Sample records for central american peninsula

  1. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

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    Michael Xavier Kirby

    Full Text Available Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y., having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone, is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  2. /S/ in Central American Spanish. (United States)

    Lipski, John M.


    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  3. Sedimentary record of mid-Miocene seismotectonic activity in the Sinop Peninsula, north-central Turkey


    Ayhan ILGAR


    The middle Miocene shallow-marine siliciclastic succession in the Sinop Peninsula, north-central Turkey, bears a well-preserved sedimentary record of syndepositional deformation associated with the buried escarpment of an oblique-slip dextral reverse fault and attributed to seismotectonic activity. The deposition occurred in a marginal trough at the edge of a tectonically inverted retroarc foreland basin of the Central Pontides. The synsedimentary deformation involved contemporaneous shorefac...

  4. 2. The Central American gang phenomenon


    Does, Antonia


    2.1. Differentiating between pandillas and maras Youth gangs have existed since the 1960s and 1970s in Central America. However, there are different types of Central American gangs and thus one has to distinguish between pandillas and maras. The former are localized, homegrown gangs, which are “direct inheritors” (Jütersonke, Rodgers & Muggah 2009: 379) of the gangs that have historically characterized Central American societies, while the latter are a more recent phenomenon with transnationa...

  5. Seismomagnetic models for earthquakes in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan


    Ishikawa, Y.; Y. Sasai


    Seismomagnetic changes accompanied by four damaging earthquakes are explained by the piezomagnetic effect observed in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan. Most of the data were obtained by repeat surveys. Although these data suffered electric railway noise, significant magnetic changes were detected at points close to earthquake faults. Coseismic changes can be well interpreted by piezomagnetic models in the case of the 1978 Near Izu-Oshima (M 7.0) and the 1980 East Off Izu Penin...

  6. Central American and Caribbean Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  7. Chemical composition of essential oil of Senecio coincyi, an endemic species of the Central Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Arrabal, Carlos; Martínez García, Felipe; Paz Arraiza, María; Guerrero García, Silvia


    The essential oil has been studied of leaves of Senecio coincyi Rouy, an endemic species of Spain restricted to a very small area of the Central Iberian Peninsula. Samples from five locations were obtained by hydrodistillation and extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compound was 1-tridecene (28.1 +/- 8.5%). The presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons (1-undecene, 1-dodecene and 1-tridecene) seems to indicate a chemotaxonomic relationship between Senecio coincyi and S. congestus. PMID:21366061

  8. A Surface Soil Radioactivity Mapping Has Been Carried Out at Muria Peninsula, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air of this mapping is to gain exposure dose value of the soil surface of Muria Peninsula. Central Java, in the area of 75 km radius from Ujung Lemah Abang. Lemah Abang is the proposed site of the first indonesian nuclear Power Plant. A radioactivity data obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 researches has been used for input data. For further analysis, a conversation factor multiplication is applied. This conversation factor is obtained from linear regression equation of the relationship between radioactivity and exposure values gained from re-measured randomly 44 points which are representative for high, medium, and low radiation areas obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 activities and it taking soil samples. The conversation data result is being constructed of the Surface Exposure Dose Map of Muria Peninsula. Those data show that the exposure dose of northern slope of Muria Volcano is relatively higher than that of southern slope, it means be harmonizing to the soil sample radioactivity values. The maximum radioactivity value of the soil samples is 3,56.10-2 Bq/gram (α radiation), 8,22.10-1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 6,20.10-1 Bq/gram (γ radiation) and the minimum values are 4,44 10-3 Bq/gram (α radiation), 1,50. 10-1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 4,09. 10-2 Bq/gram (γ radiation). (author)

  9. On the Geomorphological Status of the Central Mountain Range, Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock


    It has been known that the tectonic uplift forming the central mountain range (Taebaek Mtn.) in the Korean Peninsula has begun since the Tertiary (Kim, 1961). Recent studies suggest that most uplift events have occurred during the mid Miocene (Min et al., 2008). On the summits of the Taebaek mountain range are low-relief plateaus. They have long been interpreted as paleo erosional surfaces, and thus are considered as transient landscape. In other words, low-relief plateaus have been considered as evidences that the landscape has not responded to the tectonic uplift events yet. However, a recent study on the denudation rates of a plateau reported that the erosion rate of the plateau is much greater than several paleo surfaces reported in other parts of the world (Byun et al., under revision). Such high denudation rate raises a question on the previous hypothesis of paleo surfaces. To test these two contrasting hypotheses, we first identify characteristic features of the plateau landscape using topographic position index (Weiss, 2001). Then, we numerically evaluate the required time for the development into the plateau landscape starting from various initial reliefs. Our quantitative analysis shows that dominant features that compose the plateau are flat-convex ridge, straight mid slope, and slightly concave lower slope. Simulation results show that the highly weathered saprolite observed in the plateau accelerates the development into the representative hillslope profiles. As a result, we find that development from different initial reliefs into the representative profiles takes time less than expected by the previous paleo surfaces hypothesis. Such results reconfirm that the plateau is not originated from paleo surfaces, but from recent geomorphic processes aided by highly weathered saprolites. This can also imply that the plateau topography is not in transient state. References Byun, J., Heimsath, A. M., Seong, Y. B., and Lee, S. Y., Erosion of a high

  10. Chagas disease: Central American initiative launched. (United States)


    An initiative to interrupt the transmission of Chagas disease in Central America was launched at a meeting held October 22-24, 1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Sponsored by the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the meeting was attended by government delegates from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The initiative was launched within the framework of Resolution 13 of the Meeting of Ministers of Health of the Central American Countries, held in Belize in September 1997. Detailed plans of activities were prepared for each country for the period 1998-2001, for approval by the various ministries of health, while operational, epidemiological, and entomological research priorities were also agreed upon. Research projects to help improve disease control will be sponsored by TDR. The first meeting of the Technical Intergovernment Commission established to meet annually to assess progress in control activities will occur in October 1998 in Guatemala. Vector and infection rate data are briefly presented on each country represented at the meeting. PMID:12348564

  11. Dynamics of the Central American Pacific (United States)

    Vieytez, Begonia; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; José Machín, Francisco; José Gavidia, Francisco; Castro, Mi


    The Central American Pacific (CAP) is the area located in front of the Central America coast, within the Eastern Tropical Pacific region (ETP). The CAP dynamic is strongly influenced by the NE and SE trade winds, also this area is characterized by the presence of coastal wind jets at Gulf of Papagayo and Gulf of Panama, which are product of wind pulses blowing through the mountain gaps of the central cordillera, generating important eddies as the cyclonic eddy of Costa Rica Dome (CRD). Nevertheless, the implications of the topography of the continental margin of Central America in the determination of the dynamic processes in the area related to the action of winds and currents are still unknown. Between November and December 2010 (dry season), onboard the R/V Miguel Oliver, oceanographic parameters were measured in the CAP area, which despite its importance, has been poorly investigated until date. Available oceanographic information was processed in order to describe the dynamic along the Pacific coast of Central America, which is notable for its particularly strong stratification in the water column and the distribution of properties, as response to the presence of areas with high temperatures (above 28° C) and other areas with salinity minimum (less than 24). In this study was possible to distinguish three hydrographic zones: PM, south, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Panama, PY, in the center, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Papagayo, and FC, to the north, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Fonseca. The surface transformations of the water bodies, from south to north, observed in these zones could be indicting the presence of Costa Rica current. The prevailing wind system is the main force of variations in the surface distribution of the temperature in the area, and they are responsible of important structures as the anticyclonic eddy in front Gulf of Fonseca, eddies derived from the wind pulses of Gulf of Papagayo, and the relatively low temperatures in

  12. Tropical Cyclone Interactions Within Central American Gyres (United States)

    Papin, P. P.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.


    Central American gyres (CAGs) are broad (~1000 km diameter) low-level cyclonic circulations that organize over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. While CAGs have rarely been studied, prior work on similar circulations has been conducted on monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs), which possess spatial scales of 1000 - 2500 km in the west Pacific basin. A key difference between MDs and MGs is related to the organization of vorticity around the low-level circulation. MDs possess a symmetrical vorticity pattern where vorticity accumulates near the circulation center over time, occasionally developing into a large TC. In contrast, MGs possess asymmetrical vorticity, organized in mesovorticies, which rotate cyclonically along the periphery of the MG circulation. Small tropical cyclones (TCs) occasionally develop from these mesovorticies. Interaction and development of TCs within CAGs are also common, as noted by a CAG identified during the 2010 PREDICT field project, which involved the interaction of TC Matthew and the development of TC Nicole within the larger CAG. This project is motivated by the lack of prior research on CAGs, as well as the complex scale interactions that occasionally occur between TCs and CAGs. This presentation focuses on the mutual interaction of vortices embedded in the larger-scale cyclonic flow comprising the CAG circulation. Case studies will be presented using a circulation framework to illustrate the relationship between different scale vorticity elements within the CAG. Some of these case studies resemble a MD-like evolution, where a large TC develops through the accumulation of symmetrical vorticity around the CAG (e.g. TC Opal 1995, TC Frances 1998). Other instances resemble a MG-like evolution, where smaller mesovorticies rotate around a common circulation center (e.g. TC Florence 1988). The circulation analysis framework aids in the diagnosis of interaction between different scale cyclonic vortices, and

  13. Central American Federation of Friendship with China Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The preparatory meeting for the founding of the Central American Federation of Friendship with China (CAFFC) was held in the capital of Nicaragua from March 23 to 24. The meeting was convened to implement

  14. Precipitations and floods in the central Iberian Peninsula in the late 16th century (United States)

    Bullón, T.


    Documental sources provided information to historically reconstruct the relationship among precipitation, drought and floods during the last 50 years of the 16th century in the Jarama-Tajo river system. The study area is located in the central Iberian Peninsula in the autonomous region of Madrid and is associated with a continental Mediterranean climate Periodic flooding of the fluvial shore and channel bed displacement in the Jarama-Tajo system conditioned land use during the historical period chosen for this study. Centuries ago, land use was well adapted to this river system and produced water intensive crops and pastureland despite the area’s relatively arid continental climate. Today, the river dynamics that once characterized the area, and are referred to in historical documents, have been replaced by permanent channels with stable courses on the flood plain due to the construction of regulating reservoirs and widespread gravel extraction. The data culled from the historical documents consulted for this study made it possible to detect and characterize the floods, and to relate them to yearly or seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature in the late 16th century. As a result, it was possible to define the interaction and time span between precipitation, droughts and floods; to provide a more accurate characterization of the climate at the end of the 16th century in accordance with earlier publications on the topic; and to define the fluvial dynamics of the rivers that form this system. These dynamics, although typical of Mediterranean regions, are often difficult to characterize since alterations in the area make it impossible to obtain direct data. The administrative records of royal estates located south of Madrid contained the most solid data, and was enhanced by accounts of incidents occurring in property located in groves or flood plains in the study area that was managed by religious orders or townships. The archives consulted included the

  15. Contemporary discourses on violence in Central American newspapers


    Huhn, Sebastian; Oettler, Anika; Peetz, Peter


    It is commonly understood that criminal violence has superseded political violence in Central America. Focusing on the social construction of violent realities in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua, the authors describe the print media landscape in Central America and examine both the quality of leading newspapers and the main clusters of topics constituting the news discourse on violence. The analysis of the macro-structure of topic management in Central American newspapers allows a diffe...

  16. a New Central American Seismic Zonation (United States)

    Camacho, E.; Rojas, W.; Alvarado-Induni, G.; Marroquin, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Climent, A.; Benito, B.


