AZKUR, Ahmet Kürşat; Kaygusuz, Sedat; ASLAN, Muhammet Eren

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether hantaviruses, cowpox viruses, or Leptospira infections were prevalent in Microtus hartingi trapped in Kırşehir Province, located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Leptospira spp. was detected in 20 of the 43 (46.5%) Microtus hartingi kidney samples and confirmed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Five of the 20 Leptospira spp. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced, analyzed, and confirmed as Leptospira spp. This...

  18. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Cenozoic high-K calc-alkaline volcanism in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

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    Temel, Abidin; Gündoğdu, M. Niyazi; Gourgaud, Alain

    1998-10-01

    Late Miocene to Pliocene volcanic rocks outcrop west, northwest and southwest of the Konya area in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Volcanic products are lava domes, nuée ardentes and ignimbrite deposits, predominantly andesitic to dasitic in composition, together with rare basalt, basaltic andesite, basaltic trachyandesite and trachyandesite (50.35-69.39% SiO 2). The serie exhibits high-K calc-alkaline affinities. Fractional crystallization of pyroxene, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxides is the main process in the magmatic evolution of Konya volcanic rocks. Volcanic units exhibit typical high-K calc-alkaline character. Their geochemical characteristics (e.g., enrichments in LIL elements such as K, Rb, Ba, Sr, depletion in HFSE such as Ti, Nb, and high Ba/Nb and Low Nb/Y ratios) are consistent with those of active continental margin regions. High 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.704841-0.707340) and low 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.512390-0.512618) ratios suggest crustal involvement in their petrogenesis. Correlations between 86Sr/ 87Sr isotope with Rb, Rb/Nb, Rb/Ba, and Rb/Sr also emphasize the effect of crustal contamination on the andesitic and dacitic magmas. As a consequence, Konya volcanic rocks are products of assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) processes of a magma which seems to be linked to the subduction of the African plate underneath the Anatolian plate during Miocene.

  19. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

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    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  20. Radiocarbon age distribution of groundwater in the Konya Closed Basin, central Anatolia, Turkey

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    Bayari, C. Serdar; Ozyurt, N. Nur; Kilani, Susan

    2009-03-01

    Annual abstraction of 2.6 × 109 m3 of groundwater in the 53,000 km2 Konya Closed Basin of central Turkey has caused a head decline of 1 m/year over the last few decades. Therefore, understanding the hydrogeology of this large endorheic basin, in a semi-arid climate, is important to sustainable resource management. For this purpose, the groundwater’s radiocarbon age distribution has been investigated along a 150-km transect parallel to regional flow. Results show that the groundwater ranges in age from Recent at the main recharge area of the Taurus Mountains in the south, to about 40,000 years around the terminal Salt Lake located in the north. In this predominantly confined flow system, radiocarbon ages increase linearly by distance from the main recharge area and are in agreement with the hydraulic ages. The mean velocity of regional groundwater flow (3 m/year) is determined by the rate of regional groundwater discharge into the Salt Lake. Calcite dissolution, dedolomitization and geogenic carbon dioxide influx appear to be the dominant geochemical processes that determine the carbon isotope composition along the regional flow path. The groundwater’s oxygen-18 content indicates more humid and cooler paleorecharge. A maximum drop of 5°C is inferred for the past recharge temperature.

  1. Age and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of partially remagnetized lacustrine sedimentary rocks (Oligocene Aktoprak basin, central Anatolia, Turkey)

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    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Strauss, Becky E.; Özkaptan, Murat; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Mulch, Andreas; Whitney, Donna L.; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin

    2016-03-01

    The age and paleoenvironmental record of lacustrine deposits in the Aktoprak basin of south-central Turkey provides information about the evolution of topography, including the timing of development of an orographic rain shadow caused by uplift of the mountain ranges fringing the Central Anatolian Plateau. New magnetostratigraphy-based age estimates, in combination with existing biostratigraphic ages, suggest that the partially remagnetized Kurtulmuş Tepe section of the basin is Chattian (Upper Oligocene). The mean carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ18O= 24.6 ± 2.0 ‰, δ13C= -4.9 ± 1.1‰) are largely constant through the section and indicative of a subtropical, open freshwater lake. These isotopic values are also similar to those of the Chattian Mut basin to the south, on the Mediterranean side of the modern orographic barrier (Tauride Mountains), and indicate absence of an orographic barrier during Late Oligocene basin deposition. Post-depositional partial remagnetization occurred after tilting of the basin sequence and was mineralogically controlled, affecting grey, carbonate-rich rocks (average %CaCO3= 82), whereas interlayered pink carbonate-poor rocks (average %CaCO3= 38) carry a primary, pretilt magnetization. The pink rocks are rich in clay minerals that may have reduced the permeability of these rocks that carry a primary magnetization, concentrating basinal fluid flow in the carbonate-rich grey layers and leading to the removal and reprecipitation of magnetic minerals. The normal and reverse polarities recorded by the remagnetized rocks suggest that remagnetization occurred over a protracted period of time.

  2. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies in Aksaray geothermal fields central Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area is located at eastern part of Aksaray province in Central Anatolia. The basement rocks of studied area is Paleozoic aged Bozcaldag formation composed of marble, schist and gneiss and Cretaseous aged granitoid intrusion intrude within these basement rocks. These rock units are overlain uncomfortably by middle miocene to Quaternary aged volcanic rocks of Cappadocian volcanic belt interlayer sediments. The compositions of these units are mainly represented by tuff, ignimbrite, reworked tuff interlayer sediments, basalt lavas, ash fall deposits, pumice and dasite to rhyodasitic lava domes.The study area contains Ziga and Acigoel (Narkoey) thermal area, which they have similar geologic environments with in the Cappadocian volcanic belt of the Tertiary to Quaternary age. Existence of surface manifestation like that high regional heat flow, the presence of expanding acidic to weakly acidic hydrothermal alteration surrounding the geothermal area, hot springs which have a temperature of 44-65 degrees indicating the important of geothermal possibilities in the area. Water chemistry studies have been carried out on 34 water samples to estimate relation between hot and cold water, calculate reservoir temperature using geothermometre and mixing models, hydrological isotope studies were carried out to on 10 samples to clarify extending of recharging area and travel time from recharging area to discharging area. Water analyses results were assested using some diagram such as Fournier Cl-Entalphy, SiO2-Entalphy, Langelier- Ludwig, Piper, schoeller etc to classify them. Water-rock interaction have been tried to be define on the base of these result.On the base of water chemistry analyses, all of the cold waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and CaHCO3 type. the hot waters in Ziga field classified as Na-Cl-HCO3 type and As and B bearing mineralized hot water. Geothermal fluids in Acigoel field, classified as Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl type and B bearing mineralized hot water, and

  3. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K; Danišík, Martin; Aydar, Erkan; Şen, Erdal; Ulusoy, İnan; Lovera, Oscar M

    2014-01-01

    A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey) has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th)/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th)/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ) overlaps closely with (14)C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka). Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard. PMID:24416270

  4. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener

    2007-04-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep meats purchased from retailstores in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Kader; PİŞKİN, FATMA ÇİĞDEM; ÜTÜK, ARMAĞAN ERDEM; GÖKPINAR, SAMİ

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic diseases of humans. In particular, sheep muscles are significant sources of infection in the transmission of toxoplasmosis. Carnivorism is the most important transmission route for human populations. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in sheep meats in retail stories of Turkey. A total of 250 boneless sheep meat samples were purchased from randomly selected retail stores in differe...

  6. Determination of Boron Level in Feeds Used in Cattle Nutrition in Regions of Central Anatolia and Mediterranean of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SERBESTER, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, samples of forage (alfalfa hay, corn silage, silage of common vetch with triticale, wheat straw), feed ingredient (barley grain, corn grain, wheat grain, wheat bran, corn meal, corn bran, corn gluten meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal, dried digestible grain solubilty), and concentrate feed (calf grower feed, heifer feed, dairy cattle feed and beef cattle feed) were collected from various feed mills and dairy cattle farms in the Central Anatolia and M...

  7. Petrographic and Facies Properties of the Evaporites in the Cihanbeyli-Yeniceoba Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami Us, Muhammed; Tekin, Erdoǧan

    2016-04-01

    supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK-CAYDAG) with 113 Y 090 numbered project.

  8. Aksaray and Ecemis faults - Diapiric salt relationships: relevance to the hydrocarbon exploration in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, Bulent [Ankara Univ., Dept. of Geology, Tandogan (Turkey)

    2004-09-15

    Due to activity of the Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, volcanic intrusion and westward movement of the Anatolian plate, diapiric salt structures were occurred in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) basin in central Anatolia, Turkey. With the collisions of the Arabian and Anatolian plates during the late Cretaceous and Miocene times, prominent ophiolitic obduction occurred in the Pontides and Taurides along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF). The NAF and EAF intersect each other in the Karliova region, in eastern Turkey. At this point, due to the northward movement of the Arabian plate in SE Turkey, the Anatolian plate shifted toward the west and south along the fault zones. The same geological tectonic model is proposed at the intersection point of the Aksaray Fault (AF) and Ecemis Fault (EF) in central Anatolia. The westward movement of the Anatolian plate between these two faults resulted in the formation of the diapiric salt structures, volcanic intrusions and overpressure zones in the study area. Paleogeological reconstructions of the Tuz Golu basin indicate that the salient positive structures in the basin were formed during late Eocene-Oligocene times. These structures, like the Yeniceoba-Bezirci and Karapinar-Kochisar trends, are oriented in a NW-SE or N-S directions between the Kirsehir and Sivrihisar-Bozdag massifs. The subsidence rate and Paleogeographic evolutions in the basin show that the southeastern sector of the Tuz Golu basin remained shallower relative to the central and northwestern regions. Based on the paleostructural, subsidence and geothermal reconstructions, it has been concluded that the oil generation and migration zones and geothermal trends are oriented in a NW-SE direction in the Tuz Golu basin. (Author)

  9. Size-distribution of scoria cones within the Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslular, G.; Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, G.; Arcasoy, A.

    2015-08-01

    Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (EMF) is one of the five clusters of monogenetic volcanoes in Quaternary Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). EMF consists mainly of scoria cones and a few maars (e.g. Kutören, Obruk). Previous studies on monogenetic volcanoes of CAVP mainly focused on petrologic evolution of scoria cones rather than the statistical analyses of their morphological parameters. Using the database compiled by Arcasoy (2001) for the morphometric parameters of the scoria cones in the EMF, we present the power-law behavior of their size distribution with respect to basal diameters (Wco) of 77-scoria cones from the whole database. Both empirical (maximum likelihood estimation, MLE) and graphical (log-log plot) methods are used for the estimation of scaling parameter "b-value" of power-law for the scoria cones which have basal diameter greater than or equal to 0.36 km. However, graphical method gives the precise result with the b-value of 2.78 ± 0.08 for 77-scoria cones over the width range 0.1-1.23 km. Herein, b-value indicates the relative number of the small scoria cones with respect to large ones for a given area. The power-law behavior of the size distribution of scoria cones in the EMF suggests that their occurrence is self-organized critical phenomena similar to earthquakes. Since the size-distribution of scoria cones provides information about their eruptive magnitude and occurrence mechanism, our results can be directly applied to future risk assessment of the CAVP.

  10. Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKTÜRK, Ramazan Süleyman; Sümbül, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae) is described and illustrated from south Anatolia, Turkey. The species grows on steppe and stony places in Anamur (C4 Mersin province) in south Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar taxa are discussed. The geographical distribution of the new species and two closely related species in Turkey are mapped.

  11. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    E. Sarifakioglu; Dilek, Y.; M. Sevin

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic...

  12. The Konya earthquakes of 10–11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aksoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10–11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  13. The Konya earthquakes of 10-11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, R.; Demiröz, A.

    2012-02-01

    Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10-11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  14. Planktonic and benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Middle Eocene-Lower Miocene successions from the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Aynur; Özgen-Erdem, Nazire; Kangal, Özgen

    2016-02-01

    Planktonic and benthic foraminifera are described from the Middle Eocene-Lower Miocene successions in the Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia. An integrated foraminiferal zonation provides new age assignments in terms of a great number of taxa for the studied sections. Four biostratigraphical intervals are first recorded based on the concurrent ranges of sporadically occurring but well preserved planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The first interval characterized by the co-occurrences of Acarinina bullbrooki, Truncorotaloides topilensis and Turborotalia cerroazulensis is referable to the E11 Zone of late Lutetian-early Bartonian. An assemblage yielding Paragloborotalia opima accompanied by Globigerinella obesa forms a basis for the late Chattian O5 Zone. The successive interval corresponds to the late Chattian O6 Zone indicated by the presence of Globigerina ciperoensis and Globigerinoides primordius along with the absence of Paragloborotalia opima. The early Aquitanian M1 Zone can be tentatively defined based mainly on the assemblage of Globigerina, Globigerinella, Globoturborotalita and Tenuitella. The biostratigraphical data obtained from the benthic foraminifera assign the studied sections to the SBZ 21-22, SBZ 23 and SBZ 24 ranging in age from Rupelian to Aquitanian. The SBZ 23 and 24 are well constrained biozones by the occurrences of Miogypsinella complanata and Miogypsina gunteri, respectively, whereas the SBZ 21-22 defined by nummulitids and lepidocylinids in the Tethyan Shallow Benthic Zonation is characterized dominantly by peneroplids, soritids and miliolids in the studied sections. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest different paleoenvironments covering lagoon, algal reef and shallow open marine whereas planktonic foraminifera provides evidence for relatively deep marine settings on the basis of assemblages characterized by a mixture of small-sized simple and more complex morphogroups indicative for intermediate depths of the water column.

  15. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  16. Petrogenesis of the Çiçekdağ Igneous Complex, N of Kırşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Sabah; BOZTUĞ, DURMUŞ

    1998-01-01

    Central Anatolia typically represents well-preserved geological features of a collision zone. This collision zone is characterized by some geological events occurred in the Anatolide passive margin of the Anatolide-Pontide collision along the Ankara Erzincan suture zone. This suture zone is commonly known to be formed by the pre-Maastrichtian northward subduction of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys beneath the Pontides which was constituting the southernmost tip of Eurasiain plate at that...

  17. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.; Gemici, M.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  18. The Role of Fractional Crystallization and Magma Mixing/Mingling in the Genesis of Karacaali Magmatic Complex (Central Anatolia, Turkey) Fe, Mo-Cu Mineralizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibas, O.; Genc, Y.; de Campos, C. P.

    2009-05-01

    This work brings into focus different metal associations (Fe and Mo-Cu) characteristic for the Karacaali Magmatic Complex (KMC), in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The Mo-Cu mineralization is widespread hosted in rhyolitic-rhyodacitic/granidoid rocks or is related to N-S striking vertical quartz-calcite veins. The Fe mineralization, on the other hand, is hosted in gabbroic/basaltic rocks. Field relations and geochronologic studies on single zircons (U-Pb) point towards a coeval temporal relation between plutonites and volcanites. The relatively overlapping ages between monzonite (73.1 Ma) and rhyolitic rocks (67 Ma) reflect a long lasting gradual crystallization within a zoned magma chamber. This is confirmed by progressive transitional contacts from plutonites into volcanites. Based on detailed field, textural and petrographic studies, granitic and monzonitic rocks have been subdivided into four different facies. These are: porphyritic quartz monzonites, quartz-monzonites, fine-grained granites and porphyritic leucogranites. Furthermore, highly diverse textures and structures, which are typical for hybrid rocks, reveal important magma mixing/migling and fractional crystalization processes. From additional geochemical studies, granitic rocks show high Rb/Sr (1.52), nearly flat REE patterns and strong Eu negative anomalies. However; monzonitic and hybrid rocks have relatively low Rb/Sr ratios (0.37 and 0.32) and depleted HREE patterns. Thus, in this complex, granitic rocks are considered as evolved products from the felsic magma. Strong positive Mo-correlation within the granitoids can be explained by a high degree of magmatic fractionation (Ishihara and Tani, 2004). Therefore, last evolved granitic melts are enriched in Mo- rich volatiles giving rise to molybdenite-quartz-calcite veins. Field, macro-micro and chemical studies evidence a co-magmatic origin for the gabbroic/basaltic-hosted Fe-mineralization. Despite the very close relation between compositional character

  19. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry trees. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  20. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry forests. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  1. Biological Studies on groundwater Crustaceans in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Könemann, Stefan

    1997-01-01

    In 1987 a major biospeleogical expedition, ‘Speleo Nederland’, was carried out along the coastal Taurus mountains in southwest Anatolia (Turkey). ‘Speleo Nederland’ was focused on collecting the fauna of caves, wells, subterranean waterflows, and the interstices of marine gravel beaches. The special yield of stygobiont crustaceans, predominantly amphipods of the genus Bogidiella, promised to serve as an interesting case study to the colonization of inland groundwater by marine organisms. Now,...

  2. Scaling Earthquake Ground Motions in Western Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; D'Amico, S.; University of Malta; Malagnini, L.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Mercuri, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we provide a complete description of the ground-motion characteristics of the western Anatolia region of Turkey. The attenuation of ground motions with distance and the variability in excitation with magnitude are parameterized using three-component 0.25-10.0 Hz earthquake ground motions at distances of 15 - 250 km. The data set is comprised of more than 11,600 three-component seismograms from 902 regional earthquakes of local magnitude (ML) 2.5 to 5.8, recorded ...

  3. The dune systems of the Konya Plain (Turkey): their relation to environmental changes in Central Anatolia during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzucuoglu, C.; Parish, R.; Karabiyikoglu, M.

    1998-06-01

    Several sand flats located on the northern shores of the Late Pleistocene palaeolake of the Konya plain (inner Anatolia, Turkey), are related to changes in lake levels. In this paper, the two main dune systems are mapped according to their geomorphological, sedimentological and dynamic characteristics, and their significance is discussed with regard to the environmental changes since the Late Pleistocene, both at time of the former lake and during the drier periods of the Holocene. Cross-sections show the relationship of the dunes to the topography of the basement. Analyses of the sand fraction show distinct characteristics in size distribution, quartz and shell contents, wind erosion effects on the quartz grains and petrographic composition. Interpretation of the results, coupled with information provided by the geomorphology of the dune systems studied in the field and from aerial photographs and satellite images, highlights the importance and variations in time of local factors such as prevailing winds, sand sources, changes in lake levels and vegetation. A chronology of the main sand fields is proposed, based on the evidence of three main droughts during the Upper Pleistocene. The older one, much eroded (maximum height=3 m), covers a limestone surface at +50 m above the bottom of the dried lake. An Optical Scanning Luminescence (OSL) date shows a last period of accumulation at 14,328±3220 years. The younger one (maximum height=12 m) has moved over the emerged Late Pleistocene lacustrine marls. An OSL date gives an age of 5674±988 years for the last accumulation period. Evidence of very recent activation of this younger dune system is apparent as a result of overgrazing and excessive land reclamation. A third period of dominant wind action and dune construction is responsible for the installation of a younger and thin dune field over the Mid-Holocene lacustrine deposits of the Karapinar lake. The success of the stabilization programme of the dunes over the

  4. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  5. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of onychomycosis in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Central Anatolia of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gulgun; Elcin Balci; Abdulbaki Karaoglu; Vural Kesik; Oguzhan Babacan; Muzaffer Kursat Fidanci; Turker Turker; Duran Tok; Nedret Koc

    2013-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a world-wide public health concern in children, requiring epidemiological data for different regions for control and prevention. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predominant pathogens and risk factors for onychomycosis in school children living in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: This study included 8122 school children, aged 5-16 years, living in the rural and urban areas around Kayseri. Onychomycosis was clinically classified as distal and lateral subungu...

  7. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan;

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distributi...

  8. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...... pink flowers with orange-brown filaments. A key to the Turkish taxa of Clematis is provided....

  9. Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from inner Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, H.; Pirhan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to the inner part of West Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to S. pamphylica and differs from that species in having a densely tufted habit with compact and much-branched woody base, subfleshy, narrowly...

  10. Petrology of the Post-Collisional, Within-Plate Yıldızdağ Gabbroic Pluton, Yıldızeli-Sivas Region, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BOZTUĞ, DURMUŞ; YAĞMUR, Mustafa; OTLU, Nazmi; YEŞİLTAŞ, Sibel TATAR and Akif

    1998-01-01

    The Yildizdag gabbroic pluton intrudes the Paleocene-Eocene Yakupoğlan formation which is imbricated with the ophiolitic melange of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean, and the crustal metasediments of Kırsehir block or Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex. It is subdivided into some mapable subunits such as gabbroic main body, dioritic marginal facies and microdioritic dykes. Mineralogical-geochemical (major, some trace and REE) data reveal that the magnetite + olivine + augite ...

  11. Biostratigraphy of Cretaceous-Paleogene marine succession, foraminiferal changes across the K/T boundary, sequence stratigraphy and response to sedimentary cyclicity in the Haymana Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the planktonic foraminiferal biozonation, to construct the sequence stratigraphical framework and to determine the foraminiferal response to sedimentary cyclicity in the sedimentary sequence spanning Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene in the Haymana basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey). In order to achieve this study, the stratigraphic section was measured from sedimentary sequence of the Haymana, Beyobası and Yeşilyurt formations. The sedimentary sequence is mainly characterized by flyschoidal sequence that is composed of alternating of siliciclastic and carbonate units. On the account of the detailed taxonomic study of planktonic foraminifers, the biostratigraphic framework was established for the Maastrichtian-Paleocene interval. The biozonation includes 7 zones; Pseudoguembelina hariaensis, Pα, P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 zones. The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/P) boundary was delineated between the samples HEA-105 and 106. In order to construct the sequence-stratigraphical framework, the A, B, C and D-type meter-scale cycles were identified. Based on the stacking patterns of them, six depositional sequences, six third and two second order cycles were determined. Third order cycles coincide with the Global Sea Level Change Curve. On the account of the conducted petrographic analysis sandstone, mudstone, marl, limestone and muddy-limestone lithofacies were recorded in the studied samples. In order to demonstrate the response of foraminifers to cyclicity, quantitative analysis has been carried out by counting the individuals of planktonic, benthonic foraminifers and ostracods. The best response to sedimentary cyclicity was revealed from planktonic foraminifers. The average abundance of planktonic foraminifers increases in the transgressive systems tract and decreases in the highstand systems tract. Foraminifera are the most abundant marine protozoa in the benthic, epipelagic and pelagic realm. Because of the complexity and diversity of habitats

  12. Overwintered Hatchlings of Emys orbicularis from Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Ayaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During our monitoring survey of amphibians and Emys orbicularis in Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey, we observed four overwintered hatchlings of European pond turtle on May 4 and 10, 2010. The average straightline maximum carapace length of the neonates captured was 26.48 mm and their average weight was 4.18 g. This observation is the second record for the Turkish population of Emys orbicularis.

  13. Drainage Evolution during the Uplift of the Central Anatolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Meijers, M. J.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaymakci, N.; Whitney, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian plateau formed in the past 8-6 Myrs, associated to a change in tectonic regime, from contraction to extensional escape tectonics. We have examined the response of the river drainage of Central Anatolia to the rise of the plateau uplift and to the formation of the Anatolian microplate, tracking changes in drainage organization. Anatolia experienced widespread rock uplift and erosion in the Late Oligocene, generating a narrow, steep, and quickly eroding mountain range above the future southern plateau margin. A regionally widespread marine transgression resulted from wholesale foundering of this orogen in Early Miocene time. Widespread planation surfaces overlapped by Miocene marine carbonates bevel this topography, indicating that relief had been reduced to a low elevation pedimented landscape by the end of the Middle Miocene. Plateau uplift initiated around 11 My ago in Eastern Anatolia; it was echoed in Central Anatolia by a short-lived phase of contraction and localized uplifts that predate escape tectonics and mark the beginning of the current topographic differentiation of the southern plateau margin. The through-going drainage network inherited disintegrated, and a vast zone of inward drainage formed at the location of the future plateau interior. Between 8 and 6 My, the southern plateau margin (i.e. the Tauride Mountains) emerged. δ18O analyses on lacustrine and pedogenic carbonates show that the southern plateau margin, if not the plateau interior, had experienced enough uplift by 5 My to generate a substantial rain shadow over the plateau interior. Being disconnected from the regional base level from the start, the plateau interior was able to rise without experiencing substantial dissection. It reconnected to all surrounding sediment sinks (Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Persian Gulf) over the past 5 My. We discuss the mechanisms that have driven this reconnection. Bottom-up processes of integration such as drainage divide retreat

  14. A New Juno Iris from North-east Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNER, Adil; DUMAN, Hayri

    2007-01-01

    A new late flowering, reddish brown Iris L. species from the subgenus Scorpiris Spach, Iris nezahatiae Güner & H.Duman, is described and illustrated from north-east Turkey. Its distinguishing characters, affinities, and ecology are discussed and its threat category is assessed as 'Critically endangered (CR)'.

  15. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramat...

  16. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  17. Evaluation of the No-Till Demonstration Studies in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gürsoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The practice of no-till in crop production has gained popularity in recent years because it is a superior soil conservation practice and offers reduction in fuel and labor requirements. But, its adaption is very slow in many countries because of lack of knowledge, experience and machines. A series of demonstration studies was conducted to observe the performance of the no-till systems in farmers’ conditions in South East Anatolia region of Turkey. Four demonstration sites were established, each of which was also planted with farmers’ application for wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. after wheat, wheat after lentil (Lens Culinaris, L, wheat after cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and lentil after wheat in 2009-2010 growing season. Yield was higher under no-till planting (1.50 t ha-1 than farmers’ application (1.10 t ha-1 for lentil production after wheat. The no- till planting had similar yield to farmers’ application for wheat production after wheat and lentil. The yield performance of wheat following cotton for no-till ridge planting and farmers’ application was not consistent at three demonstration sites. In conclusion, the studies of the demonstration showed that no-till planting may be used in lentil and wheat production following wheat and lentil under these weather and soil conditions in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey.

  18. Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamir, Dilekcan; Abgarmi, Bizhan; Arda Özacar, A.

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of Seismic Anisotropy Across Central Anatolia by Shear Wave Splitting Dilekcan Pamir, Bizhan Abgarmi, A. Arda Özacar Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Dumlupinar Bulvari 1, 06800 Ankara, Turkey Central Anatolia holds the key to connect the theories about the ongoing tectonic escape, the African Plate subduction along Cyprus Arc and the indenter-style collision of Arabian Plate along Bitlis Suture. However, the shear wave splitting measurements which are needed to characterize seismic anisotropy are very sparse in the region. Recently, seismic data recorded by national seismic networks (KOERI, ERI-DAD) with dense coverage, provided a unique opportunity to analyze the effect of present slab geometry (slab tears, slab break-off) on mantle deformation and test different models of anisotropy forming mechanisms. In this study, the anisotropic structure beneath the Central Anatolia is investigated via splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at 46 broadband seismic stations. Our measurements yielded 1171 well-constrained splitting and 433 null results. Overall, the region displays NE-SW trending fast splitting directions and delay times on the order of 1 sec. On the other hand, a large number of stations which are spatially correlated with Cyprus Slab, Neogene volcanism and major tectonic structures present significant back azimuthal variations on splitting parameters that cannot be explained by one-layered anisotropy with horizontal symmetry. Thus, we have modeled anisotropy for two-layered structures using a forward approach and identified NE-SW trending fast splitting directions with delay times close to 1 sec at the lower layer and N-S, NW-SE trending fast splitting with limited time delays (0.1 - 0.3 sec) at the upper layer. Fast directions and delay times of the lower layer are similar to one-layered anisotropy and parallel or sub-parallel to the absolute plate motions which favors asthenospheric flow model

  19. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahfer Güloğlu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  20. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluocak, Ebru Şengül; Pysklywec, Russell; Göğüş, Oğuz H.

    2016-06-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift, and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of "dynamic topography". Two-dimensional thermo-mechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along a N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior, and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity, and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sub-lithospheric flow driven by the seismically-inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myrs. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  1. Determination of hydrocarbon prospective areas in the Tuzgolu (Saltlake) Basin, central Anatolia, by using geophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydemir, Attila [Turkiye Petrolleri A.O. Mustafa Kemal Mah. 2.Cad. No: 86, 06100 Sogutozu, Ankara (Turkey); Ates, Abdullah [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Tuzgolu Basin is the largest interior basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey, with significant hydrocarbon indications in outcrops and exploration wells. However, there is no commercial discovery since 1959 which is the beginning year of exploration activities. Because of the poor seismic quality, all available geological-geophysical data and methods should be used in integration with each other to carry out exploration activities. In previous studies, the basin was modeled three dimensionally (3D) using gravity data by the authors of this paper and results of the modeling study were published recently. The model results can be evaluated to determine probable hydrocarbon generation zones. Gravity anomalies in this region exhibit many inflections that could be prospective locations for hydrocarbons. In this study, the gravity data were subjected to the vertical derivative in order to isolate inflections and to determine concealed structurally high areas in the subsurface that could have hydrocarbon potential. These potential subsurface structures were also compared with the Analytical Signal map produced from the aeromagnetic anomalies to reveal if they are originated from a magmatic intrusion. Finally, it was determined that all exploration wells were drilled off-structure and none of these potential subsurface structures was tested. According to correlation of the previous well locations and determined subsurface structures in or around the hydrocarbon generation zones, it is possible to claim that the Tuzgolu Basin with no previous discovery remains prospective for hydrocarbon exploration activities in the future. (author)

  2. Investigation of lithospheric deformation and mantle anisotropy beneath Central Anatolia from Shear Wave Splitting Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoman, U.; Polat, G.; Sandvol, E. A.; Turkelli, N.; Kahraman, M.; Özacar, A.; Beck, S. L.; Delph, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    With the primary objective of investigating the upper mantle anisotropy beneath central Anatolia-Turkey, we have performed shear wave splitting analysis and calculated the fast polarization directions and time-delays benefiting from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 65 broadband sensors that were deployed in early May 2013 and operated for two years as a part of CD-CAT project (Continental Dynamics Central Anatolian Tectonics, funded by NSF with instruments supplied by PASSCAL depository). To further enhance the station coverage in the region, we also included data from 45 permanent broadband stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). During the analysis, we have used the SplitLab software to determine splitting parameters of the records from only SKS and SKKS phases. Our initial results were derived from teleseismic earthquakes (with magnitudes greater than 5.8) that occurred within the time period from May-2013 to 2014. The average fast polarization directions obtained from stations located in the vicinity of the East Anatolia Fault Zone are well aligned with the fault trend indicating NE-SW orientations. Furthermore, we did not observe significant variations in the polarization directions and the delay times along the fault zone. Stations deployed in the vicinity of Central Anatolian fault zone exhibit N-S fast directions in good agreement with the fault trend. The average delay time for the whole study area is slightly higher than 1 second. Rapid spatial variations in splitting parameters are observed only in Adana region and the surrounding area. This probably suggests that the contribution of crustal anisotropy to mantle anisotropy is quite high. This observation is also consistent with the known tectonic structure of this region, which is presumably related to fabrics within deep crustal rocks preserving a record of deformation. This point should also need to be supported with

  3. Tectonics of the Central Anatolia Plateau between the Black Sea and the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Fernandez-Blanco, David; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    The Central Anatolia Plateau, focus point of the TopoEurope Vertical Anatolia Movement Project, is an elevated area (ca. 1.5km) with fairly smooth topography bounded to the N and to the S by mountain ranges (Pontides and Taurus) and flanked by marine domains (Black Sea and Cilicia Basin-Eastern Mediterranean). Towards the south the Cilicia Basin passes to the Island of Cyprus and eventually to the Cyprus subduction zone and African plate. To constrain the evolution of the CAP from its birth in the Miocene to present, we present the evolution of an upper crustal section stretching from the Black Sea to Cyprus with particular focus on a 350km long segment from the central part of the Plateau (Tüz Gölü) to the Cilicia Basin. This entire area occupies an upper plate position with respect to the Cyprus subduction zone. Tectonics from Early to Late Miocene times were fairly simple and characterized by a gently southward dipping basement experiencing generalized subsidence. Depositional environments gradually changed from continental in the north to shallow marine in the south. The overall tectonic regime during this stage is poorly constrained. In the Late Miocene the entire area of the future CAP began moving upward. At the same time, subsidence continued in the Cilicia basin. Uplift above sea level in the south is nicely recorded by the termination of marine sedimentation and the onset of erosion. Dominant tectonic structures during this stage are associated with N-S shortening. The largest structures caused the formation of the large S-dipping monocline characteristics of S Turkey. The coexistence of upward and downward movements (in the CAP and in the Cilicia basin respectively) as well as the dominant contractional regime suggest that the development of the CAP is related to dynamic changes in the Cyprus subduction zone. We validate this hypothesis with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled models. We demonstrate that the growth of the upper plate forearc basin system

  4. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO2. The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  5. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored.

  6. May-June precipitation reconstruction of southwestern Anatolia, Turkey during the last 900 years from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchan, Ramzi; Akkemik, Ünal; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Erkan, Nesat

    2007-09-01

    A May-June precipitation reconstruction (AD 1097-2000) has been developed for southwestern Anatolia in Turkey, the longest reported to date in this region. The reconstruction was derived from a regional Juniperus excelsa chronology that was built from material sampled at four sites in the Antalya and Mersin Districts. The regional tree-ring chronology accounts for 51% of the variance of instrumentally observed May-June precipitation. The years AD 1518 to 1587 are the most humid period in the reconstruction, coinciding with a major shift in European climate. The driest 70-year period in the reconstruction is AD 1195 to 1264. The period AD 1591-1660 represents the third driest and was characterized by instability climatically, politically, and socially in Anatolia.

  7. Trouble in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R Anthonisen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Gulmez et al (pages 287-290 review the presentation, management and outcome of malignant mesothelioma in central Anatolia, Turkey. There is nothing particularly new about the disease here; it presents with chest pain, dyspnea and pleural effusion, is diagnosed by biopsy and has a miserable outcome whatever is done for it, just like malignant mesothelioma in Canada. Mesothelioma in Anatolia is unusual in that it is very common, with an approximately equal sex distribution, and frequently occurs in relatively young people. The reasons for this are not a mystery. Anatolia is a volcanic area; there is a lot of asbestos on or near the surface, and it is widely used as construction material, in painting, and as insulation (pages 287-290! Asbestos related disease is due to environmental, not occupational exposure, and exposure is more intense and occurs at an earlier age than in Canada. Not only that, but some areas of Anatolia are rich in erionite, and people build homes in and on erionite-bearing rocks. Erionite is apparently something like asbestos but worse in terms of carcinogenicity (1, perhaps because its crystals have large surface areas, and areas with erionite have an even higher incidence of mesothelioma.

  8. Effects of legumes, fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) and water are the main limiting factors for good wheat production in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. A traditional wheat-fallow cropping system is used by the majority of the farmers in the region. Inserting legumes in the rotation would, however, improve the soil fertility primarily through symbiotic N2-fixation. The main objectives of the present study were: a) to determine the N2-fixation capacity of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of the 15N technique; b) to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume; c) to assess the water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed conditions by using 15N and neutron probe techniques. In order to achieve these goals field experiments were conducted in two years (1992 and 1993) at three different locations, Ankara, Eskishir and Konya. In 1992, for each experimental layout there were 7 treatments at each site consisting of 4 legume plots, 2 wheat plots and 1 fallow plot. Only the legume plots received labelled (15NH4)2SO4 fertilizer for their isotope sub-plots. In 1993, winter wheat (Gerek-79) was sown to all plots and the 15N labelled fertilizer was applied on the opposite sites of the 1992 experimental plots. These results make us to suggest a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Meanwhile, the evaluation of the soil moisture balance at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicates that the winter lentil-wheat rotation should be preferred in these areas, due to more efficient use of water by the wheat crop after this rotation. 15 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  10. Origin of postcollisional intrusions in NW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for magma chamber processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysal, Namık

    2013-04-01

    Post-collisional magmatic activities of NW Anatolia are represented by a series of granitic intrusions and volcanic successions in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. These plutonic rocks have distinct textures, chemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotope characteristics. They consist of coarse grained, equigranular and/or hypidiomorphic textured granite, gronodiorite, monzogranite, quartz-monzonite, pyroxene-monzonite and leucocratic alkali feldspar granites. These intrusions are composed of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and biotite. However, leucocratic facies rocks contain tourmaline with minor amount of mafic minerals. Accessory phases are represented by zircon, apatite, monozite, magnetite, sphene and rarely allanite. ASI values of the plutonic rocks vary between 0.7 and 1.24. These intrusive rocks are therefore classified as metaluminous-peraluminous with I-type affinity. K2O contents show that the intrusive rock samples show calc-alkaline, high K-calc-alkaline and shoshonitic character. Initial 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.69980-0.70835), 143Nd/144Nd(t) (0.51238-0.51247) isotope ratios and negative ɛNd(t) (-4.4 - -2.6) values imply that these intrusive rocks could have been derived from enriched mantle sources. N-MORB normalized spidergrams of NW Anatolian plutonic rocks display enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE) indicating hydrous melting of a mantle wedge in a subduction zone and/or enrichment of the mantle source with an inherited subduction component from an ancient arc magmatism. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element spidergrams are indicative of the importance of plagioclase and amphibole fractionation. On tectonic discrimination diagrams, all granite samples fall into the volcanic arc granite, syn and post-collisional granite fields. The geochemical data also indicate that a number of magma chamber processes involving magma mixing, fractional

  11. Mineral and whole-rock geochemistry of the Topuk Granitoid (Bursa, Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2014-05-01

    by the interaction of post-collisional, calc-alkaline, metaluminous and I-type coeval felsic and mafic magmas at shallow depths under similar physicochemical conditions. Keywords: Turkey, Western Anatolia, Topuk Granitoid, geochemistry. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK; YDABAG-111Y289).

  12. [A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek Şentürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; Kıcıman, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five

  13. High-K, calc-alkaline I-type granitoids from the composite Yozgat batholith generated in a post-collisional setting following continent-oceanic island arc collision in central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztuğ, D.; Arehart, G. B.; Platevoet, B.; Harlavan, Y.; Bonin, B.

    2007-11-01

    The composite Yozgat batholith consists of a S-I-A-type granitoid association intruding the supra-subduction zone-type (SSZ-type) central Anatolian ophiolite and medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the central Anatolian crystalline complex. These rocks are unconformably covered by Palaeocene to Early Eocene sedimentary rocks. The I-type granitoids are the most common rock association of this huge batholith. In an area between the towns of Şefaatli and Yerköy, the southwestern part of the batholith can be subdivided into five mappable units: the Akçakoyunlu quartz monzodiorite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling ages of 77.6-79.3 Ma); the Cankılı monzodiorite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling age of 71.1 Ma); the Adatepe quartz monzonite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling age of 68.0 Ma); the Yassıağıl monzogranite (felsic; hornblende + biotite K-Ar cooling ages of 69.9-79.8 Ma) and the Karakaya monzogranite (felsic; hornblende + biotite K-Ar cooling ages of 71.3-77.0 Ma). All the lithological units, except the Karakaya monzogranite, include large K-feldspar megacrysts and various types of mafic microgranular enclaves in field outcrops, indicating mingling and mixing. In addition, microscopic textures showing the hybridization between the coeval mafic and felsic magma sources are present. Whole-rock major element geochemistry shows a high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type composition with an aluminium saturation index (ASI) less than 1.10 and with CIPW diopside content in all the lithological units. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE), some high field strength elements (HFSE) (except Nb) enrichments and significant crustal contribution revealed by the oxygen and sulphur stable isotope compositions in the mafic and felsic I-type granitoid units are consistent with mafic lower crustal and metasomatized mantle sources the latter of which were metasomatized by earlier supra subduction zone (SSZ)-derived fluids during the

  14. Karyotypes of Nannospalax (Palmer 1903) populations (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from centraleastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel Coskun; Servet Ulutürk; Alaettin Kaya

    2010-01-01

    Riassunto
    Cariotipi di Nannospalax (Palmer 1903) (Rodentia, Spalacidae) dell’Anatolia centro-orientale, Turchia
    Sono stati analizzati i cariotipi di 20 (11 maschi e 9 femmine) Nannospalax catturati, nel periodo 2006-2009, in 11 località dell’Anatolia centro-orientale (Turchia). Sono state individuate sei diverse forme cromosomiche (2n=49; 2...

  15. Studies on fungal diseases of protected vegetable areas in central Anatolia region.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan, S.; Aşkın, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fungi are important pest groups causing important economic losses in protected vegetable areas. There are important lacks in both growing technique and greenhouse conditions in central Anatolia provinces. Vegetables grown in greenhouses are affected by the fungal pathogens that cause economic losses. Ror that, a study has been performed in 2003-2004 in Ankara, Çankırı, Zonguldak and Bartın provinces to detect the fungal pathogens and their prevelance in seedling, flower and fruit stage...

  16. [Evaluation of the oropharyngeal tularemia cases admitted to our hospital from the provinces of Central Anatolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Melek; Cengiz, Buğra; Unlü, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk; Eryılmaz, Adil

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic infection which has re-emerged in Turkey in recent years as water-borne endemics. Oropharyngeal form is the most frequently reported form of the disease from Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of oropharyngeal tularemia patients admitted to ear, nose & throat outpatient clinic between January-March 2010. A total of 10 patients (age range: 16-80 years, mean age: 43.9 years; nine were male) inhabiting in the provinces in Central Anatolia, Turkey, were admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, sore throat and painful cervical lump. They have been previously diagnosed as tonsillo-pharyngitis at different medical centers and empirical antibiotic therapy has initiated, however, their complaints have not recovered. Endoscopic laryngoscopic examination revealed that oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx were normal. Physical examination of the neck yielded localized fixed masses with diameters between 2-7 cm. The lesions were localized at right submandibular (n= 4), upper jugular (n=3) and one of each at left posterior cervical, left submandibular and left jugulodigastric regions. The patients were hospitalized with the pre-diagnosis of "neck mass with unknown origin" for further investigation and treatment. The mean white blood cell count of the cases was 9730 (7500-15.100) cells/µl; the mean erythrocyte sedimantation rate was 68.7 (46-85) mm3/hours and the mean C-reactive protein level was 4.3 (1.5-7.4) µg/dl. Salmonella, Brucella, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus and viral hepatitis serology did not indicate acute infections. Serum and tissue samples were sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency in order to test for tularemia, namely culture, microagglutination test (MAT), direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All of the patients

  17. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, M.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.

    2008-07-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble.

  18. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble

  19. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf;

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  20. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes toget...... together with other serpentine plants of the Western Taurus and is rather local in distribution....

  1. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of the thermal waters from the Yenice Geothermal Field (Denizli Basin, Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat

    2016-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic properties of thermal waters (Kamara and Çizmeli) and cold springs from the Yenice Geothermal Field (YGF), in southwestern Anatolia, Turkey are investigated in order to establish a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model. These thermal waters derive from Menderes metamorphic rocks and emerge along normal faults; they are commonly used for heating of greenhouses and bathing facilities. Discharge temperatures of thermal waters are 32 °C to 57 °C (mean 51 °C) for Kamara and 35 °C to 68 °C (mean 47 °C) for Çizmeli, whereas deep groundwaters are 15 °C to 20.1 °C (mean 17 °C) and shallow groundwaters are 12 to 16 °C (mean 15 °C). Kamara and Çizmeli thermal waters are mostly of Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4 type, whereas deep groundwaters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Ca-HCO3 types and shallow groundwaters are mainly Mg-Ca-SO4-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3 types. In the reservoir of the geothermal system, dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions changes thermal water types. High correlation in some ionic ratios (e.g. Na vs. Cl, K vs. Cl, HCO3 vs. Cl) and high concentrations of some minor elements (e.g., As, Sr, B, Cl, F) in thermal waters likely derive from enhanced water-rock interaction. Water samples from YGF have not reached complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result mixing with groundwater during upward flow. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated as 89-102 °C for Kamara and 87-102 °C for Çizmeli fields, based on the retrograde and prograde solubilities of anhydrite and chalcedony. Based on the isotope and chemical data, a conceptual hydrogeochemical-hydrogeological model of the YGF has been constructed. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios (Kamara: mean of - 8.43‰ and - 56.9‰, respectively and Çizmeli: mean of - 7.96‰ and - 53.7‰, respectively) and low tritium values (< 1 TU) reflect a deep circulation pathway and a meteoric origin. Subsequent heating by conduction in the high geothermal gradient

  3. SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RICE GROWN SOILS OF CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    TABAN, SÜleyman; Alpaslan, Mehmet; HASHEMI, Aioub G.; EKEN, Dürdane

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fertility status of the rice grown soils of Central Anatolia region. For this purpose, 40 soil samples were taken and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In general, the experimental soils were clay and loamy clay in texture, medium alkaline in reaction (pH) and moderately calcareous. 60, 25, 30 and 95 % of the soils studied were found to be deficient in total-N, plant available phosphorus, zinc and manganese, respectively. On the ot...

  4. G- and C-Banded Karyotype of Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Central Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Atilla; AKAN, Şükrüye

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the banding patterns (G- and C-banding) of chromosomes of Cricetulus migratorius from Central Anatolia. Karyotype of C. migratorius comprised (2n) 22 chromosomes. The number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 44 and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 40. Subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes were very similar in size, but they differed on G- and C-banding patterns. Most autosomes in this species were C-negative. Pair no. 4 had very small centromeric C-bands, autosome no. ...

  5. Prevalence of Malocclusion Among Adolescents In Central Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Gelgör, İbrahim Erhan; KARAMAN, Ali İhya; Ercan, Ertuḡrul

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of malocclusion in a population of Central Anatolian adolescents in relation to gender. Methods The sample comprised 2329 teenagers (1125 boys and 1204 girls), aged between 12 and 17 years (mean age: 14.6 yrs). Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed using the Angle classification. Other variables examined were overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. Results The re...

  6. Late Holocene erosion in NW Anatolia from sediments of Lake Manyas, Lake Ulubat and the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kazancı, N; Leroy, SAG; Ileri, O; Emre, O; Kibar, M; Oncel, S

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with modern and ancient sedimentation in fresh water lakes and the marine shelf of the southern Marmara region, NW Anatolia, Turkey. Most of the information has been obtained from monitoring of suspended load discharged into two lakes (Manyas and Ulubat) in the last 45 years and from 8-11 m thick lacustrine sediments, in addition to radiocarbon-dated shelf sediments. This allows a holistic approach to the drainage basin denudation over time. The results show that the sediment...

  7. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  8. Analysis of SKS Phase Regarding Dynamic Structure Beneath Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shear wave splitting parameters were determined by using tele seismic data that recorded by most of all broadband stations in Turkey. Nearly all stations in central and eastern Anatolia have a NE-SW fast direction and delay times indicate that the anisotropic fabric may be relatively uniform throughout the upper mantle beneath the Anatolia block. Also, the results in the western Anatolia showed that the fast polarization direction is parallel to extension direction of the region

  9. A radiological survey of the Egrigoz granitoid, Western Anatolia/Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological survey of the granitoid areas throughout Western Anatolia was conducted during 2007-14. As a part of this radiological survey, this article presents results obtained from Egrigoz pluton, which lies in the northeastern region of Western Anatolia. In the investigated area, the activity measurements of the natural gamma-emitting radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in the granitic rock samples and soils have been carried out by means of the NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. The activity concentrations of the relevant natural radionuclides in the granite samples appeared in the ranges as follows: 226Ra, 28-95 Bq kg-1; 232Th, 50-122 Bq kg-1 and 40K, 782-1365 Bq kg-1, while the typical ranges of the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities in the soil samples were found to be 7 -184, 11-174 and 149-1622 Bq kg-1, respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed rocks/soils are calculated. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all those radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h-1 and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noted in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the data are also used for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides and the corresponding gamma dose rates of the surveyed area. (authors)

  10. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  11. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia. PMID:27432406

  12. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  13. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Özgün Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet İlker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube ...

  14. Studies on the Dung-inhabiting Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera Community of Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Anlaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Bozdağlar Mountain of western Turkey, the diversity and composition of the dung-inhabiting beetles in two locations situated in different altitudes (600 m and 900 m in 2004 and 2006 assemblages were sampled. A total of 5.709 individuals from 88 species belonging to the families Scarabaeidae, Aphodiidae, Geotrupidae, Carabidae, Hydrophilidae, Histeridae and Ptilidae of the order Coleoptera are recorded.

  15. Problem Identification and Priority Setting in Agricultural Research: The Case of The Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    UZUNLU, Vedat

    1999-01-01

    Since the resources available to research institutes are scarce, and experimentation is the most costly phase of a research program, researchers must make sure that the possible solutions to identified problems have a high chance of success. Consequently, problems should be carefully prioritized for experimentation. Factors limiting increased productivity in crop production in the Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia (EMCA) along with agro-ecological factors, apart from political concern, are a...

  16. Preliminary results on a promising long paleoclimatic archive for the Near East: the lacustrine sequence of Acigöl (Anatolia, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, François; Perrin, Mireille; Cihat Alçiçek, Mehmet; Lebatard, Anne-Elizabeth; Nomade, Sébastien; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Djamali, Morteza; Rochette, Pierre; Helvaci, Cahit

    2016-04-01

    A 601 m long core was drilled in Lake Acigöl located in an extensional basin in SW Anatolia (Turkey). The alternation of carbonates relatively rich in evaporites, siliciclastic particles and fossils (ostracods, gastropods and bivalves) gives to the sequence a high potential for palaeoclimatic record. The Acigöl sequence is younger than 3.4 Ma, the oldest age determination recorded for lacustrine successions elsewhere in SW Anatolia (van den Hoek Ostende, 2015). The first paleomagnetic investigations show numerous reverse polarities implying that two third of the sequence is older than 0.78 Ma (Brunhes/Matuyama transition) with a base dating back to 1.7 Ma or more. Indeed, although Jaramillo subchron (from 0.9 to 1.06 Ma) is well recorded, uncertainty remains for the Odulvaï subchron (from 1.78 to 2 Ma) which is not yet robustly identified. The age model will be soon completed by radiometric dating of a tephra found in the sequence and by authigenic 10Be/9Be dating. Detrital proxies (such as magnetic susceptibility) versus biological proxies will allow discrimination between tectonic and climatic signals and may reveal the response of terrestrial ecosystems to the mid-Pleistocene climatic transition. This research is supported by a two-year bilateral cooperation between CNRS-INSU and TUBITAK (grant number 114Y723). Reference: van den Hoek Ostende L.W. Gardner J.D. van Bennekom L. Alçiçek M.C. Murray A.M. Wesselingh F.P. Alçiçek H. Tesakov A.S. 2015. Ericek, a new Pliocene vertebrate locality from the Çameli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 95, 305-320

  17. Neogene-Quaternary evolution of the Tefenni basin on the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, SW Anatolia-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Rahmi; Aksarı, Süleyman

    2016-06-01

    The Fethiye-Burdur fault zone (FBFZ) is a complex belt of major break in the southwestern Anatolia. A number of basins occur within the FBFZ. The Tefenni basin is one of the NE-SW trending basins located in the central part of the FBFZ. The basin is 10-20 km wide and 60 km long. It contains two infills of fluvial, lacustrine and alluvial fan deposits from late Miocene to Recent. The older and folded infill rests on the pre-middle Miocene basement rocks with an angular unconformity and consists of fluvial and lacustrine sediments. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor sediments. The Tefenni basin is controlled by a series of NE-SW trending left lateral oblique-slip normal faults along its margins. The Tefenni and Mürseller faults bound the northwestern margin of the basin and the Kemer fault bounds the southeastern margin of the basin. The basin is also cut by NE-SW striking major and NW-SE, N-S and E-W striking small scale normal faults. Structural analyses in the basin show that NE-SW-trending contraction stress regime ended by Pliocene and was followed by NE-SW-trending extension from Pliocene onward.

  18. Studies on Variability of Lentil Genotypes in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tuba BICER

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four lentil genotypes from ICARDA were evaluated at Diyarbakir, Turkey in 2003/2004 season. Eleven characters were studied. Days to maturity ranged from 188 to 196 days, and some genotypes were earlier than the local check, or same. Total 42 genotypes, suitable for mechanical harvest, were taller than 25 cm plant height. Seed yield per plant varied from 0.5 g to 2.366 g. The genotypes for cold tolerance were determined, and the genotypes of 1-3 scale were selected future lentil-breeding programme. Grain yield ranged from 776.8 kg/ha for FLIP 96-47L to 3242.3 kg/ha for FLIP 2004-49L. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, biological yield per plant, and plant height, number of seeds and pods per plant and seed yield per plant, negatively correlated with days to flowering and number of branches per plant.

  19. Investigating viscoelastic postseismic deformation due to large earthquakes in East Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Fatih; Nalbant, Suleyman S.; Simão, Nuno M.; Steacy, Sandy

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the postseismic viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and upper mantle due to the 19th and 20th century large earthquakes in eastern Turkey. Three possible rheological models are used in the viscoelastic postseismic deformation analysis to assess the extent to which these events influence the velocity fields at GPS sites in the region. Our models show that the postseismic signal currently contributes to the observed deformation in the eastern part of the North Anatolian fault and northern and middle parts of the East Anatolian Fault Zone, primarily due to the long-lasting effect of the Ms 7.9 1939 earthquake. None of the postseismic displacement generated by the Ms 7.5 1822 earthquake, which is the earliest and the second largest event in the calculations, exceeds observed error range at the GPS stations. Our results demonstrate that a postseismic signal can be identified in the region and could contribute up to 3-25% of the observed GPS measurements.

  20. The Tethyan Upper Cretaceous in northwestern Turkey - an integrated study of pelagic sections in northwestern Anatolia and the southern Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Böhm, Katharina; Ömer Yilmaz, Ismael; Tüysüz, Okan; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Upper Cretaceous sections in northwestern Turkey record pelagic depositional environments that are characterised by frequent volcanic events. The aim of the ongoing project is to cover a continuous cyclostratigraphic record of the Tethyan Campanian and to date palaeoenvironmental changes and volcanic events. Cyclic successions of pelagic deposits depicting shales and marl-marly limestone alternations with inter bedded tuff and turbidite layers were logged. Deposits alongside the southern Black Sea coast (in the western Pontide orogen) and in northwestern Anatolia (Göynük and Nallihan area) were examined for geochemistry and mineralogy of tuff beds, as well as for biostratigraphy and palaeoecology. Three formations of Turonian to Campanian age in the western Pontide area are present; Dereköy, Unaz and Cambu Formation are reflecting different geodynamic phases, i.e. subduction of the Neotethys as well formation of the Western Black Sea basin, overlain by the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Akveren Formation. Planktonic foraminiferal data suggest an age of upper Turonian Marginotruncana sigali -Dicarinella primitiva to lower Campanian Globotruncanita elevata Zone bracketing the first major phase of volcanism (Dereköy Fm.). The second volcanic unit (Cambu Fm.) is of early Campanian age, when spreading in the western Black Sea basin started. Geochemistry of tuff layers confirms magmatic activity of the Pontide volcanic arc from Turonian to Campanian. Discrimination diagrams using immobile elements classify calc-alkaline magma series and balsaltic-andesite and basalt rock types. Northwestern Anatolian sections are located in the Central Sakyrya region's Mudurnu-Göynük basin. Upper Cretaceous deposits of Turonian to Campanian age are recorded in pelagic limestones of the Yenipazar Formation. The cyclic pelagic Göynük section covers the Santonian-Campanian boundary, followed by a lower Campanian volcano-clastic unit and overlying turbidites and pelagic shales of late

  1. Overwinter survival of wild turkeys on central Virginia's industrial forests

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Overwinter survival of wild turkeys on industrial forests managed for short-rotation pines (treatment) and typical Piedmont forests and farmland (control), was investigated in Virginia's central Piedmont during 1986-1988. Ninety-six percent of the turkeys (N =106) were captured in early fall with alpha-chloralose laced bait. Sixty-three percent of the captured turkeys recovered and were released with transmitters; 15% were released without transmitters; and 21% died from capture r...

  2. Effects legumes, Fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the Nsub2-fixation capacities of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of N15 technique, and to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume as well as water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed Central Anatolia conditions field experiments were conducted in 1992 and 1993 at three different provinces using completely randomized block design with 5 replications. Results we obtained showed that %Ndff values among legumesdid not differ significantly neither within or between locations. Legumesvaried significantly (P<0.05) in their %Ndfa values at each location and highest values of %Ndfa were obtained at Eskisehir. In general, %Ndfa varied from59-84, and 36-85 for chickpea,lentils and vetchs. The evaluation of the yield and N data obtained in 1993 indicated that lentil (winter or summer) -wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir conditions and chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya conditions should be prefered, due to the higher seed and total yields, higher N yields and higher %NUE values obtained from these rotations in comparison to the others. In order to estimate the carry-over of nitrogen from legumes to the succeeding wheat crop, % nitrogen derived from unknown (%Ndfu) were also calculated. Highest amount of carry-over from the legumesto the succeeding wheat were 31.1 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Ankara; 16.9 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Eskisehir; and 8.0 kgN/ha from chickpea at Konya. These results obtined showed that a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Mean while, the evaluation of the soil and WUE data at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicated that winter lentil-wheat rotation should be prefered in these areas due to more efficient use of water by wheat crop after this rotation system

  3. Climate change and forestry in Turkey: impacts and adaptation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Tüfekçioğlu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Turkey has various climate types in different regions. A Mediterranean climate prevails in Turkey’s Mediterranean and Western Anatolian regions, a temperate climate with high precipitation in every season along the Black Sea coast, a continental climate in the inland regions and a semi-arid climate in Central and South-eastern Anatolia. Most precipitation occurs in the winter months. Total annual rainfall is least in the low-lying areas of eastern Anatolia (220mm), and highest along the easte...

  4. O, Sr and Nd isotopic constraints on Cenozoic granitoids of Northwestern Anatolia, Turkey: Enrichment by subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel-Öztürk, Yeşim

    2016-05-01

    The oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of Cenozoic granitoids cropping out in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone help constrain the petrological evolution of magmatism in northwest Anatolia. The magmatism was mostly widespread between late Eocene (∼37 Ma) and the middle Miocene (∼14-15 Ma), and is represented by volcanic and plutonic rocks of orogenic affinity, of which Ezine, Eğrigöz, Çataldağ and Kozak are the largest Tertiary granitic plutons exposed in northwest Anatolia. They vary from granite to granodiorite, and are subalkaline, belonging to the high-K calc-alkaline I-type granite series. All these characteristics, combined with major, trace element geochemical data as well as mineralogical and textural evidence, reveal that the Oligocene-Miocene granitoids of NW Anatolia are comparable with volcanic arc granites, formed in a transitional oceanic to continental collisional tectonic setting, from a hybrid source, having crustal and mantle components that underwent further interaction with the upper crust. These plutons have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7072-0.7094, and εNd(t) values ranging from -3.48 to -1.20. These characteristics also indicate that a crustal component played an important role in the petrogenesis of NW Anatolian Oligocene-Miocene granitoids. The moderately evolved Ezine, Eğrigöz, Çataldağ and Kozak granitoids, have δ18O values that are consistent with those of normal I-type granites (6-10‰), but the δ18O relationships among minerals of samples collected from the intrusive contacts which are closest to mineralized zones, indicate a major influence of hydrothermal processes under subsolidus conditions. The oxygen isotope systematics of the samples from these plutons result from the activity of high-δ18O fluids (magmatic water), with major involvement of low-δ18O fluids (meteoric water) evident, near the edge zone of these plutons. This is most evident in δ18O quartz-feldspar pairs from these granitoids, which

  5. Internal P-T-t Structure of Subduction Complexes — Insights from Lu-Hf Geochronology on Garnet and Lawsonite (Halilbağı, Central Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, A.; Scherer, E. E.; Schmidt, A.; Bast, R.

    2014-12-01

    The subduction complex near Halilbağı (Central Anatolia) is among the best sites to investigate deep-seated tectonic, petrologic, and geochemical processes taking place in subduction zones. The Halilbağı Unit comprises slices of lawsonite- and/or epidote-bearing blueschist and eclogite, as well as meta-chert and marble. The unit is overlain by an ophiolitic slab and underlain by a HP/LT metamorphosed carbonate platform. Previous studies of the Halilbağı Unit suggested tectonic blocks were metamorphosed under diverse peak conditions, but shared a common exhumation P-T path marked by syn-decompression cooling (Davis and Whitney, 2006; Çetinkaplan et al., 2008). To better understand the internal structure and dynamics of this subduction complex, we carried out Lu-Hf geochronology on garnet (grt) and lawsonite (lws) from a variety of HP oceanic rocks, as well as the sub-ophiolitic metamorphic sole. Our results suggest that intra-oceanic subduction started at ~110 Ma (grt-amph isochron from a grt amphibolite). Less than 23 Myr later, the subduction interface was refrigerated enough to allow clockwise P-T loops (~87 Ma peak grt-matrix isochron for a lws+grt-bearing eclogitic blueschist) and syn-decompression cooling (~79 Ma retrograde lws-matrix isochron) of subducted oceanic rocks. We will present further results for several HP metamorphic sub-facies (e.g., epidote (ep) eclogite, lws+ep blueschist, lws blueschist, lws eclogite). Such data may allow unraveling whether the co-occurrence of "warm" (i.e., ep-bearing), and "cold" (i.e., lws-bearing) HP rocks in the same locality results from (a) sampling of distinct levels of the subduction slab, (b) thermal maturation of the juvenile subduction zone, or (c) inaccurate P-T estimates. Novel natural constraints are thus expected on the dynamics of the Halilbağı Unit and of subduction complexes in general. Çetinkaplan M., Candan O., Oberhänsli R. and Bousquet R., 2008. Pressure-Temperature Evolution of Lawsonite

  6. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, S.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Akyol, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  7. Data on the reproduction of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Serpentes: Viperidae from Hopa (Northeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Göçmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we report an observation of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi from Hopa (Artvin, Turkey giving birth. During our field studies, we captured a female Vipera kaznakovi on July 21, 2012 from Esenkıyı village, Hopa (Artvin, Turkey, it was brought to the laboratory and kept in a terrarium for a period until May 28, 2013. The female (SVL= 483 mm, total length, TL = 541 mm gave birth to eight young (mean SVL= 146 mm, mean TL= 161.4 mm, range= 155 – 172 mm; mean weight, W= 3.11 g, range= 2.6 – 3.4 g on August 11, 2012. In six and a half months, the juvenile snakes had reached 163 mm SVL, 187 mm TL and 5.1g W and increased their size by approximately 15%.

  8. Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Kırşehir Block and the Central Anatolian Ophiolites, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Plunder, Alexis; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Ganerød, Morgan; Hendriks, Bart W. H.; Corfu, Fernando; Gürer, Derya; Gelder, Giovanni I. N. O.; Peters, Kalijn; McPhee, Peter J.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; Advokaat, Eldert L.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.

    2016-04-01

    In Central and Western Anatolia two continent-derived massifs simultaneously underthrusted an oceanic lithosphere in the Cretaceous and ended up with very contrasting metamorphic grades: high pressure, low temperature in the Tavşanlı zone and the low pressure, high temperature in the Kırşehir Block. To assess why, we reconstruct the Cretaceous paleogeography and plate configuration of Central Anatolia using structural, metamorphic, and geochronological constraints and Africa-Europe plate reconstructions. We review and provide new 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages from Central Anatolian metamorphic and magmatic rocks and ophiolites and show new paleomagnetic data on the paleo-ridge orientation in a Central Anatolian Ophiolite. Intraoceanic subduction that formed within the Neotethys around 100-90 Ma along connected N-S and E-W striking segments was followed by overriding oceanic plate extension. Already during suprasubduction zone ocean spreading, continental subduction started. We show that the complex geology of central and southern Turkey can at first order be explained by a foreland-propagating thrusting of upper crustal nappes derived from a downgoing, dominantly continental lithosphere: the Kırşehir Block and Tavşanlı zone accreted around 85 Ma, the Afyon zone around 65 Ma, and Taurides accretion continued until after the middle Eocene. We find no argument for Late Cretaceous subduction initiation within a conceptual "Inner Tauride Ocean" between the Kırşehir Block and the Afyon zone as widely inferred. We propose that the major contrast in metamorphic grade between the Kırşehir Block and the Tavşanlı zone primarily results from a major contrast in subduction obliquity and the associated burial rates, higher temperature being reached upon higher subduction obliquity.

  9. Determination of the Feeding Values of Feedstuffs and Mixed Feeds Used in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BARAN, Murat Sedat; DEMİREL, Ramazan; DEMİREL, Dilek ŞENTÜRK

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to know the feeding value and metabolizable energy content of feedstuffs for balancing animal diets. Feeding value and energy content of animal feeds change according to maturity stage, soil conditions, fertilization, climate, processing methods, etc. There are no adequate tables that show the basic feeding values of feedstuffs grown in different regions of Turkey; therefore, the present study analyzed 8 different feedstuffs and 56 dairy and beef cattle mixed feeds to det...

  10. Tectonic Geomorphology and 36Cl geochronology of the Camardi Alluvial Fan Complex, Central Anatolia: Implications for Neotectonic activity of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Gosse, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Situated between an extensional province to the west and younger, compressional forces to the east, the significance of internal deformation within Central Anatolia, and particularly the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, remains poorly understood. The CAFZ, which records approximately 70+/- 10km of Cenozoic sinistral displacement, was initially described as an active, NE trending, 700km long, major intra-plate shear zone. However, the Cenozoic evolution of the CAFZ and its relevance to the modern tectonic setting of Anatolia are the subject of debate, and the kinematics, geometry and activity levels of the CAFZ remain both poorly documented and understood. The aim of this study is to constrain the extrusion related, neotectonic portion of this total displacement using methods unavailable to previous studies of the area: Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) geochronology and newly acquired high-resolution satellite imagery. Focusing on a tectonically offset alluvial fan complex, we apply In situ TCN 36Cl exposure dating to produce new geochronologically constrained quaternary slip rates for the southern, Ecemis Segment of the CAFZ. A combination of field observations, high precision GPS based fault scarp profiles and mapping on high-resolution satellite images are used to document offset geomorphic markers including: deflected streams, terrace edges and shutter ridges. These features show sinistral and normal displacement of 60 and 18 m respectively in the older alluvial surface. Determining the ages of this faulted surface, as well as a younger un-deformed alluvial surface using TCN, will yield a minimum quaternary slip-rate. Additionally, morphological characteristics of 25 drainage basins along the Ecemis Fault are determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM)data. Key geomorphic indices include: hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and the valley width-to-height ratio (Vf). The results suggest the morphology of these drainage basins is influenced by the recent

  11. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource. PMID:27007291

  12. An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yapkic

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV and no positive result was detected.

  13. Soil formation on a calcic chronosequence of Ancient Lake Konya in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaytekin, Hasan Huseyin; Mutlu, Hasan Huseyin; Dedeoglu, Mert

    2012-11-01

    With the passage of time, different soils show a wide range of variation in their formation. The passage of time in soil formation affects both soil features and the rates of weathering. The aim of this research is to study and compare the pedogenic evolution of soils developed on the terraces of Ancient Lake Konya using weathering indices such as Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW), and Eu and Ce anomalies. The study will also take into account other features, such as the physical and chemical properties, the analytical characteristics and how soil formation is determined according to the passage of time. For this purpose, four representative profiles were dug at different levels. After the macro-morphological identifications were completed in all the profiles, the samples were then collected from the horizons and were analysed for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and geochemical properties. Although the soils in the study field were formed in different terrace levels, no significant relationship between the age of the soil and the soil properties was found. The lone exception was the clay movement in profile 1, which resulted from the limitation in profile development caused by erosion. Moreover, this erosion was the result of an increasing slope from the low terrace to the high coastal terraces. Similar physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined in the profiles. Using geochemical characteristics, the determined weathering indexes and their anomalies showed a very limited variation between the profiles, which suggests that though they differ in terms of age, the profiles have similar weathering levels. The climatological factors continuing along the Holocene were not efficient enough to change the effect of the other soil formation factors in the last period of the Quaternary. Therefore, it was concluded that the main factors determining soil formation are climate and topography, both of which determine the leaching regime and the weathering rates.

  14. Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener; Mustafa Korkanç; M Furkan Şener; Selma Yaşar Korkanç; F Zafer Özgür

    2012-10-01

    Toxic gases evolving from the soil in urbanized peatland regions constitute a serious hazard since buildings may be subject to the direct ingress of volatiles into the structures. Peat formed in swamp and rarely exposed to subaerial conditions has been associated with the development of the folded foreland of the Quaternary Kayseri pull-apart basin. The peat deposit is extensively urbanized but so far no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. In this paper, the geology, petrography and chemical variation of the Kayseri peat deposit have been studied in order to predict the public health risk from the land gases’ behaviour, especially in soil gases. The main volatile species detected are methane (CH4), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), all of which are highly toxic. The primary means of gas entry is directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and especially subsurface telephone cable pipes. Indoor vents emit 1000–70,000 ppm CH4, 330–49,000 ppm CO2 and 3.8–6.5 ppm H2S in soil and subsurface pipes; concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vents.

  15. Occupational exposures to ionising radiation in the region of Anatolia, Turkey for the period 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this study, the individual annual dose information on classified workers who are occupationally exposed to extended radiation sources in Turkey, was assessed and analysed by the Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Centre dosimetry service at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority for the years 1995-1999. The radiation workers monitored are divided into three main work sectors: conventional industry (8.24%), medicine (90.20%) and research-education (1.56%). The average annual dose for all workers in each particular sector was 0.14, 0.38 and 0.08 mSv, respectively, in 1995-1999. This paper contains the detailed analysis of occupational exposure. The statistical analysis provided includes the mean annual dose, the collective dose, the distributions of the dose over the different sectors and the number of workers who have exceeded any of the established dose levels. (authors)

  16. Boron content of Lake Ulubat sediment: A key to interpret the morphological history of NW Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater Lake Ulubat (c. 1.5 m deep and c. 138 km2) receives sediment from a 10.414 km2 area in the seismically active Susurluk Drainage Basin (SDB) of NW Turkey. The B and trace element contents of the lake infill seem to be a link between the fresh landforms of the SDB and the lacustrine sediment. Deposition in Lake Ulubat has been 1.60 cm a-1 for the last 50 a according to radionuclides; however the sedimentation rate over the last millennium was 0.37 cm a-1 based on 14C dating. The B content of the lacustrine infill displays a slight increase at 0.50 m and a drastic increase at 4 m depth occurring c. 31 a and c. 1070 a ago, respectively. Probably the topmost change corresponds to the start of open mining in the SDB and the second one to the natural trenching of borate ore-deposits. These dates also show indirectly a 1.4 cm a-1 erosion rate during the last millennium as the borate beds were trenched up to 15 m. By extrapolation, it is possible to establish that the formation of some of the present morphological features of the southern Marmara region, especially river incision, began in the late Pleistocene, and developed especially over the last 75 ka

  17. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis among Volunteers Animal Husbandry Workers and Veterinary in Southern Anatolia in Turkey in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi SOZEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Human toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Toxocaracanis. We examine the Toxocara seroprevalance in veterinarians and animal husbandry workers living in the Mugla Province, Turkey to evaluate better the risk factors for Toxocara exposure.Methods: In 2014, 376 volunteers participated in the study in 2014. All blood specimens were tested using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit and ELISA positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB method.Results: The seroprevalence of Toxocara, as determined by WB, was 8%. A statistically significant correlation was evident between patient age and Toxo­cara positivity among animal husbandry workers (P = 0.029. A strong associa­tion was also evident between sex and seropositivity in the animal husbandry group (P=0.024. Veterinarians working in pet clinics did in fact exhibit higher Toxocara seropositivities relative to those of other groups (P = 0.029. A statisti­cally significant difference was detected between the rural geographic areas surveyed (P = 0.04.Conclusion: In Mugla Province, seroprevalence of Toxocara is lower than other regions. Despite the low seroprevalence observed, especially in high risk professions toxocariasis remains an important medical concern within the region. 

  18. The Role of Cultural Context in Continuing Vocational Training: A Study on Auto Repairmen in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Oktay

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed how auto repairmen working in micro-enterprises undertake continuing vocational training in relation to cultural context. The study was conducted in Kirikkale, a city in central Anatolia in Turkey. To this end, the descriptive research technique of structured interview was used. Interviews with 33 auto repairmen were recorded…

  19. A NEW MEDIUM TO HIGH ENTHALPY GEOTHERMAL FIELD IN AEGEAN REGION (AKYAR) MENDERES – SEFERİHİSAR – İZMİR, WESTERN ANATOLIA, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, Metin

    2013-01-01

    There are also geothermal areas of low and medium enthalpy besides the high-temperature geothermal fields in the Western Anatolia. These areas are important for thermal tourism and agricultural applications. According to the surface temperature at by the lowtemperature action for known fluid high temperature fluid can be provided. They are the purpose of the study. The study area between the towns of Mendere and Seferihisar. These districts are located south-southwest of Izmir. İnvestigate th...

  20. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar;

    2010-01-01

    . cryptarum, also from east Anatolia. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum occurs on calcareous marl rich in potassium nitrate at the entrance of wet caves in Malatya and differs from C. cryptarum by its erect habit, smaller corollas, shallowly ribbed and tuberculate, bicoloured seeds. Chaenorhinum yildirimlii from...... the neighbouring province of Erzincan was found on alluvial soil of stream banks and differs from C. semispeluncarum by its seed characters which are similar to those of C. cryptarum. Chaenorhinum yildirimlii differs from C. cryptarum, most conspicuously by the violet lower corolla lip spotted dark...

  1. Examine of the Facts of Women and Migration During the Urbanization in the Scale of South-eastern Anatolia Region (Gap), in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinemillioglu, M. Oguz; Baran, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of 1950’s the migration of population from countryside to cities constitutes a subject as an important part of demographic changing on its own. Since the second half of 1970’s, especially domestic migration from the small and medium size cities to big cities, by turning into family migration became dense in the three big metropolises in west. (Ãstanbul, Ankara, Ãzmir). In 1990’s both the migration from east and Southeast Anatolia to other regions and the obligatory migrati...

  2. Late Paleogene terrestrial fauna and paleoenvironments in Eastern Anatolia: New insights from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métais, Grégoire; Sen, Sevket; Sözeri, Koray; Peigné, Stéphane; Varol, Baki

    2015-08-01

    In Eastern Turkey, relatively little work has been undertaken to characterize the sedimentologic and stratigraphical context of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin until now. Extending across the Turkey-Armenian border, this basin documents the syn- and post-collisional evolution of Eastern Anatolia, resulting from the closure of the Neotethyan Seaways and the final collision of the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the lithology and depositional environment of the Late Paleogene Alhan Formation located on the western bank of the Aras River. This sequence of terrestrial clastics rests directly and unconformably onto the ophiolitic mélange, and it documents several depositional sequences deposited in alluvial plain and lacustrine environments. At this stage, the age of the Alhan Formation can only be calibrated by fossil evidence. Several stratigraphic levels yielding fossil data along the section have been identified, but these poor assemblages of fauna and flora hamper extensive comparisons with roughly contemporaneous localities of Central and Southern Asia. Carnivorous and ruminant mammal remains are reported for the first time from the supposed Late Oligocene Güngörmez Formation. The identified fossil mammal taxa reveal biogeographic affinities between Central Anatolia and southern Asia, thus suggesting dispersal between these areas during the Oligocene or earlier. Further studies of the fossil assemblages from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin and other basins of Eastern Anatolia and lesser Caucasus regions are needed to better constrain the paleobiogeographic models.

  3. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  4. Temporal monitoring of radiative heat flux from the craters of Tendürek volcano (East Anatolia, Turkey) using ASTER satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan

    2014-05-01

    Tendürek volcano is situated in the Eastern Anatolia near Turkish-Iranian border. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia and it is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive basalt flows. Tendürek is characterized by alkaline volcanism. Holocene and historical activity has been reported. Hydrothermal activity have been observed on the twin summit craters. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. In order to quantify and to determine a base value for the current thermal state of the volcano, we used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Four ASTER daytime and nighttime images have been used to calculate radiative heat flux from the craters. Heat flux calculations have been made using three nighttime images and a daytime image acquired in 2002, 2004, 2008 and 2012. Images have been atmospherically corrected, temperature and emissivity have been separated and Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated from 5 thermal bands. LST images have been topographically corrected. Heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. Maximum temperature anomalies observed were 9.0 °C and 15.9 °C for the western and eastern craters respectively. Heat flux is estimated between 14.4 and 25.2 W/m² at the western crater and between 16.5 and 49.4 W/m² at the eastern crater. These values are well correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes such as Yellowstone, Stromboli and Nisyros, whereas they are lower than that of observed at Vulcano.

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has an area of 296 185 sq mi or 767 120 square kilometers. The geology is dominated lay Tertiary and post-Tertiary rocks which are very widespread but extensive outcrops of Mesozoic rocks also occur. Paleozoic rocks, mainly gneisses, mica schists and quartzites occur in the ancient massifs, principally the Istranca massif in Thrace, the Merideres massif in western Anatolia and the Karrshir massif in central Anatolia. Prospecting for uranium began in Turkey in 1953 and the Atomic Energy Raw Materials Division of the Maden Tetkikive Arama Enstitusu (M.T.A.) was founded in 1956. By 1962 a total of 78% of the whole country had been covered by serial radiometric reconnaissance prospecting. Uranium was discovered at Kasar in western Anatolia in 1961 and several hundred tons of reserves estimated two years later. Uranium prospecting was largely recessed from 1963 to 1967. IAEA/UNDP assistance was provided in 1962-63 and 1965 and between 1974 and 1977 in a detailed exploration programme in the Kasar area. In the whole country nearly 600 anomalies and occurrences had been identified by 1963. Several occurrences principally in Western Anatolia had been assigned a small reserve. A recent official estimate places the total national reserve at 3150 tonnes uranium in the less than 30% category of reasonably assured resources. A speculative Potential of between 30,000 and 50,000 tonnes uranium is considered to be reasonable. (author)

  6. The earliest securely-dated hominin artefact in Anatolia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Schreve, D.; Demir, T.; Veldkamp, A.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Gorp, van W.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Scaife, R.; Schoorl, J.M.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.

    2015-01-01

    Anatolia lies at the gateway from Asia into Europe and has frequently been favoured as a route for Early Pleistocene hominin dispersal. Although early hominins are known to have occupied Turkey, with numerous finds of Lower Palaeolithic artefacts documented, the chronology of their dispersal has lit

  7. Secular changes in the height of the inhabitants of Anatolia (Turkey) from the 10th millennium B.C. to the 20th century A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Başak Koca; Sağır, Mehmet; Ozer, Ismail

    2011-03-01

    We use human-skeleton samples to estimate the height of adults living in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. We also report the results of surveys taken in the 20th century on the height of the Turkish population. Neolithic and the Chalcolithic (5000-3000 B.C.) male heights are estimated as 170.9 cm and 165.0 cm, respectively. Pronounced increases were observed for both sexes between the Chalcolithic and Iron (1000-580 B.C.) periods and sharp decreases among both males and females in the Hellenistic-Roman period (333 B.C. to 395 A.D.). Moreover, recovery to the Iron Age levels was achieved in the Anatolian Medieval period (395-1453 A.D.) for both sexes (169.4 cm for males and 158.0 cm for females). In 1884 the mean height of men was 162.2 cm and by the beginning of the 1930s it increased to 166.3 cm. In the first nationwide survey in 1937 males mean height was 165.3 cm, and females was 152.3 cm, where today current heights are 174.0 cm and 158.9 cm, respectively. PMID:21316315

  8. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi; Christiana Ibironke Odita; Philip Adeokemola Okewole; Christopher Jerry Bot; Adebowale Obalisa; Ezekiel Gyang Pam; Dakyahas John; Johnson Shallmizhili; Gabriel Ijale; Bulus Alim

    2015-01-01

    Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic La...

  9. Linking hydro-climate to the sediment archive: a combined monitoring and calibration study from a varved lake in central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. Neil; Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Jones, Matthew D.; Allcock, Samantha L.; Leng, Melanie J.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Woodbridge, Jessie; Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    Hydro-climatic reconstructions from lake sediment proxies require an understanding of modern formation processes and calibration over multiple years. Here we use Nar Gölü, a non-outlet, monomictic maar lake in central Turkey, as a field site for such a natural experiment. Fieldwork since 1997 has included observations and measurements of lake water and sediment trap samples, and automated data logging (Jones et al., 2005; Woodbridge and Roberts, 2010; Dean et al., 2015). We compare these data to isotopic, chemical and biotic proxies preserved in the lake's annually-varved sediments. Nar Gölü underwent a 3 m lake-level fall between 2000 and 2010, and δ18O in both water and carbonates is correlated with this lake-level fall, responding to the change in water balance. Over the same period, sedimentary diatom assemblages responded via changes in habitat availability and mixing regime, while conductivity inferred from diatoms showed a rise in inferred salinity, although with a non-linear response to hydro-climatic forcing. There were also non-linear shifts in carbonate mineralogy and elemental chemistry. Building on the relationship between lake water balance and the sediment isotope record, we calibrated sedimentary δ18O against local meteorological records to derive a P/E drought index for central Anatolia. Application to of this to the longer sediment core isotope record from Nar Gölü (Jones et al. 2006) highlights major drought events over the last 600 years (Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu et al., 2015). Although this lacustrine record offers an archive of annually-dated, decadally-averaged hydro-climatic change, there were also times of non-linear lake response to climate. Robust reconstruction therefore requires understanding of physical processes as well as application of statistical correlations. Dean, J.R., Eastwood, W.J., Roberts, N., Jones, M.D., Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, H., Allcock, S.L., Woodbridge, J., Metcalfe, S.E. and Leng, M.J. (2015) Tracking the hydro

  10. Variation in C-heterochromatin and NOR distribution among chromosomal races of mole rats (Spalacidae) from Central Anatolia,Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Sükrüye, A.; Zima, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2011), s. 28-35. ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nannospalax nehringi * Karyotype evolution * Speciation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.609, year: 2011

  11. Structure and Reproductive Characteristics of Two Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Populations in the Çoruh River Basin, North-eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Murat; Aras, N. Mevlüt

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive characteristics of 2 brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations were examined in 2 tributaries, the Anuri and Cenker streams, of the Çoruh River, north-eastern Turkey. Sampling was carried out by electrofishing monthly from November 2000 to October 2002. Age varied from 0 to 6 in the Anuri Stream, and from 0 to 7 in the Cenker Stream. Fork length (L) ranges were 4.29-29.9 cm and 3.7-34.4 cm for the Anuri and Cenker streams, respectively. The majority of individuals from both popu...

  12. First pressure- and temperature estimates of the metamorphic sole of the Pinarbasi ophiolite, central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kalijn; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; van Roermund, Herman; Brouwer, Fraukje; Drury, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    Ophiolites are interpreted as remnants of oceanic lithosphere. Many have a so-called supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signature, suggestive of formation at a spreading ridge overlying a subduction zone. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites frequently have a several-hundred-meter thick sequence of metamorphic rocks below their mantle section: the metamorphic sole. These dominantly mafic and generally heavily sheared metamorphic rocks have been shown to preserve an inverted metamorphic gradient with the highest pressures and temperatures at the top of the sole, decreasing downwards. Pressure estimates from rocks found at the top of metamorphic soles may be as much as 10-15 kbar with temperature estimates up to 875°C. The metamorphic grade varies from greenschist near the base, up to granulite facies at the top, with the bulk comprising of amphibolite facies rocks. At some locations a blueschist overprint of the amphibolite facies mineral assemblages has been described. The relative high pressures preserved in the metamorphic sole cannot simply result from overburden pressure of the currently overlying ophiolite, which is a long-standing problem. This raises the question of what process(es) can explain pressures up to 10-15 kbar in the top of metamorphic soles, in relation to the approximately synchronous formation of the SSZ oceanic lithosphere above the sole. One of the places to study the formation of SSZ ophiolites and their metamorphic soles is the Neotethyan Suture zone. Remnants of Neotethyan lithosphere are preserved as ophiolites that are discontinuously exposed from the Mediterranean region through the Himalaya to SE Asia. Supra-subduction zone ophiolites are particularly widespread in Turkey. The Pinarbaşi ophiolite is located in the SE of Central Anatolia, and overlies the Tauride fold-and-thrust belt that formed since the Late Cretaceous. It comprises mantle tectonites consisting of serpentinized harzburgite and dunite with remnants of gabbro to the

  13. An Examination of Centralized Educational Planning Practices in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    Examines and analyzes the educational planning practices in Turkey at the national level after the planned development period (1963-2002). The principles, policies, and goals related to education in development plans and how far they were put into practice are summarized in eight sections. (Contains 2 tables and 24 references.) (MLF)

  14. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and nitrogen and water use efficiencies of winder wheat (durum and bread) varieties under central Anatolia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the influence of different N rates on %N ddf at different growth stages and yields and % NUE values of two winter wheat varieties (durum and bread), field experiments on fallow were carried out four different locations in Central Anatolia, in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993 growing seasons, using 4x4 Latin square experimental design with varieties in split-plot arrangement. At each site the rates of N, viz. O, 40, 80 and 120 kgN/ha were applied as ammonium sulphate (NH4S2O4). The total amounts of N fertilizer rates were applied once after obtaining the seedling emergence at all experimental sites. Each plot (except 0 N treatment plots) was divided into yield sub-plots and N15 isotope sub-plots. The labelled (15NH4S2O4) fertilizer applied to isotope sub-plots had 4, 3 and 2% N15 a.e. at 40, 80 and 120 kgN/ha rates, respectively. Yield sub-plots received ordinary unlabelled ammonium sulphate. The isotope sub-plots were sample data tillering, booting, grain filling and harvest stages. Percent Ndff values were determined. Total dry matter (seed and straw) and N yields of the wheat varieties at different N rates were determined and also % NUE values were calculated with N15 and 'difference' methods at the harvest stage. Soil moisture was measured to a depth of 90 cm at each experimental site each year and stored soil moisture at 0-90 cm depth, ET and Wue values were calculated. The results obtained showed that: a) Gerek-79 variety used both the applied N fertilizer and the available soil moisture more efficiently, b)Percent NUE values obtained were quite low (generally less than 20) both varieties, c)With the N15-method less variable %NUE values were obtained in comparison to the 'difference-method'

  15. A Phenomenographic Approach for Exploring Conceptions of Learning and Teaching Biology in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Sadi

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the students’ conceptions of learning and teachers’ conceptions of teaching in biology since both of them have a profound influence on the learning process and learning outcomes. The interview data, analyzed by a phenomenographic method, gathered from 60 university biology-major students and 3 university teachers in Central Region of Anatolia in Turkey. Results showed that students revealed five categories of conceptions of learning biolog...

  16. Crustal Thermal Properties of the Central Pontides (Northern Turkey) Deduced from Spectral Analysis of Magnetic Data

    OpenAIRE

    MADEN, NAFİZ

    2009-01-01

    The Pontides can be divided tectonically into three main sectors: Eastern, Central, and Western Pontides. Each of these represents an amalgamated tectonic mosaic consisting of remnants of oceanic, continental, and island arc segments. The Eastern and the Western Pontides meet in the Central Pontides, where they are structurally mixed and form a tectonic knot. The Central Pontides of northern Turkey is one of the best exposed segments of the southern margin of Eurasia adjacent to the Tethys Oc...

  17. Leishmaniasis in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, U Z; Balcioğlu, I C; Taylan Ozkan, A; Ozensoy, S; Ozbel, Y

    2002-10-01

    Leishmaniases are widespread in most countries in the Mediterranean basin, including Turkey. Two forms are observed in Turkey; Leishmania infantum is responsible from visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Phlebotomus sergenti, P. papatasi, P. major and P. syriacus are considered to be the probable vectors, and dogs are the main reservoir of L. infantum, while P. sergenti is the main suspected vector of L. tropica.VL is sporadically seen mainly in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions, but CL is endemic, especially in the Southeastern and Mediterranean Regions. Major touristic sites are free of both infections, and no infection is reported in any tourist. Mean number of annual VL and CL cases reported to Ministry of Health are 40 and 1,204, respectively, in the last four years. These data suggest that both VL and CL represent a public health problem in Turkey, but a decline is observed in the number of cases with both infections in recent years. PMID:12387909

  18. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hatice Mergen; Reyhan Öner; Cihan Öner

    2004-04-01

    Throughout human history, the region known today as the Anatolian peninsula (Turkey) has served as a junction connecting the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia, and, thus, has been subject to major population movements. The present study is undertaken to obtain information about the distribution of the existing mitochondrial D-loop sequence variations in the Turkish population of Anatolia. A few studies have previously reported mtDNA sequences in Turks. We attempted to extend these results by analysing a cohort that is not only larger, but also more representative of the Turkish population living in Anatolia. In order to obtain a descriptive picture for the phylogenetic distribution of the mitochondrial genome within Turkey, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region sequence variations in 75 individuals from different parts of Anatolia by direct sequencing. Analysis of the two hypervariable segments within the noncoding region of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of 81 nucleotide mutations at 79 sites. The neighbour-joining tree of Kimura’s distance matrix has revealed the presence of six main clusters, of which H and U are the most common. The data obtained are also compared with several European and Turkic Central Asian populations.

  19. A Part of Assemblage of Stone Artifacts from Tepecik-Çiftlik Site (Central Turkey)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav; Bıçakçı, E.