    A new zonation for Central America is proposed, aimed at providing an input for regional seismic hazard studies. The zonation combined different kind of data: the seismotectonic model, a new an extensive earthquake catalog homogenized to a moment magnitude scale (Mw), focal mechanisms, geomorphologic features, GPS observations and other useful evidences for defining seismic sources. After a careful analysis of the seismicity and tectonics in the study area, the seismogenic zones have been identified, following the usual criteria assumed in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) based in zoning models: seismic activity modelled by a Poisson process and similar patterns of faulting, seismicity, and rupture mechanism inside each zone. The tectonic environment has required taking into account zones in three particular regimes: crustal faulting, subduction interplate and subduction intraplate (inslab). Therefore, three models including zones with different depths have been defined, each model being associated with the seismicity in a particular range: h 60 km for intraplate (inslab). The three models have been proposed for the whole of Central America, and also including zonations at the national level; i.e each country with their own zones based in the knowledge of the local faults and seismicity. A consensus was reached among the researchers to have country detailed zonations, but avoiding discontinuities at the national boundaries. This is the first zonation model for the whole Central America region which also includes detail zonation at the national level. This new zonation allows the generation of seismic hazard maps using a more homogeneous criteria.

  17. Pharmacogenetics in Central American healthy volunteers: interethnic variability. (United States)

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Ramírez, Ronald; Serrano, Víctor; Fariñas, Humberto; Barrantes, Ramiro; LLerena, Adrián


    Ethnicity is one of the major factors involved in interindividual variability to drug response. This study aims to describe the frequency of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in Central American healthy volunteers and to determine its interethnic variability. Twenty-six original research articles on allelic, genotypes or metabolic phenotype frequencies were analyzed, in which a total number of 7611 Central American healthy volunteers were included (6118 were analyzed for genotype and 1799 for metabolic phenotype). No reports were available for population from Belize and Honduras. The CYP2D6*4 and *5 frequencies in Amerindian populations from Costa Rica have shown to be among the highest frequencies so far reported in the world. Furthermore, NAT2*5 and *6 presented higher frequencies in admixed populations than in Amerindians, but, inversely, the NAT2*7 was more frequent in Amerindians compared to an admixed population. Likewise, different patterns of distribution have been shown in HLA-A*02, *03 and HLA-B*07 among Native populations from Latin America. Reports on Central American populations were also found for the CYP2C19, LDLR, CYP2E1, MDR1, G6PD, TP53, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 biomarkers, but no data were available for the other 91 pharmacogenetic biomarkers revised in Central American populations. Differences in the frequency of some pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes were found, showing interethnic variability within Central American and with other Latin American populations. PMID:25490028

  18. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

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    Nagore García Medina


    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  19. The Central American Fear of Youth

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    Anika Oettler


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    It is often asserted that youth gangs and organized crime have seized Central America. For theories on contemporary Central American violence, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua present important test cases, which demonstrate the need to differentiate the diagnosis. This paper is concerned with the social construction of violence-related national and transnational myths as a precondition for policy

  20. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.


    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  1. Observing at the Central American Suyapa Astronomical Observatory (United States)

    Pineda de Carias, M. C.

    In June of 1997, within the framework of the VII UN/ESA Workshop on Basic Space Science Workshop held in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, the Central American Suyapa Astronomical Observatory (CASAO) was inaugurated, with the dedication of the Telescope "René Sagastume Castillo", a 42 cm Schmidt Cassegrain Meade LX200 telescope located at Latitude: 14deg 05' N, Longitude: 87deg 09' W and Altitude: 1,077 meters over sea level, for the Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama). In this document we present what has been achieved with this facility, as part of academic activities for outreach, training and now, for research projects in observational astronomy with the international cooperation.

  2. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on Central American Agriculture (United States)

    Winter, J. M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.


    Agriculture is a vital component of Central America's economy. Poor crop yields and harvest reliability can produce food insecurity, malnutrition, and conflict. Regional climate models (RCMs) and agricultural models have the potential to greatly enhance the efficiency of Central American agriculture and water resources management under both current and future climates. A series of numerical experiments was conducted using Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to evaluate the ability of RCMs to reproduce the current climate of Central America and assess changes in temperature and precipitation under multiple future climate scenarios. Control simulations were thoroughly compared to a variety of observational datasets, including local weather station data, gridded meteorological data, and high-resolution satellite-based precipitation products. Future climate simulations were analyzed for both mean shifts in climate and changes in climate variability, including extreme events (droughts, heat waves, floods). To explore the impacts of changing climate on maize, bean, and rice yields in Central America, RCM output was used to force the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer Model (DSSAT). These results were synthesized to create climate change impacts predictions for Central American agriculture that explicitly account for evolving distributions of precipitation and temperature extremes.

  3. Central planning, market and subsistence from a tundra perspective: Field experience with reindeer herders in the Kola Peninsula

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    Dessislav Sabev


    Full Text Available This paper is based on field experience in the tundra camp of a reindeer-herding brigade with mixed ethnic background (Komi, Sami, Nenets, Russians belonging to the ex-Sovkhoz of Krasnoschelie. Its purpose is to situate the new critical issues facing the reindeer-herding collectives after the economic collapse in Russia in 1998. My main argument is that the increasing economic isolation of the tundra periphery forces the herders to redefine their relationship with both the centre(s and the other tundra actors. Reindeer herding on the Kola Peninsula is analysed in relation to its heterogeneous economic system defined by the old Sovkhoz-like management and the new Western buyer of reindeer meat. Furthermore, the social environment in the herding territories has changed since the deterioration of the central planning economy, implying new renewable resources' users. After massive loss of jobs, militaries, miners and geologists came into the tundra for substantial hunting and fishing and so became actors in the local informal economy. Finally, tundra-located herders and hunters seem to be somewhere unified by a discourse against the town-based administrative power and economic actors such as mining industry. Therefore herders have to deal with both an old administrative system in the agrocentre and new realities in the tundra. Based on a case study of herding/hunting activities in a tundra camp, the paper analyses the social relationships between the different actors in the post-Soviet Kola tundra and express their quest for solutions.

  4. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

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    A. Mould


    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  5. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

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    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel


    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  6. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey


    Bowie, Janice V.; Juon, Hee-Soon; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Cho, Juhee


    Introduction Hispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, "Hispanic" is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. Methods To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans li...

  7. Results from NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Managua,Central American Volcanic arc (United States)

    McIntosh, K.; Funk, J.; Mann, P.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.


    Lake Managua covers an area of 1,035 km2 of the Central American volcanic arc and is enclosed by three major stratovolcanoes: Momotombo to the northwest was last active in AD 1905, Apoyeque in the center on the Chiltepe Peninsula was last active ca. 4600 years BP, and Masaya to the southeast was last active in AD 2003. A much smaller volcano in the lake (Momotombito) is thought to have been active <4500 yrs B.P. In May of 2006, we used a chartered barge to collect 330 km of 3.5 kHz profiler data along with coincident 274 km of sidescan sonar and 27 km of seismic reflection data. These data identify three zones of faulting on the lake floor: 1) A zone of north-northeast-striking faults in the shallow (2.5-7.5 m deep) eastern part of the lake that extends from the capital city of Managua, which was severely damaged by shallow, left-lateral strike-slip displacements on two of these faults in 1931 (M 5.6) and 1972 (M 6.2): these faults exhibit a horst and graben character and include possible offsets on drowned river valleys 2) a semicircular rift zone that is 1 km wide and can be traced over a distance of 30 km in the central part of the lake; the rift structure defines the deepest parts of the lake ranging from 12 to 18 m deep and is concentric about the Apoyeque stratocone/Chiltepe Peninsula; and 3) a zone of fault scarps defining the northwestern lake shore that may correlate to the northwestern extension of the Mateare fault zone, a major scarp-forming fault that separates the Managua lowlands from the highlands south and west of the city. Following previous workers, we interpret the northeast- trending group of faults in the eastern part of the lake as part of a 15-km-long discontinuity where the trend of the volcanic arc is offset in a right-lateral sense. The semi-circular pattern of the rift zone that is centered on Chiltepe Peninsula appears to have formed as a distal effect of either magma intrusion or withdrawal from beneath this volcanic complex. The

  8. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.


    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  9. The Crust and Mantle Relationships Beneath Central and Southern Iberian Peninsula constrained by a 550 km long multiseismic transect (United States)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Martinez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; Ayarza, Puy; Storti, Fabrizio


    A composite lithospheric cross section which is composed by data from controlled source multiseismic experiments strongly constrains the lithospheric structure of southwestern Iberia. The data includes coincident normal incidence and wide-angle profiles along an, approximately, 550 km long transect. This transect goes across, from North-to-South, the major tectonic zones that build up Southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (the Central Iberian Zone -CIZ-, the Ossa-Morena Zone -OMZ- and the South Portuguese Zone -SPZ-). The knowledge provided by these datasets constitutes the base to develop multidisciplinary models of the lithosphere. The multichannel deep seismic high resolution (60-90 fold) profiles, IBERSEIS & ALCUDIA were acquired in summer 2001 and 2007 are about 300 and 250 km long respectively. The transects image 20 s (TWTT), about 70 km depth. To address the crust and upper mantle structural relationships a reassessment of the normal incidence seismic reflection transect ALCUDIA has been carried out. We revised the key processing steps and applied advance analysis on the ALCUDIA transect with the aim to improve the signal to noise ratio especially in the deep parts and to produce a depth migrated image. The velocity model generated through wide-angle seismic survey (2003) was used to convert IBERSEIS time migrated stack image into depth. The new data processing flow provide better structural constraints on the shallow and deep structures as the current images reveal indentation features which strongly suggest horizontal tectonics. The ALCUDIA transect shows slightly less reflective upper crust about 13 km thick decoupled from the comparatively reflective lower crust. The reflectivity of the lower crust is continuous, high amplitude, horizontal and parallel though evidences of deformation are present as flat-ramp-flat geometry on the northeastern portion and a "Crocodile structure" wedging into the upper mantle on the southwestern portion of the ALCUDIA

  10. Peninsula Academies. (United States)

    Raby, Marilyn E.


    Describes the Peninsula Academies program developed by the Sequoia (California) Union High School District and 27 local high technology companies to help educationally disadvantaged students break the pattern of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. (FL)

  11. A bird's eye survey of central american planorbid molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lobato Paraense


    Full Text Available In the course of two trips to Central America (June 1967 and JulyAugust 1976 I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Planorbis nicaraguanus Morelet, 1849, anatomically defined in this paper, and of P. yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879, the identity of the latter with Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835 is confirmed. The following planorbid species were also found: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Belize; H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879 in Costa Rica; Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835 in Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and El Salvador; B. kuhniana (Clessin, 1883 in Panama; B. obstructa (Morelet,1849 in Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador; B. straminea (Dunker, 1848 in Costa Rica; B. subprona (Martens, 1899 in Guatemala; D. anatinum (Orbigny,1835 in Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; D. depressissimum (Moricand,1839 in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839 in Guatemala, Belize and Nicaragua; D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884 in Costa Rica and Panama; and Gyraulus percarinatus sp. n. in Panama. The occurrence of B. kuhniana and D. surinamense is first recorded in Central America, and Gyraulus percarinatus is the first representative of the genus provenly occurring in the American continent south of the United States. The following synonymy is proposed: Planorbis declivis Tate, 1870 = Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835; Planorbis isthmicus Pilsbry, 1920 = Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883; Planorbis cannarum Morelet, 1849 and Segmentina donbilli Tristram, 1861 = Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849; and Planorbis yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879 = Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835, confirming Aguayo (1933.