    Plzeň : Adela, 2008, s. 331-339. ISBN 978-80-87094-13-6. [Orientalia Antiqua Nova VIII. Plzeň (CZ), 14.02.2008-15.02.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : stone industry * Tepecik-Çiftlik * central Turkey Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. The Variation of Several Biological Characteristics of the Chub, Squalius cephalus (L., 1758, in the Orenler Dam Lake, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait BULUT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, several growth parameters of 338 Squalius cephalus (L., 1758 specimens collected from the Orenler dam lake (Turkey between July 2005 and June 2006 were studied. The population comprised 50.74% males, 46.29% females, and 2.97% males+females. In the examined samples, the age of females and males ranged from I to VII and I to VI, respectively. The fork length and weight of females were 14.7-38.0 cm and 40.68-27.0 g, respectively; these values were 16.3-33.7 cm and 57.7-560.0 g, respectively, for males. The age-length and age-weight relationships at time t were calculated by the von Bertalanffy equation for females, and the following results were obtained: Lt = 37.12[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96], Wt = 775.6[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96]3.27, Lt = 43.59[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719], and Wt = 1123.2[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719]3.08. The calculated length-weight relationship was W = 0.36L3.27 for females and W = 0.03356L3.08 for males. The average condition factor was 1.412 for females and 1.284 for males. Consequently, in the Orenler dam lake, S. cephalus grows very well according to the study’s results.

  1. Sedimentary record of mid-Miocene seismotectonic activity in the Sinop Peninsula, north-central Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan ILGAR

    2014-01-01

    The middle Miocene shallow-marine siliciclastic succession in the Sinop Peninsula, north-central Turkey, bears a well-preserved sedimentary record of syndepositional deformation associated with the buried escarpment of an oblique-slip dextral reverse fault and attributed to seismotectonic activity. The deposition occurred in a marginal trough at the edge of a tectonically inverted retroarc foreland basin of the Central Pontides. The synsedimentary deformation involved contemporaneous shorefac...

  2. Dating of the late Quaternary volcanic events using Uranium-series technique on travertine deposit: A case study in Ihlara, Central Anatolia Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, İ.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi

    2016-04-01

    Dating of late Quaternary volcanism is crucial to understanding of the recent mechanism of crustal deformation and future volcanic explosivity risk of the region. However, radiometric dating of volcanic products has been a major challenge because of high methodological error rate. In most cases, there are difficulties on discrimination of the volcanic lava flow relations in the field. Furthermore, there would be unrecorded and unpreserved volcanoclastic layers by depositional and erosional processes. We present a new method that allows precise dating of late Quaternary volcanic events (in the time range of 0-500,000 years before present) using the Uranium-series technique on travertine mass, which is thought to be controlled by the young volcanism. Since the high pressure CO2 in the spring waters are mobilized during crustal strain cycles and the carbonates are precipitated in the fissures act as conduit for hot springs, thus, travertine deposits provide important information about crustal deformation. In this study we studied Ihlara fissure ridge travertines in the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province. This region is surrounded by many eruption centers (i.e. Hasandaǧı, Acıgöl and Göllüdaǧı) known as the late Quaternary and their widespread volcanoclastic products. Recent studies have suggested at least 11 events at around Acıgöl Caldera for the last 180 ka and 2 events at Hasandaǧı Stratovolcano for the last 30 ka. Active travertine masses around Ihlara deposited from hotwaters, which rise up through deep-penetrated fissures in volcanoclastic products of surrounding volcanoes. Analyses of the joint systems indicate that these vein structures are controlled by the crustal deformation due to young volcanism in the vicinity. Thus, the geological history of Ihlara travertine mass is regarded as a record of surrounding young volcanism. We dated 9 samples from 5 ridge-type travertine masses around Ihlara region. The age distribution indicates that the crustal

  3. Thermal Evolution of Juvenile Subduction Zones ' New Constraints from Lu-Hf Geochronology on HP oceanic rocks (Halilbaǧi, Central Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, Amaury; Scherer, Erik; Schmidt, Alexander; Bast, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    The thermal structure of subduction zones plays a key role on mechanical and chemical processes taking place along the slab-mantle interface. Until now, changes through time of this thermal structure have been explored mostly by the means of numerical simulations. However, both "warm" (i.e., epidote-bearing), and "cold" (i.e., lawsonite-bearing) HP oceanic rocks have been reported in some fossil subduction complexes exposed at the Earth's surface (e.g., Franciscan Complex, California; Rio San Juan Complex, Hispañola; Halilbağı Unit, Central Anatolia). These a-priori "incompatible" rocks witness different thermal stages of ancient subduction zones and their study might provide complementary constraints to numerical models. To decipher the meaning of these contrasting metamorphic rocks in the Halilbağı Unit, we are carrying out Lu-Hf geochronology on garnet (grt) and lws from a variety of HP oceanic rocks, as well as the metamorphic sole of the overlying ophiolite. We selected five samples that are representative of the variety of metamorphic evolutions (i.e. peak conditions and P-T paths) encountered in this area. Preliminary analyses yielded 110 Ma (grt-hbl isochron) for a sub-ophiolitic grt amphibolite; 92 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogite with prograde and retrograde ep; 90 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogitic metabasite with prograde ep and retrograde ep+lws; 87 Ma (grt-gln) for a lws eclogite with prograde ep; and 86 Ma (grt-gln) for a blueschist with prograde and retrograde lws. These ages are mainly two-point isochrons. Further-refined data will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2015, in Vienna. The consistent younging trend from "warm" to "cold" metamorphic rocks revealed by these first-order results points to metamorphic-sole formation during the initiation of intra-oceanic subduction at ~110 Ma, and subsequent cooling of the slab-mantle interface between 92 and 86 Ma. Therefore, the contrasting metamorphic evolutions encountered in the Halilbağı Unit

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Turkey. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Turkey estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 21 000 to 55 000 tonnes of uranium. This potential is expected to lie in areas of Neogene and possibly other Tertiary sediments, in particular in the areas of the Menderes Massif and Central Anatolia. The mission describes a proposed exploration programme with expenditures over a five year period of between $80 million and $110 million, with nearly half of the amount being spent on drilling. (author)

  5. Clinical and Pathological Investigation on Turkey Diseases in North-central City of Jos, Nigeria, 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on turkey production and disease is rare in Nigeria, possibly because turkeys are seldom raised commercially. Also, turkeys require intensive husbandry and health care after hatching, which backyard poultry producers hardly provided especially, when raised in a disease endemic environment. In an attempt to document the diseases militating against turkey production in Nigeria, clinical and necropsy records were reviewed from veterinary practices in Jos and the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI, Vom, Nigeria between 2009 - 2014. A total of 306 turkeys from backyard flocks were presented to the Veterinary clinics between 2009-2014 with various health complaints by backyard flock owners. Viral (Pox and Newcastle disease and parasitic (Helminthosis, Coccidiosis and Ectoparasitism diseases were mostly diagnosed. During the same period, 42 samples comprising 25 carcasses and 17 cloacal swabs were submitted for post mortem examination, virus isolation and microbiological test. Colisepticaemia, colibacillosis, pullorum disease, airsacculitis and infectious sinusitis are the main diseases diagnosed at post-mortem examination and microbiological test, while none of the samples were positive for influenza by virus isolation. It was observed that turkey rearing was small-scaled and kept as backyard poultry in North-central Nigeria. It can therefore be concluded from this study that turkeys raised in north-central city of Jos are affected by diseases ranging from viral to bacterial and parasitic, which can adversely affect productivity. This can therefore be improved upon by controlling the diseases mostly affecting turkeys.

  6. THE TURKISH MODEL AND TURKEY'S CENTRAL ASIAN POLICIES CONDITIONED BY WESTERN STRATEGIC INTERESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hovsepyan, Levon

    2009-01-01

    The post-Cold War geopolitical transformations forced the Turkish leaders to revise their foreign policy and national security/defense concepts. The Turkish military-political circles moved away from the narrow ideas of strategy and foreign policy of the former federal security conception to a wider approach of alternative foreign policies. Early in the 1990s Turkey perceived the Caucasus and Central Asia as an alternative foreign policy sphere. It used its ethnic, linguistic, and cultural ti...

  7. The last total Eclipse of teh Millenium in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguch, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1998-09-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millenium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two components and has been the cradle of so many past civilisations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificient event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of hystorical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible , Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and the Earthquake Research Institute has arranged field work on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey form south-east at 14:42 L.T. Official observational sites are given in the following table. These sites will have catering, toilet, and guidance facilities. Osmanchik 40.98D North 34.82D East Turhal 40.40D North 36.10D East Sivas 39.75D North 37.03D East Elazig 38.68D North 39.23D East Diyarbakir 37.92D North 40.23D East Batman 37.87 North 41.12D East

  8. An archaeomagnetic study of Upper Mesopotamia and Central Anatolia between 2500 and 700 BCE. Further evidence for an extremely strong geomagnetic field ca. 3000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertepinar, Pinar; Langereis, Cor; Biggin, Andrew; de Groot, Lennart

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of archaeomagnetic data in eastern Europe and the Near and Middle East shows a remarkable gap in Turkey. This study presents the first archaeomagnetic results from eight different archaeological sites in Central and Southeast Turkey. We sampled furnaces, burnt mud-brick walls, and granite and ignimbrite foundation stones. The rock magnetic experiments indicate that in the majority of the samples the dominant magnetic carrier is magnetite, which is stable to heating to temperatures of 700° C. In general, the demagnetization diagrams are single component and all sets display well-defined characteristic magnetizations and clustered directions. For the period between 2500 and 700 BCE, the declinations are between 350° and 20° while inclinations are in the range of 49-64° . The directional results are compared with the global geomagnetic field models (CALS7k.2, ARCH3k_cst.1 and CALS3k.4) and the data from the archaeomagnetic database GEOMAGIA50v2. The results are coherent with both the data and the models except for two near-contemporaneous sets dating ~2000 BCE, which are offset to the east by more than 20° with respect to CALS7k.2. Archaeointensity measurements were made using the microwave and conventional thermal Thellier methods, as well as the multi-specimen method. These different methods yielded comparable and intriguing results. While intensities from the furnaces are slightly higher than the CALS7k.2 model and in agreement with the GEOMAGIA50v2 and the Middle East data, the results from mud-brick walls suggest a high intensity of 100.8μT (17.7 x 1022 Am2 )at ~1000 BCE. This result is in excellent agreement with recent claims of extremely high intensity measured in other regions of the Middle East for this time period though less consistent with these being associated with extremely short-lived events. Finally, we discuss our new and other recently published archaeointensity results in terms of geomagnetic intensity versus climate.

  9. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: status, use and some physical characteristics of mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Wilson, R Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Mules are known to have been used as carriage and riding animals in Mesopotamia and Anatolia as early as the beginning of the second millennium BC but may have been first bred in Anatolia in the Third Century BC. They have thus contributed to Turkey's cultural, social and economic heritage for more than 4,000 years and were an ancient component of its guild of domestic animals and overall biodiversity. Once bred country-wide most mules are now introduced "illegally" to the southeast and east from Iraq and Iran. Mules are now bred only in one small area in north-central Turkey close to the Black Sea. The major role as a pack animal has been usurped since the mid-twentieth century by increasing use of motor transport and numbers have declined rapidly since the early 1980s. In 2009 about 51,500 mules remained in Turkey, mainly distributed in discrete areas in the extreme southeast, the centre-south, the northwest and the centre-north. In the southeast the main role is in cross-border trade (much of it described as smuggling) whereas in other areas mules are used in support of pastoral and farming operations. Mules in Turkey are of various colours but are generally large and strong compared to those found in many other countries. Pressure on numbers will continue and will exert a negative effect on a part of Turkey's national heritage and domestic animal biodiversity. PMID:24833995

  10. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lake Iznik (W Turkey) and Üçaǧizli Cave (S Turkey) - implications for human dispersal in the Upper Palaeolithic along coastal Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehberg, Finn A.; Assanov, Sergey; Kuhn, Steven; Reed, Jane; Ülgen, Umut B.; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Melles, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Transcontinental dispersal of modern humans from the Near East to the Balkans in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic is expected to have followed the coastline (i.e., Yarımburgaz, Karain and Üçaǧızlı caves). Lake Iznik is situated 80 km south of the Bosphorus (Western Turkey) close to the Marmara Sea. Here we retrieved a continuous sediment record covering the past ~40 ka cal BP. A multiproxy approach enabled us to reconstruct the environmental history. We included biological proxies i.e., diatoms, cladocerans and ostracods as biological proxies, but also physical and geochemical proxies were analysed. Geomorphological findings in the lake basin and geochemical analyses hint to changing lake water levels at least since 40 ka cal BP that lasted until c. 11 cal. kyr BP. This supports the theory of persisting dry climate conditions before the onset of the Holocene also inferred from geochemical sediment proxies (i.e., element analysis), diatoms and ostracod shell chemistry. The Upper Palaeolithic sequences (45-33 ka cal BP) at the Üçaǧızlı Cave (Hatay) yield clear evidence of the technological transition between Initial Upper Palaeolithic and Ahmarian, but also documents major shifts in diet of past hunting community. The identified animal remains in the cave sequence change from larger ungulates to smaller ungulates and increase in fish and shellfish. It is proposed that the compositional change in game is not solitarily caused by technology advances, but also by environmental and climatic changes as inferred from sediment archives of Lake Iznik.

  11. The tectonic history of the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif and the Taurides since the Late Mesozoic: Paleomagnetic evidence for two-phase orogenic curvature in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćinku, Mualla Cengiz; Hisarli, Z. Mümtaz; Yılmaz, Yücel; Ülker, Beyza; Kaya, Nurcan; Öksüm, Erdinç; Orbay, Naci; Özbey, Zeynep Üçtaş

    2016-03-01

    The Niğde-Kırşehir Massif, known also as the Central Anatolian Block, is bordered by the sutures of the Neotethys Ocean. The massif suffered several deformation phases during and after the consumption of the surrounding oceans and the postcollisional events of the continental pieces of Anatolia in latest Cretaceous to Miocene. Previous paleomagnetic studies on the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif and its surroundings displayed either insufficient data or have claimed large rotations and/or remagnetization. In order to understand the tectonic history of the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif and its adjacent blocks we have sampled 147 different sites in the age range of Upper Jurassic to Miocene from the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif throughout its W/SW and E/SE boundaries and the central-southeastern Taurides. The results display that except the limestones in central Taurides, all rocks examined carry a primary magnetization. Among these an important finding is that rotations between the massif and the central-eastern Taurides indicate an oroclinal bending with counterclockwise rotation of R = 41.1° ± 7.6° in the SE and clockwise rotation of R = 45.9° ± 9.3° in the central Taurides from Upper Cretaceous rocks with respect to the African reference direction. Paleomagnetic rotations in the SE Taurides are compatible with the vergent direction of the thrusts generated from consumption of the Intra-Tauride Ocean prior to postcollisional convergence between Taurides and the massif. In the central Taurides it has been shown that the clockwise rotation of 45.9 ± 9.3 started in Middle Eocene, because of a remagnetization in Upper Cretaceous limestones. The deformation was linked to the final closure of the southern Neotethys and the collision between the African and Eurasian plates. In the Niğde-Kırşehir Massif counterclockwise rotation up to 25.5° ± 7.3° is recognized during Middle Eocene and interpreted in terms of block rotation together with the Taurides. After the Miocene a

  12. Deformation History of the Haymana Basin: Structural Records of Closure-Collision and Subsequent Convergence (Indentation) Events at the North-Central Neotethys (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin

    2016-04-01

    Gondwana- (Tauride Platfrom and Kırşehir Block) and Eurasia (Pontides) - derived continental blocks bound the Haymana basin, in the south and north, respectively. Boundaries between these blocks are signed by İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and debatable Intra-Tauride Suture zones which are straddled by the Haymana Basin in the region. In this regard, deformation recorded in the upper Cretaceous to middle Eocene deposits of the basin is mainly controlled by the relative movements of these blocks. Therefore, understanding the structural evolution of the Haymana Basin in a spatio-temporal concept is crucial to shed some light on some debatable issues such as ; (1) timing of late stage subduction histories of various branches of Neotethys and subsequent collision events, (2) effects of post-collisional tectonic activity in the Haymana region. Fault kinematic analyses (based on 623 fault-slip data from 73 stations) indicate that the basin was subjected to initially N-S to NNE-SSW extension until middle Paleocene and then N-S- to NNE-SSW- directed continuous compression and coeval E-W to ESE-WNW extension up to middle Miocene. These different deformation phases correspond to the fore-arc (closure) and foreland (collision and further convergence) stages of the basin. Additionally, fold analyses (based on 1017 bedding attitudes) and structural mapping studies show that development of folds and major faults are coeval and they can be explained by principle stress orientations of the second deformation phase. The Haymana basin is, based on the trends of E-W- and WNW-ESE- directed structures at the south-eastern and the north-western parts of the basin, respectively, divided into two structural segments. The balanced cross-sections also indicate ~4% and ~25% shortening at the north-western and south-eastern segments, respectively. The differences in amounts of shortenings are explained by reduce in effectiveness zone of basin-bounding thrust faults towards west. On the other hand, the boundary of the segments is defined as an intra-basinal strike-slip system which is thought to be developed together with late stage activities of the basin bounding thrust (or reverse) faults (Dereköy and İnler faults) in response to the north-westward movement of the northern segment of the Kırşehir block. It is proposed that the Haymana basin was initially evolved under the influences of subduction related extensional setting until middle Paleocene, and latterly foreland settings in front of a south-vergent fold and thrust belt developed during collision and post-collisional convergence until middle Miocene. Additionally, the north-westward movement and indentation of the Kırşehir Block caused structural segmentation and rotation events in the basin.

  13. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike;

    2012-01-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...

  14. Cross-sectional anatomy and geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogenic belt (northern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippolyte, J.-C.; Espurt, N.; Kaymakci, N.; Sangu, E.; Müller, C.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical data allowed the construction of a ~250-km-long lithospheric-scale balanced cross section of the southern Black Sea margin (Espurt et al. in Lithosphere 6:26-34, 2014). In this paper, we combine structural field data, stratigraphic data, and fault kinematics analyses with the 70-km-long onshore part of the section to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the Central Pontide orogen. These data reveal new aspects of the structural evolution of the Pontides since the Early Cretaceous. The Central Pontides is a doubly vergent orogenic wedge that results from the inversion of normal faults. Extensional subsidence occurred with an ENE-trend from Aptian to Paleocene. We infer that the Black Sea back-arc basin also opened during this period, which was also the period of subduction of the Tethys Ocean below the Pontides. As in the Western Pontides, the Cretaceous-Paleocene subsidence was interrupted from Latest Albian to Coniacian time by uplift and erosion that was probably related to a block collision and accretion in the subduction zone. The restoration of the section to its pre-shortening state (Paleocene) shows that fault-related subsidence locally reached 3600 m within the forearc basin. Structural inversion occurred from Early Eocene to Mid-Miocene as a result of collision and indentation of the Pontides by the Kırşehir continental block to the south, with 27.5 km (~28 %) shortening along the section studied. The inversion was characterized by NNE-trending shortening that predated the Late Neogene dextral escape of Anatolia along the North Anatolian Fault and the modern stress field characterized by NW-trending compression within the Eocene Boyabat basin.

  15. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  16. MIDDLE JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE CENTRAL PONTIDES (TURKEY: REMARKS ON PALEOGEOGRAPHY AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORA ROJAY

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equivalent of the Tubiphytes morronensis zone, Protopeneroplis ultragranulata (with the Haplophragmoides joukowskyi subzone, Montsalevia salevensis, Hedbergella delrioensis - Hedbergella planispira - Leupoldina - Globigerinelloides and Globigerinelloides algerianus biozones. Two major stratigraphic gaps corresponding to the pre-Callovian and Hauterivian-Early Aptian ages are recognised within the successions. Lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic studies indicate strong similarities in the evolution of the successions in the Amasya region (Central Pontides and Biga-Bursa-Bilecik (BBB Platform (North-western Anatolia

  17. Inferences for the Miocene to present evolution of the Anatolia Plateau south margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Miocene to recent Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP) is a first-order morphotectonic feature with high average elevations, low-relief dry interior and steep humid flacks. The ESF-sponsored Vertical Anatolia Movement Project (VAMP) aims at increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of plateau-building processes, using the CAP as a case study. Unravelling the tectonic history of its margins is essential. Our component of the VAMP strives to determine the subsidence-uplift mechanisms in the south margin of the Anatolia Plateau, structures responsible for, and age of growth of this margin, as well as achieve a quantitative understanding of the regional tectonics. A common division of the study area, from north to south, is: (i) south part of the continental basins of Central Turkey, with Tuz Gölü Basin as the main representative, in the high flat area of the Anatolian Plateau, (ii) the arcuate Tauride fold-thrust belt and the Miocene Basins on top of it, forming part of the south flank of the plateau, (iii) offshore Cilicia Basin between Turkey and Cyprus, as the downward continuation of the south flank of the plateau, and (iv) the southward-thrusted Kyrenia Mountain Range and Circum-Troodos sedimentary succession. Miocene marine sediments in southern Turkey are presently found in Manavgat, Mut and Adana Basins. These sediments, possibly originally belonging to one single basin, are fundamental archives to constrain the tectonic stages immediately preceding and contemporaneous with plateau development. Miocene Mut Basin lies between Manavgat and Adana Basins, and is considered to have developed on a relatively stable area of Mesozoic Tauride basement, thus is a strategic area to solve the tectonic history that existed in southern Turkey since Miocene. Three N-S regional geological sections from Mut Basin to Mesoaria Basin (north Cyprus) that reproduce the present relationships among the units of the area have been constructed. These sections show a pre

  18. Mouvements migratoires entre la Turquie et les Républiques turcophones du Caucase et d’Asie centrale Migratory movements between Turkey and the Turkish-speaking republics of Caucasia and Central Asia. Religious impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Balci

    2010-12-01

    active in sending Islamic literature to Central Asia from 1990. One of Said Nursi’s disciples, Fethullah Gülen, founded an extensive educational network, involving young instructors from Anatolia who moved to different Central Asian cities. A second group, the Suleymanci, named for its founder Suleyman Tunahan, used Turkish migration to open several small madrasas in different Central Asian countries. Finally, disciples of the Naqshbandiyya brotherhood, named after its founder Bahauddin Naqshband, a 15th century mystic from Bukhara, also sent thousands of Turkish migrants to the region to carry out missionary projects. After settling in these Central Asian cities, Turkish migrants have had a significant effect on Islam in the region. This is especially true in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, which have excellent political relationships with Turkey. As a result, many of these countries’ new religious elites have formed as a result of cooperation with Turkish missionary movements and their disciples who immigrated to Central Asia. Turkish migrants are not part of Turkey’s official policy on religious cooperation with Central Asia. However, they support Ankara’s diplomatic efforts in the region by indirectly creating a field of influence in this Turkish-speaking region, which is of considerable importance in Turkey’s new foreign policy.

  19. How Far Ahead Does the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey Look?1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Umit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In monetary economics literature, there is an agreement that monetary policy has a lagged effect on inflation. As a result of this agreement, monetary policy reaction functions that include expected inflation, instead of current or lagged inflation, are established. On the other hand, there is uncertainty about how much time monetary policy needs to affect inflation. The purpose of this paper is to estimate empirically how far ahead the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey looks. In other words, the paper examines whether the CBRT takes into consideration 12-month ahead inflation expectations or 24-month ahead inflation expectations while steering interest rates. According to the results of the paper, the CBRT considers 12-month ahead inflation expectations while steering interest rates.

  20. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  1. Status and Future Outlook of Cultivated Mushroom Sector in Turkey

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    Erkan Eren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom production that started in 1960's in Turkey gained economic value from the 1990's and it started improving as a commercial sector after that time. While Turkey mushroom production was 80 tons in 1973, it increased up to 45.000 tons in 2014. There is a rapid changes and improvement in cultivated mushroom production and consumption in Turkey. The object of the study is to reveal current status of mushroom production in the world and Turkey, and the problems of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the necessary precautions and ways to solve these problems. The data obtained from the inspections of the mushroom enterprises that in mushroom production regions of Turkey, and the secondary data obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK and Union of Antalya Exporters (AIB and also national and international publication’ data has been used in this study. In Turkey, Mediterranean and Marmara Regions rank first in mushroom production and consumption with the share of 61.5 and 40%, respectively. It has been determined that big enterprises producing mushroom and compost established in the Central Anatolia in this study. The number of enterprises producing mushroom by using technology increases and 15-20% of the total production are provided by the big enterprises having 2000 m2 and over mushroom production areas. Recent years, there are serious increases in the production of different mushroom species such as especially Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, precision agriculture applications are widespread with the time. For the continuation of growth of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the solving of the sector problems, there are needs both in making the necessary changes in legislation and to be given priority researches related to mushroom production in university and public research institutions and also to support them.

  2. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%. PMID:24192673

  3. Crustal velocity structure of Central and Eastern Turkey from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Linda M.; Beck, Susan L.; Biryol, C. Berk; Zandt, George; Özacar, A. Arda; Yang, Yingjie

    2013-09-01

    In eastern Turkey, the ongoing convergence of the Arabian and African plates with Eurasia has resulted in the westward extrusion of the Anatolian Plate. To better understand the current state and the tectonic history of this region, we image crust and uppermost mantle structure with ambient noise tomography. Our study area extends from longitudes of 32° to 44°E. We use continuous data from two temporary seismic deployments, our 2006-2008 North Anatolian Fault Passive Seismic Experiment and the 1999-2001 Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment, as well as from additional seismographs in the region. We compute daily cross-correlations of noise records between all station pairs and stack them over the entire time period for which they are available, as well as in seasonal subsets, to obtain interstation empirical Green's functions. After selecting interstation cross-correlations with high signal-to-noise ratios and measuring interstation phase velocities, we compute phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 8 to 40 s. At all periods, the phase velocity maps are similar for winter and summer subsets of the data, indicating that seasonal variations in noise sources do not bias our results. Across the study area, we invert the phase velocity estimates for shear velocity as a function of depth. The shear velocity model, which extends to 50 km depth, highlights tectonic features apparent at the surface: the Eastern Anatolian Plateau is a prominent low-velocity anomaly whereas the Kirşehir Massif has relatively fast velocities. There is a large velocity jump across the Inner Tauride Suture/Central Anataolian Fault Zone throughout the crust whereas the North Anatolian Fault does not have a consistent signature. In addition, in the southeastern part of our study area, we image a high velocity region below 20 km depth which may be the northern tip of the underthrusting Arabian Plate.

  4. An Alien Species New to the Flora of Turkey:Lysimachia japonica Thunb. (Primulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    TERZİOĞLU, Salih; KARAER, Fergan

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese species, Lysimachia japonica Thunb. (Primulaceae) has been recorded as a new alien for the Flora of Turkey from the NE Anatolia. The detailed description of the species together with its photographs is provided.

  5. Petrogenetic Characteristics Of Oyaca Kedikayası Boyalık Adakites In SW Ankara (Central Anatolia, Turkey): Evidences For Slab Melt Metasomatism

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Pınar; Şen, Erdal

    2013-01-01

    The Early Miocene Oyaca, Kedikayası and Boyalık dacites, situated approximately 50-60 km southwest of Ankara have affinities similar to adakitic rocks. They have porphyritic texture with a variable amount of plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and lesser biotite phenocrysts and a groundmass of plagioclase and quartz microcrysts. They have high Sr/Y (55-79 ppm) and (La/Yb)n (21-32 ppm) ratios, and low Y (10-19 ppm) and heavy rare earth element contents. According to their SiO2 (62.3-69.70 % wt.) ...

  6. PETROGENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF OYACA – KEDİKAYASI – BOYALIK ADAKITES IN SW ANKARA (CENTRAL ANATOLIA, TURKEY): EVIDENCE FOR SLAB MELT METASOMATISM

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Pınar; Şen, Erdal

    2013-01-01

    The Early Miocene Oyaca, Kedikayası and Boyalık dacites, situated approximately 50-60 km southwest of Ankara have affinities similar to adakitic rocks. They have porphyritic texture with a variable amount of plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and lesser biotite phenocrysts and a groundmass of plagioclase and quartz microcrysts. They have high Sr/Y (55-79 ppm) and (La/Yb)n (21-32 ppm) ratios, and low Y (10-19 ppm) and heavy rare earth element contents. According to their SiO2 (62.3-69.70 % wt.) ...

  7. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  8. Permo-Carboniferous granitoids with Jurassic high temperature metamorphism in Central Pontides, Northern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gücer, Mehmet Ali; Arslan, Mehmet; Sherlock, Sarah; Heaman, Larry M.

    2016-04-01

    In the northern part of the Central Pontides (N Turkey) there are different metamorphic rocks exposed, notably the Devrekani metamorphic rocks. Here, upper amphibolite-lower granulite facies metamorphic rocks contain predominantly paragneiss, orthogneiss and metacarbonate, and to a lesser extent, amphibolite and quartzite, with cross-cutting aplite, pegmatite and granite veins. This is the first report of these rocks and includes new data on the petrochemistry, geochronology and metamorphic evolution of the Devrekani orthogneisses from the Central Pontides. The orthogneisses show five different mineral parageneses with the characteristic mineral assemblage quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite ± hornblende ± opaque (± ilmenite and ± magnetite), and accessory minerals (zircon, sphene and apatite). These metamorphic rocks exhibit generally granoblastic, lepidogranoblastic and nematolepidogranoblastic with locally migmatitic and relic micrographic textures. They have well-developed centimeter-spaced gneissic banding and display gneissose structure with symmetric, asymmetric and irregular folds. The petrographic features, mineralogical assemblages and weak migmatization reflect high temperature conditions. Thermometric calculations in the orthogneisses indicate metamorphic temperatures reached 744 ± 33 °C. Field relations, petrography and petrochemistry suggest that the orthogneisses have predominantly granodioritic and some granitic protoliths, that show features of I-type, medium to high-potassic calc-alkaline volcanic arc granitoids. The orthogneisses have high contents of LILEs and low contents of HFSEs with negative Nb and Ti anomalies, which are typical of subduction-related magmas. The orthogneisses also show significant LREE enrichment relative to HREE with negative Eu anomalies (EuN/Eu* = 0.33-1.07) with LaN/LuN = 6.98-20.47 values. Based on U-Pb zircon dating data, the protoliths are related to Permo-Carboniferous (316-252 Ma) magmatism. It is

  9. Tracking the hydro-climatic signal from lake to sediment: A field study from central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Roberts, Neil; Jones, Matthew D.; Yiğitbaşıoğlu, Hakan; Allcock, Samantha L.; Woodbridge, Jessie; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2015-10-01

    Palaeo-hydrological interpretations of lake sediment proxies can benefit from a robust understanding of the modern lake environment. In this study, we use Nar Gölü, a non-outlet, monomictic maar lake in central Turkey, as a field site for a natural experiment using observations and measurements over a 17-year monitoring period (1997-2014). We compare lake water and sediment trap data to isotopic, chemical and biotic proxies preserved in its varved sediments. Nar Gölü underwent a 3 m lake-level fall between 2000 and 2010. δ18Olakewater is correlated with this lake-level fall, responding to the change in water balance. Endogenic carbonate is shown to precipitate in isotopic equilibrium with lake water and there is a strong relationship between δ18Olakewater and δ18Ocarbonate, which suggests the water balance signal is accurately recorded in the sediment isotope record. Over the same period, sedimentary diatom assemblages also responded, and conductivity inferred from diatoms showed a rise. Shifts in carbonate mineralogy and elemental chemistry in the sediment record through this decade were also recorded. Intra-annual changes in δ18Olakewater and lake water chemistry are used to demonstrate the seasonal variability of the system and the influence this may have on the interpretation of δ18Ocarbonate. We use these relationships to help interpret the sedimentary record of changing lake hydrology over the last 1725 years. Nar Gölü has provided an opportunity to test critically the chain of connection from present to past, and its sedimentary record offers an archive of decadal- to centennial-scale hydro-climatic change.

  10. Pre-collisional accretionary growth of the southern Laurasian active margin, Central Pontides, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi

    2016-03-01

    Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes crop out over wide areas in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. To the north, the wedge consists of a low-grade metaflysch sequence with blocks of marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite (PT = 7-12 kbar; 400 ± 70 °C) and serpentinite. 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from the phyllites of the metaflysch are ca. 100 Ma. The metaflysch sequence is underlain by oceanic crust-derived HP/LT metabasites and micaschists along a major detachment fault. The metabasites are epidote-blueschists consisting of glaucophane, epidote, titanite, and phengite locally with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are exposed as blocks along the detachment fault. Peak metamorphic conditions of a garnet-blueschist are constrained to 17 ± 1 kbar and 500 ± 40 °C and of a lawsonite-blueschist to 14 ± 2 kbar and 370-440 °C. 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating on the micaschists constrains the HP/LT metamorphism as 101-92 Ma, younging southward. Middle Jurassic (ca. 160 Ma) accretionary complexes consisting of blueschist to lower greenschist facies metabasites, marble and volcanogenic metasediment intercalations are exposed at the southern part of the Cretaceous wedge. In the studied area, the North Anatolian Fault forms the contact between Cretaceous and Middle Jurassic HP/LT metamorphic rocks. Wide distribution of Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes implies accretionary tectonic continental growth along the Laurasian active margin. High amount of clastic sediment flux into the trench has a major effect on enlarging the wedge during the Albian. Tectonic thickening of the oceanic HP/LT metamorphic sequence, however, was possibly achieved by propagation of the décollement along the retreating slab which can create the space necessary for progressive deep level basal underplating and extension of the wedge for subsequent syn-subduction exhumation.

  11. Minibasins and salt canopy in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: The central Sivas Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Legeay, Etienne; Callot, Jean-Paul; Kavak, Kaan Sevki; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    The Sivas Basin in the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey), which formed in the context of a foreland fold-and-thrust belt (FTB), exhibits a typical wall and basin (WAB) province characterized by symmetric minibasins separated by continuous steep-flanked walls and diapirs. Extensive fieldwork including regional and detailed local mapping of the contacts and margins of minibasins, and interpretation of a set of 2-D regional seismic lines, provide evidence for the development of a shallow evaporite level separating two generations of minibasins within the WAB province. Here beds of symmetric exposed minibasins along diapir flank are younger than minibasins observed over autochthonous evaporites. Laterally away from the WAB province, increase in wavelength of the tectonic structures suggests a deepening of the decollement level. We interpret that a shallower evaporite level developed in the form of an evaporite canopy, triggered by significant lateral shortening. The Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene autochthonous Tuzhisar evaporite level was remobilized by the northward migrating sedimentary load and the tilting of the southern basin margin during propagation of the foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Asymmetric and symmetric primary minibasins were overrun by an allochthonous sheet forming a canopy. A second generation of salt withdrawal minibasins subsided into the allochthonous salt sheet. The polygonal pattern of the WAB province influences the growing fold-and-thrust belt system during the late stage of the secondary minibasins development. The Sivas FTB basin is the result of the interaction between fold-and-thrust belt propagation, evaporite remobilization, and interaction between evaporite flow and sedimentation in the minibasins.

  12. Friedrich Sarre and the discovery of Seljuk Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Blessing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German art historian Friedrich Sarre (1865-1945 is best known as the director, from 1925-31, of the Islamic collection of the Berlin Museums, and for his collaboration with Ernst Herzfeld on the excavation of the Abbasid palaces of Samarra, Iraq, just before the onset of the 1914-18 war. From a historiographical point of view, however, Sarre also deserves attention for his work on the Seljuk architecture of Anatolia, a subject that had been barely studied within the context of Islamic art when he ventured into it. Crucially, Sarre’s study of Seljuk architecture is rooted in the late nineteenth-century appreciation of Persian art, rather in the later focus on a unified Turkish identity that became pervasive in the late 1920s, following ideological shifts after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

  13. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Küçük

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  14. Timing of post-collisional H-type to A-type granitic magmatism: U Pb titanite ages from the Alpine central Anatolian granitoids (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Serhat; Romer, Rolf L.; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal; Toksoy-Köksal, Fatma

    2004-12-01

    The last stages of the continental collision during the closure of the Neotethyan ocean in central Anatolia are characterized by post-collisional H- and A-type granitoids intruding both the metamorphic country rocks and allochthonous ophiolitic rocks of the central Anatolian crystalline complex. Available Rb Sr and K Ar whole-rock and mineral age data on the H- and A-type granitoids in central Anatolia are inconsistent. To better constrain the geological relevance and the timing of the change in the chemical character of magmatism in the wake of the Alpine orogeny in Anatolia, we re-evaluated the geochemical characteristics and dated titanite from representative H- (Baranadag quartz-monzonite: BR) and A-type (Çamsari quartz-syenite: CS) granitoids by the U Pb method. BR is a high-K calc-alkaline intrusion with mafic microgranular enclaves and shows enrichment of LILE relative to HFSE. The alkaline CS displays higher SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Th and HFSE with corresponding depletion in CaO, MgO, Fe2O3tot, P2O5, Ba, Sr, and Ti. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the BR and CS samples have LREE-enriched and flat HREE patterns, whereas CS differs from BR by higher LREE enrichment and lower MREE and HREE contents. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics suggest that BR and CS were not products of the same magma source. BR was derived from a subduction-modified depleted hybrid-source and CS had an enriched mantle source with significant crustal contribution. The U Pb titanite ages of the H-type central Anatolian granitoids (BR) and the A-type granitoids (CS) are 74.0±2.8 and 74.1±0.7 Ma, respectively. The coeval evolution of post-collisional/calc-alkaline H- to A-type magmatism was possibly associated with source heterogeneity and variable involvement of continental materials during the evolution of these granitoids. These new age data constrain the timing of the onset of a post-collision extensional period following the Alpine thickening within the passive

  15. A river based stable isotope record of orographic precipitation: Taurus Mountains, south central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemmel, Fabian; Mulch, Andreas; Mikes, Tamás.; Schildgen, Taylor

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructing continental precipitation and vegetation patterns has become one of the most rapidly growing fields in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Furthermore, stable isotopes in precipitation within continental plateau regions represent an increasingly important tool for reconstructing the various effects of uplift related climate change within the world's largest plateau regions. With peak elevations of more than 3,000 m the Taurus Mountains represent the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau and must have played a pivotal role in controlling the drainage and sedimentation patterns within the plateau interior. However, their surface uplift history remains largely elusive. We sampled a series of tributaries and rivers along the Ermenek valley that crosscuts the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus Mountains on the d18O and dD values of river and spring waters and to compare these values to the d18O and dD of recent precipitation gathered by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Further we try to study the trends of the recent d18O and dD isotopic composition of local rivers and precipitation in the area to create a set of isotopic data that is comparable to isotopic studies on paleosoils and can therefore be used in future paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate studies. We sampled 6 individual rivers during the fall season 2008 to capture mostly groundwater runoff in the south central Taurus Mountains. All sampled rivers belong to the same local drainage system which drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The total elevation difference within the sampling area exceeds 2,000 m and we were able to collect samples over almost 1,800 m of elevation. Our measurements show that both d18O and dD values follow the same basic trend. d18O and dD values decrease systematically with increasing elevation. The lapse rate of d18O is about -2.2 per mil/km, whereas the

  16. The kinematics of central-southern Turkey and northwest Syria revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyrek, Ali; Demir, Tuncer; Westaway, Rob; Guillou, Hervé; Scaillet, Stéphane; White, Tom S.; Bridgland, David R.

    2014-03-01

    Central-southern Turkey, NW Syria, and adjacent offshore areas in the NE Mediterranean region form the boundary zone between the Turkish, African and Arabian plates. A great deal of new information has emerged in recent years regarding senses and rates of active crustal deformation in this region, but this material has not hitherto been well integrated, so the interpretations of key localities by different teams remain contradictory. We have reviewed and synthesised this evidence, combining it with new investigations targeted at key areas of uncertainty. This work has led to the inference of previously unrecognised active faults and has clarified the roles of other structures within the framework of plate motions provided by GPS studies. Roughly one third of the relative motion between the Turkish and Arabian plates is accommodated on the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, which links to the study region from the Kyrenia mountain range of northern Cyprus. Much of this motion passes NNE then eastward around the northern limit of the Amanos Mountains, as previously thought, but some of it splays northeastward to link into newly-recognised normal faulting within the Amanos Mountains. The remaining two thirds of the relative motion is accommodated along the Karasu Valley; some of this component steps leftward across the Amik Basin before passing southward onto the northern Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) but much of it continues southwestward, past the city of Antakya, then into offshore structures, ultimately linking to the subduction zone bounding the Turkish and African plates to the southwest of Cyprus. However, some of this offshore motion continues southward, west of the Syrian coast, before linking onshore into the southern DSFZ; this component of the relative motion is indeed the main reason why the slip rate on the northern DSFZ, measured geodetically, is so much lower than that on its southern counterpart. In some parts of this region, notably in the Karasu Valley, it is

  17. Statistical Modeling of Spatio-Temporal Variability in Monthly Average Daily Solar Radiation over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Ertekin, Can

    2007-01-01

    Though one of the most significant driving forces behind ecological processes such as biogeochemical cycles and energy flows, solar radiation data are limited or non-existent by conventional ground-based measurements, and thus, often estimated from other meteorological data through (geo)statistical models. In this study, spatial and temporal patterns of monthly average daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface at the ground level were quantified using 130 climate stations for the entire Turkey and its conventionally-accepted seven geographical regions through multiple linear regression (MLR) models as a function of latitude, longitude, altitude, aspect, distance to sea; minimum, maximum and mean air temperature and relative humidity, soil temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, pan evapotranspiration, day length, maximum possible sunshine duration, monthly average daily extraterrestrial solar radiation, and time (month), and universal kriging method. The resulting 20 regional best-fit MLR models (three MLR models for each region) based on parameterization datasets had R2adj values of 91.5% for the Central Anatolia region to 98.0% for the Southeast Anatolia region. Validation of the best-fit MLR models for each region led to R2 values of 87.7% for the Mediterranean region to 98.5% for the Southeast Anatolia region. The best-fit anisotropic semi-variogram models for universal kriging as a result of one-leave-out cross-validation gave rise to R2 values of 10.9% in July to 52.4% in November. Surface maps of monthly average daily solar radiation were generated over Turkey, with a grid resolution of 500 m × 500 m.

  18. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the continental Miocene basins in southern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.

    2014-05-01

    The exposed portion of the Tauride fold-thrust belt in southern Turkey is flanked and overlain by Neogene sedimentary basins. To the south and on top of the high ranges, these basins are mainly marine, whereas previously poorly studied intra-montane basins dominated by continental deposits are exposed to the north. We have studied the stratigraphy and structure of these continental basins - the Altınapa, Yalvaç and Ilgın Basins. Their stratigraphy displays overall fining upward sequences of fluvio-lacustrine sediments, deposition of which interrupted by basin-wide unconformities; similar hiatuses seems to exist in each basin. The most prominent unconformity surface occurred during the Middle Miocene and corresponds to the timing of volcanic activity in the region. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the volcaniclastic samples from the Altınapa and Ilgın basins yielded 11.8-11.6 Ma ages. The main basin forming regional deformation phase was extensional and occurred during the Middle Miocene. The extension directions obtained from paleostress inversion techniques indicate multidirectional extension under vertical uniaxial stress which are compatible with the recent seismic activity and available focal mechanism solutions. The main basin-bounding faults, however, are constrained mainly N-S to NW-SE implying that they are reactivated structures. The Middle Miocene and onwards extensional history of these basins occurs behind and atop a thrust front along the Cyprus arc, extending towards the Antalya nappes and Aksu thrust in the heart of the Isparta angle. The synchrounous, curved pairs of thrust fronts associated with subduction and overriding plate extension suggests that the Cyprus subduction zone has been retreating relative to central Anatolia since, at least, the Middle Miocene time. In addition to extensional history of the region, these continental basins contain evidence for the post-Late Miocene differential uplift of the Taurides in southern Anatolia. All of these

  19. DESCRIPTION OF AN EARLY ONTOGENETIC EVOLUTIONARY STEP IN LEPIDORBITOIDES (LEPIDORBITOIDES BISAMBERGENSIS ASYMMETRICA, EARLY MAASTRICHTIAN (CENTRAL TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERCAN ÖZCAN

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Lepidorbitoides bisambergensis is characterised by having a ‘quadriserial’ embryo without any chamberlet directly arising from the deuteroconch and is a very diagnostic and common species in Lower Maastrichtian flysch successions in Anatolia. Some populations of this species present an early ontogenetic morphologic feature which is characterised by distinctly asymmetric early chamber arrangement recognised in the horizontal sections. This asymmetry is mainly caused by the pronounced difference in the size of auxiliary chamberlets which rest on both, protoconch and deuteroconch and also enhanced by the development of unequal number of chamberlets in the series arising from these auxiliary chamberlets on the protoconchal side. These asymmetric specimens are commonly identified in stratigraphic horizons below the symmetric ones after the introduction of a new auxiliary chamberlet and progressively replaced by symmetric ones in the younger populations. Asymmetric "quadriserial" specimens representing the early phylogenetic stage of L. bisambergensis described in the stratigraphic horizons corresponding to G. havanensis and G. aegyptiaca (? zones are thought to deserve a particular taxonomic status and are attributed to Lepidorbitoides bisambergensis asymmetrica Özcan & Özkan-Altiner, 1999a. 