  12. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH


    Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different

  13. Detailed Seismic Reflection Images of the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; Fulthorpe, C. S.


    New high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA) reveal an asymmetric deformation pattern with large-scale folding and uplift of basinal strata in the forearc contrasted by intrusive bodies, normal faults, and possible strikes-slip faults in the backarc. Since Miocene times the CAVA has migrated seaward, apparently impinging on the Sandino forearc basin and creating or modifying the low-lying Nicaragua depression, which contains the backarc and much of the arc. However the structural nature of the depression and its possible relationship to forearc sliver movement is poorly known. In November-December 2004 we recorded a large, high-resolution, seismic reflection dataset largely on the Pacific shelf (forearc) area of Central America, extending from NW Costa Rica to the SE edge of El Salvador's territorial waters. We seized an opportunity to study the nature of the CAVA by recording data into the Gulf of Fonseca, a large embayment at the intersection of Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. With 3 GI airguns and a 2100 m streamer we recorded data with typical penetration of 2-3 seconds in the Sandino basin and frequency content of ~10-250 Hz (at shallow levels). Penetration was limited over the arc summit with high velocity volcanic rocks encountered at depths as shallow as a few hundred meters. To the NE the edge of the Nicaragua depression occurs abruptly; our data show a well-developed sedimentary basin 1.5-3 km thick separated by numerous steeply-dipping faults. The broadband signal and good penetration of this dataset will help us determine the chronology of arc development in this position and the styles of deformation in the forearc, arc, and backarc areas. In turn, this will help us understand the regional tectonic and stratigraphic development of this margin due to the profound affects of the arc.

  14. Differentiating Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia and Androgenetic Alopecia in African American Men: Report of Three Cases


    Davis, Erica C.; Reid, Sophia D.; Callender, Valerie D.; Sperling, Leonard C.


    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a scarring alopecia that is predominantly seen in African American women, but occurs less frequently in men. The authors present three cases of African American men with biopsy-proven central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and detail the clinical presentation, histological findings, and treatment regimens. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with vertex hair loss...

  15. The Central American Regional Payment System: Reasons for its Failure and Reconversion (1989-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Juan Peñalosa


    Full Text Available This article, entitled “The Central American regional payment system: focusses and its reconversion”, is placed in the context of the recent strengthening of those mechanisms responsible for the reactivation of the Central American process of regional economic integration. With the aim of starting up a Central American regional payment system within the framework of the evolution and development of the regional integration of the Central American isthmus, the member countries of the Central American Common Market asked the European Community for technical assistance regarding its creationand application. After careful study by the EC this petition met with a positive response fitting as it did within the context of the policy of cooperation between the European Union and the countries of the Central American region. This in turn led to the signing of the Central American Payment System Financing Treaty in the Irish capital, Dublin, coinciding as it did with the San Jose VI Conference (9/10 March, 1990 which subsequently enjoyed diplomatic as well as financial and technical support as well as an intense development throughout the latter years of the Nineties.

  16. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries (United States)

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.


    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  17. Olfactory Response and Host Plant Feeding of the Central American Locust Schistocerca piceifrons piceifrons Walker to Common Plants in a Gregarious Zone. (United States)

    Poot-Pech, M A; Ruiz-Sánchez, E; Ballina-Gómez, H S; Gamboa-Angulo, M M; Reyes-Ramírez, A


    The Central American locust (CAL) Schistocerca piceifrons piceifrons Walker is one of the most harmful plant pests in the Yucatan Peninsula, where an important gregarious zone is located. The olfactory response and host plant acceptance by the CAL have not been studied in detail thus far. In this work, the olfactory response of the CAL to odor of various plant species was evaluated using an olfactometer test system. In addition, the host plant acceptance was assessed by the consumption of leaf area. Results showed that the CAL was highly attracted to odor of Pisonia aculeata. Evaluation of host plant acceptance showed that the CAL fed on Leucaena glauca and Waltheria americana, but not on P. aculeata or Guazuma ulmifolia. Analysis of leaf thickness, and leaf content of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) showed that the CAL was attracted to plant species with low leaf C content. PMID:26957085

  18. Modeling geomorphic changes in sedimentary rock areas. A case study in the Boso Peninsula area, Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the long-term safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, evaluation of the radionuclide migration toward the human environment associated with groundwater flow is an issue of utmost importance. Therefore, we are carrying out a program for developing methods for assessing long-term groundwater flow in regional scales. As a part of the above program, we constructed models depicting the influences of geomorphological evolution on long-term groundwater flow. This was done by reconstructing the processes of river deepening with historical simulation of the profiles of four rivers in the Boso Peninsula. This area was selected because the sedimentary rocks are widely distributed with uncomplicated topography and geological structure which enabled the acquisition of a large amount of relevant geological information. The study resulted in the sum of erosion during the past 125,000 years which is the equivalent of one glacial to interglacial cycle. Consequently, the profiles of four rivers during the last glacial age to the present were successfully reconstructed using similar parameters. Also it was found that, in this area, the profiles were sculpted in accordance with the uplifting rates with very little influence of initial topography owing to the relatively soft and easily dissected characteristics of the geological units. However, detailed investigation revealed that the effects of geomorphological evolution differ between the rivers emptying into the inner bay and the rivers emptying into the open sea. In the case of the former two rivers, the river-bed elevation hardly changed during the 125,000 years and shows an extensive concave profile including the marine area. In the latter case, the elevation changed within the range of 20-30 m during the period and a convex profile appears in the marine area where the present water depth is over 30 m. Additionally the estimates of total amount of erosion during 125,000 years in the former group were

  19. Achieving the Dream: Undocumented Central American Latinas in College (United States)

    Figueroa, Maruth


    The increase in the U.S. Latino population and its diversity has gained much local and national attention of the need to learn more about their experiences in college (Torres, 2003). And although this body of research is growing, the work is limited to a segment of the Latino population. The literature has mainly focused on the Mexican American or…

  20. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds and criteria pollutants in the most industrialized area of central Iberian Peninsula: intercomparison with an urban site. (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Notario, Alberto; Tapia, Araceli; Albaladejo, José; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto


    This work presents observations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including carbonyls, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) (included in the most recent ambient air quality standards because of its harmful effect on health), PM10 and other important pollutants, CO, SO2, NOx and ozone, over the most industrialized area in the central Iberian Peninsula. Nearly two years of data obtained through a mobile laboratory are used for this purpose. Different concentration ratios and correlations were calculated to assess the effect of the anthropogenic or biogenic processes on the observed VOC levels. The diurnal profile for SO2 is different in Puertollano and it does not coincide with the maxima of the other primary pollutants such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX), CO and NO. This behaviour could be attributed to the fact that SO2 mainly comes from industrial activities. However, an impact of the industry on air quality was detected not only by the results obtained for SO2, but also by the toluene/benzene, T/B, ratio (7.5). Finally, correlations between meteorological conditions and pollution distribution have been considered; also, the analysis of the back trajectories together with Spearman correlation coefficients have been carried out to understand the origin and pathway in some events with unusual high pollutant values. PMID:26508360

  1. Distribution and Taxonomic Significance of Secondary Metabolites Occurring in the Methanol Extracts of the Stonecrops (Sedum L., Crassulaceae) from the Central Balkan Peninsula. (United States)

    Stojanovic, Gordana S; Jovanović, Snežana C; Zlatković, Bojan K


    The present study is engaged in the chemical composition of methanol extracts of Sedum taxa from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and representatives from other genera of Crassulaceae (Crassula, Echeveria and Kalanchoe) considered as out-groups. The chemical composition of extracts was determined by HPLC analysis, according to retention time of standards and characteristic absorption spectra of components. Identified components were considered as original variables with possible chemotaxonomic significance. Relationships of examined plant samples were investigated by agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHC). The obtained results showed how the distribution of methanol extract components (mostly phenolics) affected grouping of the examined samples. The obtained clustering showed satisfactory grouping of the examined samples, among which some representatives of the Sedum series, Rupestria and Magellensia, are the most remote. The out-group samples were not clearly singled out with regard to Sedum samples as expected; this especially applies to samples of Crassula ovata and Echeveria lilacina, while Kalanchoe daigremontiana was more separated from most of the Sedum samples. PMID:26197522

  2. Uranium concentrations in stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Koyukuk, and Charley River areas, and across South-Central Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.


    During the summer of 1975, a 6-week reconnaissance was conducted in widespread areas of Alaska as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program; Water, stream sediment, and bedrock samples were taken from the eastern Seward Peninsula, from north of Koyukuk River, from the Charley River area, and from across south central Alaska. This report contains the LASL uranium determinations resulting from fluorometric analysis of the water samples and delayed-neutron counting of the stream sediment samples. Results of total uranium for 611 water and 641 sediment samples, from 691 stream locations, are presented. Overlays showing the numbered sample locations and graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in water and stream sediment samples, at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) sheets and published geologic maps, are provided as plates. The main purposes of this work are to make the uranium data available to the public in the standard computer format used in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (i.e., with a DOE sample number giving the latitude and longitude of each sample location) and to provide uranium concentration overlays at the standard scale of 1:250,000 adopted by the DOE for the NURE program. It also allows a plausible explanation of differences between the uranium values for sediment as determined by acid dissolution/extraction/fluorometry and by delayed-neutron counting that were noted in the earlier report.

  3. Uranium concentrations in stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Koyukuk, and Charley River areas, and across South-Central Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the summer of 1975, a 6-week reconnaissance was conducted in widespread areas of Alaska as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program; Water, stream sediment, and bedrock samples were taken from the eastern Seward Peninsula, from north of Koyukuk River, from the Charley River area, and from across south central Alaska. This report contains the LASL uranium determinations resulting from fluorometric analysis of the water samples and delayed-neutron counting of the stream sediment samples. Results of total uranium for 611 water and 641 sediment samples, from 691 stream locations, are presented. Overlays showing the numbered sample locations and graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in water and stream sediment samples, at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) sheets and published geologic maps, are provided as plates. The main purposes of this work are to make the uranium data available to the public in the standard computer format used in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (i.e., with a DOE sample number giving the latitude and longitude of each sample location) and to provide uranium concentration overlays at the standard scale of 1:250,000 adopted by the DOE for the NURE program. It also allows a plausible explanation of differences between the uranium values for sediment as determined by acid dissolution/extraction/fluorometry and by delayed-neutron counting that were noted in the earlier report

  4. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment (United States)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke


    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  5. Culture and smoking among Vietnamese Americans in central Massachusetts. (United States)

    Kim, Sun S; Nguyen, Hoa L; Le, Thu Ha


    The study was conducted (a) to assess use of any smoking cessation medications, (b) to identify factors associated with smoking, and (c) to assess knowledge of the health effects of smoking and attitudes toward smoking and seeking help for quitting among Vietnamese Americans. This is a descriptive study conducted with a nonrepresentative sample of 163 Vietnamese Americans. Current and former smokers constituted 24.4% and 25.6% of men and 1.2% and 3.5% of women, respectively. Of 20 current smokers, 17 (85%) reported use of cessation medications in their past quit attempts. Acculturation was the only significant correlate of ever smoking (vs. never smoking) in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Men who were less acculturated had more than 5 times the odds of being ever smokers (odds ratio = 5.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.37-20.78) compared with more acculturated men. Most participants had correct knowledge of the health effects of smoking regardless of age, education level, and smoking status. Attitudes toward smoking differed by age and education level but not by smoking status. Nurses working with Vietnamese Americans should be aware of the high rate of smoking among male immigrants and provide smoking cessation interventions. PMID:22294338



    Braterskiy, Maxim


    Five years ago I published an article in which I assessed the results of the first decade of America's Central Asian policy. I came to the conclusion that between the early 1990s and 2002, it developed from mere recognition of the newly independent states to a long-term regional strategy. For obvious reasons, 9/11 served as the turning point: "From a geographically remote, unstable and, in general, unexciting region, Central Asia became a zone of the U.S.'s national security interests." After...

  7. Morphostructure of the Kerchen peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchuk, S.M.


    As a result of morphometric analysis of the modern relief on the Kerchen peninsula, morphostructures were established for different orders. The transverse Central Kerchen swell and a number of dome-shaped elevations were found here. Fault disorders and new local folds were revealed. The most promising of them are recommended as objects for seismic exploration.

  8. Neogene Caribbean plate rotation and associated Central American tectonic evolution (United States)

    Wadge, G.; Burke, K.