  20. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995-1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100-150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85-90 mW m-2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m-2) are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90-100 mW m-2) are also observed in the peninsular (western) part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60-70 mW m-2) are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  1. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995–1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100–150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85–90 mW m−2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m−2 are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90–100 mW m−2 are also observed in the peninsular (western part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60–70 mW m−2 are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  2. The soils of the Upper Kura watershed area (NE Anatolia)

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇMAN, Asaf

    1984-01-01

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of the Anatolia. This area is belong to the Upper Kura drainage basin and from hydrographic point o f view it is connected to the Aras river basin. As a whole, the given area was composed of volcanic material, volcano-sedimentary and Plio-Quatcmary terrains. The Volcanic rocks are common on the northern, western and eastern part of the area. The volcano- sedimentary formations occur the central parts, and Quaternary alluvions occupy the tecto...

  3. Mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric characteristics of Central Anatolian fluorites (Turkey): Tracing the origin of post-magmatic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosanay, Pelin; Mutlu, Halim; Koc, Sükrü; Cevik, Nihal; Oztürk, Ceyda; Varol, Ece

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatial distribution of fluorite veins in Central Anatolia with emphasis on mineralogical, textural, geochemical and thermometric variations. The studied fluorite mineralizations (Kaman, Akçakent, Pöhrenk and Şefaatli mineralizations from west to east) are located on northern part of Kırşehir Massif which is a part of Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex that is bordered by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. The Kaman, Akçakent and Şefaatli fluorite deposits are formed in association with magmatic rocks such as syenite and monzonite / monzodiorite in composition which are of Upper Cretaceous age. Fluorite in these deposits occurs as purple- and green-colored stockwork veins and/or disseminations along fault/fracture systems and is accompanied by quartz and rare pyrite. The Pöhrenk ore, however, is precipitated as space filling-breccia type within karstic voids of Eocene limestones and marl levels. The silicification/carbonatization and barite occurrences are found as the main alteration and secondary products of mineralization. Thickness of fluorite veins is between 2 and 30 cm. ΣREE contents of host rocks and fluorite veins are in the range of 2-806 ppm and 20-390 ppm, respectively. In element variation diagrams constructed for both host rocks and fluorite mineralizations, LREE concentrations are found to be greater than HREEs. REE contents of green-colored fluorites are about 10-fold higher than those of purple-colored ones. Negative Ce and Eu anomalies indicate high oxygen fugacity for the mineralizing fluids. Fluid inclusion studies indicated three different types of inclusions: 1) two-phase (liquid-vapor) primary and secondary inclusions, 2) single-phase (liquid) primary and secondary inclusions and 3) two-phase (liquid-vapor) and single-phase (liquid) pseudo-secondary inclusions. Results of homogenization temperatures from a number of about 200 measurements chiefly on fluorite and less often quartz and barite

  4. Rock-Forming Nannofossils in Uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Rock Units of Northwest Anatolia: Nannoconusand Its Resived Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAN-ALTINER, Sevinç

    1999-01-01

    Nannoconids have been recorded in a rock-forming quantity in the uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous rock units in Northwest Anatolia, Turkey. Samples were collected from seventeen stratigraphic sections spanning the calciturbidities of the Yosunlukbayiri Formation and pelagic micrites of the Sogukçam Limestone. Because of rareness and difficulties for extracting of calcareous nannofossil species particularly zone markers in these type lithologies, nannoconids have particular attention in ter...

  5. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  6. Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Central Anatolian Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Genc, Mustafa Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Clean and renewable energies obtaining from sunlight, wind or water around the earth do not make a net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Therefore, these energy sources should be used to protect our world, because of global warming and the injurious effects of carbon emissions. And so, it should be estimated the windy and sunny fields in Turkey, the unit cost of energy output of various wind and solar energy conversion systems. Today, wind energy seems to be reasonable due to...

  7. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection. PMID:25708566

  8. Mineralogy and petrology of leucite ankaratrites with affinities to kamafugites and carbonatites from the Kayıköy area, Isparta, SW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for the influences of carbonatite metasomatism into the parental mantle sources of silica-undersaturated potassic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caran, Şemsettin

    2016-07-01

    In the Kayıköy area of Isparta-Gölcük district, Inner Isparta Angle, SW Anatolia, Turkey, a small volume of newly discovered K-rich mafic potassic magma was emplaced in the form of dome in the vicinity of graben structures under Pliocene (3.68 ± 0.5 Ma) extensional tectonics. Kayıköy leucite ankaratrites are made up of abundant diopside, barian phlogopite and leucite, and lesser olivine, that rarely contains Cr-spinel, nepheline and haüyne, with abundant magnetite. They have low SiO2 (44.00-46.04 wt.%) and Al2O3 (12.10-12.64 wt.%) with high K2O (4.00-4.42 wt.%), CaO (13.50-14.40 wt.%) and MgO (8.52-9.36 wt.%), with high Cr (397-547 ppm) and moderate Ni (57-74 ppm) contents. They represent the less evolved silica-undersaturated mafic potassic magmas within the Isparta-Gölcük volcanic province, and may be considered another parental source to the wide spectrum of the K-rich rocks. They are highly enriched in most of the incompatible elements (e.g., Ba, 2761 to > 10,000 ppm; Sr, 3700-4074 ppm; Th, 33.60-36.99 ppm; Zr, 274-321 ppm) with high LREEs, low HREEs and elevated LREEs/HREEs ratios [(La/Yb)N, 73-80] and are comparable with kamafugite and carbonatites. Trace element patterns have negative P, Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies in common with the Italian kamafugite province and lack of a Eu anomaly, in contrast to the negative Eu anomaly of the Italian province. Their Sr87/86-Nd143/144 (0.703877-0.512765) isotopic compositions, together with those of other potassic volcanics from the Inner Isparta Angle, coincide with the West Quinling (China) kamafugites with highly depleted mantle signatures, and young East African carbonatites. Olivine-Cr-spinel pairs, high Mg# (0.69-0.73) numbers and Cr values, and high incompatible and LREE contents in Kayıköy leucite ankaratritic magma are consistent with near-primary magmas equilibrated with enriched and heterogeneous (peridotitic/pyroxenitic) mantle sources. On the basis of (i) their geochemical signatures [low Ti

  9. Nature of Beypazari Granitoid: Geology and geochemistry, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Zoroğlu, O.

    2008-07-01

    Beypazari Granitoid represents one of the widest exposure bodies within the Sakarya continent. It has several exposure bodies at Beypazari, Oymaagac, Tahir, Kirbasi and Yalnizcam of Eskisehir city. Although Beypazari Granitoid has several independence outcrops, the field geology and the aeromagnetic anomaly reveal that they are a unique body at the lower part of the crust. Field observations, mineralogical and petrographical investigations reveal that Beypazari Granitoid is composed of five different units these are monzonite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite, granite and alkali feldspar granite. Alkali feldspar granite cuts all the other subunits in the form of aplitic dyke. All the other subunits have gradual contact with the each other. Excluding alkali feldspar granite mafic enclaves are observed within the other 4 subunits as angular and elliptical in shape and changing from mm up to 20 cm in size. These enclaves can be divided genetically into three different types according to the field observation, textural features and mineralogical compositions. The first type has igneous texture, sharp contact with host rock, rimmed by fine crystalline mafic minerals and represents the abundant enclave type within the monzonite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite as elliptical to sub-angular in shape. These enclaves mostly have subophitic texture in the composition of diorite, quartz diorite and monzodiorite. Ocellar quartz, acicular apatite, poiclitic feldspars and blade shaped biotite are the most characteristic features of the first type of these enclaves, which may represent the magma mixing/mingling enclaves in origin. The second type of these enclaves has a cumulate texture and is representing a segregation of early crystallization processes of mafic minerals. The second type of these enclaves is the product of the early crystallization of magmatic differentiation and is forming the magma segregation enclave types. The third type of the enclaves have metamorphic texture with clear metamorphic lineation, sharp contact with host rock and mostly observed at the northwest part of Kirbasi and Tahir region in the form of xenolithic enclaves. They have angular to sub-angular in shape. These types of the enclaves have hornfels in composition at the contact with the host rock as a product of contact metamorphism and amphibolites in composition at the core as a product of high temperature and middle pressure metamorphism. The textural features and mineral composition of the third type of the enclaves may indicate a fragment of metapelitic rocks, which caught by the granitoid magma in the form of xenolithic enclaves. Whole rock geochemistry reveals that Beypazari granitoids are subalkaline and calcalkaline in nature. They are enriched in Light-REE and LIL with respect to High-REE and HFS elements. Tectonic discrimination diagrams of Beypazari granitoid suggest a product of plate convergence and probably belong to Volcanic Arc Granitoid (VAG). The field observations, mineralogy, petrography with the whole geochemical data reveal that the Beypazari Granitoid magmas are derived from a subduction-modified magma and metasomatized mantle source with considerable crustal contribution.

  10. Ethnomathematics in Anatolia-Turkey: Mathematical Thoughts in Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Küçük

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los pensamientos matemáticos están en interacción con la cultura y forman un todo indivisible. Por consiguiente la Etnomatemática nos ayuda a comprender la naturaleza de las matemáticas y contribuye a la comprensión de uno mismo, así como a las demás personas que comparten el mismo planeta. La Etnomatemática refleja los estudios del pensamiento matemático de las sociedades multiculturales o tradicionales. El pensamiento matemático es un enfoque en que las personas intentan encontrar soluciones rápidas y sistemáticas a un problema de varias maneras. El rol de la Etnomatemática, que estudia los pensamientos matemáticos, no puede ser ignorado en un contexto histórico-cultural. Este documento examina algunas reflexiones etnomatemáticas en la cultura Anatoliana a través de la percepción de la geométrica en el campo de la ingeniería, las alfombras, los adornos de las alfombras y los juegos de inteligencia.

  11. Peridotite hosted chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits of West Anatolia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedef, Veysel

    2016-04-01

    Turkey has important chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits within peridotite host rocks. The peridotites (harzburgite, verlite, lherzolite and dunite) are mostly serpentinised as a result of metasomatic reaction of olivine and pyroxene minerals with percolating water. The serpentinites are generally an important part of ophiolitic complexes which displays a discontinuous belts all over the country. The chromite deposits are often related to cumulates and tectonites (as Alpine and/or podiform type deposits) and despite their small reserves, their grade can reach up to 58 %. In most deposits, a little enrichment efforts, the grade of chromite can easily be reached from 25 % to 40-45 %. The magnesite deposits of West Anatolia is especially concentrated in three provinces. These provinces are Konya, Kutahya and Eskisehir. The magnesites are of cryptocrystalline type and, like chromite deposits, their reserve are small but have high grade with low FeO-CaO and high MgO ratio. Once again, these deposits are found within serpentinised peridotites of ultramafic belts. The total (proven and inferred) magnesite reserves are approximately 200 million tons, and these are mostly cryptocrystalline character. A small amount of sedimentary magnesite deposits also present in Denizli (SW Anatolia) and Erzincan (Eastern Anatolia). The olivine deposits are found within peridotites of Western Anatolia. Especially, the Kızıldag olivine deposits (located between the border of Antalya and Konya provinces) are noteworthy with its huge (9 billion tons) reserves. The main olivine mineral is forsterite (Mg2SiO4) which has economically important when compared to other olivine mineral fayalite. The deposits have no quality problem but have a serious disadvantages since its location far from the ports and railway stations.

  12. IMPACT OF THE ATATÜRK DAM LAKE ON AGRO-METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP. The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity on the watershed have been investigated

  13. The approach to frostbite in Turkey: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2006-01-01

    Increased participation in outdoor activities and an epidemic of homelessness have caused the incidence of cold injuries in the civilian population of Turkey to rise dramatically during the past 20 years. Knowledge of treatment is crucial for emergency physicians in rural and urban areas. Recent developments have significantly advanced the understanding of the pathophysiology of hypothermic and frostbite injuries. The authors undertook a retrospective review of frostbite cases in the East Anatolia region of Turkey. The mean altitude of East Anatolia is 1600 m, and temperatures may be -35 degrees C at night and -18 degrees C in the morning in the cities and surrounding villages. Winter is prolonged and harsh, and freezing is a normal condition in this region. The socioeconomic level in this region is lower than other regions of Turkey. During the winter, roads may be closed for as long as five months, and most villages in East Anatolia have no medical units. Erzurum, one of the coldest cities in East Anatolia, is the only city with advanced medical hospitals in this region. Three hospitals in Erzurum were included in the present study: Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Erzurum Numune Hospital and Erzurum SSK Hospital. Frostbite case records and their properties are presented. PMID:19554225

  14. The balancing role of Turkey for the influence of China in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Today, there is a dynamic new ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia engaging multiple players and institutions who compete for influence in Central Asia, such as the Russian-dominated Collective Security Treaty Organization, the U.S.-dominated NATO Partnership for Peace Program, and the Sino-Russian-dominated Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Of all the players, China is clearly one of the most dominant. China’s authoritarian regime, domestic problems, and huge energy demands hold potential threats f...

  15. Petrography, mineral chemistry, fluid inclusion microthermometry and Re–Os geochronology of the Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (Central Pontides, Northern Turkey).

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, M; Oyman, T.; Çiçek, M.; Selby, D.; Özgenç, İ.; Tokçaer, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Re–Os isotopic system is applied for the first time to the sulfide ores and the overlying black-shales at the Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit of the Central Pontides, Northern Turkey. The ore samples collected include predominantly pyrite, accompanied by chalcopyrite, sphalerite and other species. Massive ore is almost free of gangues, whereas the stockwork ore includes quartz and calcite gangue. The composition of sphalerite is similar to ancient and modern massive sulfide mine...

  16. Turkey-Greece Relations Between 1919 and 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan UZUN

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that Turkey and Greece have assumed their nation-state identities as a result of a war in which they have confronted has had a substantial impact on the shaping up of relations between thetwo states.The relations between Turkey and Greece, which stepped in Anatolia in 1919 as an occupying force, continued quite problematically until 1930s when the possibility of a war to break out in the world was prevalent.The relations between Greece and Turkey, which were quite favorable particularly during the period of Atatürk and Venizelos, were spoilt following the emergence of the Cyprus question in 1955.

  17. Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in Turkey. Turkey is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central Anatolian region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest Turkey, with less variation in precipitation.

  18. Mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological evaluation of the Plio-Quaternary paleosols and calcretes from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küçükuysal Ceren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the mineralogical, micromorphological, and geochemical characteristics of the paleosols and their carbonates from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey. The paleosols include calcretes of powdery to nodular forms and alternate with channel deposits. The presence of pedofeatures, such as clay cutans, floating grains, circumgranular cracks, MnO linings, secondary carbonate rims, traces of past bioturbation and remnants of root fragments are all the evidence of pedogenesis. Bw is the most common soil horizon showing subangular-angular blocky to granular or prismatic microstructures. Calcretes, on the other hand, are evaluated as semi-mature massive, nodular, tubular or powdery forms. The probable faunal and floral passages may also imply the traces of life from when these alluvial deposits were soil. The presence of early diagenetic palygorskite and dolomite together with high salinization, high calcification and low chemical index of alteration values are evidence of the formation of calcretes under arid and dry conditions. δ13C compositions of the carbonates ranging from -7.11 ‰ to -7.74 ‰ VPDB are comformable with the world pedogenic carbonates favouring the C4 vegetation; likely δ18O compositions of the carbonates are between -3.97 ‰ and -4.91 ‰ which are compatible with the paleosols formed under the influence of meteroic water in the vadose zone

  19. Cenozoic tectonics of the Tuz Gölü Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ-BLANCO, David; BERTOTTI, Giovanni; ÇİNER, T. Attila

    2013-01-01

    We present a new 3D geologic model for the architecture and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Tuz Gölü Basin, a major sedimentary basin in the Central Anatolian orogenic plateau. This model is grounded on 7 depth-converted seismic reflection profiles in combination with the analysis of backstripped subsidence curves, isochore maps, and a palinspastically restored cross-section. Two stages of basin formation are detected during Cenozoic times. During the Palaeogene, around 2 km of basement su...

  20. A survey on helminth infections of equines in the Central Black Sea region, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    UMUR, Şinasi; AÇICI, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of helminth species in horses, donkeys, and mules in the Central Black Sea region, between March 2004 and July 2005. For this purpose, 140 faecal samples were taken from horses (n = 83), donkeys (n = 31), and mules (n = 26) in Samsun, Sinop, Ordu, Amasya, and Tokat provinces. Infection rates were 91.57% (76 of 83) in horses, 96.77% (30 of 31) in donkeys, and 96.15% (25 of 26) in mules. The parasite species and their prevalence in examined...

  1. Tectonic interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In this presentation, an interpretation of the aeromagnetic anomalies of Turkey will be discussed. Aeromagnetic data acquired by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA) is used in this study. Sensitivity of these data are suitable for regional studies. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction and advanced geophysical data processing methods were applied, and then data were gridded with 5x5 km intervals. Initially, aeromagnetic anomalies were upward continued to be at 2, 3, 5 and 7 km heights (including flight altitude). This application suppressed near surface effects and revealed that the 3 km upward continued aeromagnetic anomaly map is the most convenient map to reflect the deep-seated structures in Anatolia. Then, Reduction to the Pole (RTP) method was applied to the 3 km upward continued anomalies. Hence, it was observed that polarities of the most anomalies were aligned along the North-South direction. It is thought that the remanent magnetization is not existent in the west and the centre of Anatolia, in contrast to the east where polarities of the most anomalies are different from the north-south direction by the presence of strong remanent magnetization. In order to delineate the boundaries of the causative structures, Analytical Signal (AS) method was applied on the aeromagnetic anomalies. A sinuous boundary in the south of Turkey is apparent in the AS map which can be evaluated as suture zone between the Anatolides and non-magnetic African/Arabian Plate. Several important anomalies became more visible after AS transformation in Anatolia. These are, from west to east, the Suluklu-Cihanbeyli-Goloren (SCGA), Konya (KA), Cappadocian Volcanic Complex (CVCA) and Van Lake (VLA) magnetic anomalies. The East Anatolian Contractional Province Anomalies (EACPA) are intensively gathered in the East Anatolia where intensive earthquake activities are also observed. Magnetic

  2. Seismic Structure of Eastern Anatolia Crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional crustal structure, which is mainly, affected by the collision of the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates beneath Eastern Anatolia plateau has been investigated using seismological data. P-wave first arrivals and P-S waveforms of the earthquakes recorded by ETSE (1999-2001) and KOERI (Kandilli) stations were simulated. The crust has an average depth of 38 - 42 km and low velocity zones due to the partially melting were modeled

  3. Signature of slab fragmentation beneath Anatolia from full-waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Rob; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in the Tibetan plateau also. We focus on the eastern Mediterranean basin, which is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. We present new results of full-waveform tomography that allow us to image both the crust and upper mantle in great detail. We show that a major discontinuity exists between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. Also, the correlation of geological features and the crustal velocities is substantially stronger in the west than in the east. We interpret these observations as the imprint in the overriding plate of fragmentation of the neo-Tethys slab below it. This north-dipping slab may have fragmented following the Eocene (about 35 million years ago) arrival of a continental promontory (Central Anatolian Core Complex) at the subduction contact. From the Eocene through the Miocene, slab roll-back ensued in the Aegean and west Anatolia, while the Cyprus-Bitlis slab subducted horizontally beneath central and east Anatolia. Following collision of Arabia (about 16 million years ago), the Cyprus-Bitlis slab steepened, exposing the crust of central and east Anatolia to high temperature, and resulting in the velocity structure that we image today. Slab fragmentation thus was a major driver of the evolution of the overriding plate as collision unfolded.

  4. WOMEN’S HEADDRESSES USED IN ANATOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In history, Anatolia has long been known to have a complex composition, due to its unique geographical location and its role as host to many cultures. Clothes and accessories have been influenced by this cultural diversity. Headdresses used in harmony with clothing and thought to complement it, have been important and indispensable accessories, varying in color, shape and texture according to the clothing worn. These could differ in simplicity or grandeur, and vary according to cultural diffe rences or those in socio - economic levels. No matter their social class, women never ceased wearing th ese complementary accessories. Visual sources on Anatolian clothing culture revealed that although headdresses are accessories complementing clothing, their attributes were never studied with a scientific approach, which has been influential in the choice of the subject matter of this study. The aim of this study is to identify and classify the attributes of traditional women’s headdresses used in Anatol ia and to specify that the examples recorded and photographed are used in Anatolia. Historical and review methods were used in the research. Sources were studied with help of the observation form used as a data collection tool to examine women’s headdresse s used in Anatolia.

  5. LATE TRIASSIC (LATE NORIAN-RHAETIAN RADIOLARIANS FROM THE ANTALYA NAPPES, CENTRAL TAURIDES, SOUTHERN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UGUR KAGAN TEKIN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hocaköy section measured from the Alakirçay Nappe (middle nappe of the Antalya Nappes contain rich radiolarian fauna ranging from late Norian (Late Triassic to middle-late Cenomanian (mid Cretaceous. At the basal part of the section, the Late Triassic (late Norian-Rhaetian Gökdere Formation is characterized by gray to beige cherty limestone at the base and pinkish red chert- gray to beige limestone alternation at the top, with moderately to well-preserved radiolarians in the red chert beds. The overlying Jurassic - Middle Cretaceous Hocaköy Radiolarite is mainly represented by chert-mudstone alternations with some limestone interlayers. Radiolarians of the Gökdere Formation can be well correlated with that of the fauna from the Mino Terrane, central Japan and the fauna from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Four radiolarian zones from central Japan are recognized in the fauna obtained from Gökdere Formation such as “Praemesosaturnalis multidentatus Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8A” (late Norian, “Praemesosaturnalis pseudokahleri Lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8B” (late Norian, ? “ Skirt F lowest Occurrence Zone (TR8C” (late Norian-Rhaetian and partly “Haeckelicyrtium breviora Taxon Range Zone (TR8D” (Rhaetian. In comparison with the Queen Charlotte fauna, the two zones “Betraccium deweveri Zone” (late Norian and “Proparvicingula moniliformis Zone” (early Rhaetian are also encountered in the Gökdere Formation. Radiolarians of the uppermost part of the Gökdere Formation indicate that “Globolaxtorum tozeri Zone” defined in Queen Charlotte Islands corresponding to the late Rhaetian, is not present in the section. Five new taxa, Capnuchosphaera okayi, Bistarkum rhaeticum, Praemesosaturnalis heilongjiangensis aksekiensis, P. nobleae, Veghicyclia sanfilippoae were determined within the late Norian-Rhaetian radiolarian fauna of the Gökdere Formation in Hocaköy section.   

  6. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  7. First assessment on the molecular phylogeny of Anatololacerta (Squamata, Lacertidae) distributed in Southern Anatolia: insights from mtDNA and nDNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Kamil; Kankılıç, Tolga; Güçlü, Özgür; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos; Ilgaz, Çetin

    2016-05-01

    The genus Anatololacerta (Lacertidae) occurs mainly in Anatolia (western and southern Turkey) and on the Aegean islands Samos, Ikaria, and Rhodos. Although its taxonomy has long been debated and is currently nascent, three morphological species have been attributed to this genus: Anatololacerta anatolica, Anatololacerta oertzeni, and Anatololacerta danfordi. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of A. oertzeni and Anatololacerta danfordi based on both mitochondrial and nuclear markers (16S rRNA and cmos). In total, 34 Anatololacerta specimens were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Our results supported the presence of four well-supported lineages: two belongs to A. oertzeni and two to A. danfordi. The temporal diversification of these lineages probably started with the divergence of the first A. oertzeni lineage from western Antalya at 7.9 Mya. The other two major splits may have occurred in early Pliocene (4.4 Mya: the divergence of the second A. oertzeni from A. danfordi) and in late Pliocene (2.7 Mya: the divergence of the two lineages of A. danfordi). The phylogeographical scenario suggests that the major diversification events (from late Miocene to late Pliocene) could be related with climatic oscillations (such as the late Miocene aridification and the Messinian Salinity Crisis) and tectonic movements (such as the uplift of the central Taurus mountain). PMID:25489775

  8. New earthworm records from Turkey, with description of three new species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Pavlíček, Tomás; Coşkun, Yüksel; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the earthworm material recently collected in different parts of Turkey (Marmara Region, Upper Mesopotamia, Hatay Province and East Anatolia) resulted in records of 29 earthworm species including three lumbricids new to science: Dendrobaena cevdeti, D. szalokii and Eisenia patriciae spp. nov. In addition, Dendrobaena cognettii is reported for the first time from the country. With this contribution, the number of earthworm species and subspecies registered in Turkey is raised to 80. PMID:24870656

  9. A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central Anatolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, Turkey; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest Turkey) and (3) a regional regression across southern Turkey (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central Anatolian plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central Anatolian plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern Anatolian plateau also applies to the central Anatolian plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central Anatolian plateau. For the eastern Anatolian plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1

  10. Incidence Of Severe Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase(G6PD) Deficiency In Countryside Villages Of The Central City Of Manisa, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of severe G6PD deficiency in selected countryside villages of central city of Manisa in Turkey. Secondarily to inform and protect G6PD deficient people from acute hemolytic crisis and neonatal jaundice by delivery of the updated protective food and drug list prepared in the light of the WHO- G6PD Working Committe reports. Methods: In this study, the incidence of severe G6PD deficiency were screened by Beutler\\'s Fluoresce...

  11. Palaeostress inversion in a multiphase deformed area: Kinematic and structural evolution of the Cankiri Basin (central Turkey), Part 1 - northern area

    OpenAIRE

    Kaymakci, N.; White, S. H.; van Dijk, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The kinematic and structural evolution of the major structures affecting the Çankırı Basin, central Turkey, has been deduced from a palaeostress inversion study. Four palaeostress tensor configurations indicative of four-phase structural evolution have been constructed from the fault slip data collected from the Çankırı Basin. The first two phases indicate the dominant role of thrusting and folding, and are attributed to the collision between the Pontides and the Taurides, the proposed interf...

  12. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Extreme Precipitation Events in Southeastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.

    2013-10-01

    Extreme environmental events, such as floods, droughts, rainstorms, and strong winds have severe consequences for human society. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate. The cost of damage caused by extreme climate events is rising all over the world. The European Environment Agency (EEA) report ("Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Europe 2012") stated that the cost of damage had increased from € 9 billion in the 1980s to € 13 billions in the 2000s. In the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that 188 billion in damage was caused by the severe weather events in 2011 and 2012. Understanding and identifying hydrometeorologic extreme events and their changes through time are key in sustaining agriculture and socio-economic development. Planning for weather-related emergencies, agricultural and reservoir management and insurance risk calculations, all rely on knowledge of the frequency of these extreme events. The assessment of extreme precipitation is an important problem in hydrologic risk analysis and design. Erosion and removal of the fertile soil layer through hydroclimatic extreme events is also a serious problem in semi-arid to arid regions, especially in mediterranean climates. Accurate measurements of precipitation on a variety of space and time scales are important to climate scientists and decision makers, including hydrologists, agriculturalists and emergency managers. The historical record of precipitation observations is limited mostly to land areas where rain gauges can be deployed, and measurements from those instruments are sparse over large and meteorologically important regions of the Turkey, such as over the Southeastern Anatolia Region. While rain gauge measurements are often used to tune hydrologic models, they are limited by their spatial coverage. Remote sensing

  13. Surface uplift due to thermo-rheological changes in the crust: The case of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (S Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni; Cassola, Teodoro; Willett, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Late Miocene uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian orogenic plateau (SCAP) can be explained with our proposed surface uplift mechanism. This new model is based on the dynamic interactions between the growth of the Anatolian accretionary subduction margin and thermo-rheological changes at the base of its crust. Our thermo-rheological uplift mechanism fits newly obtained structural data, as well as compiled geological and geophysical data along a 550km-long arc-perpendicular transect. This transect runs between the Cyprian Arc trench and central Turkey through the area of the Anatolian upper-plate with larger uplift, i.e. central south Turkey. Observed deformation patterns and associated vertical motions along this transect indicate distributed shortening in relation to the subduction of the Cyprus slab, which still underlies this area. In the middle sectors of the transect a pre-Miocene basement gently dipping southward underwent regional subsidence since Early Miocene times. After ~8 Ma, surface uplift took place in the area of the future SCAP, as recorded by disruption of marine deposition and the onset of erosion, whereas subsidence persisted to the south of it, in the Cilicia Basin. Overall N-S shortening during this period developed regional contractional structures along the margin: the S-verging Kyrenia thrust system in N Cyprus, the S-dipping thrusts in the center of the Cilicia Basin, and the large-wavelength S-dipping monocline in S Turkey. We tested our proposed mechanism with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled finite elements models. The models demonstrate that sediment accretion and deposition in the central Cyprus accretionary forearc basin system led to crustal thickening of the Anatolian upper-plate, which in turn forced a sedimentary "blanketing" effect. This sedimentary "blanketing" effect controlled the temperature gradient in the crust, with decreased temperatures within the blanket and increased underneath it. Higher temperatures

  14. New seismological evidence for fragmentation of the Tethys slab beneath Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, R. M. A.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. The eastern Mediterranean basin is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. New results from full waveform inversion for Anatolia give an unprecedented view on the crust and the upper mantle of the region. Based on highly accurate spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous Earth models, full waveform inversion exploits complete seismograms - including body and surface waves - for the benefit of improved resolution. Furthermore, 3D structure in both crust and mantle is constrained jointly, thereby avoiding contamination from commonly applied crustal corrections. Second-order adjoint techniques provide quantitative estimates of direction- and position-dependent resolution length, which is essential for the interpretation of the model. The images connect major structures in the crust as documented in the geology, to features in the upper mantle that reflect the remnants of the convergence and collision. The results show a major discontinuity between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. It is the imprint of syn-collisional segmentation of the neo-Tethys slab, and separates the Aegean and west Anatolia regions from central and east Anatolia. While convergence between Africa and Europe continued, this initiated a period of lithospheric extension in the west and flat slab subduction in the east that set the stage for earthquake and volcanic activity in the region today. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in, for instance, the Tibetan plateau also.

  15. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  16. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  17. Petrogenesis and geochronology of the Deliktas, Sivrikaya and Devrekani granitoids and basement, Kastamonu belt-Central Pontides (NW Turkey): evidence for Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic plutonism, and geodynamic interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Nzegge, Odilia Mbonguh

    2008-01-01

    The Pontides orogenic belt (Ketin, 1966), is the central portion of an extensive belt running from western Bulgaria (Rhodope Mountains) through northern Turkey to the Caucasus. Three tectono-stratigraphically different sectors can be distinguished: the Western Pontides (Istanbul zone), the Central Pontides and the Eastern Pontides (Sakarya zone). The Central Pontides, located between the Izmir-Ankara suture to the south and the Black Sea to the north is the geographical term for the arched ce...

  18. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  19. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region. PMID:27156082

  20. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  1. Regional development goals and distributive politics in the allocation of Turkey's central investments: socioeconomic criteria, parties and legislators' personal networks

    OpenAIRE

    Luca, Davide

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical contributions and empirical studies has explored how the spatial distribution of public resources and governmental transfers is likely to be driven by efficiency and equity, as well as by political considerations. This article applies this line of research to regional development policy making and explores the territorial distribution of public resources aimed at reducing interregional imbalances ? namely fixed capital investments ? in Turkey, a fast-growing, Med...

  2. Distribution of the tribe Osmiini bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) of Turkey Part II: the genera Haetosmia, Osmia and Protosmia

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBEK, Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, research materials consisting of approximately 1200 bee samples, which have been collected from almost the entire country since the 1960s, but mainly from the eastern Anatolia region of Turkey, were evaluated, a total of 101 species andsubspecies in three genera, Haetosmia (1), Osmia (87) and Protosmia (13) were recognized. Of these, Osmia (Helicosmia) labialis Pérez, 1879 is new for Turkey as well Asian Continenet. For the known species new distribution records were pro...

  3. Weed Control and Crop Production Practices in Cotton Production in Diyarbakır Province of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZASLAN, Cumali; AKIN, Songül; GÜRSOY, Songül

    2015-01-01

    Cotton agriculture is very important in South Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Weeds are major problems in cotton farming systems. In this study, a survey was conducted in Diyarbakır Province of Turkey to evaluate weed management practices being opted, crop production methods in use, most important weed species and major production problems in the region. Moreover, effect of agricultural extension activities on weed control was investigated. For this purpose, over 75 cotton growers were sur...

  4. Geochemical and mantle-like isotopic (Nd, Sr) composition of the Baklan Granite from the Muratdağı Region (Banaz, Uşak), western Turkey: Implications for input of juvenile magmas in the source domains of western Anatolia Eocene Miocene granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğan, M. Selman; Çoban, Hakan; Bozcu, Mustafa; Akıncı, Ömer

    2008-07-01

    The (late syn)- post-collisional magmatic activities of western and northwestern Anatolia are characterized by intrusion of a great number of granitoids. Amongst them, Baklan Granite, located in the southern part of the Muratdağı Region from the Menderes Massif (Banaz, Uşak), has peculiar chemical and isotopic characteristics. The Baklan rocks are made up by K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite and hornblende, with accessory apatite, titanite and magnetite, and include mafic microgranular enclaves (MME). Chemically, the Baklan intrusion is of sub-alkaline character, belongs to the high-K, calc-alkaline series and displays features of I-type affinity. It is typically metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, and classified predominantly as granodiorite in composition. The spider and REE patterns show that the rocks are fractionated and have small negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu ∗ = 0.62-0.86), with the depletion of Nb, Ti, P and, to a lesser extent, Ba and Sr. The pluton was dated by the K-Ar method on the whole-rock, yielded ages between 17.8 ± 0.7 and 19.4 ± 0.9 Ma (Early Miocene). The intrusion possesses primitive low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.70331-0.70452) and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.0 to -5.6). The chemical contrast between evolved Baklan rocks (SiO 2, 62-71 wt.%; Cr, 7-27 ppm; Ni, 5-11 ppm; Mg#, 45-51) and more primitive clinopyroxene-bearing monzonitic enclaves (SiO 2, 54-59 wt.%; Cr, 20-310 ppm; Ni, 10-70 ppm; Mg#, 50-61) signifies that there is no co-genetic link between host granite and enclaves. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the Baklan intrusion argue for an important role of a juvenile component, such as underplated mantle-derived basalt, in the generation of the granitoids. Crustal contamination has not contributed significantly to their origin. However, with respect to those of the Baklan intrusion, the generation of the (late syn)- post-collisional intrusions with higher Nd(t) values from the western Anatolia require a much

  5. An Investigation of Seismicity for Western Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the seismicity of western Anatolia limited with the coordinates of 36degree-40degreeN, 26degree-32degreeE, Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, seismic risk and recurrence period have been computed. The data belonging to both the historical period before 1900 (I03 6.0 corresponding to MS3 5.0) and the instrumental period until 2005 (MS3 4.0) have been used in the analysis. The study area has been divided into 13 sub-regions due to certain seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic models and geology of the region. Computations from a and b parameters and seismic risk and recurrence period for each sub-regions have showed that subregions 1 and 8 (Balikesir and Izmir-Sakiz Island), where have the lowest b values, have the highest risks and the shortest recurrence periods

  6. Mineral and Whole-rock Geochemistry of the Kestanbol Granitoid (Ezine-Çanakkale) and its Mafic Microgranular Enclaves in Northwestern Anatolia: Evidence of Felsic and Mafic Magma Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, SABAH YILMAZ; ÖRGÜN, YÜKSEL; GÜNGÖR, YILDIRIM

    2010-01-01

    The Miocene Kestanbol granitoid, in Ezine-Çanakkale, Turkey, is one of post-collision granitoids of western Anatolia, which have been related to the the late Cretaceous collision between the Anatolide-Tauride platform and the Pontides. Magmatism began during the early Miocene, with coeval alkaline to calc-alkaline plutonism and volcanism, controlled by the regional tectonic evolution. The Kestanbol pluton intruded regionally metamorphosed basement rocks. Volcanic and volcano-clastic sedimenta...

  7. A multi-proxy intercomparison of environmental change in two maar lake records from central Turkey during the last 14 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. Neil; Allcock, Samantha L.; Arnaud, Fabien; Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Jones, Matthew D.; Leng, Melanie J.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Malet, Emmanuel; Woodbridge, Jessie; Yiǧitbaşıoǧlu, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    Individual palaeoenvironmental records are a combination of regional-scale (e.g. climatic) and local factors. In order to separate these signals, we compare multiple proxies from two nearby maar lake records, on the assumption that common signals are due to regional-scale forcing. On the other side, we infer that residual signals are likely to be local and site-specific, rather than reflecting regional climate changes. A new core sequence from Nar lake has been dated by varve counting and U-Th as covering the last 13,800 years (Dean et al., 2015; Roberts et al., 2016). Periods of marked dryness are associated with peaks in Mg/dolomite, elevated Diatom-Inferred Electrical Conductivity, an absence of laminated sediments, and low Quercus/chenopod ratios. These conditions occurred during the Late-Glacial stadial, at 4.3-3.7 and 3.2-2.6 ka BP. Wet phases occurred during the early Holocene and again 1.5-0.6 ka, characterised by negative δ18O values, calcite precipitation, high Ca/Sr ratios, a high % of planktonic diatoms, laminated sediments, and high Quercus/chenopod ratios. Comparison with the independently dated record from Eski Acıgöl (Roberts et al., 2001) shows good correspondence for many proxies, especially for δ18O. A ranking of multiple proxies shows the worst correspondence is for clastic lithogenic elements (e.g. Ti flux). Differences between the two lake records are caused by basin infilling at Eski Acıgöl, which fails to register climatic changes during the last 2 ka, and to catchment erosion and increased flux of lithogenic elements into Nar lake; this is catchment-specific and primarily anthropogenic rather than climatic in origin. In separating a regional signal from site-specific "noise", two lakes may therefore be better than one. Dean, J.R. et al. 2015 Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate over the late glacial and Holocene, reconstructed from the sediments of Nar lake, central Turkey, using stable isotopes and carbonate mineralogy. Quaternary

  8. The Turkey oak high forests in the Molise region (central Italy. Analysis of past silvicultural system and current management choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Aim of the work is to provide further knowledge on the silvicultural system applied to Quercus cerris hight forests in the Molise Region (Central Italy. An historical analysis, based on a number of forest management plans applied since 1940 referred to 19 municipalities and on other historical documents, is provided in the paper. Forest management has been traditionally applied in the Molise Region and therefore is at now possible to reconstruct in detail the management of the forests of Molise Region. The historical study has been integrated with the analysis of a chronosequence including four steps of stand development in a Turkey oak stand: the regeneration phase (1-2 yrs - the unthinned young stand (46 yrs - the unthinned adult stand (aged 60 to 100 - the mature stand (126 yrs. Mensurational surveys were carried out at each phase in order to characterize both stand structure and derive information on the silvicultural practices applied in the past, but not documented in the available papers. The stand age was determined by tree coring and count of annual rings. At the beginning of the last century, the silvicultural system to be applied in oak high forests wasn’t strictly defined and a particular kind of selection cutting was carried out. It was named taglio a salto per sezioni i.e. “compartment selection cutting”, partly leading back to a real selection cutting, partly to a shelterwood system. The use of the reported silvicultural system gave rise to irregular forest structures and led to management problems well-described in the management plans at the end of 1940s. Another consequence of the applied practices was the absence or the inadequate natural regeneration establishment. The contemporary unregulated practice of grazing the forest floor contributed to the unsuccessful regeneration and made the situation worse. The presence of an understorey layer made up by sproutings

  9. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  10. Coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey, using multitemporal landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durduran, S Savas

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey. The Konya Closed Basin exists at the Central Anatolia Region and covers a region of 50,000 km(2) area corresponding to the 7% cumulative area of Turkey in which three million people live, 45% in rural areas and 55% in urban areas. The basin is surrounded with the city centers of Konya, Aksaray, Karaman, Isparta, Niğde, Ankara, Nevşehir, and Antalya cities. In this study, these changes were examined using Landsat TM and ETM+ 1987-2006 and 1990-2000. In the image processing step, image and vectorization of the satellite images were carried out to monitor coastline changes over the lakes located in the Konya Closed Basin Area. At the end of the study, significant coastline movements were detected for a 19-year period due to drought effects, agricultural watering, and planning mistakes experienced in the basin. PMID:19399635

  11. Evaluation of Groundwater Storage changes at Konya Closed Basin, Turkey using GRACE-based and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Saber, Mohamed; Tugrul Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in Central Anatolia, Turkey, is the primary grain producer in Turkey. The lack of sufficient surface water resources and recently changing crop patterns have led to over-exploitation of groundwater resources and resulted in significant drop in groundwater levels. For this reason monitoring of the groundwater storage change in this region is critical to understand the potential of the current water resources and to devise effective water management strategies to avoid further depletion of the groundwater resources. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to examine and assess the utility of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to monitor and investigate the groundwater storage changes in the Konya Closed Basin. Groundwater storage changes are derived using GRACE and GLDAS data and then are compared with the groundwater changes derived from the observed groundwater levels. The initial results of the comparison indicate an acceptable agreement between declining trends in GRACE-based and observed groundwater storage change during the study time period (2002 to 2015). Additionally, the results indicated that the study region exhibited remarkable drought conditions during 2007-2008 period. This study shows that the GRACE/GLDAS datasets can be used to monitor the equivalent groundwater storage changes which is crucial for long-term effective water management strategies.

  12. Air mass patterns and temporal variation of the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation over Central Turkey and groundwater recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Water vapour and event precipitation have been collected within the program of coordinated research project about isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate at Ankara since January 2001. The purpose of this study is the determination of the interaction between climate conditions, chemical composition and isotopic composition (δ18O, δ2H) of precipitation and water vapor in Turkey. For this purpose we have been collecting samples at Ankara station to understand the variation of daily/event and seasonal isotopic values of precipitation and water vapor. The study focuses on the systematic collection of basic data on isotope content of precipitation and water vapor in Ankara, Turkey to determine temporal variations of environmental isotopes in precipitation and consequently to provide basic isotopic data for the use of environmental isotopes in hydrological investigations within the scope of water resources inventory, planning and development. Sampling of rain water and water vapor have been carried out in Ankara Turkey, from January 2001 to December 2001, by means of a pluviometer, water vapor sampling system respectively. The relation between the isotopic composition of precipitation and synoptic parameters is examined. The rain samples can be separated into three group based on 'deuterium excess' for year 2001 and long term observation of Ankara, Antalya and Adana stations of Turkey. The majority of the samples have a 'deuterium excess' between 10 and 22 per mille and other has values less than 10 per mille and greater than 22. The rains with a 'deuterium excess' of more than 22 per mille, between 10 and 22 and less than 10 are associated with air masses which comes from East Mediterranean (SW), North Atlantic (N, NW) and Central Atlantic (W, SW) respectively. Although it is not possible to derive the isotopic composition of the water vapor from isotopic composition of

  13. Tibet and Beyond: Magmatic Records from CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Southern Tibet with Implications for Asian Orogeny and Continental Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study, based on an ongoing joint research project "Tibet and Beyond", presents a synthesis of principal magmatic records from the CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Tibet-Himalaya orogens resulting from the continental collisions of Arabia and India, respectively, with Eurasia. In both orogens, through this and other recent studies, the temporal and spatial variations in magmatism pre-, syn- and post-dating the collisions can now be much better defined, thus improving our understanding of collision zone magmatism that appears to have evolved with changes in the lithospheric structures over time and space by collisional processes. The two "collisional" Tethyan orogens were preceded by accretionary orogenic processes, which not only had produced a substantial amount of juvenile continental crust but also fulfill the "orogenic cycle" that evolved from an accretionary into a collisional system. Geochemical data reveal that in contrast to generating vast portions of juvenile crust in the early, accretionary stages of orogenic development, crustal recycling plays a more important role in the later, collisional stages. The latter, as exemplified in SE Turkey and southern Tibet, involves addition of older continental crust material back into the mantle, which subsequently melted and caused compositional transformation of the juvenile crust produced in the accretionary stages. Similar features are observed in young volcanic rocks from eastern Taiwan, the northern Luzon arc complex and part of the active subduction/accretion/collision system in Southeast Asia that may evolve one day to resemble the eastern Tethyan and central Asian orogenic belts by collision with the advancing Australian continent.

  14. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved. PMID:17057981

  15. A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE VEGETATION OF NORTH - EASTERN ANATOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    ATALAY, İbrahim

    1983-01-01

    The study area named NE Anatolia which is bounded by the Erzurum-Rize line on the west, the Erzurum-Tuzluca line or the Aras river valley on the south, comprises the subregion of the Eastern Black Sea and the subregion of Erzurum- Kars in Eastern Anatolia. From the vegetational point of view, the lower part of the Eastern Black Sea Mountains was covered by broad-leaved forests, and the upper section was occupied by pine forests. The southern slopes of the East Black Sea Mountains were covered...

  16. The determination of natural tourism potential of Eastern Anatolia Region and propositions for the planning of concerning Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Özgen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism is regarded as one of the most important factors that facilitate global approach and development. Among the alternatives of the tourism industry nicknamed as the chimneyless industry in the 21st century, especially cultural and natural tourism have gained momentum in recent years. Although the number of tourists of cultural and natural tourism is low in comparison to the coasts (sea tourism, the income they gained is well above the income of coast tourism. This situation has given way to the investments related to cultural and natural tourism in our country as it has in the world. The Eastern Anatolia Region with its vast lands, the highest and the most colourful natural geography in Turkey houses a rich natural tourism potential in terms of morphological climatic and floristic conditions. Changing climatic conditions throughout the altitude zones of the region and winter sports that arise in reflection to this situation improve the potential natural tourism in the region. The water volume of rich river network that appears in accordance with climate, heights and tectonic structure shows significant increases in rainy seasons (spring. In this season, the rivers whose volume of water rises form an important tourism potential for water sports. The purpose of this study is to reveal the tourism potential originating from natural geography of the Eastern Anatolia Region and to develop strategies for the alternatives of the natural tourism with SWOT analyses in the region as a sustainable economic source.

  17. Banded karyotypes of Allactaga williamsi from Central Anatolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2010), s. 533-537. ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Jerboa * comparative cytogenetics * G- and C-banding * AgNOR staining Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2010

  18. Azerbaycan Türkçesi İle Doğu Anadolu Ağızlarındaki Ortaklıklar Üzerine
    On The Common Traits Of The Azerbaijan Turkish And The Eastern Anatolia Dialects

    OpenAIRE

    Engin GÖKÇÜR

    2012-01-01

    We call Oghuz Turkish spoken from Central Asia to Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, since 11th century, as the Western Turkic. This period is divided into two branches in time. One of them is the Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani and the other one is the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field. The Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani, and the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field are represented by a single written la...

  19. Late Neogene and active orogenic uplift in the Central Pontides associated with the North Anatolian Fault; implications for the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, C.; Schildgen, T.F.; Helmut Echtler; H. Melnick; Strecker, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface uplift at the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) is integrally tied to the evolution of the Central Pontides (CP), between the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the Black Sea. Our regional morphometric and plate kinematic analyses reveal topographic anomalies, steep channel gradients, and local high relief areas as indicators of ongoing differential surface uplift, which is higher in the western CP compared to the eastern CP and fault-normal components of geodetic sl...

  20. Understanding the intraplate deformation of the Anatolian Scholle: Insights from the study of the Ovacik Fault (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabcı, Cengiz; Sançar, Taylan; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Yazıcı, Müge; Natal'in, Boris A.; Akyüz, H. Serdar; Akçar, Naki

    2015-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly defined by the interaction between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, Arabia and the smaller Anatolian 'scholle'. The Anatolia is being extruded westward along two major tectonic structures, the North Anatolian (NASZ) and the East Anatolian (EASZ) shear zones, respectively forming its northern and eastern boundaries. Although there are many geologic and geodetic studies infer that the deformation is mainly concentrated along the NASZ and the EASZ, it is also well documented that the central 'ova' neotectonic province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the NASZ in the north and the EASZ in the east, is also deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. These active structures clearly fit to the passive-Prandtl cell model of an internally deforming body, which is originally suggested by Sengör (1979) to interpret the neotectonics of the central Anatolia. The Malatya-Ovacik Fault Zone (MOFZ) and it is northeastern member, the Ovacik Fault (OF), is one the sinistral faults of the 'ova' province, located close to its eastern boundary. In the framework of the TUBITAK project no. 114Y227, we started to study the (a) the geologic slip rate, (b) the palaeoseismology and (c) the cumulative displacement of the OF in order to understand not only the short and long term spatio-temporal behaviour of this 110 km-long strike slip fault, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian 'scholle'. The faulting is clearly observed along the well-preserved scarps and displaced fluvial landforms at the northern margin of the Ovacik Basin (Tunceli, Turkey), where the deformation is mainly localised along a single strand. The preliminary cosmogenic 36Cl dates of two independent terrace risers at a single site yield slip rates about 1.5 and 1.9 mm/yr (Zabci et al. 2014), which slightly exceed the GPS-based block model

  1. A 3000-year record of ground-rupturing earthquakes along the central North Anatolian fault near Lake Ladik, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J.; Pigati, J.S.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Vanneste, K.; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.

    2009-01-01

    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a ???1500 km long, arcuate, dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey that extends from the Karliova triple junction to the Aegean Sea. East of Bolu, the fault zone exhibits evidence of a sequence of large (Mw >7) earthquakes that occurred during the twentieth century that displayed a migrating earthquake sequence from east to west. Prolonged human occupation in this region provides an extensive, but not exhaustive, historical record of large earthquakes prior to the twentieth century that covers much of the last 2000 yr. In this study, we extend our knowledge of rupture events in the region by evaluating the stratigraphy and chronology of sediments exposed in a paleoseismic trench across a splay of the NAF at Destek, ???6:5 km east of Lake Ladik (40.868?? N, 36.121?? E). The trenched fault strand forms an uphill-facing scarp and associated sediment trap below a small catchment area. The trench exposed a narrow fault zone that has juxtaposed a sequence of weakly defined paleosols interbedded with colluvium against highly fractured bedrock. We mapped magnetic susceptibility variations on the trench walls and found evidence for multiple visually unrecognized colluvial wedges. This technique was also used to constrain a predominantly dip-slip style of displacement on this fault splay. Sediments exposed in the trench were dated using both charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells to constrain the timing of the earthquake events. While the gastropod shells consistently yielded 14 C ages that were too old (by ???900 yr), we obtained highly reliable 14 C ages from the charcoal by dating multiple components of the sample material. Our radiocarbon chronology constrains the timing of seven large earthquakes over the past 3000 yr prior to the 1943 Tosya earthquake, including event ages of (2?? error): A.D. 1437-1788, A.D. 1034-1321, A.D. 549-719, A.D. 17-585 (1-3 events), 35 B.C.-A.D. 28, 700-392 B.C., 912-596 B.C. Our results

  2. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  3. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  4. MIDDLE JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE CENTRAL PONTIDES (TURKEY): REMARKS ON PALEOGEOGRAPHY AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    BORA ROJAY; DEMIR ALTINER

    1998-01-01

    The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equi...

  5. Turkey - Improving Conditions for SME Growth Finance and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating the growth of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is central to creating jobs for an underutilized and growing labor force in Turkey as SMEs account for 79 percent of jobs in Turkey. Creating jobs for Turkey's unemployed and for the rapidly growing labor force, though partly a social challenge, is an important economic opportunity. Turkish SME growth performance and pro...

  6. Geology and the conservation of antique monuments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Robert

    1987-06-01

    This article deals with a geological investigation carried out as a fundamental part of the conservation and static restoration of several antique churches excavated in andesitic tuff in the Göreme valley and adjacent areas of Cappadocia in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Two stages have been completed already, in 1982 and 1985, respectively, and the work is still in progress. Seismicity is not regarded as a structural hazard, but the geological history includes a series of volcanic episodes since the Oligocene (about 38 million years ago), which persisted into fairly recent times and laid down a great thickness of tuff rock. Erosion sculptured this tuff preferentially because of irregular harder, basaltic layers, which later capped rock pinnacles, the so-called peribacalars, in which churches were hewn over a thousand years ago. Because the host rock is heavily fissured, precipitation has entered and has damaged many mural paintings. These are also subject to vandalism, and efforts have been made to restore them by the usual conservation intervention. However, grouting is necessary and must take into account the porosity of the tuff, which also permits capillary rise from crypts. Sometimes, during wet episodes, water flushes into these and scours the interior walls as well. The basic problem remains geological, and the contribution of the earth sciences is very important. Thus, an engineering geology study has determined that the tuff rock is suitable both for building retaining walls and acting as a constituent in cement grout. It is expected that the UNESCO/ICCROM program to save the churches will be completed successfully within the next five years or so.

  7. SUSTAINABILITY OF TRADITIONAL HOUSING AND WAY OF LIFE IN ANATOLIA: A CASE OF KORKUTELI-BOZOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin ŞENOL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are characterized by various types of buildings constructed with local materials, specifically detailed for indigenous conditions. In addition to environmental circumstances – such as climate, topography etc.- and availability of the materials, local cultural practices determine both housing types and architectural styles of the regions. Vernacular buildings in Anatolia typically were designed and constructed by residents of the regions who utilized traditional building techniques for their own types of daily life.In this context, this study investigates the general characteristics and sustainable properties of traditional residential buildings in Korkuteli region of Antalya, Turkey. Three different traditional structural systems of the region are selected to examine in terms of spatial organization, building type and material, and structural properties in relation with existing user profile. For this purpose, along with the measurements and drawings of these three houses, face to face interviews with residents of the case buildings were conducted. The data gained through the process are evaluated in terms of sustainability of traditional structural systems and way of life.

  8. Petrogenesis of the Kösedağ Pluton, Suşehri-NE Sivas, East-Central Pontides, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BOZTUĞ, DURMUŞ

    2008-01-01

    The Kösedağ syenite crops out as a shallow-seated pluton within the Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks and is unconformably overlain by Lower Miocene limestones in the Suşehri-NE Sivas region, east-central Pontides. It consists of syenites and quartz syenites with a phaneritic, porphyritic texture characterized by K-feldspar megacrysts set in a coarse- to medium-grained groundmass comprising K-feldspar, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite and quartz. Major element geochemistry data r...

  9. Kinematics of the Central Taurides during Neotethys closure and collision, the nappes in the Sultan Mountains, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Talip

    2013-07-01

    In the Central Taurides, the Sultan Mountains comprise in ascending order the Çimendere unit and the Akşehir, Doğanhisar, Çay nappes composed of metasedimentary sequences deposited from Cambrian to Tertiary. The overthrust of the Çay nappe on the Lutetian Celeptaş formation representing the uppermost stratigraphic position in the Çimendere unit indicates that the latest nappe emplacement occurred during the Middle Eocene. The Oligocene and Miocene rocks are in post-tectonic facies in the west Central Taurides. The kinematic data from these nappes related to closure of the Neotethys reveal a top-NE shear sense in the northwest part and a top-SE shear sense in the southeast part of the Sultan Mountains. The Sultan Mountains are located in the north part of the Isparta Angle which was tectonically assembled by the Lycian, Hoyran-Beyşehir-Hadim and Antalya allochthons on the Bey Dağları and Anamas-Akseki autochthons from the Latest Cretaceous to the Late Pliocene. The previous paleomagnetic data showed that the west and east subsections of the Isparta Angle were subjected to post-Eocene 30°-40° anticlockwise and clockwise rotations, respectively. In consideration of these paleomagnetic data, the kinematic data measured in the Sultan Mountains might be restored into approximately E-W-trending linear fabric associated with a top-E shear sense. These new kinematic data from the nappes in the Sultan Mountains disagree with the existing tectonic models that suggest N-S nappe translation over the Central Taurides during the latest Cretaceous-Middle Eocene. The alternative tectonic model for the Antalya nappes in the core of the Isparta Angle related to east-west compression suggests westward and eastward nappe emplacements on the surrounding autochthons. However, the new kinematic data presented here point consistently to a top-E shear sense in all tectonostratigraphic units in the Sultan Mountains currently located in the north part of the Anamas

  10. Ceramic workshops in Hellenistic and Roman Anatolia : production characteristics and regional comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Sökeli, Heves

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to study local ceramic productions in Anatolia during the Hellenistic and the Roman periods. It analyzes the ceramic productions of Phocaea, Magnesia ad Maeandrum and Cnidus in the western coast, Sagalassos in the inner Anatolia, and Sinope in the southern Black sea region. The aim of the thesis is to examine whether it is possible to group shape production geographically in Anatolia and to detect whether local centers influenced each other or if external influ...

  11. Late Neogene oroclinal bending in the central Taurides: A record of terminal eastward subduction in southern Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.

    2016-01-01

    The Tauride fold-thrusts belt formed during ∼S-N convergence between Africa and Eurasia since Cretaceous time. The western end of the central Taurides strike NW-SE, highly obliquely to the overall convergence direction, and connect to the NE-SW Beydağları-Lycian Nappe flank of the western Taurides, forming the so-called 'Isparta Angle'. In Neogene time, the western and central Taurides and the inner part of the Isparta Angle became overlain by Neogene sedimentary basins including Manavgat, Köprüçay and Aksu, characterized by marine clastics and carbonates. The eastern limb of the Isparta Angle experienced multidirectional Miocene to Present extension, whereas E-W shortening affected the marine sedimentary basins in the heart of the Isparta Angle. To quantitatively reconstruct the Neogene kinematic evolution of the Taurides, towards restoring the subduction system accommodating Africa-Eurasia convergence, we paleomagnetically assess if and when vertical axis rotations affected the Manavgat, Köprüçay, and Aksu basins in Early Miocene to Pliocene times. We show that the northern Köprüçay Basin rotated ∼20-30° clockwise, the Manavgat Basin underwent ∼25-35° counterclockwise rotation, and the Aksu Basin underwent no rotation since the Early-Middle Miocene. It was previously shown that the Beydağları region underwent a post-Middle Miocene ∼20° counterclockwise rotation. These results show that the prominent oroclinal salient geometry of the western Taurides thus acquired, at least in part, since Miocene times, that the Köprüçay Basin rotated relative to the Aksu Basin along the Aksu thrust, and that the Beydağları platform rotated relative to the Aksu Basin along the Bucak thrust, which must have both been active until Late Neogene time. This synchronous E-W shortening in the heart of the Isparta Angle, and multidirectional extension in its eastern limb may be explained by relative westward retreat of an eastward dipping subducting Antalya

  12. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  13. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  14. Ordovician graptolites from the basal part of the Palaeozoic transgressive sequence in the Karadere area, Zonguldak Terrane, NW Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cemal Göncüoglu; Valeri Sachanski; Juan Carlos Gutiérrez-Marco; Cengiz Okuyucu

    2014-01-01

    The Karadere area to the east of Safranbolu in NW Anatolia is one of the very few localities in Turkey where the contact between the Cadomian basement and the Lower Palaeozoic transgressive succession is well exposed. The Ordovician graptolite Rhabdinopora flabelliformis (Eichwald) ssp. was found in the basal part of the Bakacak Formation, indicating an Early to early Late Tremadocian age for the beginning of the Palaeozoic transgression in the Zonguldak terrane. A few metres above this occur...

  15. Neotethyan closure history of western Anatolia: a geodynamic discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourteau, Amaury; Oberhänsli, Roland; Candan, Osman; Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the lithosphere-scale subduction-collision history of the eastern termination of the Aegean retreating subduction system, i.e. western Anatolia. Although there is some general consensus on the protracted subduction evolution of the Aegean since the early Cenozoic at least, correlation with western Anatolia has been widely debated for more than several decades. In western Anatolia, three main tectonic configurations have been envisaged in the past years to reconstruct slab dynamics during the closure of the Neotethyan oceanic realm since the Late Cretaceous. Some authors have suggested an Aegean-type scenario, with the continuous subduction of a single lithospheric slab, punctuated by episodic slab roll-back and trench retreat, whereas others assumed a discontinuous subduction history marked by intermittent slab break-off during either the Campanian (ca. 75 Ma) or the Early Eocene (ca. 55-50 Ma). The third view implies three partly contemporaneous subduction zones. Our review of these models points to key debated aspects that can be re-evaluated in the light of multidisciplinary constraints from the literature. Our discussion leads us to address the timing of subduction initiation, the existence of hypothetical ocean basins, the number of intervening subduction zones between the Taurides and the Pontides, the palaeogeographic origin of tectonic units and the possibility for slab break-off during either the Campanian or the Early Eocene. Thence, we put forward a favoured tectonic scenario featuring two successive phases of subduction of a single lithospheric slab and episodic accretion of two continental domains separated by a continental trough, representing the eastern end of the Cycladic Ocean of the Aegean. The lack of univocal evidence for slab break-off in western Anatolia and southward-younging HP/LT metamorphism in continental tectonic units (from ~85, 70 to 50 Ma) in the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene period suggests continuous subduction

  16. Geography Teacher Candidates' Experiences of Field Study in Western Anatolia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish expectations of 5th grade students from Marmara University's Department of Geography Teaching on geographical field study in Western Anatolia. For this reason, a field study trip was organized to Western Anatolia. A survey, which was consisted of open-ended questions, was prepared by experts and it was…

  17. Characteristics of ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks in the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange (Central Taurides, Turkey), deduced from whole rock and mineral chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Delaloye, Michel F.

    2006-04-01

    Small outcrops of the metamorphic rocks of the Beysehir ophiolite appear to the west of Gencek and to the south of Durak (South of Beysehir Lake) in the Central Tauride Belt in Turkey. Amphibolitic rocks in the ophiolitic mélange have an igneous origin. Protoliths of these rocks were probably alkali basalts, gabbros or some ultramafic cumulates, such as pyroxenite. The amphibolites of the Beysehir Ophiolite can be divided into four groups: (1) amphibole+garnet+plagioclase±epidote (as secondary minerals)±opaque such as ilmenite±accessory minerals such as sphene and apatite; (2) amphibole+pyroxene+plagioclase±epidote±accessory minerals such as sphene, apatite±chlorite, calcite (as secondary mineral); (3) amphibole±plagioclase±opaque±accessory minerals; (4) amphibole+plagioclase±epidote±biotite and muscovite±opaque±accessory minerals. These metamorphic rocks show mainly granoblastic, grano-nematoblastic, porphyroblastic and/or poikiloblastic textures. All amphiboles in the amphibolites are calcic and cluster in the range from magnesio-hastingsite, pargasite to actinolite. Amphibole compositions are characterized by SiO 2=(38.02-54.3%), Al 2O 3=(1.5-12.8), FeO=(10.03-14.67%), K 2O=(0.2-1.8%), MgO=(5.5-15.7), Mg*=(0.3-0.8). The amphibolites show an alkaline to subalkaline character. However, the primitive mantle normalized incompatible trace element diagram shows close similarity with the typical ocean island basalt (OIB) pattern. The Rock/Chondrite normalized REE diagram of the amphibolites also confirms their OIB signature. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams based on the immobile trace elements suggest a mostly within-plate alkali basalt (WPB) environment. Beysehir ophiolitic mélange contains amphibolites from ophiolite-related metamorphic rocks, but the matrix of the Beysehir ophiolitic mélange is not metamorphosed. Blocks of metamorphic rocks and the ophiolitic rocks may have been incorporated into the ophiolitic mélange in an oceanic

  18. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  19. Jurassic metabasic rocks in the Kızılırmak accretionary complex (Kargı region, Central Pontides, Northern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Chiaradia, Massimo; Marzoli, Andrea; Özkan, Mutlu; Billor, Zeki; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-03-01

    The Kızılırmak accretionary complex near Kargı is tectonically bounded by the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous metamorphic massives of the Central Pontides. It consists mainly of serpentinite, serpentinized peridotite, gabbro, basalt, metabasite and deep-marine sedimentary rocks. The metabasites in the Kızılırmak accretionary complex are tectonically located within a serpentinite, radiolarian chert, spilitized basalt, gabbro association and commonly display a steep contact with serpentinites. Amphiboles from metabasites yielded robust 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging between 159.4 ± 0.4 Ma and 163.5 ± 0.8 Ma. These are interpreted as cooling ages of the metabasites. The metabasites have 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7035 and 0.7044 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 18.18 and 18.92. The gabbros have higher 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7044 and 0.7060 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 17.98 and 18.43. Three basalt samples display 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7040 and 0.7059. Their 206Pb/204Pb(i) are unrealistically low (15.42 and 15.62), suggesting, most likely, Pb loss which results in over-corrected values for decay through time. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for all samples consistently plot between the fields of MORB or the Depleted MORB Mantle reservoirs and enriched mantle reservoirs (EMII rather than EMI). All the samples (except one dolerite dike) have negative ɛNdDM(t = 160 Ma) values, suggesting derivation from a reservoir more enriched than the depleted mantle. The protoliths of metabasites correspond to diverse sources (N-MORB, E-MORB, OIB and IAT) based on whole rock major and trace element composition. An IAT-like protolith for the metabasites indicates that the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean domain was subducting and the tectonic regime was compressional during Late Jurassic and before. The protoliths of these rocks were metamorphosed during the subduction/accretion processes, as observed in the metamorphic rocks located along the Balkan, Northern Turkey and

  20. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  1. The Challenge of Characterising Large Assemblages of Exotic Materials: a case study of the obsidian from Domuztepe, SE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Healey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsidian artefacts from Domuztepe (a large late Neolithic site in the Kahramanmaraş plain in south-east Turkey belonging to the Halaf culture and dated to c. 6000-5500 cal. BC account for about 18%, or some 10,000 artefacts, of the chipped stone assemblage. Obsidian is one of the few non-local materials at Domuztepe and as well as being used to make tools it is also used to make items of jewellery, mirrors, bowls and axe-like objects. We know from the geochemical analysis of a relatively small number of artefacts that the obsidian was imported from eight different and widely separated sources in Central, NE and SE Anatolia. These sources are between 200 and 900km distant from Domuztepe. All these factors suggest that obsidian was valued not only as a raw material for tool manufacture but also as a material from which to make luxury items. As an exotic material it is also likely to have a key role in forging and maintaining social and economic relationships, both within the site and more widely. Understanding of the origins of the obsidians and the form in which they were obtained, worked and used, context by context, is key to this. However, difficulties arise with provenancing such a large assemblage, not least because conventional geo-chemical methods are unfeasibly expensive. This article documents the approaches we have developed to overcome this problem.

  2. Deterioration of the volcanic kerb and pavement stones in a humid environment in the city centre of Izmir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, A. B.

    2006-11-01

    İzmir is the third largest city in Turkey and has being the centre of art, culture, tourism and trade activities throughout the 5,000 years of its history. Natural stones brought from different parts of the world have been widely used for construction of the prestigious buildings, monuments and roads etc., in the past in the city. Renovation of the street pavements and public gathering areas in the city centre has been undertaken by the Metropolitan Municipality in 2000 and continued through the year of 2001. These renovation activities have mainly been carried out in the streets running parallel to the sea shore. Volcanic rocks brought from the Central Anatolia Ankara-Gölbaşı (andesites) and Kayseri-İncesu (tuffs) have been used in the renovation works. These rocks have shown extensive deteriorations within 4 years of their usage between 2001 and 2005 under the influence of different environmental factors. In this study, the deteriorations developed in the recently placed volcanic rocks used as kerb and pavement stones in the city centre of İzmir in the light of their mineralogical, chemical, physical and mechanical properties, used locations and the environmental factors are presented.

  3. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  4. Luminescence Dating Of Prehistoric Site Of Smintheion (Gulpinar) In Nw Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, N. G.; Takaoğlu, T.; Erginal, A. E.; Ozcan, H.

    This study aims to place the prehistoric settlement of Smintheion in northwestern Turkey in its temporal setting on the basis of the dating of the quartz from pottery and sediments collected from the site employing Optically Stimulated Luminescence and Thermoluminescence techniques. The site belongs to the problematic Middle Chalcolithic period in western Anatolia. This period represents a cultural upheaval in western Anatolia as it has a completely different material culture when compared to that of the preceding Early Chalcolithic period. The pottery and sediment samples were collected from two different locations of the Middle Chalcolithic settlement at Smintheion for dating study. The fact that this examined settlement is represented by a single cultural level provides an opportunity to obtain secure and reliable dates for the settlement. Results of this study show that the site can be dated to a period between 4800 and 4500 B.C.

  5. Magmatic evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Sharkov, Evgenii V.

    2016-07-01

    The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~ 600 kyr between 4.3-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~ 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau

  6. Friedrich Sarre and the discovery of Seljuk Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Blessing

    2014-01-01

    The German art historian Friedrich Sarre (1865-1945) is best known as the director, from 1925-31, of the Islamic collection of the Berlin Museums, and for his collaboration with Ernst Herzfeld on the excavation of the Abbasid palaces of Samarra, Iraq, just before the onset of the 1914-18 war. From a historiographical point of view, however, Sarre also deserves attention for his work on the Seljuk architecture of Anatolia, a subject that had been barely studied within the context of Islamic ar...

  7. Air mass patterns and temporal variation of the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation over central Turkey and groundwater recharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water vapour and event precipitation have been collected within the program of coordinated research project about isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate at Ankara since January 2001. The purpose of this study is the determination of the interaction between climate conditions, chemical composition and isotopic composition (oxygen 18 and deuterium) of precipitation and water vapor in Turkey. For this purpose we have been collecting samples at Ankara station to understand the variation of daily/event and seasonal isotopic values of precipitation and water vapor. The study focuses on the systematic collection of basic data on isotope content of precipitation and water vapor in Ankara, Turkey to determine temporal variations of environmental isotopes in precipitation and consequently to provide basic isotopic data for the use of environmental isotopes in hydrological investigations within the scope of water resources inventory, planning and development

  8. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasus and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Following the First Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late nineteen-ninetieth, TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Scientific Organisations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

  9. Ethnomathematics in Anatolia-I (in Turkey): Geometry Perception in Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Ethnomathematics pursues the goal of viewing mathematics from a multicultural perspective by enlarging its historical background. Culture and mathematical thoughts are in contact and they, together, form an indivisible whole. Therefore, ethnomathematics not only helps us understanding the nature of mathematics but also contributes to understanding…

  10. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of malignant melanoma in Southeast Anatolia in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sula, Bilal; Uçmak, Feyzullah; Kaplan, Mehmet Ali; Urakçi, Zuhat; Arica, Mustafa; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to establish the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM). Methods The present study retrospectively analyzed the data of 78 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with MM in Dicle University Medical Faculty, Dermatology and Medical Oncology departments between 2005 and 2014. Results The study included 78 patients in total with 44 (56.4%) male and 34 (43.6%) female. Median age of the patients was 62.50 years (range: 27 - 84 years). Of the patients, 78.2% (n = 61) had cutaneous melanoma, 8.9% had solid organ melanoma, and 2.5% had ocular and mucosal melanoma. The most common tumor localization among the patients was the lower extremities with 29.4% (n = 23). The most common histopathological type was nodular malignant melanoma with 35.8% (n = 28). Based on TNM, Clark and Breslow classifications, 26.9% (n = 21) of the patients were stage 4, 26.9% (n = 21) were Clark stage 4, and 37.1% (n = 29) were Breslow stage 4. Median overall survival in all patients was 14.9 months (95% CI 10.9 - 18.8 months). In the multivariate Cox analysis, only stage statistically significantly affecting survival [odds ratio (OR): 0.54; (95% CI 0.16-1.82, p = 0.02)]. Conclusion Malignant melanoma data are also important for the optimal utilization of effective methods and healthcare resources to prevent the disease. In order to minimize MM mortality and morbidity, not only the society but also physicians from primary and secondary care hospitals should become familiar with melanoma.

  11. Geochemical characteristics of Kırka (Sarıkaya) borate deposit, northwestern Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    İ Koçak; Ş Koç

    2016-02-01

    The Kırka borate deposit was deposited in a Miocene lacustrine basin which is closely associated with volcanic activity which lasted from Paleogene to the beginning of Quaternary. Borate mineralization alternates with claystone, mudstone, tuff and fine-layered limestone and mostly shows a lenticular structure. The mineral paragenesis is composed of borax, tincalconite, ulexite, kurnakovite, probertite, tunellite, colemanite, dolomite, smectite group minerals, illite and some firstly reported minerals for the Kırka deposit including hydrochloroborite, brianroulstonite, hilgardite-4M and searlesite minerals. In comparison to average values of earth crust, concentrations of Cs, Sr, Li, As and Se were significantly enriched with respective rates of 21, 15, 14, 3 and 188 folds. Regarding KY, KS1 and KS2 locations, there are differences in both element abundances and their geochemical tendencies which are attributed to variations in discharge regime and physico-chemical conditions of the depositional environment. Independent behaviour of B2O3 might indicate that boron is not associated with clays and carbonates and, therefore, most part of boron must be derived from volcanic activity (hydrothermal solutions, gases). REE data indicate that the Kırka borate deposit was formed in a sedimentary environment where highly alkaline (high pH) hydrothermal solutions also took part in borate precipitation process.

  12. Fatty acid composition in leaf lipids of some Carex L. (Cyperaceae species from Northeast Anatolia (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgun, Arzu

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of 16 species of Carex from 15 sections are reported. The palmitic acid is the dominant fatty acid in lipid of all species and sections surveyed. The linoleic and linolenic acids were the second most abundant fatty acids. Taxonomic value and phylogenetic implications of results are discussed.Se presenta la composición en ácidos grasos de 16 especies de Carex (de 15 secciones. El ácido palmítico es el ácido graso dominante en los lípidos de todas las especies examinadas, seguidos por los ácidos linoleico y linolenico. El valor taxonómico y las implicaciones filogenéticas de los resultados son discutidos.

  13. A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE VEGETATION OF NORTH - EASTERN ANATOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    ATALAY, İbrahim

    1984-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries subjected to the intense erosion in the World. According to the data, at least more than 50 per cent o f the total land of Turkey has been prevailed to the soil and the parent material erosion of several types. The amount of total suspense sediments transported by the rivers are about 380 million tons / year. Europe is 13 times bigger than Turkey and the yearly transported sediments are nearly 320 million tons. The annually average sediment yields of the watersh...

  14. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.

    2009-04-01

    and paleogeographic evolution of the southern part of the northwestern Anatolia. Geologica Romana 27, 13-80 Bingöl, E. (1971) Classification of age determination methods and application of Rb/Sr and K/Ar methods in Kazdağ. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey 14, 1-16 (in Turkish) Duru, M., Pehlivan, Ş., Şentürk, Y., Yavaş, F. ve Kar, H. (2004) New results on the lithostratigraphy of the Kazdağ Massif in northwest Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 13, 177-186 Okay, A.I and Monie, P. (1997) Early Mesozoic subduction in the eastern Mediterranean: Evidence from Triassic eclogite in northwest Turkey. Geology 25, 595-598 Okay, A.I and Satır, M. (2000) Coeval plutonism and metamorphism in a latest Oligocene metamorphic core complex in northwestern Turkey. Geological Magazine 137, 495-516 Okay, A.I, Siyako, M and Burkan, K.A. (1991) Geology and tectonic evolution of the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Turkey. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul 44, 191-256 Okay, A.I, Monod, O and Monie, P. (2002) Triaasic blueschists and eclogites from northwestern Turkey: vestiges of the Paleo-Tethyan subduction. Lithos 64, 155-178 Okay, A.I, Satır, M., Maluski, H., Sıyako, M., Monie, P., Metzger, R., Akyüz, S., (1996) Paleo- and Neo-Tethyan events in northwestern Turkey: Geologic and geochronologic constrains. The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, 420-441 Topuz, G, Altıner, D, Satır, M, and Schwartz, W.H. (2004) Low-grade metamorphic rocks from the Pulur Complex, NE Turkey: implications for the pre-Liassic evolution of the Eastern Pontides. International Journal of Earth Science, 93, 72-91 Yaltırak C. and Okay A.İ (1994) Geology of the Paleo-Tethyan units in the north of Edremit Bay. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul , 3/1, 67-79 (in Turkish)

  15. A Study on the Autecology of Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) Distributed in Western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Yunus

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the autecological characteristics of Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae) distributed in Western Anatolia. The chemical and physical analysis was carried out on soil and plant samples collected from 54 different localities in Western Anatolia. The results show that the plant generally prefers sandy-loam and sandy-clayey-loam textural soils, with a slightly alkaline or medium alkaline pH. They prefer non-saline, calcareous soils which are poor in potassium and ph...

  16. Encrusting micro-organisms from the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous Inalti Carbonates (Central Pontides, Turkey): Remarks on reefal / peri-reefal facies development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel Kaya, Mustafa; Altıner, Demir

    2015-04-01

    A detailed taxonomical study was carried out for the identification of encrusting micro-organisms including Bacinella-type structures, Calcistella jachenhausenensis, Crescentiella morronensis, Iberopora bodeuri, Koskinobullina socialis, Labes atramentosa, Lithocodium aggregatum, Perturbatacrusta leini, Pseudorothpletzella schmidi, Radiomura cautica, Sarsteinia babai, Terebella lapilloides and Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera. Among these microencrusters, Perturbatacrusta leini, Iberopora bodeuri, Calcistella Jachenhausenensis, Pseudorothpletzella schmidi have been taxonomically revealed for the first time in Turkey. Within the biostratigraphic frame of the İnalti carbonates consisting of Mesoendothyra izjumiana zone (Kimmeridgian), Calcistella jachenhausenensis zone (Lower Tithonian - Upper Tithonian) and Protopeneroplis ultragranulata zone (Upper Tithonian - Berriasian), carbonate sedimentation occured in 5 depositional environments comprising slope, fore-reef, reef, back-reef and lagoonal environments. Majority of the reefal deposits of the İnalti carbonates can be classified as coral-microbial-microencruster boundstones and frequently occur associated with back-reef and fore-reef deposits within Kimmeridgian - Berriasian interval. A shallowing and a subsequent deepening in the Berriasian have been revealed by the examination of stacking patterns and vertical evolution of the microfacies. Based on the observed microfacies and general features of micro-encrusting organisms it has been concluded that İnalti Limestones share many similarities with the reefal carbonate deposits of Intra-Tethyan domain in terms of microfacies types and microencruster content. These similarities manifest the extension of the European Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous reef belts to the northern Turkey.

  17. A 500,000-Year-Long Sediment Archive of Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, T.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Cagatay, M. N.; Kipfer, R.; Krastel, S.; Schmincke, H.-U.; Sturm, M.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Van, a large terminal lake in eastern Anatolia (Turkey), holds a key position within a sensitive climate region between the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Lake Van extends over 130 kilometers on a high plateau; lake level at present is 1665 meters above sea level. The lake water, up to 450 meters deep, is alkaline (pH ~9.8) and saline (~21.4‰). Its long and partly annually laminated sedimentary record provides an excellent paleoclimate archive because it yields a long and continuous continental sequence that covers several glacial-interglacial cycles spanning more than 500,000 years. Lake Van is therefore a key site to reconstruct Quaternary climate evolution in the near east. Moreover, being located in a tectonically active area bordered by two historically active volcanoes, it holds a unique paleoseismic and volcanic archive. As a closed and saline lake, Lake Van reacts very sensitively to lake level changes caused by any alterations in the hydrological regime in response to climate change. Because the lake is the deepest lake in Anatolia, which, in contrast to other more shallow lakes, likely never dried out in its history, it was identified as the most promising candidate to contain a long and continuous sediment archive. The drilling campaign, supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), operated by the U.S.-based company Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust (DOSECC), was carried on in July and August 2010. DOSECC developed and assembled a new Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) that was specifically designed for coring sediments from deep lakes and that was first operated in Lake Van. The DLDS worked at water depths of up to 360 meters. Cores from 140 meters (Northern Basin site) and 220 meters (AhlatRridge site) below the lake bed depth were retrieved. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were cored multiple times. Total length of all parallel cores

  18. Neutron activation analysis of Urartian pottery from eastern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 275 pottery and clay samples from Urartian period sites in eastern Anatolia were analyzed by INAA. The pottery sample originates primarily from the fortress and Outer Town at Ayanis and also includes samples from nearby sites in the Lake Van basin. A small sample of pottery from Bastam, a contemporary Urartian fortress in northwest Iran, and Kef Kalesi, a site on the north shore of Lake Van were also analyzed. Ten distinct compositional groups were identified during the course of the analysis suggesting that pottery was produced at multiple locations throughout the Urartian kingdom. In addition to identifying multiple production locales, the long-distance movement of pottery from the sites of Kef Kalesi and Bastam into the Van Basin and the movement of pottery from Ayanis to Bastam were documented. (author)

  19. Privatised Hydropower Development in Turkey: A Case of Water Grabbing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Islar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how river privatisation in Turkey is deployed to expand renewable energy production and the implications this has for issues of ownership, rights to water and community life. Recent neoliberal reforms in Turkey have enabled the private sector to lease the rights to rivers for 49 years for the sole purpose of electricity production. The paper focuses on the re-scaling and reallocation of control over rivers through technical-legal redefinition of productive use, access and rights; and on discursive practices that marginalise rural communities and undermine alternative framings of nature. In order to actuate hydropower projects, what previously constituted legitimate water use and access is being contested and redefined. This process involves redefining what is legal (and therefore also what is illegal such that state regulatory mechanisms favour private-sector interests by the easement of rights on property, government incentives and regulation of use rights to water. Through this lens, in some cases this particular privatisation in Turkey can be understood as an instance of 'water grabbing', where powerful actors gain control over use and increase their own benefits by diverting water and profit away from local communities living along these rivers despite their resistance. The analysis is based on empirical evidence derived from semi-structured interviews, newspapers, governmental and NGO reports, and observations during 3 months of fieldwork in Ankara and several villages in North and South Anatolia.

  20. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  1. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  2. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  3. [Four cases of cutaneous anthrax in Diyarbakir, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhanoğlu, Nezire Mine; Bayındır Bilman, Fulya; Kutlu Yürüker, Safiye

    2013-07-01

    Anthrax which is a rare disease in developed countries, is still a serious public health problem in countries like Turkey where livestock is common. In this report, four cases of cutaneous anthrax detected in Kirkira village of Diyarbakir, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey, were presented. Three female and one male patients were admitted to our hospital with the complaints of skin lesions and high fever lasting for 10 days. Their history indicated that they injured their fingers during slaughtering of a dead cow meat. All patients had irregular edged necrotic vesiculobullous lesions on the erythematous and edematous base on their hand fingers, developed in 1 week following the contact. There was no systemic finding and the laboratory findings were within normal limits. Typical bamboo cane shaped gram-positive bacilli were observed on the Gram stained smears prepared from the vesicular lesions. Aerobic cultures in blood agar media revealed typical R type colonies, gray in color, creased, granulated and 2-3 mm in diameter within 24 hours of incubation. In one patient although the lesion was typical and characteristic gram-positive bacilli were detected in the Gram stained smears, no growth was seen in the cultures. The isolates (n= 3) were identified as Bacillus anthracis by conventional microbiological methods, and also confirmed by Vitek 2 (BioMerieux, France) automated identification system. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. The isolates were found susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, erythromycin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. All of the patients were treated successfully with penicillin or ciprofloxacin accompanied by topical wound care. In the last years several case series of anthrax were reported especially from the East and Southeastern Anatolia regions of Turkey. These four cutaneous anthrax cases from Diyarbakir, Turkey were reported to withdraw

  4. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  5. THANETIAN AND EARLY YPRESIAN ORTHOPHRAGMINES (FORAMINIFERA: DISCOCYCLINIDAE AND ORBITOCLYPEIDAE FROM THE CENTRAL WESTERN TETHYS (TURKEY, ITALY AND BULGARIA AND THEIR REVISED TAXONOMY AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYÖRGY LESS

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The rich orthophragminid assemblages from the upper Thanetian and lower Ypresian of Turkey are discussed together with the coeval faunas from Spilecco (N Italy and Beloslav (Bulgaria. Their taxonomy, evolution and biozonation in the Western Tethys are revised. Our biometric study is based mainly on a large number of equatorial sections of megalospheric individuals. We present the emended description of Discocyclina seunesi, D. tenuis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus, O. bayani and Asterocyclina taramellii. A new species, Nemkovella stockari is introduced. The evolutionary lineages of Discocyclina seunesi, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus and O. bayani are restored for the first time by using the consistent size-increase of the megalospheric embryon that also allowed introducing some new subspecies (Discocyclina seunesi beloslavensis, D. s. karabuekensis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus kastamonuensis, O. bayani kurucasileensis and O. munieri ponticus. By owing the most complete record of Thanetian and early Ypresian orthophragmines from the Western Tethys (using also data from SW France and the Crimean Peninsula we could reconstruct their early evolution. The chronostratigraphical position of some localities was ascertained from planktic and larger benthic foraminifera, as well as calcareous nannoplankton. In the updated orthophragminid zonation (zones are marked by OZ, OZ 1a corresponds to the early Thanetian, OZ 1b to the middle Thanetian. They are distinguished on the base of the evolution of Discocyclina seunesi. In these zones, only two unribbed species of Discocyclina and Orbitoclypeus each are present. Ribbed Orbitoclypeus, genus Asterocyclina and Nemkovella appeared in the redefined OZ 2 zone belonging to the late Thanetian. Discocyclina archiaci and D. dispansa substituted D. seunesi at about the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. The early Ypresian can be subdivided into the OZ 3 and 4 zones that can be distinguished from each other by the different

  6. Communities, households and animals: convergent developments in Central Anatolian and Central European neolithic:

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, Arkadiusz

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to scrutinize striking similarities in cultural developments and social transformations in Neolithic communities in the North European Plain of Central Europe and Central Anatolia in the early phase of their development and in the following post-Eearly Neolithic period. They will be explored through evidence pertaining to architecture and the organization of space, alongside changes in settlement pattern, as well as animal bone assemblages and zoomorphic representations. So...

  7. Communities, households and animals. Convergent developments in Central Anatolian and Central European Neolithic

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Marciniak

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to scrutinize striking similarities in cultural developments and social transformations in Neolithic communities in the North European Plain of Central Europe and Central Anatolia in the early phase of their development and in the following post-Eearly Neolithic period. They will be explored through evidence pertaining to architecture and the organization of space, alongside changes in settlement pattern, as well as animal bone assemblages and zoomorphic representations. So...

  8. American Studies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gülriz Buken

    2006-01-01

    In the discipline of American Studies in Turkey, the major contribution emanates, on the one hand, from the American Culture and Literature Departments instituted in various Universities in Turkey and, on the other, from the American Studies Association of Turkey. Up till now, unfortunately, no Research and Performance Institute or Center for the Study of America has yet been established to secure the necessary contacts with other similar institutions in Europe and in the United States, to fa...

  9. Performance Budgeting in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil Çatak; Canan Çilingir

    2010-01-01

    The effective and efficient use of public resources has vital importance for Turkey. To serve this purpose, public financial management was reformed and a performance budgeting system was launched in Turkey. This article assesses the current situation of the implementation of the performance budgeting system in Turkey from the perspective of public administrations under the general budget. It examines all stages of the performance budgeting process (strategic planning, performance programming...

  10. Tectonic setting of the Jurassic bimodal magmatism in the Sakarya Zone (Central and Western Pontides), Northern Turkey: A geochemical and isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Ş. Can; Tüysüz, Okan

    2010-07-01

    The Lower to Middle Jurassic Mudurnu formation of the Sakarya Zone (Northern Turkey) was deposited in an extensional basin. This unit crops out along the southern Pontide range and consists of marine sedimentary rocks including debris flows, lignite-bearing clastic rocks and Ammonitico Rosso horizons alternating with mafic and felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Magmatic rocks of the Mudurnu formation comprise two compositionally different groups; 1) a mafic group including diabase-microgabbro-basaltic lavas and their pyroclastic equivalents, and 2) a felsic group including granite porphyries and felsic pyroclastic rocks. All the magmatic members of the Mudurnu formation are subalkaline and display a calc-alkaline affinity. They are bimodal, with a significant silica gap between the mafic and felsic members with the exception of a few samples. These magmatic rocks display enrichment in LILE and depletion in Nb, Ta, P and Ti, implying a subduction-related magmatic signature. Melting modelling for the mafic rocks indicates that they originated possibly from subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) composed of spinel lherzolite. ɛNd(i) values (+ 1.5 to + 4.3) imply that the mafic volcanic and hypabyssal rocks were possibly derived from a time-integrated LREE-depleted mantle source. The initial Sr and Nd isotope values, and ɛNd(i) of the felsic hypabyssal rocks are comparable to the mafic ones. The isotope data point to a genetic relationship between the felsic and mafic members. Results obtained from the geochemical modelling of incompatible versus compatible trace elements show that the felsic rocks were derived from the mafic melts by fractional crystallization (FC) process. In the light of their regional geological setting and these geochemical characteristics, we propose that the magmatic rocks of the Mudurnu formation formed in an extensional basin situated on an active and/or just ended subduction zone during the Jurassic period. The Mudurnu formation

  11. Thermal structure of low-grade accreted Lower Cretaceous distal turbidites, the Central Pontides, Turkey: insights for tectonic thickening of an accretionary wedge

    OpenAIRE

    AYGÜL, MESUT; OKAY, ARAL I.; OBERHÄNSLI, ROLAND; Ziemann, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Albian-Turonian subduction-accretionary complexes are exposed widely in the Central Pontides. A major portion of the accretionary complexes is made up of a metaflysch sequence consisting of slate/phyllite and metasandstone intercalation with blocks of marble, Na-amphibole bearing metabasite, and serpentinite. The metaflysch sequence represents distal parts of a large Lower Cretaceous submarine turbidite fan deposited on the Laurasian active continental margin that was subsequently a...

  12. Determining Environmental Impacts of Large Scale Irrigation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K.; Douglas, E. M.; Limbrunner, J. F.; Ozertan, G.