    A theoretical model of the opening of the Cayman Trough is developed on the basis of geological evidence from a wide area. It is proposed that strike slip motion began about 30 Myr ago and proceeded at a rate of 37 + or - 6 mm/yr for a total of 1100 km of relative plate displacement, and that Central America Underwent an anticlockwise rotation with internal plate deformation. Maps of the reconstructed motion are provided.

  9. 1996 Central New Mexico Section [American Chemical Society] annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, M.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemistry Science and Technology Div.


    The main goal of the Central New Mexico Section this year was to increase attendance at the local meetings. Throughout the course of the year attendance at the meeting more than doubled. This was brought on by several factors: having the meeting spread throughout the section (Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Las Vegas, Socorro, Los Alamos); supplementing the ACS National Tour speakers with interesting local sections speakers; and making full use of the newly formed Public Relations Committee. Activities during 1996 are summarized.

  10. Climate and environments during Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the central Iberian Peninsula: the herpetofaunal assemblage from the Acheulean site of Áridos-1, Madrid (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Santonja, Manuel; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Panera, Joaquin; Rubio-Jara, Susana


    The interglacial episodes of the Quaternary Period are currently the focus of a great deal of attention within the scientific community, primarily because they can help us to understand how the climate of the current interglacial may have evolved without human intervention and to assess the impact of these climate changes on ecological systems. In the central Iberian Peninsula, the archaeological site of Áridos-1 (Arganda, Madrid), with numeric dates of 379.7 ± 45 ka obtained by AAR for the upper part of the sedimentological unit of Arganda I, in combination with the evolved state of the small mammals, has been chronologically attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. Given the diversified faunal assemblages delivered by the 1976 excavations, Áridos-1 is probably one of the best terrestrial candidates for an understanding of the climatic and environmental conditions that prevailed in central Spain during the MIS 11 interglacial. In consequence, the fossil amphibians and squamate reptiles stored in the collections of the Museo Arqueológico Nacional of Madrid have been newly described and quantified in order to apply the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods for estimating quantitative data. The Mediterranean climate is shown to have been warmer and wetter than today in central Spain during MIS 11, with the mean annual temperature 1.7 °C higher and mean annual precipitation 223.9 mm higher than at present. The monthly climatic reconstruction shows differences in the distribution of precipitation over the course of the year, with more abundant precipitation during the winter months, at the beginning of spring and at the end of fall (from October to March) and less precipitation than today during the summer months and at the end of spring (from May to August), suggesting stronger rainfall seasonality between winter and summer than currently occurs. Such climate reconstruction is consistent with other European MIS 11 paleoclimatic records. The

  11. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market


    Holden Chris; Lee Kelley


    Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy t...

  12. Biological relationship between Central and South American Chibchan speaking populations: evidence from mtDNA. (United States)

    Melton, Phillip E; Briceño, I; Gómez, A; Devor, E J; Bernal, J E; Crawford, M H


    We examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and haplotype diversity in 188 individuals from three Chibchan (Kogi, Arsario, and Ijka) populations and one Arawak (Wayuú) group from northeast Colombia to determine the biological relationship between lower Central American and northern South American Chibchan speakers. mtDNA haplogroups were obtained for all individuals and mtDNA HVS-I sequence data were obtained for 110 samples. Resulting sequence data were compared to 16 other Caribbean, South, and Central American populations using diversity measures, neutrality test statistics, sudden and spatial mismatch models, intermatch distributions, phylogenetic networks, and a multidimensional scaling plot. Our results demonstrate the existence of a shared maternal genetic structure between Central American Chibchan, Mayan populations and northern South American Chibchan-speakers. Additionally, these results suggest an expansion of Chibchan-speakers into South America associated with a shift in subsistence strategies because of changing ecological conditions that occurred in the region between 10,000-14,000 years before present. PMID:17340631

  13. A Factor Analytic Study of the Attributional Style Questionnaire with Central American Immigrants (United States)

    Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Schreiber, James B.


    The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; C. Peterson et al., 1982) has been the subject of some debate challenging its usefulness in research. This study examines the ASQ component structure for Central American immigrants to the United States. Research and cultural implications are discussed.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-40 - Peppers from certain Central American countries. (United States)


    ...) For peppers of the species Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, and Capsicum... annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, and Capsicum pubescens from areas in... Vegetables § 319.56-40 Peppers from certain Central American countries. Fresh peppers (Capsicum spp.) may...

  15. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families (United States)

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda


    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  16. Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway (United States)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.


    The final closure of the Panama Isthmus and permanent separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters is thought to have modified their salinity, faunistic assemblages, and ultimately, ocean circulation patterns and global climate. The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) is thought to have been the result of Plio-Pleistocene closure of the Isthmus that allowed land animals to massively cross the Isthmus. Similarly, the separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters by a rising Isthmus is thougth to be a prime example of vicariance. The role of Isthmus closure on global changes, however, remains controversial due in part to the difficulty of establishing a precise chronology of seaway closure. While timing of glaciation is well established, new data on the chronology of Isthmus emergence suggests that the process of closure is more complex, long, and old than previously thought. We sampled fluvial and shallow marine strata in northwesternmost South America to recover zircon grains for provenance analyses in the immediate vicinity of the docking site. Because the ages of magmatic provinces in northwestern South America and the Panama Isthmus are mutually exclusive, detrital zircon analyses provides a tool to evaluate land connections. We found that an uniquely Panamanian, 40-45 Ma (early Lutetian) detrital zircon fingerprint is abundant in middle Miocene strata, but absent in underlying lower Miocene and Oligocene strata of the northern Andes. This fingerprint represents the beginning of fluvial detrital exchange between the Panama arc and South America, and therefore marks the time of docking and the end of deep-water, and probably shallow-water connections by middle Miocene times.

  17. Inverse modeling of Central American lavas: old lithospheric and young asthenospheric heterogeneities (United States)

    Feigenson, M.; Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.


    In recent years, there have been a number of models proposed to account for the OIB-like geochemical characteristics of lavas from central Costa Rica. The source for most basalts of the Central American volcanic front (ranging from Guatemala to northern Costa Rica) is dominantly DM (depleted MORB-source mantle) fluxed by subduction-derived fluids. In contrast, central Costa Rican basalts display striking isotopic similarities to the Galapagos hotspot. How the Galapagos signature is introduced into the Central American source is at the heart of the conflicting theories. Several models incorporate asthenospheric flow of this enriched mantle, either around the Central American arc via South America, or through a slab window, which may have opened about 5 my ago beneath central Costa Rica. Alternatively, passage of the Caribbean plate over the Galapagos hotspot may have left veins of unerupted melt within the sub-Caribbean lithosphere. These veins may be preferentially tapped during later superimposed arc volcanism. Although these models yield identical isotopic systematics, it may be possible to distinguish between them by a geochemical technique that can indicate the presence of garnet in the source region. This method, developed by Hofmann and coworkers in the 1980s, is termed inverse modeling, and uses the variation of REEs in lavas to assess the relative importance of garnet vs. clinopyroxene during partial melting. We have applied this method to new REE data from back arc lavas throughout Central America, and preliminary results indicate that garnet is not present in their sources. In contrast, direct slab melts (adakites) from Central America, as well as volcanic front lavas and alkaline basalt (with minimal slab signature) from central Costa Rica and Panama, require a source with garnet. Therefore, enriched mantle in the back arc is likely stored in the shallow lithosphere rather than introduced through asthenospheric flow. Enriched material in the volcanic

  18. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE


    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  19. Where American Indian Students Go to School: Enrollment in Seven Central Region States. REL 2016-113 (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen S.


    This report provides descriptive information about the location and native language use of schools in the REL Central Region with high enrollment of American Indian students, whether Bureau of Indian Education schools or non-Bureau of Indian Education high-density American Indian schools (schools with 25 percent or more American Indian student…

  20. Levels and sources of volatile organic compounds including carbonyls in indoor air of homes of Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. Estimation of health risk. (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Notario, Alberto; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto


    Twenty nine organic air pollutants including carbonyl compounds, alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenes were measured in the indoor environment of different houses together with the corresponding outdoor measurements in Puertollano, the most industrialized city in central Iberian Peninsula. VOCs were sampled during 8 weeks using Radiello(®) passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential VOCs sources was filled out by the occupants. The results show that formaldehyde and hexanal was the most abundant VOCs measured in indoor air, with a median concentration of 55.5 and 46.4μgm(-3), respectively followed by butanal (29.1μgm(-3)), acetone (28.4μgm(-3)) and acetaldehyde (21.4μgm(-3)). After carbonyls, n-dodecane (13.1μgm(-3)) and terpenes (α-pinene, 13.4μgm(-3) and limonene, 13.4μgm(-3)) were the compounds with higher median concentrations. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs especially for limonene, α-pinene, hexanal, formaldehyde, pentanal, acetaldehyde, o-xylene, n-dodecane and acetone with I/O ratio >6. Multiple linear regressions were applied to investigate the indoor VOC determinants and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to establish common sources between VOCs. Finally, the lifetime cancer risk associated to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene exposure was estimated and they varied from 7.8×10(-5) to 4.1×10(-4) for formaldehyde, from 8.6×10(-6) to 3.5×10(-5) for acetaldehyde and from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.5×10(-5) for benzene. For formaldehyde, the attributed risk in most sampled homes was two orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. PMID:26025206

  1. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Twyford


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. Methods and Results: The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. Conclusions: The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections.

  2. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru


    B. Brizuela; Armigliato, A.; S. Tinti


    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that o...

  3. Marine Export Productivity and the Demise of the Central American Seaway


    Trumbo, Samantha Kathleen


    The progressive closing of the Central American Seaway (CAS) from initial shoaling in the mid-Miocene (̃13 Ma) to final closure in the late Pliocene (̃3-2.7 Ma) substantially altered the surface salinity, nutrient content, and biology of the Caribbean Sea and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (EEP). Studies of fossil plankton, reef development, and oceanographic models of the shoaling Isthmus of Panama suggest that there was a distinct drop in Caribbean productivity with closure of the seaway,...

  4. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth


    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.


    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independ...

  5. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants. (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily


    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996-2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants' residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans' and Central Americans' prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. PMID:24090862

  6. Phylogenetic relationships within the aplocheiloid fish genus Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae): implications for Caribbean and Central American biogeography. (United States)

    Murphy, W J; Collier, G E


    We examined the phylogenetic relationships of 16 northern species of the aplocheiloid genus Rivulus inhabiting the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. A total of 714 base pairs per taxon were sequenced from two segments of the mitochondrial genome, 12S rRNA and cytochrome b. Both parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses suggest an ancient vicariant origin of the Greater Antillean taxa, in addition to a quite recent dispersal of species into the Lesser Antilles from the South American mainland. Combined analyses support the monophyly of the northern South American assemblage as the sister group of a Central American/Columbian biota. However, the monophyly of the Central American biota remains uncertain. Divergence estimates for the Central American taxa are calibrated from the Last Cretaceous separation of the proto-Antilles from the Americas. These data suggest that the extant Central American taxa represent the descendants of at least two separate invasions during the Cenozoic, prior to the closing of the Panamanian isthmus. Times are consistent with the extensive evidence for reptilian and mammalian exchange throughout the Cenozoic. PMID:8676738

  7. The Yucatan Peninsula (United States)


    This MODIS true-color image of the Yucatan Peninsula was acquired from data captured on October 6, 2001. The Peninsula is comprised of several Mexican states, including Yucatan in the north, Quintana Roo to the east, and Campeche to the west. Mexico also shares the Yucatan Peninsula with the countries of Belize and Guatamala, located to the south of these states. Phytoplankton show up as blue-green swirls off the western coast of Yucatan, in the center of the image, mixed in with sediment and other organic matter. Off the eastern coast of the Peninsula, running north and south along the right side of he image, the region's barrier reef is visible. Second only to Australia's Great Barrier Reef in size, the reef spans 180 miles from the northern tip of the Peninsula south into the Gulf of Honduras, and houses over 35 different species of reef-building corals.