    2010-12-01

    In 1989, the Turkish government launched their most comprehensive regional development plan in history entitled the Southeastern Anatolia Project (SAP) which focuses on improving the quality of life and income level within the most underdeveloped region in Turkey. This project aims to integrate sustainable human development through agriculture, industry, transportation, education, health and rural and urban infrastructure building. In May 2008, a new action plan was announced for the region which includes the designation of almost 800,000 hectares of previously unirrigated land to be open for irrigation within the next five years. If not done in a sustainable manner, such a large-scale irrigation project could cause severe environmental impacts. The first objective of our research is to use computer simulations to reproduce the observed environmental impacts of irrigated agriculture in this arid region, primarily by simulating the effects of soil salinization. The second objective of our research is to estimate soil salinization that could result from expanded irrigation and suggest sustainable strategies for the newly irrigated land in Turkey in order to minimize these environmental impacts.

  13. Tectonic control on turbiditic sedimentation: The Late Cretaceous-Eocene successions in the Sinop-Boyabat Basin of north-central Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janbu, Nils Erik

    2004-07-01

    being prepared for publication: The Sinop-Boyabat Basin of northern Turkey: Its development from Backarc rift into retroarc foreland basin and implications for the How shallow can the deep-sea Nereites ichnofacies can be. (Author)

  14. Tectonic control on turbiditic sedimentation: The Late Cretaceous-Eocene successions in the Sinop-Boyabat Basin of north-central Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janbu, Nils Erik

    2004-07-01

    being prepared for publication: The Sinop-Boyabat Basin of northern Turkey: Its development from B

  15. The Impact of Turkey's Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan's biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  16. Turkey's nuclear power effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey's plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way

  17. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  18. Earthquake Hazard and Seismic Risk Assessment of the East Anatolia Fault (EAF) Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake hazard and seismic risk assessment of the East Anatolia Fault (EAF) Zone have been performed at this study. Homogeneous earthquake catalogue has been obtained by using different algorithms on the KOERI standard earthquake catalogue. Earthquake hazard and seismic risk assessment of the EAF has been inferred based on social-economical, demographical indices and Geographical Information System (GIS)

  19. Pervasive Palaeogene remagnetization of the central Taurides fold-and-thrust belt (southern Turkey) and implications for rotations in the Isparta Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Altıner, Demir; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cor G.

    2011-03-01

    The Turkish Anatolide-Tauride block rifted away from the northern margin of Gondwana in the Triassic, which gave way to the opening of the southern Neo-Tethys. By the late Palaeocene to Eocene, it collided with the southern Eurasian margin, leading to the closure of the northern Neo-Tethys ocean. To determine the position of the Anatolide-Tauride block with respect to the African and Eurasian margin we carried out a palaeomagnetic study in the central Taurides belt, which constitutes the eastern limb of the Isparta Angle. The sampled sections comprise Carboniferous to Palaeocene rocks (mainly limestones). Our data suggest that all sampled rocks are remagnetized during the late Palaeocene to Eocene phase of folding and thrusting event, related to the collision of the Anatolide-Tauride block with Eurasia. To further test the possibility of remagnetization, we use a novel end-member modelling approach on 174 acquired isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) curves. We argue that the preferred three end-member model confirms the proposed remagnetization of the rocks. Comparing our data to the post-Eocene declination pattern in the central Tauride belt, we conclude that our clockwise rotations are in agreement with data from other studies. After combining our results with previously published data from the Isparta Angle (that includes our study area), we have reasons to cast doubt on the spatial and temporal extent of an earlier reported early to middle Miocene remagnetization event. We argue that the earlier reported remagnetized directions from Triassic rocks—in tilt corrected coordinates—from the southwestern Antalya Nappes (western Taurides), are in good agreement with other studies from the area that show a primary origin of their characteristic remanent magnetization. This implies that we document a clockwise rotation for the southwestern Antalya Nappes since the Triassic that is remarkably similar to the post-Eocene (˜40°) rotation of the central Taurides

  20. Active Tectonics in crossroads of an evolving orogen and morphological consequences: Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Hayrettin

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia lies in a curved setting of the active Alpine Mountain Range and is located in crossroads of the European and Asian terrains. It is one of the fastest deforming land in the world, manifested by seismicity, characteristic landforms and GPS measurements. Active tectonics in Anatolia provides not only a comparable geological model for the past orogens, but also a laboratory case for morphological consequences of an orogenic processes. Anatolia comprise different tectonic subsettings with its own characteristics. Northern part is influenced by tectonic characteristics of the Black Sea Basin, the Pontides and the Caucasian Range; northwestern part by the Balkanides; eastern-southeastern part by the Bitlis-Zagros suture; and south-southwestern part by the eastern Mediterranean subduction setting. Much of its present tectonic complexity was inherited from the convergence dominant plate tectonic setting of the platelets prior to the Middle-Neogene. Beginning about 11 Ma ago, the deformed and uplifted landmass unable to accommodate further deformation in Anatolia and ongoing tectonic activity gave rise to rearrangement of tectonic forces and westerly translational movements. Formation of major strike-slip faults in Anatolia including the North and East Anatolian Faults and a new platelet called the Anatolian Plate are the consequences of this episode. Such change in the tectonic regime has led to modification of previously-formed landscape, modification and sometimes termination of previously-formed basins. Evidence is present in the Plio-Quaternary stratigraphy, tectonic characteristics and morphology of the well-studied areas. This presentation will discuss active tectonic features of the northwestern, southwestern and eastern Anatolian subsettings and their influence on morphology that is closely related to sites of pre-historical human settlement.

  1. Dental age assessment: The applicability of Demirjian method in southwestern of eastern Anatolia region Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Altun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: Age estimation plays an important role in forensic medicine and orthodontics. Many methods of age estimation have been suggested. Demirjian method is the most frequently used one of these. In the literature, there is a little known about applicability of this method in Turkish children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of Demirjian method of dental age estimaiton and for description of mandibular permanent tooth formation in Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region.

    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 1015 panoramic radiographs and 5-15 years of age South western of Eastern Anatolia Regionof Turkish children. The stages of dental maturity of the mandibular left seven permanent teeth for each subject using the eight radiographic dental maturity stages demonstrated by Demirjian’s method were evaluated. A pired t-test was used for statistical analysis.

    Results: The mean difference between the chronological and dental ages ranged 0,28 to 1,10 years in boys and from 0,18 to 0,68 years in girls. South western of Eastern Anatolia Region ofTurkish children were generally delayed in dental maturity compared with children in Demirjian sample. The differences between the chronological and dental ages were statistically significant in 6-6.9, 8-8.9, 9-9.9, 10-10.9, 11-11.9 years in boys and in 8-8.9, 9-9.9,11-11.9 years in girls.

    Conclusions: Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region are significantly more delayed in dental maturity compared to Demirjian’s French-Canadian sample. The applicability of Demirjian data is not suitable for Southwestern of Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkish children.

  2. A computerized image database for freshwater algae recorded in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Bülent; SÖNMEZ, Feray; ÇETİN, Ahmet Kadri; ALP, Mehmet Tahir; ÖZER, Tülay BAYKAL

    2015-01-01

    A computer-based image database for freshwater algae recorded in Turkey has been established. A separate page was prepared for each algal taxon and each page includes images and taxonomic and ecological information related to the taxon. Algal images were obtained mainly from authors of algal studies previously carried out in various freshwater bodies in Turkey. Data were then standardized in accordance with that of the central database of Turkish herbaria and a database for Turkish freshwater...

  3. Prelimilary Geological and Geochemical Data from the Cangaldag Complex (Kastamonu-Turkey): Implications for the Geodynamic Evolution of the Central Pontides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Okay; Sayit, Kaan; Goncuoglu, M. Cemal

    2015-04-01

    The Cangaldag Complex, one of the tectonic units lying in the Central Pontides of the Sakarya Composite Terrane, comprises variably deformed and metamorphosed rocks of mostly magmatic origin. These lithologies include both extrusive and intrusive varieties as well as volcaniclastic types, with a wide range of compositions from felsic to mafic. Petrographically the complex consists of diverse rock types, including basalt, tuff, diabase, gabbro, andesite, and rhyo-dacite. The mafic lithologies generally appear to be affected by greenschist facies metamorphism with typical assemblage of ab+act+chl+ep. A well-developed schistosity is observed in some cases. The dacitic types are generally slightly metamorphic, displaying porphyritic textures with quartz and feldspar phenocrysts embedded in a fine-grained groundmass. Mylonitic varieties of this type are also found. On the basis of geochemistry, the Cangaldag samples are of sub-alkaline character and represented by both primitive and evolved members. All rock types are variably depleted in Nb compared to LREE, similar to the lavas from subduction-related tectonic settings. In N-MORB normalized plots, the primitive members are separated into 3 groups on the basis of levels of enrichment. The first group display highly depleted characteristics akin to boninitic lavas. The second group is relatively enriched compared to the first group but still depleted than N-MORB. The third group, however, is the most enriched among the three, whose level of enrichment is around N-MORB. The overall geochemical features suggest that the Cangaldag meta-igneous rocks have been generated in an intra-oceanic system with the involvement of a subduction-modified mantle source. The chemistry of the primitive members further indicate that the melt generation within the Cangaldag Unit probably occurred on both arc and back-arc regions of the Intra-Pontide supra-subduction zone.

  4. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.

    1971-01-01

    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the LacustrinePlain, has highly calcareous clayey sedimen

  5. The RAPUNZEL TURKEY PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    European Demand for organic dried fruits and nuts - Turkish Organic Cultivation “Cultural quality” of an organic product. Rapunzel tries to show it’s experience with organic food/organic farmers/organic farming practices in Turkey.

  6. Kula Geopark: Turkeys first European and Global Geopark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Erdal; Zouros, Nickolas

    2014-05-01

    The Kula European and Global Geopark is situated in the Aegean Region of Turkey at Western Anatolia, within Manisa Province. The Geopark area covers 300 km2. The Kula Geopark area is the youngest volcanic region of Turkey where the volcanic activity continued up to prehistoric times. The outstanding volcanic structures of Kula Geopark area are well known at least for 2 thousand years. The great ancient Greek Geographer Strabo (63BC-24AD) in his majestic book "Geographica" named Kula as "Katakekaumene" (fire-born) because of the coal black lava. The geological significance and the cultural richness of Kula was mentioned by many foreign travellers and researchers like Charles Texier (1832) "Asia Minor" and Henry Washington's PhD thesis in 1893 where he named Kula basalts as "Kulaite". Kula Geopark area is awarded with high geodiversity representing 200 million years of earth history from Palaeozoic to Holocene including maars, monogenic cinder cones, successive lava flow plains, lava caves and tubes, craters, basalt columns, xenoliths, contact metamorphism, ash deposits, waterfalls in volcanic canyons, active karstic caves, badlands and fairy chimneys, mesa structures and schist tor, as far as 15 thousand years of fossil human foot prints preserved in volcanic ash. Kula Geopark is the land of miniature volcanoes where cinder cones are not higher than 150m. As a result, the geosites are easy to access and visiting the area requires very little risk, effort and time which makes the area excellent for geotourism and geoeducation. In addition to these outstanding natural and geological heritages, Kula Geopark reveals rich cultural, architectural historical, archaeological, and paleontological monuments. Kula represents well-preserved monuments of the 18th century Ottoman urban architecture in Turkey. The Kula Geopark Project was initiated in 2011 by PhD Erdal Gümüş with the support of the Kula Municipality. In September 2013 the Kula Geopark was certified as the first

  7. Growth Facts in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Imrohoroglu

    2009-01-01

    Turkish GDP per working age person grows at a rate of 3.85 percent also turns out to be a period when Turkey falls behind its peers significantly. These observations point to two questions: 1. What factors are responsible for the low relative growth in Turkey compared to Greece, Portugal, and Spain during the 1960-1977 period? 2. What factors are responsible for the slow down of the Turkish economy between 1977-2001?

  8. Republic of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency (EE) is critical to help Turkey continue its trajectory of economic growth in a sustainable manner. The Government of Turkey recognizes this and has placed EE as a key component of its energy strategy and National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. Over the past 5-10 years, it has made considerable advances in establishing a strong policy and legal framework, creating a ...

  9. Informatics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  10. Competition Policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kulaksizoglu, Tamer

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current competition policy framework in Turkey. A brief history of competition policy is presented. An account of the Law on the Protection of Competition, the main law on competition in Turkey, is given. The structure of the Competition Authority, the body responsi- ble for applying the Law, and the way the enforcement system works are explained. Detailed statistics are given about all the cases submitted to the Competition Authority by 2002. Accoun...

  11. Good Jobs in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Grun, Rebekka; Ridao-Cano, Cristobal; Immervoll, Herwig; Capar, Sinem; Levin, Victoria; Aran, Meltem; Gruen, Carola; Yener, Levent; Cebeci, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    This joint study, by the World Bank and the Turkish Ministry of Development, explores the status and effects of good jobs in Turkey s current economy. After a brief account of economic events, it examines the relationship between growth and employment in Turkey, with a particular regard to the participation of different social groups in the labor market, such as women and youth. It then an...

  12. Nutritional Rickets in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Behzat

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. ...

  13. Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive paths made by industrialized countries. On the political front, many less development countries are critical of pressure on them to adopt environmental energy technologies. Turkey is situated the meeting point of three continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) and stands as a bridge between Asia and Europe. The country is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. As Turkey's economy has expanded in recent years, the consumption of primary energy has increased. Presently in order to increase the energy production from domestic energy resources, decrease the use of fossil fuels as well as reduce of green house gas emissions different renewable energy sources are used for energy production in Turkey. The share of energy production from renewable energy sources has increased during the last 10 years. Turkey must import most of the energy to meet her needs. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energies. The lack of knowledge about renewable energy technologies by most policy-makers, potential consumers, and energy firm managers has played against renewable energy developments. The paper presents renewable energy used in Turkey and Europe Union and evaluation of the market conditions and barriers of renewable energy use in Turkey. (author)

  14. Diagenesis of Oligocene continental sandstones in salt-walled mini-basins-Sivas Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    The recent discovery of Oligo-Miocene salt-walled continental mini-basins in the Sivas Basin (central Anatolia, Turkey) provides the opportunity to unravel the influence of halokinesis on the diagenesis of continental mini-basin infilling. In this study, petrographic and geochemical analyses are used to define the diagenetic sequences recorded by two mini-basins filled mainly by fluvial clastic sediments of the upper Oligocene Karayün Formation. The initial diagenetic features are those commonly encountered in arid to semi-arid continental environments, i.e. clay infiltration, hematite precipitation and vadose calcite cement. Other early cements were strongly controlled by sandstone detrital composition in the presence of saline/alkaline pore water. In feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses, near-surface alterations were characterized by the precipitation of analcime (up to 10%), albite and quartz overgrowths (cementation (up to 30%) during shallow burial diagenesis which prevented further mesogenetic alteration phenomena such as compaction. In feldsarenites, early diagenesis differs by (i) the absence of analcime, (ii) better developed albite cements, (iii) thin smectite-illite coatings forming pore linings and (iv) patchy calcite cementation (cement allowed mesogenetic alterations to occur, such as late quartz overgrowths, albitization of feldspar grains and chemical compaction. All these phases are responsible for the low porosity of feldsarenites (cement in feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses is related to a greater proportion of detrital limestone in these sandstones. Early precipitation of analcime, albite, smectite-illite and quartz was likely triggered by the alteration of reactive grains by near-surface saline/alkaline brines originating from the dissolution of adjacent diapiric structures. Mini-basin confinement resulting from halokinesis was probably an important factor influencing surface and subsurface saline/alkaline fluid flow and

  15. INVESTIGATION OF INTENDED SERVICE QUALITY LEVELS IN HEALTH-FITNESS CENTERS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of services in health-fitness centers a medium-sized city that located in Central Anatolia Region in Turkey. In this study, assessments of the levels of service perceived and expected by the customers under four different dimensions (staff, programme, locker rooms and facility were carried out in order to identify the levels of fitness centers in terms of service quality. The replies provided by 219 members of fitness center who filled out the scale form voluntarily and without skipping any parts were evaluated. In order to measure the service quality of fitness in the study, Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS, which was developed by Lam et al. (2005 and whose Turkish adaptation was done by Gürbüz et al. (2005, was used. The SQAS was composed of 4 dimensions (staff, programme, locker rooms and facility and 34 items. In assessing the service quality, Gap Model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988 was used; though this method, the gaps were identified by subtracting perception scores from expectation scores. In order to find the differences between the groups, “Paired-Samples "t" test”, “Independent Samples "t" test” and “One way ANOVA” were utilized. When the results obtained and the differences between perception and expectation scores were assessed in terms of dimensions, it was observed that all dimensions had a negative difference. In terms of statistics, it was discovered that there was a meaningful difference in all of staff, programme, locker rooms and facility at the level of p<0,05. Among those, the lowest level of quality was observed to belong to “programme” dimension with the unit of -0,564. Later, with the -0,509-unit difference “locker rooms” dimension, with the -0,487-unit difference “staff” dimension and with the -0,481-unit difference “facility” dimension follow respectively. When it was evaluated according to demographic aspect in the study, it

  16. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of Kavak (Seydişehir-Konya) geothermal field, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdağ, Ayla

    2016-09-01

    The Kavak geothermal field is located 13 km north of Seydişehir town, about 90 km southwest of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the origin, chemical characteristics, and isotopic composition of Kavak thermal waters. The measured temperatures of thermal and mineral waters range from 21.5 to 26 °C with a discharge of 0.8 l/s in springs, and from 30 to 45.8 °C with a discharge of 185 l/s in wells. Thermal and/or mineralized spring and well waters are of Casbnd Nasbnd HCO3 types with electrical conductivity ranging from 2530 to 4150 μS/cm while cold groundwater is mainly of Casbnd HCO3 and Casbnd Mgsbnd HCO3 types with electrical conductivity ranging from 446 to 668 μS/cm. Kavak thermal waters have not reached complete chemical re-equilibrium possibly as a result of mixing with cold water during upward flow. Assessments from quartz geothermometers and fluid-mineral equilibria calculations suggest that reservoir temperature of Kavak geothermal field ranges from 68 to 105 °C. Thermal waters are oversaturated at discharge temperatures for calcite, dolomite, and aragonite minerals corresponding to travertine precipitation in the discharge area. Gypsum and anhydrite minerals are undersaturated in all the thermal waters. The δ18O and δ2H compositions of Kavak thermal and cold waters point to a meteoric origin. Meteoric waters infiltrate the reservoir rocks along faults and fracture zones. After being heated at depth with the high geothermal gradient, they move up to the surface along faults and fractures that act as pathways. Additionally, δ18O and δ2H values suggest that thermal waters are recharged from higher elevations in comparison with cold waters. Long-term circulation of meteoric waters within the basement rocks is indicated by low tritium (<2 TU) values in the thermal waters, although the fluids do not achieve thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on the δ13C values, carbon in thermal waters is considered

  17. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of Kavak (Seydişehir-Konya) geothermal field, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdağ, Ayla

    2016-09-01

    The Kavak geothermal field is located 13 km north of Seydişehir town, about 90 km southwest of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the origin, chemical characteristics, and isotopic composition of Kavak thermal waters. The measured temperatures of thermal and mineral waters range from 21.5 to 26 °C with a discharge of 0.8 l/s in springs, and from 30 to 45.8 °C with a discharge of 185 l/s in wells. Thermal and/or mineralized spring and well waters are of Casbnd Nasbnd HCO3 types with electrical conductivity ranging from 2530 to 4150 μS/cm while cold groundwater is mainly of Casbnd HCO3 and Casbnd Mgsbnd HCO3 types with electrical conductivity ranging from 446 to 668 μS/cm. Kavak thermal waters have not reached complete chemical re-equilibrium possibly as a result of mixing with cold water during upward flow. Assessments from quartz geothermometers and fluid-mineral equilibria calculations suggest that reservoir temperature of Kavak geothermal field ranges from 68 to 105 °C. Thermal waters are oversaturated at discharge temperatures for calcite, dolomite, and aragonite minerals corresponding to travertine precipitation in the discharge area. Gypsum and anhydrite minerals are undersaturated in all the thermal waters. The δ18O and δ2H compositions of Kavak thermal and cold waters point to a meteoric origin. Meteoric waters infiltrate the reservoir rocks along faults and fracture zones. After being heated at depth with the high geothermal gradient, they move up to the surface along faults and fractures that act as pathways. Additionally, δ18O and δ2H values suggest that thermal waters are recharged from higher elevations in comparison with cold waters. Long-term circulation of meteoric waters within the basement rocks is indicated by low tritium (waters, although the fluids do not achieve thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on the δ13C values, carbon in thermal waters is considered as originating from a mixture

  18. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  19. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier

    2014-01-16

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how eastern Anatolia and its surrounding plates deform. We find that most of the deformation is focused at the North and East Anatolian faults and little intraplate deformation takes place. Anatolia is therefore moving, at least its eastern part, as a uniform block. We estimate the slip velocity and locking depth of the North Anatolian fault at this location to be 20 mm/yr and ~14 km, respectively. High deformation gradient found near the East Anatolian fault, on the other hand, suggests that little stress is accumulating along the eastern sections of that fault.

  20. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

    OpenAIRE

    Mujanovic, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middl...

  1. A survey on the factors causing delayed diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in southeastern Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Eyüp Öner; Sadullah Girgin; Ömer Uslukaya; Zübeyir Bozdağ; Hatice Gümüş; Zuhat Urakçı; Metehan Gümüş

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This survey aims to elucidate patient and health system related factors leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in Southeastern Anatolia.Methods: Hundred patients admitted to Department of General Surgery at Dicle University between December 2012 and July 2014, and diagnosed with breast cancer in preceding 6 months were included in the survey after their consent. The survey has 4 chapters (patient and health system related factors, demographic data, and assessme...

  2. The Classification of the Salvia L. (Labiatae) Species Distributed in West Anatolia According to Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NAKİBOĞLU, Mahmure

    2002-01-01

    The seven species of Salvia L. growing naturally in West Anatolia (Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia smyrnaea Boiss., Salvia argentea L., Salvia horminum L., Salvia verbenaca L., and Salvia virgata Jacq.) and a cultivated form (Salvia officinalis L.) were selected as the study materials. The phenolic compounds extracted from the leaves of the species were separated by two- dimensional thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the distribution of phenolic spots in the spe...

  3. SUSTAINABILITY OF TRADITIONAL HOUSING AND WAY OF LIFE IN ANATOLIA: A CASE OF KORKUTELI-BOZOVA

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENOL, Pervin; ÖRMECİOĞLU, Hilal Tuğba; Neşe DİKMEN; Aslı ER AKAN

    2012-01-01

    Cities and towns are characterized by various types of buildings constructed with local materials, specifically detailed for indigenous conditions. In addition to environmental circumstances – such as climate, topography etc.- and availability of the materials, local cultural practices determine both housing types and architectural styles of the regions. Vernacular buildings in Anatolia typically were designed and constructed by residents of the regions who utilized traditional building techn...

  4. Coeval Shoshonitic-ultrapotassic dyke emplacements within the Kestanbol Pluton, Ezine – Biga Peninsula (NW Anatolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Akal, Cüneyt

    2013-01-01

    The Biga Peninsula, in the north-western part of Western Anatolia, is part of the Sakarya Zone of the Western Pontides and the tectonically overlying Ezine group. The basement rocks are intruded by the early Miocene Kestanbol Pluton and early to middle Miocene calc-alkaline to shoshonitic-ultrapotassic volcanic successions related to postcollisional continental extension. The Kestanbol Pluton mainly comprises monzonite and granodiorite and is cut by shoshonitic-ultrapotassic tephriphonolite d...

  5. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.

    2016-07-01

    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr (~ 0.22) and Sr/Cu (~ 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  6. Multi-temporal land cover classification of the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, based on a LANDSAT TM-derived NDVI/NDMI time series: satellite remote sensing in support of landscape-scale soil biogeochemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Ozdogan, M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, terrestrial biogeochemists and soil scientists have called for new approaches to study human impacts on soil biogeochemical properties at landscape-wide, 100-1000 km2 spatial scales (Trumbore and Czimczik 2008). Here, we use satellite remote sensing to map land cover across a 16,000 km2 region in the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, in support of research into agricultural and pastoral land use impacts on soil biogeochemistry. Our land cover classification is based on time series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) data, derived from eight LANDSAT TM images spanning the 2006-2007 growing seasons. Using a hierarchical, binary-split classification approach and a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, we map five land cover classes that correspond with the following dominant land-use categories: 1) annual cultivated row-crops, 2) perennial orchards/cultivated woody vegetation, 3) fallow fields, 4) uncultivated woody vegetation, 5) steppe vegetation/rangeland. The final map has an overall classification accuracy of 87.4% (kappa = 0.842), determined via traditional confusion-matrix analysis and over 150 site visits during summer 2010. Classes 1 and 2, which have the highest per-pixel NDVI and NDMI sums across image dates, attain the highest producer and consumer accuracies (>95%). We also compare the relative contributions and efficacy of NDVI and NDMI in separating land cover classes, and the influence of radiometric correction and calibration across image dates on classification accuracies. Our results support previous research showing that NDVI time series can effectively classify agricultural landscapes in semi-arid to arid environments (Simonneaux et al. 2008; Pax-Lenny et al. 1996). By combining our land cover map with other geospatial information in a GIS, we demonstrate how satellite remote sensing can help expand spatial scales of terrestrial biogeochemistry research from

  7. Turkey's global strategy: Turkey and Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Turunc, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between Turkey and Iraq is rapidly increasing, with economic and strategic interests driving political cooperation, yet there are still longer-term challenges remain to be solved, particularly in relation to energy and water security. Iraq is one of Turkey’s most important trading partners and is becoming an essential source of energy. It attaches great deal of importance to Iraq’s stability and territorial integrity and sees those matters as crucial to its own secu...

  8. THE IMPACT OF THE EU INSTRUMENT FOR PRE-ACCESSION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT (IPARD) TO TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun SEREFOGLU; Atsan, Tecer

    2012-01-01

    Turkey has acquired a valuable experience on rural development with five-year-development plans that were launched in 1960’s. A number of rural development projects, which have been financed by the United Nations and the World Bank, have been carried out in the underdeveloped regions of Turkey. With the EU Helsinki Council that recognizes Turkey as an EU candidate country in 1999, Though Turkey did not utilize pre-accession assistance programs like PHARE, SAPARD, CARDS, ISPA that Central East...

  9. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  10. THE PLANTS OF USING FOR DYE IN KÜRECİK (AKÇADAĞ / MALATYA), EASTERN ANATOLIA OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Yeşil, Yeter; Akalın, Emine

    2011-01-01

    In this study the plants that used as dying wool have carried out in Kürecik district (Akçadağ/Malatya). Totally 15 species are used that they are  12 grow natural and 3 culture plants belonging to 11 family.  Using parts of this species are that flowers, roots or aerial parts. 11 species of them also uses as folk medicine.

  11. THE PLANTS OF USING FOR DYE IN KÜRECİK (AKÇADAĞ / MALATYA), EASTERN ANATOLIA OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. YEŞİL, E. AKALIN, Y. YEŞİL, E. AKALIN

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Kiirecik Bucağında (Akçadağ/Malatya) halk arasında yün boyamak amacıyla kullanılan bitkiler sunulmuştur, Toplam 11 familyada 12 doğal ve 3 kültür bitkisi olmak üzere 15 tür kullanılmaktadır. Bu bitkilerin kullanılan kısımları çiçekleri, kökleri veya topraküstü kısımlarıdır. Bunlardan 11 bitki türü ise aynı zamanda halk ilacı olarak kullanılmaktadır.

  12. Analysis of gamma emitting radionuclides (terrestrial and anthropogenic) in soil samples from Kilis province in south Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The study presents the activity of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in soil. • The activity concentrations of radionuclides are measured using gamma spectrometer. • Absorbed gamma dose rate from terrestrial radionuclides is estimated. • Annual effective dose due to external exposure is estimated. • In this study, the regional scale radioactivity map is produced. - Abstract: In recent years, there has been great concern about analysis of radionuclide content in environmental samples (soil, water, etc.) in many countries. The aim of the present study is to analyze the activity concentrations of terrestrial (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in surface soil samples collected from different locations in and around Kilis province using the high-resolution gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector and evaluate external ionizing radiation exposure in outdoor air. The mean values of the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in the soil samples were analyzed as 16.1, 15.0, 206.0 and 9.5 Bq kg−1, respectively. Evaluated values of absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor air and the corresponding external annual effective dose varied from 5 to 75 nGy h−1 with a mean value of 25 nGy h−1 and 6–92 μSv with a mean value of 31 μSv, respectively. These mean values were found to be within acceptable limits

  13. Geochemical associations between fluorite mineralization and A-type shoshonitic magmatism in the Keban-Elazig area, East Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Bunyamin

    2015-11-01

    Keban fluorite mineralizations are closely related Coniacian-Campanian subvolcanics intruded into Permian-Triassic Keban metamorphites; this event caused pyrometasomatic, porphyry, and vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag, Cu, W, and Pb-Zn-Ag-Mo-F mineralizations. These rocks are syenitic and syenomonzonitic in composition and have high Al2O3, alkali (Na2O + K2O), FeO*/MgO, Zr, Nb, Ta, Ga, Rb, Y, and rare earth element (REE) contents. They are A-type, metaluminous, and all fall in the shoshonitic series field in K2O vs SiO2 and Th/Yb vs Ta/Yb diagrams. The trace element contents and discriminations indicate that the Keban syenitoids were derived from lithospheric mantle metasomatized by oceanic-crust/sediment fluids. The metal and halogen contents of the Keban mineralizations apparently originated from metasomatized mantle and were transported to the crust by syenitoid magmas. Clear resemblances in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, LREE-HREE partionation, and high LILE contents of the magmatics and fluorites indicate a close kinship between the syenitoids and fluorite mineralizations. The HFSE contents of the fluorites are lower than those of the magmatics, as HFSEs are not soluble in aqueous fluids. The fluorites are products of early-phase alkali magmatism (LREE > HREE). The high contents of Rb, Sr, and Ba of fluorites are inherited from the magma, which also has very high contents of these elements. In Sc-∑REE, (La/Yb)n-(Eu/Eu*)n and (Tb/La)n-(Tb/Ca)n diagrams, Keban fluorites fall into distinct areas from Akcakisla-Akdagmadeni and Celikhan-Adiyaman fluorites.

  14. PLANT REMAINS FROM ASIKLI-HOYUK, A PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC SITE IN CENTRAL ANATOLIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANZEIST, W; DEROLLER, GJ

    1995-01-01

    Cereal crop plants at Asikli Hayuk included einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), emmer wheat (T. dicoccum), free-threshing wheat (T. cf. durum), hulled two-rowed barley (Hordeum distichum) and naked barley (H. vulgare var. nudum). As for pulses, bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia), lentil (Lens culinaris)

  15. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kennedy Thornton

    Full Text Available Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100 turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata, is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  16. Exploration for uranium in southwestern Anatolia. A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present project, a UNDP/IAEA technical assistance project with the Turkish Mineral Exploration and Research Institute, seeks unoxidized ore in the reduzate zone below the water table in southwestern Turkey. It employs a multi-method attack that utilizes reconnaissance geological mapping, scintillometer surveys, stream sediment surveys, water sampling for uranium and radon, rotary non-core drilling, multielement geochemical laboratory analysis of field samples, radiometric determinations for secular equilibrium, and computer treatment of the results. Ideally, the initial stages would include both radiometric surveys and reconnaissance geological mapping; the mapping also provides basic stratigraphic and structural control for drilling. More detailed follow-up surveys in anomalous areas consist of a scintillometer survey, soil gas (Rn), and soil geochemistry on a predetermined grid, and a detailed hydrogeochemical survey where numerous wells exist. The geochemical investigations are supported by a laboratory in Ankara that can perform over 1000 determinations a day with a five-man team. Non-core rotary drilling with 1-m samples of cuttings, together with gamma, spontaneous potential, and resistance logs provide adequate sub-surface information. About 25000 m have been drilled by the equivalent of two rig years. Only four holes have been cored for mineralogical and equilibrium information. Drilling to a nominal 100-m depth is accomplished to determine the stratigraphy and to evaluate the area for uranium favourability. Particular attention is given to carbon and pyrite content and to the possibility of redox interfaces. Mineralized zones have been penetrated in two areas. At one, the lead was a possible redox interface. The favourability of the area was confirmed by later geochemical surveys. At the other area, drilling was stimulated and guided by hydrogeochemical anomalies. It is concluded that the multi-method attack on exploration is effective in identifying

  17. Anatolia tattoo art; Tunceli exampleAnadolu dövme sanatı; Tunceli ili örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Anatolia tattoo tradition and art are examinated of Tunceli culture. Tattoo is accepted the first father of writing is defined to aim of decoration or giving message and to paint specific cultural figures to the body and lower part of skin surface. Tattoo is one of subject of social sciences especially sociology and antropology, tattoo is dating back to old periods of history, and it is seen in all societies as a cultural object. The tattoo is also a colorful elemen of Anatolian civilization. As a sociological context of tattoo is used to show an occupation group as a ‘mark’, social statute or tribe and tariqat of a person’s society. However, there is a belief such as Anatolian tattoo motifs protect to people from illness and the evi leye and these motifs bring beauty and bravery. Anatolia tattoo art is a general expression of composition of different local specifics. Tunceli region is the most specific city in Turkey with its geographical density of ‘Alevi’ and ‘Kurd’ identities. More than 90% population in Tunceli, societies are formed from tribes and these tribes are different from general society. According to this information, the aim of this research is to describe Tunceli tattoo art, which is estimated specific, and to determine its similarities and differences from Anatolia tattoo art. At the same time, this information are quality to assist in Anatolia tattoo art literature. Datas in Article are gotten after face-to-face interviews, which are prepared by researches via their developed standart question form, and 15 people (who had tattooes on their body in 2010 in Tunceli. Tunceli tatoo art sample pictures are presented in Article’s addition part (with approval of source people. The general result from the research is: (1 Tunceli tattoos are not Picture; they are ideogram form of Picture. (2 Tunceli tattoo technique is not more different from East and South-East Anatolia regions. (3 Ethnic or religious

  18. Mesobuthus eupeus scorpionism in Sanliurfa region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozkan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Sanliurfa region of Turkey, from May to September 2003, were evaluated in this study. Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus plays a role on 25.8% of the scorpionism cases. This study also showed that intoxications caused by M. eupeus in the southeast of Anatolia region were seen in hot months of the summer, especially on July. Females and people above 15 years old were mostly affected and stung on extremities. Intense pain in the affected area was observed in 98.7% cases, hyperemia in 88.8%, swelling in 54.6%, burning in 19.7%, while numbness and itching were seen less frequently. In our study, the six most frequently observed symptoms were local pain, hyperemia, swelling, burning, dry mouth, thirst, sweating, and hypotension. In this study involving 152 M. eupeus toxicity cases, patients showed local and systemic clinical effects but no death was seen. Autonomic system and local effects characterized by severe pain, hyperemia and edema were dominantly seen in toxicity cases.

  19. Carbon Stocks in Harran Plain Soils, Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal SAKIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils are an important component of the global carbon cycle and can be net sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The goals of the present study were to analyze the soil organic carbon (SOC and soil inorganic carbon (SIC content of Harran Plain soil in Sanliurfa, Turkey, part of the Southeast Anatolia region (SAR, and to estimate carbon stocks (CSs in soil series that are representative of arid and semiarid lands. To this end, soil samples were collected from 16 profiles in the Harran Plain at depths of 100, 120, and 160 cm of the genetic horizons, and the SOC stocks in the three soil depths were estimated. The carbon stock was 56.41 Tg of C in the 0-100 cm layer, 67.80 Tg of C in the 0-120 cm layer and 87.91 Tg of C in the 0-160 cm layer. For the three soil depths 100, 120, and 160 cm, the SOC content ranged from 6.33 to 11.04, 7.11 to 11.98 and 8.72 to 16.53 kg of C m-2, respectively, and the soil inorganic carbon content ranged from 8.83 to 19.26, 11.00 to 23.34 and 14.82 to 32.64 kg of C m-2, respectively.

  20. Nuclear environment in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has had an average annual GNP growth rate of 6% between 1990 and 1993. In 1993 Turkey's GNP reached 173 billion US dollars while maintaining a 7.6% growth rate, and the per capita income reached 2,883 dollars In 1993 the GNP consisted of 15% agricultural sector, 25% industrial sector and 60% services sector. The agricultural sector has grown very slowly and as a result its share has decreased from 30.7% in 1970. On the other hand, the shares of industrial and service sectors have increased rapidly as the national income has grown. In the next 10 years Turkey is expected to achieve a annual growth rate between 4% and 7% based on the performance of economy over the past 40 years. According to the analysis of the Turkish Industry, the investment in the industrial sector between now and the year 2010 is expected to reach 230 billion US dollar. In order to achieve this goal an additional investment of 50 US billion dollars in the electricity generation sector will be needed between 1990 and 2005. Turkey's energy resources are limited. For this reason, energy shall always be a limited commodity, dependency on imported energy resources shall seriously increase to great proportions. Therefore, nuclear energy is considered as an alternative resource to meet the long term energy requirements of the country

  1. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  2. Media in Contemporary Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a reality that media play very substantial role in the production and social distribution of knowledge. İn addition to that, mass media provides the greatest communication opportunities to the people. Also, contemporary media provides very distinctive weapons to obtain power, wealth and prestige in the society. This study aims to analyse contemporary Turkish media. Turkey is one of the most rapidly developing and urbanising countries in the world. Parallel to this rapid development and urbanisation, Turkey has lived through a very important media revolution through out the 1990s. Several international and hundreds of local and national television channels, and more than a thousand radio stations have been broadcasting in contemporary Turkey. As in some other countries, the media are predominantly owned and controlled either by large business groups or the state who dominate economic and political power in Turkey. The Turkish media are financially dependent not only on the state but also on the private entrepreneurs who are the owners of  large scale capital

  3. 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  4. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  5. 2002 Turkey Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report includes developments and variations in energy sector of Turkey in 2002. In addition This report also includes activities and statistics in all the energy sector of our country in 2002. Energy Report hadn't been published in last two years due to some technique reasons

  6. Turkey's Basic Education Programme

    OpenAIRE

    A. Remzi Sezgin

    2000-01-01

    In August 1997, the Government of Turkey greatly increased its efforts to implement eight-year obligatory education, through parliamentary approval of Law No. 4306 for Basic Education. The law mobilises significant resources for a major investment in school facilities through earmarked taxes, establishes a timetable for the Basic Education Programme and streamlines procedures to allow for swift action and implementation.

  7. Bipolar Disorder in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kadri Gultekin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of studies related with bipolar disorder in Turkey did not reveal an epidemiologically qualified field study. Most of the studies are hospital based or clinical studies which did not include a systematical scanning and did not aim to collect any epidemiological data and transfer information to health authorities. The generalizability of these studies to our community is far from being valid and reliable. On the other hand, a profile which will be created by reviewing the findings of these studies performed in various regions of Turkey will have a contribution to knowing the and ldquo;unique to us and rdquo; features of bipolar disorder and determining cultural risk factors. All this information can constitute a basis for formation and development of public mental health services related with bipolar disorder. In Turkey, the need for epidemiologically significant, polycentric, public sampled studies with broad participation is indispensable. Although our psychiatric epidemiology and clinical studies include necessary scientific basis, they are not powerful enough to evaluate the authentic and progressional relations such as rapid urbanization and immigration. The aim of this review is to evaluate and discuss prominent epidemiological findings, deficiencies and possibile future activities related with studies conducted in Turkey about bipolar disorder.. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 199-209

  8. Turkey Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2012-01-01

    Although Turkey experienced prosperous growth during the early and mid-2000s, similar success could not be achieved in increasing the employment rate. The Turkish economy, which had already started to slow down in 2007, was severely affected by the global economic crisis in 2008, and the global financial turmoil led to a sharp contraction starting in the last quarter of 2008. The Recovery ...

  9. Special Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  10. The "Turkey Buzzard" glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

    1923-01-01

    The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

  11. A Study on the Determination of the Routes of Trekking in Anatolia in the Frame of Nature Based Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arslan; Kiper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Anatolia is rich in both natural and cultural source values due to its geografical location where various civilizations were founded in thousands of years. In this concept, many types of tourism are hosted one of which is a type depended on nature. This paper includes a model of determination of new routes of trekking which will alternate the existy ones in Anatolia in the context of nature tourism. The case is the Safranbolu, Yörükköyü which is located on the Silk Road and announced as World...

  12. CRITICAL THINKING TENDENCIES OF THE STUDENT-TEACHERS WHO ATTEND TO THE UNIVERSITIES OF THE EASTERN ANATOLIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    SEMERCİ, Nuriye

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study to determine critical thinking tendencies of the student-teachers who attend to the Universities of the Eastern Anatolia Region. Survey method was used in this research. Population of the study is senior class student-teachers who attend education departments of the universities in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Sample is 1086 senior class student-teachers who attend to the education faculty of the A?ry Ybrahim Çeçen, Erzincan, Fyrat, Ynönü ve Kafkas Universities. The dat...

  13. Abrupt climate variability of eastern Anatolia vegetation during the last glacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pickarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analyses of the Lake Van pollen and stable oxygen isotope record allow the identification of millennial-scale vegetation and environmental changes in eastern Anatolia throughout the last glacial. The climate within the last glacial period (∼75–15 ka BP was cold and dry, with low arboreal pollen (AP levels. The driest and coldest period corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 2 (∼28–14.5 ka BP dominated by the highest values of xerophytic steppe vegetation. Our high-resolution multi proxy record shows rapid expansions and contractions that mimic the stadial-interstadial pattern of the Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO events as recorded in the Greenland ice cores, and thus, provide a linkage to North Atlantic climate oscillations. Periods of reduced moisture availability characterized at Lake Van by enhanced xerophytic species correlates well with increase in ice-rafted debris (IRD and a decrease of sea surface temperature (SST in the North Atlantic. Furthermore, comparison with the marine realm reveals that the complex atmosphere–ocean interaction can be recognized by the strength and position of the westerlies in eastern Anatolia. Influenced by rough topography at Lake Van, the expansion of temperate species (e.g. deciduous Quercus was stronger during interstadials DO 19, 17–16, 14, 12 and 8. However, Heinrich events (HE, characterized by highest concentrations of ice-rafted debris in marine sediments, are identified in eastern Anatolia by AP values not lower and high steppe components not more abundant than during DO stadials. In addition, this work is a first attempt to establish a continuous microscopic charcoal record over the last glacial in the Near East, which documents an initial immediate response to millennial-scale climate and environmental variability and enables the shed light on the history of fire activity during the last glacial.

  14. Academic Procrastination and Motivation of Adolescents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Kuzucu, Elcin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a study of academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 508 adolescents from a general secondary school in central Turkey. Girls reported higher levels of self-efficacy for self-regulation and predicted higher Turkish grades than boys, but there was no difference in levels of procrastination. Academic…

  15. Gross α-particle activities in the ground waters in Western Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to present data on gross α-particle activity, pH and conductivity in the ground waters in Western Anatolia. The gross α-particle activities in 27 ground water samples were determined by radiochemical carrier-precipitation methods. The gross α-particle activities of water samples were measured by using a ZnS (Ag) detector system. Measureable α-particle activity is present in all ground water samples, with one ground water sample having a gross α-particle activity > 0.55 Bq/L. (Author)

  16. Gross {alpha}-particle activities in the ground waters in Western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyil, S.; Erees, F.S.; Olmez, S. [Ege Universitesi, Izmir (Turkey)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to present data on gross {alpha}-particle activity, pH and conductivity in the ground waters in Western Anatolia. The gross {alpha}-particle activities in 27 ground water samples were determined by radiochemical carrier-precipitation methods. The gross {alpha}-particle activities of water samples were measured by using a ZnS (Ag) detector system. Measureable {alpha}-particle activity is present in all ground water samples, with one ground water sample having a gross {alpha}-particle activity > 0.55 Bq/L. (Author).

  17. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Özel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Turkey is one of seismogenic countries with destructive earthquakes. In Turkey, the 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian fault. This fault is crossing the Marmara sea. In this SATREPS project, Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake in the Marmara will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction etc. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures in each country. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches in this SATREPS project. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, This project is composed of four research groups. 1) The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey. Finally, these results and knowledges will be applied to Japanese disaster mitigation researches and disaster educations. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS

  18. Fire Fighting Organization and Its Efficacy Problem in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Ömer; ANBARLI BOZATAY, Şeniz

    2015-01-01

    Fire fighting which used to be performed by volunteers thanks to the efforts of citizens in the Ottoman Empire has been organized in various ways from the beginning of the 18th century onwards, when the first fire fighting organization was established. Fire fighting services offered by local and central governments across the world is de-centralized in Turkey, in other words conducted by local administrations. An effective fire fighting service directly affecting the safety of those who make ...