  8. Central American Economic Integration: An Introduction to the Study of Customs Union and Relations with the European Union


    Nieto Solís, José Antonio


    This Working Paper focuses on the characteristics and challenges of the process of economic integration in Central America and it analyses the situation and alternatives of the existing customs union in the region. It also refers to the external relations of Central America, in particular with the European Union (EU), the USA (CAFTA) and Mexico (Plan Puebla Panama). In order to extend the analytical scope, Central American relations with the EU have been considered in the general context of t...

  9. Central American Economic Integration: An Introduction to the Study of Customs Union and Relations with the European Union


    Nieto Solís, José Antonio


    This Working Paper focuses on the characteristics and challenges of the process of economic integration in Central America and it analyses the situation and alternatives of the existing customs union in the region. It also refers to the external relations of Central America, in particular with the European Union (EU), the USA (CAFTA) and Mexico (Plan Puebla Panama). In order to extend the analytical scope, Central American relations with the EU have been considered in the general context of t...

  10. An electrophoretic study on phospholipase A2 isoenzymes in the venoms of Central American crotaline snakes. (United States)

    Valiente, C; Moreno, E; Sittenfeld, A; Lomonte, B; Gutiérrez, J M


    The number and isoelectric points of phospholipase A2 isoenzymes were studied in the venoms of 12 Central American crotaline snakes of the genera Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis and Agkistrodon. The study was carried out by using a methodology based on electrophoretic separation of venoms, transfer to nitrocellulose and detection of activity of the bands by an indirect hemolytic assay in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. All venoms tested had indirect hemolytic activity, although they varied in the number and isoelectric point of their phospholipases A2. Most venoms had predominantly acidic isoenzymes, with the exception of A. bilineatus which had mainly basic isoenzymes and B. schlegelii which had both acidic and basic isoenzymes. Analysis of interindividual variability in B. asper venom demonstrated that two phospholipase A2 isoenzymes are present in some venoms but absent in others. Polyvalent antivenom was effective in neutralizing phospholipase A2 activity of the 12 venoms tested, when venoms and antivenom were incubated in the fluid phase. This work demonstrates a conspicuous interspecific variability in the number and isoelectric points of phospholipases A2 present in Central American crotaline snake venoms. PMID:1523675

  11. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience. (United States)

    Amy, Enrique


    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. PMID:15876321

  12. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.


    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  13. Investigating the Central American volcanic arc with long-period and broad-band magnetotellurics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A new, large-scale magnetotelluric project is currently under way to study fluid and melt-involved processes at the Central American margin. Long-period and broad-band data along three profiles have been collected so far in Costa Rica and Nicaragua in 2008 and early 2009. 2-D models of the Costa Rica project reveal significant enhanced conductivity zones beneath the forearc and the backarc (hinting at fluid release from the subducting Cocos Plate and a rise of melt behind the volcanic arc), this is not the case beneath the volcanoes itself. In contrast, while the Costa Rican data near the coast display a very large coast effect with tipper amplitudes exceeding 1, this is not the case in Nicaragua, where it almost vanishes near the Pacific Ocean. It thus has to be compensated by a large anomaly inside the continental Chortis block. The sediments of the Nicaraguan Depression reach only depths of 2-2.5 km, which is not sufficient to produce far-reaching anomalous tippers. It is evident that the arc (and also backarc) must be conductive at large depths - the volcanoes of the Maribios Range belong to the most active ones in the Americas. First 2-D models of the two Nicaragua profiles will be presented, although - at long periods - influences of 3-D structures are clearly evident. Already at this early stage of the project it may be concluded that the Central American Volcanic Arc is electrically diverse along strike, which correlates with variations in geochemical data and subduction parameters deduced from a vast range of active and passive seismological data.

  14. Phylogeographic Diversity of the Lower Central American Cichlid Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae

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    S. Shawn McCafferty


    Full Text Available It is well appreciated that historical and ecological processes are important determinates of freshwater biogeographic assemblages. Phylogeography can potentially lend important insights into the relative contribution of historical processes in biogeography. However, the extent that phylogeography reflects historical patterns of drainage connection may depend in large part on the dispersal capability of the species. Here, we test the hypothesis that due to their relatively greater dispersal capabilities, the neotropical cichlid species Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus will display a phylogeographic pattern that differs from previously described biogeographic assemblages in this important region. Based on an analysis of 318 individuals using mtDNA ATPase 6/8 sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism data, we found eight distinct clades that are closely associated with biogeographic patterns. The branching patterns among the clades and a Bayesian clock analysis suggest a relatively rapid colonization and diversification among drainages in the emergent Isthmus of Panama followed by the coalescing of some drainages due to historical connections. We also present evidence for extensive cross-cordillera sharing of clades in central Panama and the Canal region. Our results suggest that contemporary phylogeographic patterns and diversification in Lower Central American fishes reflect an interaction of historical drainage connections, dispersal, and demographic processes.

  15. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.


    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  16. Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities, Volume 2. City Reports


    World Bank


    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  17. On-and offshore tephrostratigraphy and -chronology of the southern Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) (United States)

    Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Wang, K. L.


    Including the recently drilled CRISP sites (IODP Exp. 334&344) the deep sea drilling programs have produced 69 drill holes at 29 Sites during 9 Legs at the Central American convergent margin, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. The CAVA produced numerous plinian eruptions in the past. Although abundant in the marine sediments, information and data regarding large late Cenozoic explosive eruptions from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala remain very sparse and discontinuous on land. We have established a tephrostratigraphy from recent through Miocene times from the unique archive of ODP/IODP sites offshore Central America in which we identify tephra source regions by geochemical fingerprinting using major and trace element glass shard compositions. Here we present first order correlations of ­~500 tephra layers between multiple holes at a single site as well as between multiple sites. We identified ashes supporting Costa Rican (~130), Nicaraguan (17) and Guatemalan (27) sources as well as ~150 tephra layers from the Galápagos hotspot. Within our marine record we also identified well-known marker beds such as the Los Chocoyos tephra from Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and the Tiribi Tuff from Costa Rica but also correlations to 15 distinct deposits from known Costa Rican and Nicaraguan eruptions within the last 4.1 Ma. These correlations, together with new radiometric age dates, provide the base for an improved tephrochronostratigraphy in this region. Finally, the new marine record of explosive volcanism offshore southern CAVA provides insights into the eruptive history of long-living volcanic complexes (e.g., Barva, Costa Rica) and into the distribution and frequency of large explosive eruptions from the Galápagos hotspot. The integrated approach of Ar/Ar age dating, correlations with on land deposits from CAVA, biostratigraphic ages and sediment accumulation rates improved the age models for the drilling sites.

  18. Post-release survival and movements patterns of roosterfish (Nematistius pectoralis off the Central American coastline

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    Chugey A Sepulveda


    Full Text Available Acoustic telemetry was used to assess immediate post-release survival and track the short-term movement patterns of roosterfish Nematistius pectoralis between 2008 and 2010. Seven roosterfish (85 to 146 cm fork length, FL were continuously tracked along the Central American coastline for periods of up to 28 h following capture on recreational fishing tackle. All seven roosterfish were initially captured and spent the duration of the track period proximal to the coastline in waters <100 m of depth. From depth records and horizontal movements, it was determined that all seven roosterfish survived the acute effects of capture. The greatest depth achieved by any of the tracked individuals was 62 m and collectively roosterfish spent over 90% of the track records between the surface and 12 m. For all tracks, fish size showed no effect on maximum or average dive depth and the average day (7 ± 2 m and night (6 ± 2 m depths were similar among individuals. Mean water temperature for all tracks was 28 ± 1°C, with the lowest temperature experienced at depth being 23°C. Total horizontal movements from the roosterfish in this study ranged from 14.7 to 42.2 km and averaged 1.5 ± 0.4 km h-1. Data on movements in relation to bathymetry, prey presence and habitat structure are discussed. Collectively, these data provide insight into the immediate post-release disposition and short-term movements of this poorly studied species along the coast of Central America.

  19. Role of Central American biomass burning smoke in increasing tornado severity in the US (United States)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S.; Pierce, R.; Otkin, J.; Rabin, R.; Schaack, T.; Heidinger, A. K.; da Silva, A.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.


    Violent tornadoes in the Southeast and Central US during spring are often accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in Central America. We analyzed the effect of smoke on a historic severe weather outbreak that occurred 27 April 2011 using a coupled aerosol, chemistry and weather model (WRF-Chem) and a suite of satellite and ground-based observations. Smoke from Central American biomass burning was present in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere before and during the storm outbreak. Simulations show that adding smoke to the environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development increases the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence, which is assessed by analyzing effects of smoke on meteorological conditions (tornado parameters) used by prediction centers to forecast tornado occurrence and severity. Smoke effects generate slightly lower rain rates and cloud top heights, indicating no evidence of storm invigoration for these storms and instead pointing towards convection inhibition. Further analysis shows that there are two mechanisms responsible for the parameter intensification: First, through indirect effects, stratiform clouds present during and before the outbreak became optically thicker, which reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground and produced more stable conditions and higher low-level shear in the mixed layer. Second, through semi-direct effects, soot contained in the smoke heated the aerosol layer stabilizing the atmosphere and enhancing cloud cover below the aerosol layer, producing a more stable boundary layer and conditions leading to higher probability of violent tornadoes. The inclusion of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in weather forecasts may help improve the predictability of these extreme events, which can improve the timeliness and accuracy of severe weather alerts within future operational forecast systems. Left panel: Back trajectories from the beginning of violent tornado tracks, with circles

  20. Neogene north American-Caribbean plate boundary across Northern Central America: Offset along the polochic fault (United States)

    Burkart, Burke


    The Polochic fault was a segment of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary across Central America in the Neogene. Its 130 km of left slip was previously determined by matching structures and stratigraphie outcrop patterns of northwest and central Guatemala across the fault. Additional support for the model and the youthfulness of the recorded offset comes from an essentially perfect match of major geomorphic features across the fault. A reconstruction process which eliminates 123 km of left slip brings together rivers and drainage divides that existed before the Polochic became active. With the reconstruction carried across the isthmus on an east-west fault the regional structural geology assumes the coherent pattern of a continuous orogenic belt whose geometry is compatible with the model of collisional tectonics centered on the Motagua "suture zone". Confined within this belt, narrowed to some 60 km by the reconstruction, lie the major Laramide thrusts, folds and tectonically emplaced serpentinites of Guatemala. Crystalline rocks of Guatemala re-join the Chiapas Massif and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, exposed in the core of an almost-continuous anticlinorium, extend from southern Chiapas to Lake Izabal. The Polochic does not bend in eastern Guatemala but continues eastward to the Motagua fault where it dies. Westward drift of the northern block resulted in rifting which extended from eastern Guatemala into the Caribbean along the Cayman trough. The Honduras depression may represent an element of a triple junction along with the Polochic and Izabal-Cayman rift. The Polochic continues westward into the Pacific Ocean and offsets the Middle America trench. The Polochic has offset the Miocene volcanic belt of northern Central America, confirming the previous estimate of a Neogene time of movement. About 300 km of relative east-west Neogene displacement has been recorded on the Mid-Cayman rise, only 130 km of which can be accounted for across the Polochic. It is

  1. Diurnal activity of the American Mink (Neovison vison in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García


    Full Text Available Abstract The American mink (Neovison vison is an invasive species in Spain and its population ecology is poorly understood. Diurnal activity was studied in a population of central Spain by means of direct observations. This activity peaked in summer and winter, mink being more active just after daybreak (06:00-08:00 and before dawn (16:00-18:00. Foraging (50% of observations; N = 146 and travelling (38.2%, were the main activities recorded during daylight. Mink were recorded as either in water or on land. In the latter, their distance from the water edge never exceeded 5.5 m. This pattern of daylight activity could be a mechanism for reducing potential interactions with nocturnal mammals sharing the same habitats. The success of culling campaigns could be increased by extending trapping sessions to daylight hours. Riassunto Attività diurna del visone americano (Neovison visonM nella Spagna centrale. L’ecologia dell’alloctono visone americano in Spagna è tuttora poco nota. Tramite osservazione diretta, è stata indagata l’incidenza della attività diurna in una popolazione della Spagna centrale. Tale attività è risultata più frequente in estate ed inverno, quando i visoni sono attivi nelle prime ore del giorno (06:00-08:00 e prima del tramonto (16:00-18:00. Le attività registrate più frequentemente sono state il foraggiamento (50% delle osservazioni, N = 146 e gli spostamenti (travelling, 38,2%. I visoni sono stati osservati indistintamente sia in acqua che a terra; in quest’ultimo caso la distanza dalla riva non è mai stata superiore a 5,5 m. Si ipotizza che l’attività diurna potrebbe essere un meccanismo per ridurre le interazioni con mammiferi prevalentemente notturni legati ai medesimi ambienti. In base ai risultati ottenuti, si suggerisce che il successo delle operazioni di controllo della specie potrebbe essere incrementato estendendo il

  2. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.


    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  3. Alaska Peninsula Alutiiq Workbook. (United States)

    Christiansen, Matrona; And Others

    This workbook contains materials for teachers to use in the classroom. An alphabet book, the Pledge of Allegiance, songs, a play, and units on various subjects, such as hunting, picking berries, making a garden, and spring cleaning, are included. The materials are presented in both Alaska Peninsula Alutiiq (Sugpiaq) and English. (CFM)

  4. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry

  5. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shalaby


    to the Arabian Gulf. The AERONET shortwave Top of Atmosphere Radiative Forcing (TOARF and at the Bottom of Atmosphere Radiative Forcing (BOARF have been analyzed and compared with the modeled direct radiative forcing of mineral dust aerosol. The annual modeled TOARF and BOARF are −3.3 and −12 W m−2, respectively. However, the annual observed TOARF and BOARF are significantly different at −10 and −52 W m−2, respectively. The analysis of observed and modeled TOARF agrees with previous studies in highlighting the need for more accurate specification of surface albedo over the region. Due to the high surface albedo of the central Arabian Peninsula, mineral dust aerosols tend to warm the atmosphere in summer (June–August.

  6. Bromine release during Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Appel, K.; Freundt, A.; Perez-Fernandez, W.; Wehrmann, H.


    Volcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) have produced at least 72 highly explosive eruptions within the last 200 ka. The eruption columns of all these “Plinian” eruptions reached well into the stratosphere such that their released volatiles may have influenced atmospheric chemistry and climate. While previous research has focussed on the sulfur and chlorine emissions during such large eruptions, we here present measurements of the heavy halogen bromine by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro-XRF microanalysis (SR-XRF) with typical detection limits at 0.3 ppm (in Fe rich standard basalt ML3B glass). Spot analyses of pre-eruptive glass inclusions trapped in minerals formed in magma reservoirs were compared with those in matrix glasses of the tephras, which represent the post-eruptive, degassed concentrations. The concentration difference between inclusions and matrix glasses, multiplied by erupted magma mass determined by extensive field mapping, yields estimates of the degassed mass of bromine. Br is probably hundreds of times more effective in destroying ozone than Cl, and can accumulate in the stratosphere over significant time scales. Melt inclusions representing deposits of 22 large eruptions along the CAVA have Br contents between 0.5 and 13 ppm. Br concentrations in matrix glasses are nearly constant at 0.4 to 1.5 ppm. However, Br concentrations and Cl/Br ratios vary along the CAVA. The highest values of Br contents (>8 ppm) and lowest Cl/Br ratios (170 to 600) in melt inclusions occur across central Nicaragua and southern El Salvador, and correlate with bulk-rock compositions of high Ba/La > 85 as well as low La/Yb discharged 700 kilotons of Br. On average, each of the remaining 21 CAVA eruptions studied have discharged c.100 kilotons of bromine. During the past 200 ka, CAVA volcanoes have emitted a cumulative mass of 3.2 Mt of Br through highly explosive eruptions. There are six periods in the past (c. 2ka, 6ka, 25ka, 40ka, 60ka, 75

  7. Geomorphic and exhumational response of the Central American Volcanic Arc to Cocos Ridge subduction (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Kirby, Eric; Fisher, Donald M.; van Soest, Matthijs


    The timing of collision of the Cocos Ridge at the Middle America Trench remains one of the outstanding questions in the tectonic evolution of the Central American convergent margin. New analyses of the tectonic geomorphology of the Cordillera de Talamanca, the extinct volcanic arc inboard of the Cocos Ridge, coupled with low temperature thermochronometry data, provide insight into the cooling and erosional history of the arc from late Miocene to present. We identify a low-relief surface at high elevation along the northeastern flanks of the range, which represents a relict erosional landscape cut across shallow plutonic rocks of the arc edifice. Longitudinal profiles of rivers on this surface are isolated from steep downstream sections by prominent knickzones that are interpreted to reflect a migrating wave of transient incision generated during differential rock uplift of the range. Reconstruction of pre-incision profiles suggests that rock uplift during the growth of the Cordillera de Talamanca is no greater than ˜2 km. This inference is corroborated by results from our apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track analyses along an elevation transect on Mt. Chirripó, the highest mountain in the Cordillera de Talamanca. Low-temperature cooling ages overlap significantly with published high-temperature40Ar/39Ar ages; the combined results imply that rapid cooling in the late Miocene was related to secular cooling of a shallow pluton, rather than exhumation. Our results imply that rapid incision along downstream channel segments, differential rock uplift, and growth of the Talamanca as a bivergent orogenic wedge associated with the onset of Cocos Ridge subduction are relatively young characteristics of the range. A review of previously published radiometric ages and revised plate reconstructions for the late Miocene further suggest that the cessation of arc volcanism in both the Cordillera de Talamanca and the Cordillera Central of western Panama was coeval with the

  8. Decreased Mexican and Central American labor migration to the United States in the context of the crisis


    José Luis Hernández Suárez


    This article analyzes the migration of Mexican and Central American workers to the United States, based on the theory of imperialism and underdevelopment, especially as regards the absolute surplus workers given the chronic inability of the underdeveloped capitalist economy to absorb, and the expected depletion of the system, to make room for some of them through international migration, because the law of population of capital installed it makes international labor...

  9. Initial reconstruction of the climate in the last millennium in the central Kola Peninsula (north-western Russia) based on tree-ring widths and stable isotope data of pine (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) (United States)

    Boettger, T.; Kononov, Yu.; Friedrich, M.; Kremenetski, C.


    More than 300 samples of living tree cores and subfossil slices of Pinus sylvestris L. have been taken in the course of joint field investigations in the Khibiny low mountains in the central part of the Kola Peninsula (approx. 67-68^oN, 33-34^oE). The samples collected enabled a continuous chronological series 1139 years long to be constructed from AD 2000 to 862. It is currently the longest chronological sequence in the region. Comparison between annual ring width and instrumental climatic records over the period 1923-2000 revealed close correlation between the index of annual wood growth and the summer air temperature. In addition, 10 samples of cores taken from living trees were studied by annual isotope analysis (^δ13C and δ18O) of the wood cellulose of their tree rings. Analysis of annual isotope variations in tree ring series are most promising for climatic reconstructions. A significant relationship was established between the proportion of ^δ13C isotope and the mean summer temperature. This formed the basis for reconstructions of the main warming and cooling periods over the period under consideration. Altogether there were 12 significant cooling periods, each about 10-20 years long. As for warmings, they were fewer in number (7) but lasted longer (about 40-90 years). Very strong coolings occurred twice. The first one was from the beginning of the interval studied until AD 884. In all probability, this actually represented the termination of the previous, even colder period, when the weather prevented any tree growth. The second cooling was in 1641-1654, and there is good reason for believing that this was a local manifestation of the Little Ice Age. The mean summer temperature at that time was almost 5^o below that nowadays.

  10. The Closure History of the Central American Seaway and its Relationship to Ocean Circulation and Climate (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.; Lawrence, K. T.; Ladlow, C. G.; Newkirk, D.


    Paleoceanographic and ecologic studies suggest that gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS) as the Isthmus of Panama rose between ~13 to 2 Ma caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow Pacific water flow through the seaway into the Caribbean. This diminishing communication is thought to have significantly influenced surface currents, ocean circulation at depth, and ultimately regional and global climate. However, new studies of Panama's volcanic/tectonic history suggest the isthmus rose much earlier than previous estimates, calling into question many of our accepted implications for this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, increased North Atlantic temperature, and ties to Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Despite considerable research, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined the possibility of earlier events in the closure history of the CAS and thus the precise linkages and timing are not well defined. To investigate early restricted CAS flow related to sill formation or pulsed exhumation events, we examine two sets of independent paleoceanographic reconstructions from Ocean Drilling Program sediment cores from the region. We assess the presence of Pacific waters within the Caribbean over the last 30 Ma via the Nd-isotopic composition of fish teeth from several Caribbean sites; these records point to sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean from at least 30 to 10 Ma. Further, alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) indicate the presence of consistently warm (>27 °C) waters in the EEP from ~12 to ~5 Ma, after which time SSTs at sites within the modern cold tongue begin to cool appreciably. The SST data imply that the EEP cold tongue, which some studies suggest is linked in part to the rise of the Panamanian isthmus, did not develop until after 5

  11. Trends in adolescent unions and childbearing in four Central American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remez, Lisa


    Full Text Available Context: Four low-income Central American nations—El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua—have the highest rates of adolescent fertility in Latin America. More information on time trends in adolescent marital and reproductive behaviors is needed to assess the need for improved information and services to delay marriage and childbearing. Methodology: Data from these countries’ recent Demographic and Health Surveys and Reproductive Health Surveys are used to examine trends in adolescent unions and childbearing by comparing two cohorts roughly a generation apart, 40–44-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds. We tested for significant differences over time, both for women overall and within subgroups, using Pearson Χ2 statistics that take the stratified, cluster sample design into account. Findings: As of 2001–2005/6, adolescent unions, which are far more likely to be consensual than legal, were still widespread in the subregion, as 45–60% of 20–24-year-old women in these four countries had entered into a union before their 20th birthday. Nonetheless, such early unions have fallen significantly over time in all four countries, declining by relatively less in Honduras (by six percentage points than in the other three countries (by 10–15 percentage points. In contrast, no comparable uniform trend emerged in the timing of first births: The proportions giving birth before age 20 fell significantly only in Nicaragua (by eight points; declines were smaller and nonsignificant in the other three countries (2–5 points. At the subgroup level, just one change was significant within area of residence—the 12-point decline in the proportion with any adolescent birth in urban areas in Nicaragua. Although the change was not significant at the population level, adolescent births increased significantly among less-educated women and the poorest women in El Salvador and Honduras, as traditional behaviors likely became more concentrated in those

  12. Steep REE patterns and enriched Pb isotopes in southern Central American arc magmas: Evidence for forearc subduction erosion? (United States)

    Goss, A. R.; Kay, S. M.


    The appearance of adakitic magmas with steep rare earth element (REE) patterns in southern Costa Rica and Panama at ˜4 Ma coincides with the collision of the Cocos Ridge and the inception of slab shallowing along the margin. Distinctly higher 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios in these adakitic lavas than in older Miocene lavas suggest that components enriched in radiogenic Pb also entered the mantle magma source at ˜4 Ma. Published Pb-isotopic data for Central American arc lavas show that a similar radiogenic component is not present in lavas farther north and that maxima in post-Miocene 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios occur in central Costa Rica and western Panama. Cretaceous and early Tertiary ophiolites in the forearc, whose origins have been linked to the Galápagos hot spot, show a similar spatial pattern in Pb isotopic ratios. The incorporation of ophiolitic forearc crust into the mantle wedge by forearc subduction erosion can explain the along-arc spatial and temporal pattern of Pb-isotopic ratios in southern Central American arc lavas. Partial melting of crust removed from the base of the forearc and subjected to high-pressure metamorphism in the subduction channel provides an explanation for the steep adakitic REE patterns in some Costa Rican and Panamanian arc lavas.