  19. France/Japan/Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to sustain its steady economic growth Turkey wishes to build 3 nuclear power plants in the next future. In 2010 an agreement was signed with Russia to build the first one on the Akkuyu site in the south region. In last may an agreement was signed between Turkey and Japan to open exclusive trade talks for the construction of a second nuclear power plant that will be localized near the Black sea 320 km away from Ankara. This plant will home 4 reactors probably of the ATMEA1 type, provided by Atmea, the co-enterprise between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and Areva. Turk authorities have justified this choice by highlighted the Japanese know-how concerning resistance to earthquakes and the technological quality of Areva. (A.C.)

  20. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  1. Diet and prey selection of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 population in Lake Eğirdir (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yağci M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet and prey selection of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L., 1758 were assessed by determining the frequency of occurrence, numeric and weight percentages, and the index of relative importance (IRI% between January 2010 and December 2010 in Lake Eğirdir, Turkey. Pearre’s index was used to estimate diet selectivity, while the Schoener Overlap Index was utilized to compare diets. The stomach contents of 241 S. lucioperca were analyzed. Pikeperch diet included prey fish, insects and other organisms. The diet was predominantly fish, consisting of Atherina boyeri, Knipowitschia caucasica, Aphanius anatoliae, Seminemacheilus ispartensis and Carassius gibelio. A. boyeri was the most abundant prey fish in the lake; it was a positively selected food item (V= 0.130, X2= 3.359, p> 0.05 and was not statistically significant. C. gibelio also inhabits the lake, but was not preferred by pikeperch (V=0.134, X2= 3.582, p> 0.05. In addition, A. anatoliae (V=-0.223, X2=9.977, p50 cm in length pikeperch. Cannibalism was not evident during a decade, due to there being enough food for pikeperch in the lake.

  2. Ordovician graptolites from the basal part of the Palaeozoic transgressive sequence in the Karadere area, Zonguldak Terrane, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cemal Göncüoglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Karadere area to the east of Safranbolu in NW Anatolia is one of the very few localities in Turkey where the contact between the Cadomian basement and the Lower Palaeozoic transgressive succession is well exposed. The Ordovician graptolite Rhabdinopora flabelliformis (Eichwald ssp. was found in the basal part of the Bakacak Formation, indicating an Early to early Late Tremadocian age for the beginning of the Palaeozoic transgression in the Zonguldak terrane. A few metres above this occurrence, another horizon contains Paradelograptus cf. antiquus (T. S. Hall, which mainly ranges into the Late Tremadocian. Higher up in the Ordovician succession, a new graptolite bed confirms an early Darriwilian (Dw1 age for the middle part of the Karadere Formation with the occurrence of the biozonal index Levisograptus austrodentatus (Harris & Keble and the first record of Tetragraptus cor (Strandmark in the area. The palaeobiogeographic distribution of these Karadere fossils is in agreement with a peri-Gondwanan affinity of the Zonguldak Terrane of the Pontides, NW Anatolia, during the Early–Middle Ordovician.

  3. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

  4. Poverty trends in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Șeker, Sirma Demir; Jenkins, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence about poverty trends in Turkey between 2003 and 2011 and the factors accounting for them. We give particular attention to issues of statistical inference, and the choice of the poverty line and the poverty measure. Our robust conclusion is that absolute poverty declined rapidly between 2003 and 2008 but fell only slightly between 2008 and 2011. Changes in relative poverty were negligible throughout. Using poverty decomposition methods, we argue that the rate o...

  5. Wind energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanagasioglu, Mehmet [Interwind Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-01-01

    Wind and wind energy has always played an important role in the historical and economical development of Asia Minor and the geographical area covered by the Republic of Turkey today. The ancient city of Troia probably became rich with harbor fees from commercial vessels, which could not sail up the Dardanelles because of strong north-easterly winds and swift currents. As early as 1389 AC wind mills were already dominant landmarks and found their way even into naval maps. In 1940s wind mills ground corn, pumped water to fields and even powered first radio sets at the Anatolian country side. Like elsewhere, with the onsets of oil era and construction of large hydroelectric and fossil fuel power plants this renewable energy sources was forgotten in Turkey until recently. Today there is a serious intention on part of Turkish authorities to promote wind energy. The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources approved the first B.O.T. wind park with 12 x 600 kW turbines in December 1997 and the contract text was initialled on April 3, 1998. By the time we present this paper this wind park should be in operation along with the first Autoproducer wind park with 3 x 500 kW turbines, which was connected to the grid on February 20, 1998. Efforts to include wind energy also in the B.O.O. Law are also continuing. We at Interwind estimate the usable wind energy potential in Turkey, at around 8,000 MW. However, how much of this potential can be utilised in the near future will depend on three factors; 1) Definition of the specific place of renewable energy sources in the overall energy politics of Turkey. 2) Reinforcement of infrastructure of high wind locations as a matter of priority. 3) Revision of legal frame work for independent power producers to address the realities of the present and demands of the future. (Author)

  6. Turkey's globalizing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elitok, Secil Pacaci; Straubhaar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has been a catalyst for Turkish economic relations with its neighbors. Turkey moved from the periphery to the center of a region that is transforming politically, socially and economically very fast. It is now surrounded by 13 sovereign nation states, which are more or less open to international trade and factor movements. All these new nation states have become potential partners for all kinds of economic activities. Due to their proximity, they are easily accessible ...

  7. Turkey Priorities Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2013-01-01

    As a continuation of the 2013 SIGMA assessments and as part of a longer-term programme of work, SIGMA has identified country priorities for public administration reform (PAR) for Turkey. Priorities cover the overall PAR needs of the country, including areas which were not covered by the assessments. Priorities in areas outside the scope of SIGMA assessments are based on other analytical sources and SIGMA’s practical experience of working with the country. SIGMA proposes priority 2020 targets ...

  8. Peasantry of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Çaya

    2015-01-01

    Turkey was considered a traditional agrarian state until recent times on one hand. But on the other hand, the country with her young population and under new influences is undergoing fast transformations in the direction of urbanization. The roots embedded in traditions; in any case; continue to operate, sometimes openly and sometimes implicitly and come to surface whenever the occasion presents itself. The verbal peasant culture is rich. The Peasant origins of the country must be well unders...

  9. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  10. Animal Production in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARICA, Şenay; Ulutaş, Zafer; ŞAHİN, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Animal sector in Turkey has changed considerably in the last few years. Although the most significant advancements have occurred in the poultry sector, the cattle and small ruminants sector could not achieve similar improvements. Reasons of the depression in the cattle and small ruminants sector are the lack of breeding animal materials and high quality feed sources, insufficient disease control, disorganized and small size of the animal farms, lack of infrastructure, poor education levels of...

  11. Turkey : Gas Sector Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to assist policymakers by proposing a pragmatic and flexible program of change which will enable Turkey to develop a modernized gas market structure. The note is supportive of the objectives of the natural gas market law and does not call for fundamental changes in it. Rather, it suggests some modification of the law's present rigidities. The context for the not...

  12. Sociology Education in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Yücel

    2011-01-01

    Sociology as a discipline followed by Ottoman intellectuals after 1890s. It has entered in university programs in 1914 and then followed a different pathway. After 1980s the number of sociology departments increased very fast while it was under 10. With the high increasing rates caught in last years this number reached 58. With the 13 Social Science High School the importance of Sociology raised in Turkey. In this paper, the phases and changes in sociology education will be discussed especial...

  13. The 1994 currency crisis in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Celasun, Oya

    1998-01-01

    As a result of Turkey's currency crisis in 1994, output fell 6 percent, inflation rose to three-digit levels, the Central Bank lost half of its reserves, and the exchange rate (against the US dollar) depreciated by more than half in the first three months of the year. The author presents stylized facts associated with the government's debt-financing mechanisms and other relevant macroeconomic variables to show the system's inherent fragility at the time of the crisis and to clarify the extent...

  14. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  16. Studies of ecomorphological variations of the European hare (Lepus europaeus in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirbaş Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hares (Lepus spp. are widely distributed across the globe and are adapted to diverse climatic conditions. In order to study the ecomorphological variations of hares from Turkey, the body and cranial measurements and body weight, as well as coat color types, of 138 hares collected from all over Turkey between 2006 and 2012, were examined. Statistically significant differences between regional samples (p <0.05, ANOVA only in terms of body weight and hindfoot length were found; however, there were a good number of external phenotypes, particularly in terms of coat color variants of the hare specimens. Furthermore, populations had similar variations in terms of morphometric measurement, body weight and coat coloration between different geographical regions. Turkish hares did not exhibit clinal variations from south to north in body and cranial measurements depending on the mean annual temperatures and precipitation. Therefore, it was assumed that all of these variations might be a polymorphism related to the local adaptations and high level of admixture of gene pools in Anatolia.

  17. Turkey gets closer to European Union via energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is getting closer to the European Union, however, its European Union (EU) accession is still not realistic. The chances of Turkey have been improved by is its strengthening position with regard to EU energy and the active support of the Union. The EU is looking for ways of importing oil and gas from the Near East and the Caspian Sea with the aim of diversifying energy imports and decreasing dependency on Russia. Turkey is a natural crossroads between Europe and Asia and is therefore an ideal alternative to the current transport routes. The country is situated close to huge oil and gas deposits. Its neighbours own 72% of all the proven oil deposits and 73% of oil and gas. The new oil and gas pipelines also create competition to the traditional Central and European transit countries An east-west energy corridor that will connect central Asian and Caucasian fuel deposits with Europe has been referred to as the Silk Route of the 21st century. Turkey's importance as an European-Asian energy junction grew even further after the Prime Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan and the Presidents of Azerbaijan and of Georgia Ilham Aliyev and Mikhail Saakashvili and the Kazakh Prime Minister Daniyal Akhmetov ceremonially opened a new oil pipeline Baku - Tbilisi - Ceyhan (BTC). This pipeline, considered to be a diplomatic victory for the USA, transports Azerbaijani oil via Georgia to Ceyhan, Turkey where a modern oil terminal has been built. From there tankers can transport the Caspian oil all over the world. (author)

  18. Water resources development in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bulent Acma

    2010-01-01

    The Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP),one of the most important projects for developing remarkable natural resources of the world,is accepted as a change for getting benefit from rich water and agricultural resources of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.The GAP Project has been considered as a regional development projects through years,but the dimensions of sustainability,protection of environment and participatory have been attached to the master of the project in recent years.When the GAP Project is completed,the Upper Mesopotomia,the centers of many civilisation,will re-again its importance as it had in the ancient times,and will be alive a center of civilisation.Moreover,when the problem of water shortage and water supplies in the world for the future is kept in mind,the importance of Southeastern Anatolia's water supplies will be doubled.For this reason,the GAP Project,developed by depending on water and natural resources of the region,will have an important place in the world.The aim of this study is to introduce the region with rich natural resources and the GAP Project.For this reason,firstly,the natural potential of the region will be introduced.Second,the GAP Project will be presented in details.In the third stage,the projects being processed for protecting the natural sources and environment will be analyzed.In the last stage,strategies and policies to develop and to protect the natural resources of the region in short,mid,and long terms will be proposed.

  19. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  20. Evaluation by Integrated AHP and TOPSIS Method of Logistics Performance in Turkey’s Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Eyüp Gergin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation by the logistics performance of the countries/regions/cities and making necessary improvements has great importance according to the evaluation. The aim of this study is to rank regions in Turkey by logistics performances. For this purpose, the weighting of the criteria have been determined using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Then, the logistics performances of the regions in Turkey are evaluated through TOPSIS method. The order of the regions is listed Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean, Black sea, Central Anatolia, South-eastern Anatolia and lastly Eastern Anatolia Regions, respectively.

  1. From hammer and sickle to the tespih?: religion in the Kurdish movement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Emre; Sahin, Emre

    2013-01-01

    Kurdish rebellions have generally had religious tones and motives except for the most recent one: the PKK. As the central actor of the Kurdish movement in Turkey, the PKK was set up as a political party in 1978 and began its armed resistance against the Republic of Turkey in 1984. In its earlier years, the PKK was a secular organization that was critical towards Islam. Islamic motives and Muslim Kurds have become visible within the Kurdish movement in Turkey over the past decade. How can we m...

  2. GAP-Southeastern Anatolia Project : a cooperation or a conflict factor in the Turco-Iraqi and Turco-Syrian relations?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    GAP - SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA PROJECT, A COOPERATION OR A CONFLICT FACTOR IN THE TURCO-IRAQI AND TURCO-SYRIAN RELATIONS: Water is one of the most significant, politicized and conflict ridden issues in the Middle East. According to some researchers the 21. century will be the epoch of water wars. On the other hand, it is claimed that because of its essential character for the life, water might force states (even the enemies) to cooperate. Southeastern Anatolia is one of the seven...

  3. SPIDERS (ARANEI NEW TO THE FAUNA OF TURKEY. 8. NEW RECORDS OF HAHNIIDAE AND DICTYNIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahşen S. KAYA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available New records are presented for a number of species collected from central and north-western parts of Turkey. Five species and one genus represent new records for Turkey (3 species in Hahniidae and 2species and one genus in Dictynidae: Hahnia candida Simon, 1875, H. helveola Simon, 1875, H.nava (Blackwall, 1841, Scotolathys simplex Simon, 1884 and Nigma puella (Simon, 1870. Notes on distribution and habitat preferences of the species are provided and briefly discussed.

  4. Tuberculous meningits in adults in Turkey: Epidemiology, diagnosis, clinic and laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study was performed to assess the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinic, and laboratory of the patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in a multicentral study. The medical records of adult cases with TBM treated at 12 university hospitals throughout Turkey, between 1985 and 1998 were reviewed using a standardized protocol. The diagnosis of TMB was established with the clinical and laboratory findings and/or microbiological confirmation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The non-microbiologically confirmed cases were diagnosed with five diagnostic sub-criteria which CSF findings, radiological findings, extra-neural tuberculosis, epidemiological findings and response to antituberculous therapy. A total of 469 patients were included in this study. Majority of the patients were from Southeast Anatolia (164 patients, 35.0%) and (108 patients, 23.0%) from East Anatolia regions. There was a close contact with a tuberculous patient in 88 of 341 patients (25.8%) and with a tuberculous family member in 53 of 288 patients (18.4%). BCG scar was positive in 161 of 392 patients (41.1%). Tuberculin skin test was done in 233 patients and was found to be negative in 75. Totally 115 patients died (24.5%) of whom 23 died in 24 hour after admittance. The diagnosis was confirmed with clinical findings and CSF culture and/or Ziehl-Nelson staining in 88 patients (18.8%). Besides clinical criteria, there were three or more diagnostic sub-criteria in 252 cases (53.7%), two diagnostic sub-criteria in 99 cases (21.1%), and any diagnostic sub-criteria in 30 patients (6.4%). Since TBM is a very critical disease, early diagnosis and treatment may reduce fatal outcome and morbidity

  5. Pollen analysis of coal-bearing Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Seyitomer basin (Kutahya), western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz-Isik, N. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The late Early-Middle Miocene sequences of the Seyitomer Basin (western Anatolia) were palynologically investigated. Fifty-five taxa belonging to seven gymnospermous and 48 angiospermous pollen genera were identified in the 19 productive samples. Two pollen zones were recognised based on the changing abundance of individual tree taxa. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of Pinus and Cedrus. Zone 2 is characterized by predominance of deciduous Quercus and evergreen Quercus and a marked reduction in representation of Taxodiaceae. The differences in the pollen spectra between Zone 1 and Zone 2 may reflect the global Middle Miocene cooling. These results are largely comparable to pollen data derived from the neighbouring areas. The vegetation of the Seyitomer Basin was dominated by trees. This palynological analysis reveals the existence of a swamp-forest developed in a subtropical to warm-temperate humid climate.

  6. The Evolution of Open Space From Antiquity to Present in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sonmez Turel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concept is as old as the existence of the human being on the world and the man whois always in interaction with his environs had a tendency on forming/changing it continuously due to hisrequirements. The environmental formation progress firstly had begun by sustaining the vital activities whilestruggling against the nature and after discovering the necessity of taking shelter in somewhere, thisformation had become to an organic condition. This process which had begun with creating a sheltered placein the beginning, had consigned the man to think his home by its environment. This situation shall becharactarized as the appearance of open space concept and also giving new meanings to open spaces byhuman being.This study, in which putting over the evoluation of open spaces beginning with household-courtyardgardentrio, the bases of the modern urban places of now in Anatolia had been aimed, is also important forknowing the historical development of open space concept.

  7. Detection of Lineaments in Denizli Basin of Western Anatolia Region Using Bouguer Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinoğlu, Figen F.; Sari, Murat; Aydin, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the geostructural boundaries of the eastern part of Western Anatolia. To achieve this, three methods, horizontal gradient, analytic signal, and tilt angle, were used. With the application of each method to the Bouguer gravity data, the common lineaments were determined using maximum values of the horizontal gradient, analytic signal maps, and zero contours of the tilt angle maps. The basement topography was also produced using the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Then, the produced lineaments were compared with the active fault map of the region. The results suggested that although a good agreement between the current work and earlier work exists, the new four lineament regions were also detected. We concluded that this work will lead to better understanding of Anatolian geostructural and its impact on the larger scale geological processes.

  8. Monetary policy rules in practice: Re-examining the case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanov, Mübariz; Omay, Tolga

    2008-07-01

    This paper investigates possible asymmetries in the monetary policy reaction function of the Central Bank of Republic of Turkey over the business cycles. It is found that the bank reacted more aggressively towards output stabilisation during recessions than expansions. The empirical evidence suggests that the inflation targeting policy of the Turkish Central Bank was accommodative rather than stabilising. Furthermore, it is found that although the Central Bank of Republic of Turkey responded to foreign reserves, real exchange rates and short-term capital inflows both in expansion and recession periods, the bank targeted money growth, budget deficits, and net foreign assets only in expansion periods.

  9. Recent activity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  10. Human cyclosporiosis in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S(u)leyman Yazar; Saban Yalcln; izzet Sahin

    2004-01-01

    Six patients infected with Cyclospora cayetanensis who sought medical care at three different hospitals in Turkey are herein presented. Four patients were male and the others were female and their ages ranged from 7 to 62 years. The first patient was HIV-positive and presented with watery diarrhea with a frequency of up to 18 times a day for more than ten months and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 1996.The second patient was also HIV positive and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 2000. The third patient was an acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patient and diagnosed in Istanbul, 2000. The fourth patient was idiopathic hepatic cirrhosis complaining of diarrhea and weakness and diagnosed in Kayseri, 2001. The fifth and sixth patients were immunocompetent patients complaining of diarrhea and diagnosed in Izmir and Kayseri, 2002. Diarrhea occurring from one to ten times a day continued for 7 to 70 d in the last 5 patients. Treatment with a trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole compound was done for all patients. Both symptomatic and parasitologic improvements were quickly observed. In summary, C. cayetanensis infection is rare in Turkey and most patients infected with this pathogen tend to be immunosuppressive individuals at present.

  11. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  12. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  13. Institutional Repository Movement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akbayrak, Emre Hasan; Bayram, Özlem; Coşkun, Cem; Holt, İlkay; Karasözen, Bülent; Tonta, Yaşar

    2006-01-01

    ANKOS (The Anatolian University Libraries Consortium) established Open Access and the Institutional Repositories Working Group (OAIRWG) in order to raise awareness on Open Access (OA) and Institutional Repositories (IRs) among information professionals in Turkey. Ankara University is one of the first open access initiatives in Turkey. It has been involved in ANKOS since 2001, expressing a strong interest from the beginning. Over seven hundred and fifty scientific papers produced by faculty...

  14. Camel Wrestling Culture in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In Turkish History which lasted several thousand years, camels were always important in their life. In the past camels were used as transport, pack, ride, war, food, and sport animal by Turks. After industrialization and modernization since 20th century, camel lost their importance and nowadays they are only a sport and tourism material in Turkey. Hence the camel population in Turkey decreased in number of about 1.000 recently. The camel population is mostly used for camel wrestling events in...

  15. Deindustrialisation and re-industrialisation in the Middle East: Reflections on the cotton industry in Egypt and western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Panza

    2012-01-01

    This paper undertakes an investigation of the process of decline and rebirth of textile manufacturing in two Middle Eastern regions, Egypt and western Anatolia during the first wave of globalisation (1850-1914). Through the application of the “Dutch Disease” model we explore the linkages between terms of trade and industrialisation. These are further related to the evolution of price transmission between domestic and global raw cotton markets. We find that different levels of market integrati...

  16. Resettlement of the Circassians and Nogay Immigration in Anatolia in 19th Century And Çankırı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip ÇAĞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 19th century was a disaster year for the Ottoman State. The causes and consequences of wars in this century has been a great destruction. The migrations were the most important of this destruction. Migrations in the Balkans and the Caucasus have brought a huge housing problem. In order to overcome these difficulties immigrants quickly directed into the interior of Anatolia by Ottoman administration. In this study will focus on in particular Cankiri resettlements of Nogai immigrants which mentioned above.

  17. Assessment of environmental and engineering geological problems for the possible re-use of an abandoned rock-hewn settlement in Urgüp (Cappadocia), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusay, Resat; Gokceoglu, Candan; Topal, Tamer; Sonmez, Harun; Tuncay, Ergün; Erguler, Zeynal Abiddin; Kasmer, Ozgu

    2006-07-01

    The Cappadocia Region of Central Anatolia having a very distinct culture is one of the attractive touristic sites of Turkey due to its spectacular and unique landforms and historical heritages. In this region, the structures carved into thick to massive tuffs survived and kept their original integrity for a number of centuries. Environmental and anthropological factors at the Cappadocia Region have been the main reasons for extensive subsurface and multi-purpose use in the past and present. In addition, thermal insulation properties of the tuffs make these rocks suitable for use in underground openings. The Kayakapi Neighborhood, located in the town of Urgüp, is one of the famous historical sites. This site is situated within the “Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia” which was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1985. In order to develop the tourism potential of this abandoned site while preserving its cultural and natural values, a natural environmental conservation and revitalization project was initiated. As an integral part of this project, in this study, environmental and engineering geological problems, including rock fall potential and stability of about 1,200 rock-hewn structures, were investigated and an inventory was prepared for the possible re-use of the underground openings and other structures at the site, and remedial measures were recommended. The assessments based on observations and experimental studies indicated that the tuffs do not show significant changes both perpendicular and parallel to layering, and discontinuities and rock weathering seem to be more important factors controlling the stability of rock-hewn structures. The major stability problems threatening the re-use of the openings are structurally-controlled block instabilities, overbreaks, and erosion and shearing of the pillars made of tuff. On the other hand, the area at the entrance of the site requires some protection measures such as the construction

  18. Long continental pollen record of the last ca. 500 ka in eastern Anatolia - First palynological results from Lake Van cores obtained in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickarski, N.; Heumann, G.; Litt, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Van is located in a climatically sensitive semiarid and tectonically active region in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. It is a key site to reconstruct terrestrial paleoecology and paleoclimate in the Near East during the Quaternary. Lake Van is the largest soda lake (surface area 3.570 km2) and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (volume 607 km3). The maximum water depth is 460 m and the maximum length is 130 km WSW-ENE. The present lake level is at an elevation of 1,646 m above mean sea level. The northern and eastern part of Lake Van is mainly characterized by steppe vegetation related to the so-called Irano-Turanian plant geographical territory. In contrast, some remnants of deciduous oak forests can be observed mainly in the Bitlis Massive, SW of the lake. We present preliminary palynological results of a long continental sedimentary record obtained during a coring campaign supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in summer 2010. The composite profile from the Ahlat Ridge, the most important site for paleoclimatological studies (total length of ca. 218 m), yields a continuous paleoclimate archive encompassing ca. 500.000 years. The record is partly characterized by annually laminated sediments. By using pollen analysis, several glacial and interglacial/ interstadial periods can be observed. The warm stages can be identified based on higher amounts of pollen from thermophilous trees such as deciduous oak. In addition to the current interglacial stage (MIS 1), pronounced warm phases coincide with past interglacials probably correlative to MIS 5, 7, 9 and 11 or 13. Cold stages are characterized by pollen types related to steppe plants such as Artemisia, chenopods and grasses. The glacial-interglacial cycles as reflected in the palynological data are in broad agreement with those of stable oxygen isotope analyses based on autigenic carbonate of the lacustrine sediments (bulk). Caused by the state of the art, more

  19. Machine-related farm injuries in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdur, Okhan; Ozkan, Seda; Durukan, Polat; Avsarogullari, Levent; Koyuncu, Murat; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Traumas connected with agricultural production can result in serious injuries and mortality. The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics of agricultural machines related work injury cases admitted to the Emergency Department, and to asses factors related to injury severity and hospital admission in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. All the cases presented related to injuries caused by work with agricultural machines between January 2006-November 2007 were included in the study. Information was collected concerning the demographic structures of the patients. Injury sites, injury types, and clinical features were recorded. Initial injury severity scores of all the cases were diagnosed at hospital admission. 91.9 percent of the cases were male. Mean age was 35.8 +- 17.0. The most common machine causing injuries was a tractor with 46 percent of cases, and all of these were fall traumas. 18.9 percent of the cases was considered as slight injury, 43.2 percent as moderate, and 37.9 percent as severe. Two male cases resulted in fatality. Our findings suggest that tractors are the most dangerous agricultural machines, and falls from tractors as the most common injury mechanism among machine-related injuries, especially for young people. In the rural areas of our country, Turkey, agricultural machines cause serious injuries that require hospitalization. PMID:20684481

  20. Geographical Distribution of Trout Farming in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Güven; Erbilen, Süheyla Üçışık

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aim...

  1. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Güven; Erbilen, Süheyla Üçışık

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aim...

  2. Islam and Religious Education in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Giuli Alasania; Nani Gelovani

    2011-01-01

    Modern Turkey – a member of NATO and a candidate for membership in the European Union - continues to struggle to find an appropriate balance between religion and state. Turkey offers an excellent case study for those seeking answers to the following questions: Can Islam and democracy coexist? Is Turkey a secular state, is religion separated from the state in Turkey - as it is said in its Constitution: "The Turkish State is a Republic" and is it "a democratic, secular and social state governed...

  3. Turkey. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from outbreaks in Turkey during 2008-2012

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Leyla; ŞEVİK, Murat; HASÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of sheep and goats and is endemic in all regions of Turkey. In this study, PPR virus infection was investigated by RT-PCR assay based on the fusion (F) gene in PPR-suspected sheep and goat samples. PPR virus RNA was detected in 65 small ruminants (51 sheep, 14 goats) from independent outbreaks during 2008-2012 in provinces in the central and Mediterranean regions and the central-west part of the Aegean region in Turkey. The virus ...

  5. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Anatolia propolis and their radical scavenging capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Selim; Ates, Burhan; Durmaz, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Ismet; Seckin, Turgay

    2011-07-01

    Propolis samples from important honey producing locations of Anatolia namely; Bingol (BG), Rize (RZ), Tekirdag (TK) and Van (VN), were evaluated for their antiradical capacities, total phenolic contents and individual phenolic compounds which was recovered by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Several extraction parameters of PLE such as; temperature, pressure, solvent type, extraction time and cell size were investigated for their effects on the extraction performances. The results showed that, 40 °C, 1500 psi, Ethanol:water:HCl; (70:25:5, v/v/v) containing 0.1% tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) as solvent, three extraction cycles within 15 min, and a cell size of 11 mL was the most favorable PLE operating conditions. Results of the tests performed to designate the success of the polyphenol analysis showed that the recovery was in the range of 97.2% and 99.7%. Major phenolic compounds in all samples were found to be gallocatechin (GCT), catechin (CT), epicatechin gallate (ECTG), caffeic acid (CA), chlorogenic acid (ChA), and myricetin (Myr). ChA level of BG propolis was 4.5, 3 and 23 times higher than that of RZ, TK and VN region, respectively. Antiradical tests showed that all propolis samples have superior antiradical capacities up to 500 mg Trolox equivalent activity per gram of extract. PMID:21530603

  7. PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN ZAGORJE TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Janječić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  8. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  9. Roadblocks to Turkey's EU Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Berežný, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the issue of relations between the EU and Turkey.The thesis was based on the questionnaire which was spread among the younger part of the Turkish population. As the research methods, the source research was used for theoretical part and inductive research for the questionnaire analysis. The first chapter deals with the accession process of the Turkey to the EU and its impact on the opinion of the younger part of the Turkish population. The next chapter concerns ...

  10. Healthcare in overview of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Uzak, Aslı Subasioglu; Karabulut, Yesim

    2010-12-01

    Turkey is one of the leading countries with its developing economy, high young population, and with its geopolitical location being an intersection between Asia and Europe. It is aimed at setting a good example for developed and developing countries with its health policy targets. We reported and discussed here the demographic data of Turkish population, the main aims of Ministry of Health, social security system and its scope and structure, health services, healthcare institutions and their infrastructures, human resources in health, health staff training and also outline of Turkish foreign policy. We mentioned predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine according to Turkey's healthcare approach. PMID:23199111

  11. Natural gas demand in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    On average, energy demand of Turkey is mounting by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. Among primary energy sources, natural gas is the fastest growing one in Turkey. Gas consumption started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters) in 1987 and reached approximately 35 bcm in 2007. Turkish natural gas usage is projected to further increase remarkably in coming years. The present paper focuses the characteristics of this demand and estimates short and long-run price and income elastici...

  12. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS, SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION SMES ON AN APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygusuzoğlu, Mehmet; ŞAŞA, KEMAL

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance is important and vital for big businesses as well as small and medium sized enterprises (SME). Executives can find low-cost resources by implementing fairness, transparency, accountability and responsibility principles in their companies and can grow rapidly in the sector in accordance with the cost advantage in hand. The biggest drawback of the SMEs is that they cannot use these advantages because they are mostly built up as Family Corporation. The firms in Turkey are mo...

  13. Irradiation of potatoes in Turkey. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary investigation was done on the economic feasibility of installing a 60Co facility in central Turkey for the irradiation of potatoes. The city selected for study was Nevsehir. Of the 4 million tonnes of potatoes produced in Turkey each year 38% comes from this region. The investment criteria used for assessing economic feasibility were the internal rate of return, net present value, benefit-cost ratio and payback period. The calculated total investment cost (capital plus operational costs) for the facility was US $2,397,615. Unit processing cost was estimated at US $11.05/t. The study showed that installation of a 60Co facility at Nevsehir would be financially viable if it operated 3000 h/a. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

  14. The Determinants and Implications of Financial Asset Holdings of Non-Financial Firms in Turkey : An Emprical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cafer Kaplan; Erdal Ozmen; Cihan Yalcin

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants and financial crowding out consequences of nonfinancial firms’ holdings of financial assets (FA) including government bonds and securities (GS) in Turkey using the firm level data compiled by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey over the 1990-2004 period. The salient features of the Turkish financial system with financial dollarisation and short maturity of financial contracts allowed the corporate sector to remain relatively liquid in spite of h...

  15. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  16. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey for Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Ozener

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  17. Metamorphic sole formation, emplacement and blueschist overprint: early obduction dynamics witnessed by W. Turkey ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Soret, Mathieu; Okay, Aral; Whitechurch, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Western Turkey, with a >200 km long-belt of unmetamorphosed ophiolite overlying continental lithosphere is one or even the largest obducted ophiolite on Earth and therefore a key example to study obduction and early subduction dynamics. All Western Turkish ophiolite fragments are considered as part of the same Neotethyan branch resulting of a long-lived continental subduction (or underthrusting). Synchronous (ca. ~ 93 Ma) metamorphic sole formation and preservation at the base of most of the Turkish ophiolite fragments support this single event and place a strong constraint on the age of subduction initiation. Metamorphic soles are indeed generally considered to have formed during the early and hot subduction zone at 25 ± 10 km depths and welded to the overriding oceanic lithosphere. In Western Turkey however (as for most places worldwide) a systematic study of the pressure-temperature conditions with modern thermobarometric tools is generally lacking, and fundamental mechanisms of formation or accretion to the upper plate are poorly (if at all) constrained. We herein reappraise Western Turkish metamorphic soles focusing on the following points and issues: (i) detailed structures of metamorphic sole and other subduction derived units, petrological evolution and refined pressure-temperature conditions; peak pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole were estimated using garnet, clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase as the peak paragenesis at 10.5 ± 2 kbar and 800 ± 50°C based on pseudosections using the Theriak/Domino package (ii) the rather unique (and enigmatic) blueschist facies overprint found in places was investigated in terms of structural position and pressure-temperature conditions. Conditions of overprint were estimated around 12 kbar and 425 °C from the presence of glaucophane, lawsonite, jadeite and garnet overgrowing the amphibolite-facies assemblage. This field-based study provides clues to mechanisms of metamorphic sole underplating

  18. Modeling solar radiation of Mediterranean region in Turkey by using fuzzy genetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the ability of FG (fuzzy genetic) approach in modeling solar radiation of seven cities from Mediterranean region of Anatolia, Turkey. Latitude, longitude, altitude and month of the year data from the Adana, K. Maras, Mersin, Antalya, Isparta, Burdur and Antakya cities are used as inputs to the FG model to estimate one month ahead solar radiation. FG model is compared with ANNs (artificial neural networks) and ANFIS (adaptive neruro fuzzzy inference system) models with respect to RMSE (root mean square errors), MAE (mean absolute errors) and determination coefficient (R2) statistics. Comparison results indicate that the FG model performs better than the ANN and ANFIS models. It is found that the FG model can be successfully used for estimating solar radiation by using latitude, longitude, altitude and month of the year information. FG model with RMSE = 6.29 MJ/m2, MAE = 4.69 MJ/m2 and R2 = 0.905 in the test stage was found to be superior to the optimal ANN model with RMSE = 7.17 MJ/m2, MAE = 5.29 MJ/m2 and R2 = 0.876 and ANFIS model with RMSE = 6.75 MJ/m2, MAE = 5.10 MJ/m2 and R2 = 0.892 in estimating solar radiation. - Highlights: • SR (Solar radiation) of seven cities from Mediterranean region of Turkey is predicted. • FG (Fuzzy genetic) models are developed for accurately estimation of SR. • The ability of the FG models used in the study is found to be satisfactory. • FG models are compared with commonly used ANNs (artificial neural networks). • FG models are found to perform better than the ANNs models

  19. Radon survey and soil gamma doses in primary schools of Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Aldemir, Kamuran

    2014-06-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in 42 primary schools located in Batman, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Indoor radon measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector-based radon dosimeters. The overall mean annual (222)Rn activity in the surveyed area was found to be 49 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 0.25 mSv). However, in one of the districts (Besiri) the maximum radon value turned out to be 307 Bq m(-3). The estimated annual effective doses are less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv). It is found that the radon concentration decreases with increasing floor number. The concentrations of natural and artificial radioisotopes were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples collected in close vicinity of the studied schools. The mean gamma activity concentrations in the soil samples were 31, 25, 329 and 12 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The radiological parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent were calculated. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values. PMID:24437644

  20. A debris avalanche at Süphan stratovolcano (Turkey) and implications for hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Yavuz; Akkaya, İsmail; Oyan, Vural; Kelfoun, Karim

    2016-02-01

    The Quaternary Süphan debris avalanche deposit is located in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The avalanche formed by the sector collapse of a major stratovolcano towards the north, possibly during a single catastrophic event. The deposit has an estimated volume of 4 km3 and ran out over 25 km to cover an area of approximately 200 km2. Products of the collapse are overlain by younger eruptive units from the Süphan volcano. We have tested the numerical code VolcFlow to first reproduce the emplacement of the Quaternary Süphan debris avalanche and then to develop a hazard assessment for potential future sector collapses and subsequent emplacement of debris avalanches and associated tsunami. The numerical model captures the main features of the propagation process, including travel distance, lateral spread, and run up. The best fit obtained for the existing flow has a constant retarding stress of 50 kPa and a collapse scar volume of 4 km3. Analysis of potential future collapse scenarios reveals that northern sector debris avalanches (up to 6 km3) could affect several towns. In the case of a sector collapse towards the south, a tsunami will reach the city of Van and several of the biggest towns on the southern shoreline of Lake Van. Cities most affected by the larger amplitude waves would be Van, Edremit, Gevaş, Tatvan, and, to a lesser extent, Erciş, with wave amplitudes (first waves after the onset of the collapse) between 8 and 10 m.

  1. Experience of a skeletal dysplasia registry in Turkey: a five-years retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Sukur, Eda Didem; Simsek-Kiper, Pelin Ozlem; Utine, Gülen Eda; Boduroglu, Koray; Alanay, Yasemin

    2015-09-01

    This study shares data on 417 patients with genetic disorders of skeleton including 10 fetal autopsies encountered in a 5-year period at a tertiary university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. We included patients with osteochondrodysplasias, excluding overgrowth syndromes, dysostoses, and craniofacial syndromes. When grouped according to the "International Skeletal Dysplasia Society 2010 classification" the most frequent group is "FGFR3 group" (achondroplasia). "Decreased bone density group" takes the second place, consistent with the literature. We also demonstrated, a relatively higher frequency of recessively inherited skeletal dysplasias when the diagnosis is an entity other than achondroplasia or osteogenesis imperfecta. The literature on the incidence of genetic disorders of skeleton from the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean is limited to fetal and neonatal autopsies or birth prevelance reports. The higher rate of consanguineous marriages which increases the frequency of autosomal recessive entities makes it difficult to apply data from other parts of the world. Total consanguinity rate among parents in our study was 53% and there were regional differences. The highest (79%) was among parents from South-east Anatolia. This study is the first broad retrospective analysis of genetic disorders of skeleton from our region. We aim to provide a descriptive source for future studies and discuss our findings in comparison to reports from other parts of the world. PMID:25931420

  2. Anti-HAV seropositivity in adult patients with HBsAg positive from various locations of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut ORTATATLI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to determine the rate of hepatitis A virus (HAV seropositivity in adult HBsAg (+ patients from various regions of Turkey.Method: 137 adult (≥20 age male patients admitted to Erzurum Mareşal Çakmak Military Hospital in 2009 who were previously diagnosed as HBsAg(+ were included. The subjects were not vaccinated for HAV. Serum samples were analyzed by EIA (enzyme immunassay using Abbott/AxSYM. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis of serological data.Results: The Anti-HAV IgG (+ rates was 83.2% in the study populations (114/137, 61.5% (8/13 for those from Marmara region, 83.3% (13/16 for Mediterranean region, 84.6% (22/26 for Mid-Anatolian region, 66.7% (8/12 for Blacksea region, 87.5% (21/24 for East Anatolian region, 94.1% (32/34 for Southeast-Anatolian region. According to our study, no significant difference was found between seven geographical regions due to HAV seropozitivity rates (χ2= 9.511, p=0.147. The seven geographical regions were classified two main grups as East-Southeast Anatolia and other regions. The percentage of anti-HAV positivity rate was significantly higher in East-Southeast Anatolia grup (91.4%; 53/58 comparedto other regions grup (77.2%; 61/79 (χ2= 4.803;p=0.028.Conclusion: The prevalance of Hepatitis A variesin different countries and even in different regionsof a specific country. Age, low socioeconomic leveland worse living conditions have been reportedas the most important risk factors in studies withhealthy individuals. In this study where subjects withHBsAg(+ were evaluated for anti-HAV positivity, anincrease in the risk was found as OR =3.13 times larger(95% confidence interval, 1.09-9.01 when especiallyliving conditions in East-Southeast Anatolia wascompared with other regions. It has been postulatedthat all patients monitored for chronic HBV infectionshould be assessed for anti-HAV IgG and negativeindividuals need to be vaccinated due to highermortality and more severe

  3. Investigation of sea-level changes and shelf break prograding sequences during the Late Quaternary offshore of Kusadasi (West Anatolia) and surroundings by high resolution seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Savas; Cifci, Gunay; Dondurur, Derman; Okay, Seda; Atgin, Orhan; Ozel, Ozkan; Mert Kucuk, Hilmi

    2016-04-01

    High Resolution multi-channel seismic reflection and Chirp data were collected by K. Piri Reis, research vessel of Dokuz Eylül University, in the central Aegean coast of the West Anatolia by research cruises carried out in 2005 and 2008, respectively. Submarine stratigraphic and structural features of Sıǧacık Gulf, Kuşadası Gulf and surroundings were investigated under this survey. The data were processed and interpreted in SeisLab, D.E.U. Marine Sciences and Technology seismic laboratory. Thirteen distinct unconformities can be traced below the study area that separate thirteen progradational stacked paleo-delta sequences (Lob1-Lob13) on seismic profiles following and cutting each other. As a result of comparison with the oxygen isotopic stages (δ18), these deltas (Lob1-L13) were interpreted that they have been deposited during the sea-level lowstands within Pleistocene glacial stages. In the study area the basement surface which observed as the lowest unconformity surface of the seismic sections was called 'Acoustic Basement'. This basement which traced approximately all of the seismic sections has generally quite wavy surface and underlain the upper seismic units. It was observed that these seismic units which terminated their formation in Pleistocene (Lob1-Lob13) and Holocene period were cut and uplifted by acoustic basement, like an intrusion. These type deformations were interpreted as a result of magmatic intrusion into these upper seismic units occurred in Late Pleistocene and Holocene period. Tectonic and structural interpretation was carried out to constitute the submarine active tectonic map of the study area by correlated active faults identified on seismic sections. Submarine active tectonic map and, basement topography and sediment thickness map were correlated together to present the relationship between tectonic deformation and stratigraphy.

  4. Natural and induced collapse and caprock dolines hazard, Karapinar, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doǧan, Uǧur; Yılmaz, Mutlu

    2010-05-01

    The number collapse and caprock dolines (locally known as obruk) has increased rapidly in recent years in the near of Karapınar, located in the semi-arid Konya Basin in the Central Anatolia. 19 dolines formed in the last 32 years (1977-2009), as a result of the collapse of conduit roofs in the Neogene lacustrine limestone in the Obruk Plateau and Karapınar Plain. Of these, 13 formed within the past 4 years (2006-2009). The Obruk Plateau takes its name from the presence of several hundred palaeo-dolines which formed as a result of natural process during the Quaternary. More recently, human activity has also induced the formation of new dolines, which present a risk to life and property. Changing agricultural patterns have led to the opening of thousands of wells in recent years, and increased water pumping currently exceeds the sustainable yield of the aquifer. Accordingly, the formation of dolines has triggered due to a combination of natural and human effect. The groundwater level has falling almost 24 m in the vicinity of Karapınar during the last 30 years. Legally-binding precautions must be taken to prevent further water table decline, in order to prevent potential dolines formations within the basin in coming years.

  5. A Study on the Soil-Plant Interactions of Some Cistus L. Species Distributed in West Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞLAR, Süleyman; Doğan, Yunus; MERT, Hasan Hüseyin

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim of examining the soil-plant interactions of Cistus creticus L. and Cistus salviifolius L. in West Anatolia. The soil analysis data showed that these plants grow in different kinds of soils with sandy-clayey-loam, clayey-loam and loamy texture. The soils in general are not saline but are moderately and slightly alkaline, being rich in nitrogen and having a low level of phosphorus and potassium. They are unaffected by the calcium carbonate content in so...

  6. C-Banded Karyotype and Nucleolar Organizer Regions (NORs) of Wild Boar, Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Atilla; İrfan ALBAYRAK

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports the karyotype, C-banding, and nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of 6 Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758) males from Anatolia. The karyotype of S. scrofa comprised (2n) 38 chromosomes, the number of chromosomal arms (FN) was 64, and the number of autosomal arms (FNa) was 60. C-positive regions appeared to be restricted to the centromeric regions of autosomes 1, and 13-18, and the entire long arm of the Y chromosome. Some autosomes had very slight C-bands. The X chromosome ap...

  7. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  8. The Educational System of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Studies (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Turkey from preschool to the university level is included in this booklet. A brief discussion of educational history stresses the significance of the placing of schools under control of the Ministry of Education in 1924 in an effort to promote national integration, and the importance of the adoption…

  9. Turkey : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Public procurement legislation in Turkey has not kept pace with the sweeping reforms undertaken in the national procurement systems of many other countries during the same period nor with the development of internationally recognized bodies of procurement legislation, such as those of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the European Union (EU) and the World Tra...