  13. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois (United States)

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna


    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  14. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014


    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…


    American Indians (AI) suffer some of the greatest health disparities in the US. Many conditions, including asthma, obesity, and diabetes, are prevalent among AI and are influenced by the places AI live. In addition, AI have high rates of severe physical housing problems and...

  16. Academic Race Stereotypes, Academic Self-Concept, and Racial Centrality in African American Youth (United States)

    Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.


    The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that…

  17. Current situation with the centralized storage facilities for non-power radioactive wastes in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several Latin American (LA) countries have been firmly committed to the peaceful applications of ionizing radiations in medicine, industry, agriculture and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development in diverse sectors. Consequently the use of radioactive materials and radiation sources as well as the production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds may always produce radioactive wastes which require adequate management and, in the end, disposal. However, there are countries in the Latin American region whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository. Moreover, such facilities are extremely expensive to develop. It is unlikely that such an option will become available in the foreseeable future for most of these countries, which do not have nuclear industries. Storage has long been incorporated as a step in the management of radioactive wastes. In the recent years, there have been developments that have led some countries to consider whether the roles of storage might be expanded to provide longer-term care of long-live radioactive wastes The aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation with the storage facilities/conditions for the radioactive wastes and disused sealed radioactive sources in Latin-American countries. In some cases a brief description of the existing facilities for certain countries are provided. In other cases, when no centralized facility exists, general information on the radioactive inventories and disused sealed sources is given. (author)

  18. Response of a coupled ocean/energy balance model to restricted flow through the Central American Isthmus (United States)

    Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Crowley, Thomas J.


    Prior ocean modeling work suggested that an open central American isthmus would cause a collapse of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation because of free exchange of low salinity water between the Atlantic and the Pacific. Geological data provide some support for this response, but the data also indicate that some North Atlantic Deep Water formation occurred before final closure of the isthmus. We previously postulated that this "early switch on" could reflect a more limited exchange of Atlantic waters with the Pacific. In this study we discuss model sensitivity experiments testing that hypothesis and interpret the response in terms of shifts between multiple steady states of the model. Two simulations are conducted with a version of the Hamburg large-scale geostrophic ocean model that is coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model. Constrictions of throughflow through the central American isthmus is mimicked by locally changing the frictional drag coefficient in the ocean model. Results indicate that modest levels of throughflow can maintain some level of thermohaline circulation. These results support the conjecture in our earlier study. However, the overturning cell is about 300 m shallower than in the control run, with deep water production nearly eliminated in the Labrador Sea. These latter responses should be testable with marine data.

  19. The Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A realistic approach to North-South arms control and disarmament would require a step-by-step formula encompassing measures for political and military confidence building, arms limitation and reduction. The most fundamental and important condition for achieving meaningful results in disarmament talks is securing political and military confidence. The problem which arose on the Korean peninsula originates from relations of North Korea and IAEA. North Korean position poses a serious threat to the Non-proliferation Treaty, in particular to the IAEA Safeguards regime. Nuclear non-proliferation and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are the primary concerns of the post-cold war era. The Government of South Korea hopes that this issue can be solved through dialogue and negotiations

  20. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research (United States)

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío


    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  1. Kenai Peninsula Caribou Management Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Caribou were extirpated from the Kenai Peninsula by 1912 and reintroduced via transplants from the Nelchina Herd in the mid 1960s and again in the mid 1980s. The...

  2. Decreased Mexican and Central American labor migration to the United States in the context of the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Hernández Suárez


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the migration of Mexican and Central American workers to the United States, based on the theory of imperialism and underdevelopment, especially as regards the absolute surplus workers given the chronic inability of the underdeveloped capitalist economy to absorb, and the expected depletion of the system, to make room for some of them through international migration, because the law of population of capital installed it makes international labor mobility needed a phenomenon in decline. The proposal is that the changes of state migration management through specific policies can be understood in the general structural framework established by the changes in the mode of production, the struggle between the ruling class and social movement that resists.

  3. Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S. (United States)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Pierce, R. B.; Otkin, J. A.; Schaack, T. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Silva, A. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.


    Tornadoes in the Southeast and central U.S. are episodically accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in central America. Analysis of the 27 April 2011 historical tornado outbreak shows that adding smoke to an environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development can increase the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence. Numerical experiments indicate that the presence of smoke during this event leads to optical thickening of shallow clouds while soot within the smoke enhances the capping inversion through radiation absorption. The smoke effects are consistent with measurements of clouds and radiation before and during the outbreak. These effects result in lower cloud bases and stronger low-level wind shear in the warm sector of the extratropical cyclone generating the outbreak, two indicators of higher probability of tornadogenesis and tornado intensity and longevity. These mechanisms may contribute to tornado modulation by aerosols, highlighting the need to consider aerosol feedbacks in numerical severe weather forecasting.

  4. Source region of volcanism and seismicity pattern beneath Central American volcanoes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří


    Roč. 236, 1/2 (2005), s. 149-172. ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1203; GA AV ČR IAA3012303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Central America * subduction * convergent plate margins Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.721, year: 2005

  5. Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central America. (United States)

    Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Sánchez, Andrés; Arbelaez, Italo; Lessios, Harilaos A; Densmore, Llewellyn D


    Conservation of large predators has long been a challenge for biologists due to the limited information we have about their ecology, generally low numbers in the wild, large home ranges and the continuous expansion of human settlements. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a typical apex predator, that has suffered from all of these characteristic problems, especially the latter one. Humans have had a major impact on the recovery of this species throughout its range, even though most of the countries it inhabits have banned hunting. The last decade has made it clear that in order to implement sound conservation and management programs, we must increase our understanding of crocodile spatial ecology. However, in only two countries where American crocodiles have telemetry studies even been published. Herein we have characterized the spatial ecology of C. acutus on Coiba Island, Panama, by radio-tracking (VHF transmitters) 24 individuals between 2010 and 2013, to determine movement patterns, home range, and habitat use. We have then compared our findings with those of previous studies to develop the most comprehensive assessment of American crocodile spatial ecology to date. Females showed a higher average movement distance (AMD) than males; similarly, adults showed a higher AMD than sub-adults and juveniles. However, males exhibited larger home ranges than females, and concomitantly sub-adults had larger home ranges than juveniles, hatchlings, and adults. There was an obvious relationship between seasonal precipitation and AMD, with increased AMD in the dry and "low-wet" seasons, and reduced AMD during the "true" wet season. We found disaggregate distributions according to age groups throughout the 9 habitat types in the study area; adults and hatchlings inhabited fewer habitat types than juveniles and sub-adults. These sex- and age-group discrepancies in movement and habitat choice are likely due to the influences of reproductive biology and Coiba

  6. Current and future niche of North and Central American sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae in climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moo-Llanes

    Full Text Available Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i potential change in niche breadth, ii direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3, for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%, while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases.

  7. Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American educators for Central Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie McClain-Ruelle


    Full Text Available The state of Wisconsin, and in the broader context, the middle states of the United States experienced a large influx of Hmong families starting in the early 1980’s and into the 1990’s. With this influx a large number of young, Southeast Asian children entered the PK-12 classrooms, often with the support of bilingual aides. While many of the children flourished within this newer context, they were mostly guided in their classrooms by white, Anglo educators. Although theseeducators work to meet the needs of all children, there were few to no Hmong educators working with these same children in the PK-12 setting. At the same time, a number of Hmong young adults were serving as bilingual aides in these classrooms. Project Forward, a federally funded Title VII grant, has worked to create a shift in these roles, preparing Hmong college students to become educators in the PK-12 settings. In 1999, Central Wisconsin enrolled approximately3,200 Hmong children in the PK-12 schools; at the same time, Central Wisconsin employed merely seven Hmong teachers in the classrooms. The goal of the grant program described in this paper is to prepare teachers of Southeast Asian background for early childhood, elementary, secondary and K-12 classrooms. The Central Wisconsin grant has supported a total of 35 Southeast Asian students in their pursuit of teaching careers. Fulfilling the goal of preparingteachers who can serve as role models for Southeast Asian children in our schools has met with successes and struggles. This article presents consideration of the central factors affectingrecruitment, retention and preparation of Hmong pre-service teachers in Central Wisconsin. The article includes a brief historical examination of the immigration of the Hmong population intothe United States, a consideration of the Hmong culture as it affects recruitment and retention of pre-service teachers and evidence related to successes and struggles experienced by Project

  8. Anatomy of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure revealed by seismic imaging, Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia, USA (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Powars, D.S.; Gohn, G.S.; Horton, J.W., Jr.; Goldman, M.R.; Hole, J.A.


    A 30-km-long, radial seismic reflection and refraction survey completed across the northern part of the late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure (CBIS) on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia, USA, confirms that the CBIS is a complex central-peak crater. We used a tomographic P wave velocity model and low-fold reflection images, constrained by data from two deep boreholes located on the profile, to interpret the structure and composition of the upper 5 km of crust. The seismic images exhibit well-defined structural features, including (with increasing radial distance) a collapsed central uplift, a breccia-filled moat, and a collapsed transient-crater margin (which collectively constitute a ???40-km-wide collapsed transient crater), and a shallowly deformed annular trough. These seismic images are the first to resolve the deep structure of the crater (>1 km) and the boundaries between the central uplift, moat, and annular trough. Several distinct seismic signatures distinguish breccia units from each other and from more coherent crystalline rocks below the central uplift, moat, and annular trough. Within the moat, breccia extends to a minimum depth of 1.5 km or a maximum of 3.5 km, depending upon the interpretation of the deepest layered materials. The images show ???350 to 500 m of postimpact sediments above the impactites. The imaged structure of the CBIS indicates a complex sequence of event during the cratering process that will provide new constraints for numerical modeling. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Overcoming Information Limitations for the Prescription of an Environmental Flow Regime for a Central American River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Opperman


    Full Text Available Hydropower dam construction is expanding rapidly in Central America because of the increasing demand for electricity. Although hydropower can provide a low-carbon source of energy, dams can also degrade socially valued riverine and riparian ecosystems and the services they provide. Such degradation can be partially mitigated by the release of environmental flows below dams. However, environmental flows have been applied infrequently to dams in Central America, partly because of the lack of information on the ecological, social, and economic aspects of rivers. This paper presents a case study of how resource and information limitations were addressed in the development of environmental flow recommendations for the Patuca River in Honduras below a proposed hydroelectric dam. To develop flow recommendations, we applied a multistep process that included hydrological analysis and modeling, the collection of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK during field trips, expert consultation, and environmental flow workshops for scientists, water managers, and community members. The final environmental flow recommendation specifies flow ranges for different components of river hydrology, including low flows for each month, high-flow pulses, and floods, in dry, normal, and wet years. The TEK collected from local and indigenous riverine communities was particularly important for forming hypotheses about flow-dependent ecological and social factors that may be vulnerable to disruption from dam-modified river flows. We show that our recommended environmental flows would have a minimal impact on the dam's potential to generate electricity. In light of rapid hydropower development in Central America, we suggest that environmental flows are important at the local scale, but that an integrated landscape perspective is ultimately needed to pursue hydropower development in a manner that is as ecologically sustainable as possible.

  10. Analyses of Genotypic Diversity among North, South, and Central American Isolates of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus: Evidence for Colombian Origins and for Intraspecific Spatial Phylogenetic Variation


    Moonan, Francis; Mirkov, T. Erik


    We have analyzed the genotypic diversity of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) collected from North, South, and Central America by fingerprinting assays and selective cDNA cloning and sequencing. One group of isolates from Colombia, designated the C-population, has been identified as residing at the root node between a separable superpopulation structure of SCYLV and other members of the family Luteoviridae, indicating that the progenitor viruses of the North, South, and Central American iso...