  10. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  11. Palynostratigraphic, palaeovegetational and palaeoclimatic investigations on the Miocene deposits in central Anatolia (Corurn region and Sivas basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Palynostratigraphy of the Neogene coal-bearing sediments in the Corum region and Sivas Basin has been determined, and three sporomorph associations have been defined. Sporomorph association A is described from the Samsun-Havza region and is of latest Burdigalian age. Sporomorph association B is described from the Corum region and Sivas Basin and is of early-middle Serravalian age. Sporomorph association C is described from the Sivas-Vasiltepe region and is of earliest Tortonjan age. Sporomorph association A indicates warm subtropical climatic conditions and the Coexistence Approach (CA) results are: mean annual temperature (MAT) 19 {sup o}C, mean annual coldest month (CMT) 9.75{sup o}C, mean annual warmest month (WMT) 27.2{sup o}C, mean annual precipitation (MAP) 1217-1322 mm, and a mean annual temperature range of (MART) 17.45 {sup o}C. Sporomorph association B characterizes a subtropical climatic condition, and the CA results indicate similar temperatures to those of the latest Burdigalian period. For the early-middle Serravalian age, the MAT values range between 18 and 19.15{sup o}C, the CMT values are between (-0.8)-10.6{sup o}C, and the WMT between 24.7-27.7{sup o}C, respectively. Sporomorph association C indicates a warm-temperate climate and the CA results are: MAT 19{sup o}C, CMT 9.4{sup o}C, WMT 27.7{sup o}C, MAP 1187-1574 mm, and MART 18.3 {sup o}C. Palaeovegetation of the Corum region and Sivas Basin characterizes a lacustrine environment surrounded by mountains from the latest Early to Middle Miocene. Open vegetation areas were widespread in earliest Tortonian time, and thus different from the palaeovegetation of the latest Early to Middle Miocene period.

  12. A survey on the factors causing delayed diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in southeastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Öner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This survey aims to elucidate patient and health system related factors leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in Southeastern Anatolia. Methods: Hundred patients admitted to Department of General Surgery at Dicle University between December 2012 and July 2014, and diagnosed with breast cancer in preceding 6 months were included in the survey after their consent. The survey has 4 chapters (patient and health system related factors, demographic data, and assessment of cancer stage and 25 questions. Results: Fifty-eight percent of patients visited a physician with a 3 months delay after realization of breast cancer symptoms. Only 8% of patients had regular check-ups. Nine percent of patients were suspicious of breast cancer due to the lesion in the breast. 86% of patients did not consider it to be a serious matter. Lack of female physicians cited by 2% as the reason for avoiding doctor’s visit. Seven percent cited lack of knowledge and 23% being scared. Seventy-seven percent were able to get a doctor’s appointment, 82% to get mammography, 78% underwent biopsy in a week. Women between the ages of 30-50 had higher concern about cancer (p<0.05. Women who were illiterate or housewives regarded doctor’s visitation as not a good experience (p<0.05. Conclusion: Patients’ age and literacy, and efficiency of health system may be contributing factors on the delay of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Cancer awareness should be increased and fear being diagnosed with cancer should be overcome in women between the ages of 30-50 to decrease the delay of diagnoses. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 375-381

  13. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  14. The Role of Multicultural Personality in Predicting University Adjustment of International Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagnici, Dilek Yelda

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how particular demographic and multicultural personality variables might predict university adjustment of international students in Turkey. One hundred and twenty-one international students from five geographical regions, including Middle Central Asia, the Balkans, the Middle East, the Kafkasia Region, and the Russian…

  15. PRODUCER COOPERATIVE FORMATION INTEREST OF MICHIGAN TURKEY GROWERS: SURVEY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Rahn, Allan P.; Martin, Laura L.

    1998-01-01

    In response to a crisis in the Michigan turkey industry, the Michigan turkey industry task force was created. The task force's role was to develop and disseminate information regarding the Michigan turkey industry.

  16. Cesium-137 activity in soil from an agricultural land in West Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the radiocesium derived from the accident at Chernobyl in 1986 deposited on the soil, this study presents experimental data on Cs-137 activity concentrations in soil samples taken from agricultural land of Aegean Region in Turkey in 1997 and 1998. The activity of Cs-137 for these soil samples was found in the range between 0.92±0.15 Bq/kg and 20.75±0.29 Bq/kg. The distribution of Cs-137 in the soil can differ, being dependent on soil properties

  17. A Study on the Determination of the Routes of Trekking in Anatolia in the Frame of Nature Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arslan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatolia is rich in both natural and cultural source values due to its geografical location where various civilizations were founded in thousands of years. In this concept, many types of tourism are hosted one of which is a type depended on nature. This paper includes a model of determination of new routes of trekking which will alternate the existy ones in Anatolia in the context of nature tourism. The case is the Safranbolu, Yörükköyü which is located on the Silk Road and announced as World Heritage with its architectural texture. Within this study; the answers of these questions: “Is it suitable to implicate the nature depended tourism to everywhere?” “What kind of places should be selected for tourism and how should the seperation be doen?” are searched. Within the study, places suitable for nature based tourism are designated by using SWOT analysis and the suitability analysis which is formed by specialist and literature based evaluation criteria. As the conclusion, different trekking routes for different purposes are designated for local people and the visitors and the suggestions are presented.

  18. Cyberbullying among Middle School Students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Salı, Jale Balaban; Başak, Bircan Ergün; Akca, Emel Baştürk

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of internet and social network use, it has been observed that cyberbullying among adolescents has risen and an increasingly greater number of studies have focused on this concept in Turkey. But when studies on cyberbullying in Turkey are searched, it is seen that inclusive cyberbullying research on adolescents has not yet been done. Therefore, this research aims to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying among adolescents in Turkey. This research was carried out with the par...

  19. On the Wind Energy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Today, clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey is an energy importing count...

  20. Organic Poultry in Turkey Poultry Industry

    OpenAIRE

    YENILMEZ, Fatma; URUK, Emine

    2014-01-01

    The present study is prepared to focus on the organic poultry production in Turkey poultry industry. Poultry industry has used the latest technology and has a strategical importance for supplying animal protein in Turkey. Organic poultry has iniated without official legislation in 1985. In recent years, organic poultry production industry has become a popular alternative to the conventional production of egg and meat with the awareness of consumers in Turkey. According to the data of 2013 pub...

  1. Turkey like a candidate of European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Bughea

    2007-01-01

    Turkey applied for associate membership in European Community in 1959, and signed the “Ankara Agreement” on September 12th 1963. Since 1964, Turkey has been a European Union Associate Member. Turkish accession will change the EU’s borders but it will also change Turkish relations with its neighbors. Overall, Turkish accession will extend and deepen EU foreign policy interests in its surrounding regions. Turkey will have considerable impact on the European Union, but it is an impact that can b...

  2. Educational Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Bircan; Ulaş Sunata

    2015-01-01

    In political, social and economical terms, Turkey is the most affected country of the Syrian crisis. More importantly, Turkey as a host country of Syrian refugees has been living a dramatic demographic change. The most marginalized group living in Turkey is children. Refugee education has hence become of top priority. The global report in refugee education is below the critical level, but Turkish report is even worse in the contexts of not only accessibility and quality. This work refers to u...

  3. Turkey in Cyprus: Changing the Status Quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With few prospects for the resolution of the Cyprus dispute, the costs of the status quo are rising for Turkey. This article argues that Turkey could regain initiative without sacrificing its national interests by withdrawing its military forces stationed on the island and organizing a referendum on the future of the TRNC. The removal of the military would terminate Turkey's status as an occupying power, while a referendum could add legitimacy to the TRNC and put pressure on Cyprus.

  4. Dynamics of Foreign Currency Lending in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kutan, Ali; Ozsoz, Emre; Rengifo, Erick

    2012-01-01

    On June 16 2009, in what authorities called ``a surprise development'' the Turkish Government removed a provision from its existing laws that had allowed Turkish residents to borrow in foreign currency from banks operating in Turkey. The development ended a long era of foreign currency lending in Turkey at least in the sense of consumer loans. This paper studies the determinants and consequences of foreign currency lending for banks in Turkey in the run-up to this significant policy change. O...

  5. Aircraft maintenance tecnicians certificating procedure in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation rules are strictly edited worldwide, as in Europe and in Turkey. Turkey has participated several international organizations; such as International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC), Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), and so on. All of these memberships force Turkey to prepare national aviation legislation as convenient as international rules. These international rules can be updated so they must be followed and if it ...

  6. Quality Assurance: Strategic Choices for Higher Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the number of students and higher education institutions in the world increases and there is a growing difficulty in financing the higher education systems, decision-makers have begun to show more interest in quality assurance. As quality assurance is given special attention in European countries, developing countries such as Turkey are interested in importing quality assurance systems. It is not possible to set quality assurance without sensitivity toward quality and without having quality as a cultural practice. The most likely encountered quality assurance approach in the world is that the higher education institution itself is responsible for its quality. In addition, external quality assurance procedures used are based on (academic peer review rather than on bureaucratic evaluations. Moreover, there is a lively debate across the world regarding the bureaucratic regulations of the quality assurance agencies and institutions that restrict the autonomy of higher education institutions. Without taking into consideration of the existing centralized structure of the higher education system in Turkey, of meeting social demands for the higher education, and of current higher education enrollment rates, the possible establishment of a quality assurance mechanism that may have sanctions on universities in Turkey is a threat to already limited autonomy of universities and is having a risk of additional bureaucratic burden. By laying out the roles and responsibilities of Turkish Council of Higher Education, the government and universities, this article discusses policies that should be adopted regarding the quality assurance.

  7. Research of Stability Problems on Ankara-Konya High Speed Railway Line (Turkey) using Ground Penetrating Radar and Petrographical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.; Kadioglu, Y. K.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study is to research the stability problems according to rock properties and their discontinuities such as fractures, faults and karstic cavities on the new high-speed railway line between the capital city Ankara and the largest city Konya in Turkey. The Ankara-Konya high speed railway including a tunnel managed from The Turkish State Railways (TCDD). Geological surveys, polarizing microscope and confocal Raman spectrometry studies were used to determine rock properties. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) method was used to determine faults, fractures and karstic cavities. The railway line has been mainly constructed on inner Tauride Ocean suture of the Central Anatolia. The basement unit of the railway line mainly has been composed of ophiolitic complex of the inner Tauride Ocean. The main lithology of this ophiolitic complex has been formed by radiolarite, pelagic sediments, dolarite, gabbro, serpentinized peridotite and limestone blocks. The Jurassic alloctonous limestone which has been thrust on the ophiolitic complex. Neogene cover young units with minor amount of Alluvium deposits have been formed by the upper litholgy in the region. The serpentinite and altered radiolarite formation are formed by lubricous ground for the railway line in the region. A RAMAC CUII GPR system was used with a bi-static 100 MHz center band shielded antenna to acquire profile data. Totaly 35 km was surveyed on different parts of the railway line by considering the results of the geologic research and petrograpical studies. When we started to study, rail construction of some parts of the line had already been completed. Therefore, during studies, we gathered the data on the backfilled way on the three parallel profiles spaced 1m apart or on the service way next to the railway line. There was a tunnel on the line. We also gathered two parallel profiles data on the tunnel and four profiles data next to the tunnel to evaluate the stability according to the discontinuities

  8. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    affected by humans (Sanderson et al., 2002; Braje&Erlandson, 2014). The area left in its natural state corresponds to only 15%. Due to population increase, agricultural areas shrinked, forests were destroyed, and pastures declined in size. More chemical fertilizers and agricultural pesticides were used in order to obtain more products. A greater number of machines were employed in agriculture, which led to a rise in the number of products. The human pressure on the environment in Anatolia dates back to thousands of years. Nomadic peoples on these lands have settled in the last 200 years due to settlement policies (Cürebal et al., 2015). This process saw the establishment of villages in higher and inclined areas as a result of the effects of the nomadic culture of Turkomans and other people in Anatolia. Forests in the inclined areas around these villages were destroyed and turned into agricultural areas. Machines, fertilizers, and pesticides were utilized in agricultural activities in order to produce more crops. This transformation led to an increased erosion effect, deterioration of soil, agricultural and environmental pollution (Chin et al., 2013; Hoang et al., 2014; Matteo et al., 2014). The change caused by industrialization gained ground in the 1950s in Turkey. In particular, migration from rural areas to cities gaining pace after the World War II brought about an increased human pressure in and around big cities. Areas around the cities became centers of attraction for many people. Plains around settlement areas were opened to settlement, and most industrial facilities were established there. As a consequence, first class agricultural areas were lost. Settlements and industrial areas generated large amounts of solid and liquid waste. Uncontrolled discharge of liquid waste and intensely stored solid waste caused the physical and chemical pollution of rivers, lakes, and seas to increase in Turkey and other parts of the world (Andersson et al., 2006; Steffen et al

  9. Healthcare financing: how does Turkey compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher; Güç, Yunus; Akinci, Fevzi

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of Turkey's healthcare financing. After comparing financing data on Turkey and other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, they examine Turkey's performance on a wide range of healthcare input and outcome indicators using descriptive data drawn from the World Health Organization, World Bank, OECD, and Turkish Statistical Institute. The data analysis shows that Turkey ranks low by a number of key healthcare indicators across the OECD countries. Empirical analysis suggests that although many factors are associated with improvements in healthcare outcomes, a significant part of changes in life expectancy at birth are associated with higher spending on healthcare. PMID:21864057

  10. Identifying the Liquidity Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks For a Small Open Economy: Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Berument, Hakan; Togay, Selahattin; Sahin, Afsin

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new liquidity measure for a small open economy. The new measure includes the net liquidity provided to the system by a central bank after accounting for the central bank’s involvement in the foreign exchange market. Empirical evidence gathered from Turkey suggests that a positive innovation in liquidity increases output temporarily and that its effect on prices, exchange rate and money are permanently higher.

  11. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  12. Preliminary Results of Full Seismic Waveform Tomography for Sea of Marmara Region (NW Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÇUBUK, Y.; Fichtner, A.; Taymaz, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Marmara and Northwestern Anatolia regions are known to be a transition zone from the strike-slip tectonics to the extensional tectonics. Although, the Sea of Marmara has been subjected to several active and passive seismic investigations, the accurate knowledge on the heterogeneity in the crust and upper mantle beneath the study area still remains enigmatic. On small-scale tomography problems, seismograms strongly reflect the effects of heterogeneities and the scattering properties of the Earth. Thus, the knowledge of high-resolution seismic imaging with an improved 3D radially anisotropic crustal model of the Northwestern Anatolia will enable better localization of earthquakes, identification of faults as well as the improvement of the seismic hazard assessment. For this purpose, 3D non-linear full waveform inversion methodology has been used to obtain an accurate image of the lithosphere and the upper-most mantle structure over an area of 37.5˚-42˚ N and 25˚-32˚ E and down to a depth of 471 km. The earthquake data were principally obtained from the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and Earthquake Research Center (AFAD-DAD) database. In addition to this, some of the seismic waveform data extracted from the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) stations that are located within our study region were also used in this study. We have selected and simulated the waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes Mw ≥ 4 occurred in the period of 2007-2014. In total, 3002 three-component regional seismograms from 95 events were used. The initial 3D earth model for the study region has been implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). The synthetic seismograms were computed with forward modeling of seismic wave propagation by using spectral elements method (SEM). The complete waveforms were filtered at 8-100 seconds. The adjoint method is used to compute sensitivity kernels. The differences between

  13. Research on isotope techniques for exploitation of geothermal reservoirs in Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional grabens of Western Anatolia of Turkey were formed by neotectonic activities since Miocene. East-west aligned Buyuk Menderes and Afyon Grabens were formed as a result of the doming uplift and mainly north-south tensional forces. The main high enthalpy geothermal fields of Western Anatolia investigated (and their reservoir temperatures) are Denizli-Kizildere (242 deg. C), Aydin-Germencik (232 deg. C). low enthalpy areas are found in Afyon (66-107 deg. C) and Soke (20-42 deg. C) regions. The Kizildere field is situated in the eastern part of the Buyuk Menderes Graben. The power plant with 20 MWe capacity was installed in 1984 by TEAS. Also, a factory started to produce CO2 in 1986 with a capacity of 120.000 ton/year. Besides 20 exploration and production wells, a reinjection well (R1), at a depth of 2261 m. was drilled in 1998 by MTA. The highest reservoir temperature determined for this area is 242 deg. C. The chemical analyses show the water type to be NaHCO3. Germencik geothermal field is located 100 km to the west of Kizildere. The temperatures of the first and second reservoirs are between 203-217 deg. C. The water types are NaCl in well waters but NaCl-NaHCO3 for springs. The geothermal waters are of meteoric origin without significant magmatic inputs. Kizildere and Germencik waters are partially equilibrated and deep reservoir temperatures estimated using different geothermometers are between 240-260 deg. C. Geothermal fluids from deep reservoirs in Kizildere and Germencik fields are slightly acidic with pH values of 5.5-5.9 and 4.9-5.5, respectively. There are clear δ18O shifts from Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL) in Kizildere and Germencik fields that are more significant for higher temperature fields. In Soke region low temperature, small isotope shift, shallow circulation and mixing with shallow cold water and seawater are suggested. In Afyon region medium temperature (66-107 deg. C), slight isotope shift, deep and shallow circulation

  14. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution. PMID:21992698

  15. The yield of natural trembling aspen (populus tremula L.) stands (northern and eastern anatolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremula L.) is one of the most resistant to cold natural species in Turkey. In spite of its importance, there is no research on the yield. Hence, site productivity was determined and yield Table for undisturbed natural trembling aspen stands in Turkey was developed. Data were obtained from a total of 46 plots ranging in age from 17 to 82 years. Yield Table indicates that trembling aspen is very slow growing in young and middle age and Current Annual Increment (CAI) and Mean Annual Increment (MAI) values do not reach its maximum value, even at age 70. This is a proof that trembling aspen is not a fast growing species as expected. The reason for its slow growth is attributed to very short period of growth at very high altitudes. However, in the event of 50 years rotation age, mean annual volume increments of 8.0, 3.6 and 1.1 m3 are estimated for trembling aspen for site classes I, II and III, respectively. At extended rotations, trees of pole sizes could be obtained on all site classes. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Turkey Mushroom Export

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Emel Ak; Yüksel Tüzel; Erkan Eren; Funda Atilla

    2016-01-01

    Turkey is gene center of many plant species and is a country that different endemic plant species are found. A vast geography and the presence of different climatic conditions cause either diversity of plant genetic resources or macro fungi species. Many species of mushrooms grow spontaneously in nature. According to the demand from different country preferred different mushroom species, some mushroom species collected from nature are exported each year. In this study, it was aimed to determi...

  17. Social Media in Southeast Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an ethnographic study of social media in Mardin, a medium-sized town located in the Kurdish region of Turkey. The town is inhabited mainly by Sunni Muslim Arabs and Kurds, and has been transformed in recent years by urbanisation, neoliberalism and political events. Elisabetta Costa uses her 15 months of ethnographic research to explain why public-facing social media is more conservative than offline life. Yet, at the same time, social media has opened up unprecedented possi...

  18. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    OpenAIRE

    Nazmi Bilir; Hilal Ozcebe

    2013-01-01

    In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO) declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring ...

  19. Turkey : Gas Sector Strategy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a strategy for accelerating the liberalization of the natural gas market in Turkey in line with the objectives of the Natural Gas Market Law of 2001 (Law 4646). It focuses on the desired future framework for the natural gas market and indicates the changes that need to be made in the "buy" function, "sell" function, and transit function as well as the steps that need...

  20. Recent crustal deformation of İzmir, Western Anatolia and surrounding regions as deduced from repeated GPS measurements and strain field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuğ, Bahadır; Kılıçoğlu, Ali

    2006-07-01

    To investigate contemporary neotectonic deformation in İzmir, Western Anatolia and in its neighborhood, a relatively dense Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring network was established in 2001. Combination of three spatially dense GPS campaigns in 2001, 2003 and 2004 with temporally dense campaigns between 1992 and 2004 resulted in a combined velocity field representing active deformation rate in the region. We computed horizontal and vertical velocity fields with respect to Earth-centered, Earth-fixed ITRF2000, to Eurasia and to Anatolia as well. The rates of principal and shear strains along with rigid-body rotation rates were derived from velocity field. Results show east-west shortening between Karaburun Peninsula and northern part of İzmir Bay together with the extension of İzmir Bay in accordance with general extension regime of Western Anatolia and Eastern Agea. East-west shortening and north-south extension of Karaburun Peninsula are closely related to right-lateral faulting and a clockwise rotation. There exists a block in the middle of the peninsula with a differential motion at a rate of 3-5 ± 1 mm/year and 5-6 ± 1 mm/year to the east and south, respectively. As is in Western Anatolia, north-south extension is dominant in almost all parts of the region despite the fact that they exhibit significantly higher rates in the middle of the peninsula. Extensional rates along Tuzla Fault lying nearly perpendicular to İzmir Bay and in its west are maximum in the region with an extension rate of 300-500 ± 80-100 nanostrain/year and confirm its active state. Extensional rates in other parts of the region are at level of 50-150 nanostrain/year as expected in the other parts of Western Anatolia.

  1. Radioactive material transportation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has thousands of radiation sources and there is an intensive traffic in the region. The number of imported radiation sources for nuclear medicine purposes within a year exceeds 60 000. The number of diagnostic radiology equipment is about 7000, industrial radiography equipment is 353 and therapy equipment is around 120. There are 3 PET machines, 2 Pet cyclotrons, 2 isotope production units, 2 sterilization facilities etc. Besides, in Turkey there is an intensive import of scrap materials as well as export (there are totally around 12 panel detectors, of which 6 are located at customs and 6 are owned by scrap steel operators); 59 online stations are in 24-hrs operation. Some of the radiation protection systems used in Turkey are produced by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) in accordance with the EC standards. The regulatory actions for the issue of the transport of radioactive materials are summarized briefly together with their design approvals of packaging and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Underlined are the great importance given to nuclear and radioactive material security and radiation safety due to the presence of thousands of radiation sources in the country and intensive traffic in the region. (author)

  2. Turkey - Transport Sector Expenditure Review : Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is an upper-middle income country with a population of 73 million. It has a diversified economy with a strategic geographical position, located on the southeastern side of Europe and southwestern side of Asia. Continued economic growth, combined with increases in the urban population, will place increasing demands on Turkey's transport infrastructure. High middle income countries su...

  3. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  4. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  5. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  6. Sustainable investment in Turkey: issue brief

    OpenAIRE

    Ararat, Melsa; Yurtoğlu, Burçin B.; Yurtoglu, Burcin B.; Suel, Esra

    2011-01-01

    IFC launched a series of sustainable investment country reports initially covering the largest emerging capital markets attracting global portfolio investors: Brazil, India, and China. Further reports have been added to the series covering Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and Turkey. This Issue Brief 's the summary version of the report, “Sustainable Investment in Turkey,”

  7. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS, SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION SMES ON AN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KAYGUSUZOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is important and vital for big businesses as well as small and medium sized enterprises (SME. Executives can find low-cost resources by implementing fairness, transparency, accountability and responsibility principles in their companies and can grow rapidly in the sector in accordance with the cost advantage in hand. The biggest drawback of the SMEs is that they cannot use these advantages because they are mostly built up as Family Corporation. The firms in Turkey are mostly be made up off SMEs. Since the current structure of the SMEs are not suitable in terms of corporate governance and the idea that the principles of corporate governance are hard to be used by SMEs, constitutes the main problem of the research. The data that has been collected analyzed using SPSS and it has been concluded that SME’s in the region are not the sufficient level for corporate governance.

  8. Geodetic and seismological investigation of crustal deformation near Izmir (Western Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Asli; Gorgun, Ethem; Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir

    2014-03-01

    The Aegean region including western Turkey, mainland Greece, and the Hellenic Arc is the most seismological and geodynamical active domain in the Alpine Himalayan Belt. In this study, we processed 3 years of survey-mode GPS data and present the analysis of a combination of geodetic and seismological data around Izmir, which is the third most populated city in Turkey. The velocities obtained from 15 sites vary between 25 mm/yr and 28 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate. The power law exponent of earthquake size distribution (b-value) ranges from 0.8 to 2.8 in the Izmir region between 26.2°E and 27.2°E. The lowest b-value zones are found along Karaburun Fault (b = 0.8) and, between Seferihisar and Tuzla Faults (b = 0.8). A localized stress concentration is expected from numerical models of seismicity along geometrical locked fault patches. Therefore, areas with lowest b-values are considered to be the most likely location for a strong earthquake, a prediction that is confirmed by the 2005 Mw = 5.9 Seferihisar earthquake sequences, with epicentres located to the south of the Karaburun Fault. The north-south extension of the Izmir area is corroborated by extension rates up to 140 nanostrain/yr as obtained from our GPS data. We combined the 3-year GPS velocity field with the published velocity field to determine the strain rate pattern in the area. The spatial distribution of b-value reflects the normal background due to the tectonic framework and is corroborated by the geodetic data. b-Values correlate with strain pattern. This relationship suggests that decrease of b-values signifies accumulating strain.

  9. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for eco

  10. Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method Selma KADIOGLU Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan/ANKARA-TURKEY kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr Anatolia has always been more the point of transit, a bridge between West and East. Anatolia has been a home for ideas moving from all directions. So it is that in the Roman and post-Roman periods the role of Anatolia in general and of Ancyra (the Roman name of Ankara) in particular was of the greatest importance. Now, the visible archaeological remains of Roman period in Ankara are Roman Bath, Gymnasium, the Temple of Augustus of Rome, Street, Theatre, City Defence-Wall. The Caesar Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, conquered Asia Minor in 25 BC. Then a marble temple was built in Ancyra, the administrative capital of province, today the capital of Turkish Republic, Ankara. This monument was consecrated to the Empreror and to the Goddess Rome. This temple is supposed to have built over an earlier temple dedicated to Kybele and Men between 25 -20 BC. After the death of the Augustus in 14AD, a copy of the text of "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. In the 5th century, it was converted in to a church by the Byzantines. The aim of this study is to determine old buried archaeological remains in the Augustus temple, Roman Bath and in the governorship agora in Ulus district. These remains were imaged with transparent three dimensional (3D) visualization of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Parallel two dimensional (2D) GPR profile data were acquired in the study areas, and then a 3D data volume were built using parallel 2D GPR data. A simplified amplitude-colour range and appropriate opacity function were constructed and transparent 3D image were obtained to activate buried

  11. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  12. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  13. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  14. Surface water storage variations in Anatolia and Surrounding Territories observed by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Mercan, H.

    2012-04-01

    reference geopotential field, e.g., GGM01C. In this study, the surface water mass changes over Anatolia and the surrounding region located between 20-47 degree East longitudes and 30-48 degree North latitudes are computed based on the monthly SHC model and the regional inversion of the in situ potential difference observations. Two distinct solutions have different temporal and spatial resolutions even though the estimated accuracies are similar. The former is computed with a temporal resolution of one month and a spatial resolution of 300 km. The regional solution has computed with monthly and sub-monthly intervals with a spatial resolution as fine as 165 km. Both solutions have accuracies of 2-3 cm in terms of water column height. In addition, the results have been compared with the water level heights observed by Envisat tracks at the Ataturk dam reservoir between the years 2003-2009. Even though the GRACE monthly water storage estimates and the observed water level heights have different amplitudes, both follow a similar seasonal pattern.

  15. Turkey -a Clash of Civilisations?

    OpenAIRE

    Rude, Cecilie Holdt; Ursin, Malte Grane; Tsagaraki, Maria; Brudvig, Mette Rubeck; Petersen, Sif Johanna Hvid

    2009-01-01

    Taking a starting point in Samuel Huntington’s ‘Clash of Civilisations’, with Turkey as a case study, we will investigate the consequences from the foundation of a nation-state in the country. Which problems can we detect today, which have to do with the cultural change the country has gone through? Are any of the current problems rooted in the enforcement of another culture upon the people and do we detect a sense of division among the Turkish population? We will discuss these problems with ...

  16. The evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of 63 inpatient with cutaneous anthrax: Characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Despite a very uncommon disease in developed countries, cutaneous anthrax (CA is currently endemic in our countries. In this study, we aimed to bring out characteristic of anthrax of Turkey by comparing our results and the other CA reports in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Sixty three inpatients with CA between October 2009 and December 2012 were investigated retrospectively. All patients were diagnosed CA by clinical finding and/or microbiological examination. The demographic characteristics patient, routine tests, wound culture and gram staining results were recorded. Results were recorded on statistical program of SPSS 13.0 and were written using percent (%. Results: There were 63 inpatients (41 female (65.1%, 22 male (34.9%, mean age 35.9 years range10-83. Forty nine patients (77.8% had a history of contact with animals or animal product. Thirty-eight (60.3% and twenty-one (33.3% patients were found in the summer and fall season, respectively. Gram staining and culture were performed in 51 patients. Gram-positive bacilli were detected in 17 patients (33.3% by gram smear. Bacillus anthracis bacilli were produced in 11 patients (21.5% in cultures test. The lesions were mostly seen on the left hand (30.2%. Penicillin was most frequently preferred in treatment of CA (87.3%. Conclusion: CA is still endemic in Eastern Anatolia and continues to increase in recent years. Women living in the villages in which income is obtained from buying and selling of animals constitute the most important risk group. Preventive actions such as training of the risky society, vaccination of animals, and obstructing of illegal animal entries across the border, will reduce the incidence of CA.

  17. Ft-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis of Potsherds Excavated from the First Settlement Layer of Kuriki Mound, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Murat; Isik, Iskender; Cereci, Sedat; Issi, Ali; Genc, Elif

    The region covering Southeastern Anatolia takes place in upper Mesopotamia, so it has numerous cultural heritages due to its witness to various social movements of different civilizations in ancient times. Kuruki Mound is located on the junction point of Tigris River and Batman Creek, near Oymatas village which is almost 15 km to Batman, Turkey. The mound is dated back to Late Chalcolithic. Archaeological excavations are carried out on two hills named as “Kuriki Mound-1” and “Kuriki Mound-2” in which 4-layer and 2-layer settlements have been revealed, respectively. This region will be left under the water by the reservoir lake of Ilısu Dam when its construction is completed. Thus, characterization of ancient materials such as potsherds, metals and skeleton ruins should be rapidly done. In this study, 12 potsherds excavated from Layer-1 (the first settlement layer after the surface) in Kuriki Mound-2 were investigated by FT-IR spectrometry. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used as complementary techniques in order to expose chemical and mineralogical/phase contents, respectively. Obtained results showed that the potteries have been produced with calcareous clays and they include moderate amounts of MgO, K2O, Na2O and Fe2O3 in this context. Additionally, high temperature phases have also been detected with XRD analyses in some samples.

  18. An investigation of pottery production technology for the West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issi, A.; Kara, A.

    2013-02-01

    Researches in the field of pottery production technology in ancient times, done in different settlements during the same period, may contribute to know relationships established within the different cultural communities. In ancient times, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was the crossroads of ancient civilizations. There are several ancient settlements and artifacts belonging to Hellenistic culture (330-30 BC). West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey) excavations are the main Hellenistic culture findings. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of these findings in order to enlighten the pottery production technology. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were also performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. The raw materials used, firing temperatures and atmosphere and related microstructural characteristics were discussed. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. An investigation of pottery production technology for the West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches in the field of pottery production technology in ancient times, done in different settlements during the same period, may contribute to know relationships established within the different cultural communities. In ancient times, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was the crossroads of ancient civilizations. There are several ancient settlements and artifacts belonging to Hellenistic culture (330-30 BC). West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey) excavations are the main Hellenistic culture findings. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of these findings in order to enlighten the pottery production technology. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were also performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. The raw materials used, firing temperatures and atmosphere and related microstructural characteristics were discussed. (Author) 22 refs.

  20. Market brief : natural gas in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey may soon become an important transit route to Europe for natural gas imported from the Caucasus, Iran, and other Middle Eastern countries. This market brief provided an overview of Turkey's natural gas market and industry, and examined investment and business opportunities for Canadian businesses. Consumption of natural gas in Turkey has grown by 14.8 per cent annually in the last decade. Transmission equipment expenditures total approximately $400 million annually. It is expected that the demand for environmental and engineering services for natural gas-related industries will grow by 15 per cent annually over the next decade. There are currently several opportunities for Canadian suppliers of equipment, engineering, and construction services. Turkey's expected full European Union (EU) membership will require Turkey to adopt EU environmental and emissions standards. Potential investors in Turkey require operating licences from Turkey's Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA). All state procurement is by tender, while BOTAS, the state-owned gas company dominates both imports and the transmission of gas. Market entry considerations were also presented. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  1. COMPARISON EDUCATION SYSTEMS OF DENMARK AND TURKEY AT PRIMARY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz YÜCEER

    2012-03-01

    , practical/creative and scientific and compulsory for all students. This classification is made as elective and compulsory courses in Turkey. Learning environment is organized to gain collaborative experience to students and to provide project-based learning of students in Denmark. So there is a seating arrangement for team-work. The classes are usually organized according to sequential column technique in Turkey. Evaluation is also provided the future planning of education as well as sharing with the family about student’s learning outcomes in Denmark. At the end of 9 and 10 class, Folkeskole students enter for school-leaving examinations. Students have an exam each course (except electives courses at the end of the period at the level of the class passing rather than school- leaving examinations. Results and Discussion: Education is compulsory for everyone between the ages of 6-16 in Denmark since 2009, compulsory for everyone between the ages 6-14 in Turkey since 1997. At the same time today one- year pre-school education which is free is compulsory since August 2009 in Denmark; it is also started the implementation of compulsory pre-school in several pilot cities in Turkey. This is a positive development for both countries. Because this period consists time that is strong the individual’s learning ability. Education is a local structure in Denmark. It is planned and carried out centrally in Turkey. As of today conditions, it is observed that this situation creates difficulties in solving problems relating to education and uncover view which need to go decentralization in education. In this context, it can be done required studies for localization and be taken model the developed countries. In Denmark and Turkey curriculum is determined at the national level by the Ministry of Education. Denmark Education System carries local impacts as different from Turkey in terms of issues such as the decisions taken in the field of education in Denmark, the school system

  2. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  3. Investing in Turkey's Next Generation : The School-to-Work Transition and Turkey's Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the prospects for Turkey's youth by examining the 'school-to-work transition'. Turkey needs to invest in its young people to capture the potentially substantial dividend of today's large youth cohort. Because of the sheer number of young people, Turkey's working-age population will expand by over 800,000 every year during the next decade. This so-called 'productive pop...

  4. VIth EUROPEAN SPORTS MEDICINE CONGRESS October 14-18 2009, Antalya/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On behalf of Turkish Sports Medicine Association, we are proud to host 6th. EFSMA European Sports Medicine Congress in Antalya, Turkey; a country founded in Anatolia with a ten thousand year old cultural heritage, acting as a geographic and socio-cultural link between West and East.The choice of Antalya as the venue of our Congress is to provide a unique ambiance with the incomparable historic presence, natural beauty and cultural charm of this part of Anatolia. We hope that this Congress in the land of pioneers of medicine such as Avicenna and Hipocrates inspires and stimulates you. Surrounded by amazing scenery of sharp contrasts, Antalya, Turkey’s principal resort, is an attractive city with shady palm-lined boulevards and a prize-winning marina. Antalya has been continuously inhabited since its founding in 159 BC by Attalos II, a King of Pergamum, who named the city Attaleia after himself.The Romans, Byzantines and Seljuks successively inhabited in Antalya before Ottomans ruled the territory.Today, Antalya is a famous tourism center in Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’s modern Turkish Republic, providing a premium touristic service mainly to Europe.We would like to welcome you to share the recent scientific developments in the area of sports medicine. We believe this Congress provides a high quality scientific environment for the presentation of new research and exchange of information by all disciplines related to sports and medicine.In recent years, the EFSMA has grown and developed into what is now a leading and dynamic force in Sports Medicine in Europe. It is with the same dynamism and expertise that are the hallmarks of a high calibre and carefully arranged scientific programme. A thorough discussion and critical evaluation of the latest advancements in sports medicine are key features of the scientific programme. The sessions, which will include educational courses, state-of-the-art lectures, panel and round table discussions and symposia

  5. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary s...

  6. Main geological problems of Western Anatolia and the significance of the Bodrum magmatic province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Y [Kadir Has University, Cibali, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yyilmaz@khas.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    Western Anatolian Extended Terrain in Turkey stretches from the Balkan region in the north to the Taurides in the south. It contains a number of major tectonic entities including the Menderes Massif, the volcanic associations and the Neogene terrestrial cover sequence. In recent years the initiation of the N-S extension is viewed as a major factor responsible from the development of all these tectonic units. The initiation of the extension is regarded going back to the early Oligocene period. The data derived from our mapping project reveal that these units have developed under different tectonic regimes during different periods; for example the Menderes Massif, began to have formed during the late Creteceous and its development continued into the Miocene period. The Magmatic associations were formed in two separated phases; the early phase began during the Eocene- Oligocene time long before the extension started. The late phase is closely associated with the extensional regime. The Neogene sedimentary successions have 3 stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. The field data displays further that the N-S extension has not been uninterrupted. A major interruption occurred during the Early Pliocene period, and a region-wide, flat-lying erosional surface, as a key horizon, was developed.

  7. [The population situation and its relation to the economy in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J X

    1982-11-29

    In southwest Asia, Turkey is a leading nation in collecting complete data on its population through the use of a modern census. Based on available information, the development of Turkey's population can be summarized as follows: 1) in the last 20 years, Turkey's population increase rate has been 2% annually, very high by world standards; 2) the average age is young, and the population's burden coefficient is above 80%; and 3) the geographical distribution of the population is uneven. The population density in central, eastern, and southeastern parts of the country is low, while the coastal provinces near the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Aegean Sea have a high population density. In the last 50 years, the political situation in Turkey has remained stable. The national economy has developed rapidly, and the infant mortality rate has declined as a result of advancements in medicine and health care. Since Turkey is an Islamic country, birth control and abortion are not popular. The traditional early marriage for women and high illiteracy rate among women have contributed to a rapid population growth. In the past 20 years, however, the national economy has been overburdened by a rapid population growth. Problems of unemployment, a housing shortage in cities, inadequate public health facilities, a shortage of schools, a decline in farm land and inadequate food supplies have become increasingly obvious. Economically speaking, Turkey is much better than most developing nations. With its current foundation and rich natural resources, the country needs only to reduce the natural population increase rate slightly in order to achieve a balanced economic development. PMID:12312490

  8. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (NCCLS. A total of 67 (11.7% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated from CMT positive milk samples. In total, 11 CNS species: S. epidermidis (n=18, S. simulans (n=14, S. warneri (n=10, S. hominis (n=5, S. chromogenes (n=4, S. caprae (n=4, S. xylosus (n=3, S. haemolyticus (n=3, S. hyicus (n=3, S. cohnii (n=2, and S. capitis (n=1 were identified. The most commonly identified CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.8% and Staphylococcus simulans (20.8% followed by Staphylococcus warneri (14.9%. Out of 67 CNS isolates, slime production was found in 37 (55.2% CNS strains. CNS isolates were the most resistance to trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (76.2%, erythromycin (73.2%, oxacillin and ampicillin (70.2% followed by penicillin (58.3%, gentamicin (53.8%, tetracycline (52.3%, vancomycin (51.8%, ciprofloxacin (26.9%, cefoxitim (23.9%, and cephalothin (13.5%. These results indicate that CNS species are resistant at high rates to the beta-lactam antibiotics which are intensively used in the prevention and treatment of mastitis without any antibiotic susceptibility test in the Middle Western of Turkey.

  9. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Turkey 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil has been one of the main energy sources in Turkey, accounting for some 28% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Turkey’s oil demand slightly increased from 637 kb/d in 2003 to 670 kb/d in 2012, although it dropped down from 678 kb/d in 2009 to 650 kb/d in 2010. The transport sector accounted for half of total oil consumption in 2010. Domestic oil production is in decline in Turkey, amounting to 45 kb/d or about 6.7% of total consumption in 2012. In 2012, Turkey imported 712 kb/d, consisting of about 392 kb/d of crude oil and some 320 kb/d refined products. Around 39% of total crude oil imports came from Iran. Crude oil and petroleum products are mainly undertaken by tankers and two major international pipelines running through the country with a total annual handling capacity of 2.8 mb/d. In the country, there are four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 610 kb/d. Turkey meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. Under the relevant acts, refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily sales of previous year, while eligible consumers that use more than 20,000 tonnes annually are required to hold 15 days’ consumption of each type of liquid fuel. Turkey held some 61 million barrels of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 99 days of 2011 net-imports. Around 55% of total oil stocks are held in the form of crude oil. The use of emergency oil stocks is central to Turkey’s emergency response policy, which can be complemented by demand restraint measures. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES significantly increased at 32% in 2011. Turkey’s gas demand significantly increased from 0.7 billion cubic meters (2 mcm/d) in 1987 to 45.3 bcm (124 mcm/d) in 2012, while indigenous natural gas production totalled some 0.63 bcm in the same year

  10. Current Situation, Problems and Solutions of Oil Crops in the Central Anatolian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi Çalışkan

    2013-01-01

    Although there is no a significant increase in the cultivation areas of oil crops in last two decades, production amount of them shows 52.2% increase. Sunflower which has the first rank in terms of cultivation area and as well as production in cultivation of oilseed crops in our country, comes to fore as basic oil plant in Central Anatolia Region and it is followed by safflower in rank. Becoming widespread of safflower cultivation in fallow fields will make great profits to as well as farmers...

  11. The tectonics of the Central Anatolian crystalline complex: a structural, metamorphic and paleomagnetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, C.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The Anatolian region is a segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen. The rocks presently exposed in Anatolia provide a geological record of the closure history of the Neotethyan Ocean(s) situated between the converging African and Eurasian continents during late Mesozoic – Cenozoic times. The location of the former northern Neo-Tethyan ocean is marked by the presence of an ophiolitic mélange forming the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ). South of the IAESZ, the Central Anatolian Crystall...

  12. Evaluating Higher Education Policy in Turkey: Assessment of the Admission Procedure to Architecture, Planning, and Engineering Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Kemal Mert; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    The admission procedure to higher education institutions in Turkey is based on the student's high school grades and Central University Entrance Examination (CUEE) score, with a much greater weight on the latter. However, whether the CUEE is an appropriate measure in the admission process to universities is still a much-debated question. This study…

  13. A review of the plate convergence history of the East Anatolia-Transcaucasus region during the Variscan: Insights from the Georgian basement and its connection to the Eastern Pontides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Y.; Hässig, M.; Bosch, D.; Meijers, M. J. M.; Sosson, M.; Bruguier, O.; Adamia, Sh.; Sadradze, N.

    2016-05-01

    This article summarizes the geodynamic evolution of the Variscan to Mesozoic Tethyan subduction history, based on a review of geochronological data from Eastern Anatolia and the Lesser Caucasus, and new isotopic ages for the Georgian crystalline basements. The geological history of the basements of Georgia (Transcaucasus) and NE Turkey (eastern Pontides) appears to be similar and provides evidence for a continuously active continental margin above a north-dipping subduction since at least the Lower Jurassic. New La-ICPMS U-Pb ages from the Georgian basement provide further evidence for the derivation of the Transcaucasus and its western continuation (the eastern Pontides) from Gondwana. A migmatized granodiorite provides preserved magmatic zircon cores with an age of 474 ± 3 Ma, while the age of migmatization is constrained by its 343 ± 2 Ma metamorphic rims. Metamorphism is synchronous with widespread I-type granites that were emplaced at 335 ± 8 Ma in the neighbouring Dzirula massif, and in the eastern Pontides. These U-Pb ages are in close agreement with recently obtained Ar/Ar ages from biotites and muscovites from metamorphic schists and U-Pb ages ranging from 340 to 330 Ma in the Georgian basement. The narrow range of ages suggests that the Variscan LP-HT metamorphic event in the eastern Pontides and Georgia was of short duration and likely related to mantle-derived intrusives. Furthermore, we suggest that (1) rifting of the Pontides-Transcaucasus block (PTB) from Gondwana at 450-350 Ma could have been driven by roll-back of the south-dipping Rheic slab, (2) that the main metamorphic and coeval magmatic events are related to the accretion of the PTB to the Eurasian margin at c. 350 Ma, while the source of magmatism is ascribed to slab detachment of the south-dipping slab at 340 Ma and that (3) three subduction zones may have been contemporaneously active in the Tethyan domain during the Jurassic: (i) the Lesser Caucasus South Armenian Block (SAB) shares a

  14. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a

  15. Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblebicioglu Hakan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Acinetobacter baumannii, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT study centres in Turkey. Methods Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing. Results Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC90 values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against Pseudomonas spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against Enterobacteriaceae; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC90 for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher. Conclusions Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.

  16. Four new records for Physarales from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREL, Gönül; KAŞIK, Gıyasettin

    2012-01-01

    Physarum didermoides (Pers.) Rostaf., Physarum gyrosum Rostaf., Didymium karstensii Nann.-Bremek., and Didymium trachysporum G.Lister, taxa grown by moist chamber culture method, are 4 new records from Turkey.

  17. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  18. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Arsel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing relatively prosperous peasants together with a small group of ambitious policy entrepreneurs, the movement marked a turning point in environmental politics in Turkey. Motivated primarily by the environmental and public ...

  19. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  20. Sustainable Forest Management and Cadastre in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güler Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey the forest is one of the most important natural resources. It both affects the rural development processes and is affected from these. Nevertheless “deforestation” is the main forest problem in Turkey. Sustainable forest management is required for the forests meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of the next generation. “To protect and to secure the forest areas” is the initial studies to be done for sustainable forest management. To prevent deforestati...