  11. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae, vectors of Chagas' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña


    Full Text Available The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  12. Genetic Subdivision and Variation in Selfing Rates Among Central American Populations of the Mangrove Rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus. (United States)

    Tatarenkov, Andrey; Earley, Ryan L; Perlman, Benjamin M; Scott Taylor, D; Turner, Bruce J; Avise, John C


    We used 32 polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate how a mixed-mating system affects population genetic structure in Central American populations (N = 243 individuals) of the killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus), 1 of 2 of the world's only known self-fertilizing vertebrates. Results were also compared with previous microsatellite surveys of Floridian populations of this species. For several populations in Belize and Honduras, population structure and genetic differentiation were pronounced and higher than in Florida, even though the opposite trend was expected because populations in the latter region were presumably smaller and highly selfing. The deduced frequency of selfing (s) ranged from s = 0.39-0.99 across geographic locales in Central America. This heterogeneity in selfing rates was in stark contrast to Florida, where s > 0.9. The frequency of outcrossing in a population (t = 1 - s) was tenuously correlated with local frequencies of males, suggesting that males are one of many factors influencing outcrossing. Observed distributions of individual heterozygosity showed good agreement with expected distributions under an equilibrium mixed-mating model, indicating that rates of selfing remained relatively constant over many generations. Overall, our results demonstrate the profound consequences of a mixed-mating system for the genetic architecture of a hermaphroditic vertebrate. PMID:25810121

  13. The Fate of Saharan Dust Across the Atlantic and Implications for a Central American Dust Barrier (United States)

    Nowottnick, E.; Colarco, P.; da Silva, A.; Hlavka, D.; McGill, M.


    Saharan dust was observed over the Caribbean basin during the summer 2007 NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) field experiment. Airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and satellite observations from MODIS suggest a barrier to dust transport across Central America into the eastern Pacific. We use the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric transport model with online aerosol tracers to perform simulations of the TC4 time period in order to understand the nature of this barrier. Our simulations are driven by the Modem Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological analyses. We evaluate our baseline simulated dust distributions using MODIS and CALIOP satellite and ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations. GEOS-5 reproduces the observed location, magnitude, and timing of major dust events, but our baseline simulation does not develop as strong a barrier to dust transport across Central America as observations suggest. Analysis of the dust transport dynamics and lost processes suggest that while both mechanisms play a role in defining the dust transport barrier, loss processes by wet removal of dust are about twice as important as transport. Sensitivity analyses with our model showed that the dust barrier would not exist without convective scavenging over the Caribbean. The best agreement between our model and the observations was obtained when dust wet removal was parameterized to be more aggressive, treating the dust as we do hydrophilic aerosols.

  14. The diffuse seismicity of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, the Perijá Range, and south of the La Guajira peninsula, Colombia and Venezuela: Result of the convergence between Caribbean plate and the South American margin during the Late Neogene? (United States)

    Chicangana, G.; Pedraza, P.; Mora-paez, H.; Ordonez Aristizabal, C. O.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.; Kammer, A.


    A diffuse low deep microseismicity located overall between the Guajira peninsula and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) was registered with the recent installation (2008 to Present) of three seismological stations in northeastern Colombia by the Colombian Seismological Network (RSNC), but mainly with the Uribia station in (the) central region of La Guajira peninsula, The microseismicity is characterized by a great population of events with 1.2 Caribbean plate (CP) between North America and South America during the Late Neogene produced the big cortical faults systems activation like Oca - Moron - El Pilar in Colombia and Venezuela toward the south of the Caribbean Plate (CP), and Motegua - Walton - Enriquillo - Plantain Garden toward the north of the CP. This situation was originated of a new subduction development of the Nazca - Cocos plates toward the south and the west of the Panama arc; when this happened, the evolution of the Present - day configuration of the Nazca plate and Galapagos Spreading Center started. From the Early Pliocene, the BSMF and the Oca fault were reactivated: the BSMF, with a left lateral movement, and the Oca fault with a right lateral movement. This last mobility produces the cortical diffuse seismicity that we are showing here.

  15. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)


    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  16. Scale-dependent effects of a heterogeneous landscape on genetic differentiation in the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Blair

    Full Text Available Landscape genetic studies offer a fine-scale understanding of how habitat heterogeneity influences population genetic structure. We examined population genetic structure and conducted a landscape genetic analysis for the endangered Central American Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri oerstedii that lives in the fragmented, human-modified habitats of the Central Pacific region of Costa Rica. We analyzed non-invasively collected fecal samples from 244 individuals from 14 groups for 16 microsatellite markers. We found two geographically separate genetic clusters in the Central Pacific region with evidence of recent gene flow among them. We also found significant differentiation among groups of S. o. citrinellus using pairwise F(ST comparisons. These groups are in fragments of secondary forest separated by unsuitable "matrix" habitats such as cattle pasture, commercial African oil palm plantations, and human residential areas. We used an individual-based landscape genetic approach to measure spatial patterns of genetic variance while taking into account landscape heterogeneity. We found that large, commercial oil palm plantations represent moderate barriers to gene flow between populations, but cattle pastures, rivers, and residential areas do not. However, the influence of oil palm plantations on genetic variance was diminished when we restricted analyses to within population pairs, suggesting that their effect is scale-dependent and manifests during longer dispersal events among populations. We show that when landscape genetic methods are applied rigorously and at the right scale, they are sensitive enough to track population processes even in species with long, overlapping generations such as primates. Thus landscape genetic approaches are extremely valuable for the conservation management of a diverse array of endangered species in heterogeneous, human-modified habitats. Our results also stress the importance of explicitly considering the heterogeneity of

  17. PD with a Passport: Reflections on Professional Development through Volunteer Work in Emerging Central American Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cate Louise Carlyle


    Full Text Available For many librarians, professional development involves system wide training days, webinars, massive open online courses (MOOCs, annual association conferences, and workshops. While such activities are necessary for learning new skills and technologies, some professionals crave a different kind of professional development. Volunteering as an international librarian can be a very rewarding and fulfilling challenge, an incredible personal and professional learning experience, but one that should not be entered into lightly. Based on the author’s experience volunteering in Guatemala with Librarians Without Borders, this article describes some of the issues involved when volunteering in Central America. Practical advice for selecting a service trip, costs, health and medical requirements, personal and professional issues, and work scope are some of the areas discussed.

  18. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants. (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia


    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:12065153

  19. Shifts in reproductive assurance strategies and inbreeding costs associated with habitat fragmentation in Central American mahogany. (United States)

    Breed, Martin F; Gardner, Michael G; Ottewell, Kym M; Navarro, Carlos M; Lowe, Andrew J


    The influence of habitat fragmentation on mating patterns and progeny fitness in trees is critical for understanding the long-term impact of contemporary landscape change on the sustainability of biodiversity. We examined the relationship between mating patterns, using microsatellites, and fitness of progeny, in a common garden trial, for the insect-pollinated big-leaf mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King, sourced from forests and isolated trees in 16 populations across Central America. As expected, isolated trees had disrupted mating patterns and reduced fitness. However, for dry provenances, fitness was negatively related to correlated paternity, while for mesic provenances, fitness was correlated positively with outcrossing rate and negatively with correlated paternity. Poorer performance of mesic provenances is likely because of reduced effective pollen donor density due to poorer environmental suitability and greater disturbance history. Our results demonstrate a differential shift in reproductive assurance and inbreeding costs in mahogany, driven by exploitation history and contemporary landscape context. PMID:22381041

  20. Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty


    World Bank


    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  1. The rising price of oil: a window of opportunity for some Central American and Caribbean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research paper analyzes the direct impact of the rising price of oil on shipping costs of any product to any point in the United States from Central America, Mexico or the Dominican Republic (CAM-DR) versus products from Asia. First, the study provides a brief description of the commercial opening of the countries analyzed and the liberalization of their markets. Second, it analyzes the evolution of the competitiveness of selected countries in the U.S. import market. Third, the study presents an analysis for each product. The hypothesis of this study is that geographical distance will be increasingly key. It is recommended that enhance shipping procedures and time (transit and container stay) be enhanced by simplifying customs procedures and improving port infrastructure. By expanding and improving road and rail infrastructures, countries could reduce shipping costs within their own territories. Besides, to avoid significant gain or loss in market share, it is recommended that the current tariff gaps be maintained or better still, expanded. Furthermore, forming strategic alliances could help producers lower the prices of their exported manufactured products.

  2. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates. (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H


    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  3. Paleoseismic and Geomorphic Evidence for Quaternary Fault Slip on the Central Range Fault, South American-Caribbean Plate Boundary, Trinidad (United States)

    Prentice, C. S.; Weber, J.; Crosby, C. J.


    The island of Trinidad is located along the transform plate boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates. GPS measurements show that relative motion along this boundary is nearly E-W right-lateral shear (Weber et al., 2001). Analysis and comparison of historic triangulation and GPS data suggest that a significant fraction (14+/-3 mm/yr) of the total plate-boundary motion (about 20 mm/yr) is being accommodated across the Central Range Fault in central Trinidad. Our new paleoseismic studies demonstrate that Quaternary surface rupture has occurred on this previously unrecognized, historically aseismic, active fault. Geomorphic evidence of Quaternary faulting along the Central Range Fault includes linear drainages, aligned topographic saddles and troughs, offset ridges, right-laterally deflected streams, and linear scarps. We mapped these features using 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs and field reconnaissance along a 25-km-long section between Pointe-a-Pierre on the west coast and Navet Dam. Geomorphic features near Manzanilla Bay on the east coast suggest that the Central Range Fault continues across the island as a Quaternary feature for another 25 km to the northeast. Marine geophysical surveys suggest this fault continues offshore to the west (Warm Springs fault), and steps to the north across the Gulf of Paria pull-apart basin to the El Pilar Fault. The extent of the fault offshore to the east is unknown. We exposed a 6-m-wide shear zone within Pliocene(?) material in a trench cut into a fluvial terrace, south of Samlalsingh Road near Bonne Aventure. The overlying Quaternary fluvial gravel is faulted and folded across the shear zone, and Quaternary fluvial deposits are faulted against the shear zone on the north side. A second excavation across a prominent scarp near Tabaquite, 12 km northeast of Samlalsingh Road, exposed a colluvial wedge and overlying unfaulted sediments. We interpret the colluvial wedge to represent deposits shed off the scarp in

  4. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Flores, F.


    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  5. Migration and wintering areas of American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) that summer in central North America as determined by satellite and radio telemetry, 1998-2003 (United States)

    Huschle, Guy; Toepfer, John E.; Douglas, David C.


    Twenty adult male American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) were marked on summer range in central North America with satellite tracking Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) to document migration routes and wintering range. Nineteen complete fall migration routes were documented for 17 individuals. Of the successful migrations, 63% (n = 12) went to southern Florida, 32% (n = 6) to southern Louisiana, and 5% (n = 1) to the Gulf coast of Texas. Spring migrations for nine birds were documented, and 78% (n = 7) showed fidelity to breeding range. Two complete migrations for two individuals were documented, and they demonstrated fidelity to winter range. The longest, fastest movement documented was 2,300 km in less than 74 hr. Extensive, post-breeding dispersal was not observed in the adult male American Bitterns in this study. Six male American Bitterns were marked with PTTs on winter range in Florida and Texas. Spring migration for these birds was documented to Nebraska, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Sixty-seven American Bitterns were marked with Very High Frequency radio transmitters on summer ranges, and 16% (n = 11) were located on wintering grounds used by the satellite-tracked birds, further documenting the importance of the Everglades and the Louisiana coast as winter habitat for American Bitterns that breed in Central North America.

  6. A Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF, coordinates and velocities for South American stations: contributions to Central Andes geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mackern


    Full Text Available Satellite positioning systems allow the fixing of the location of a point on the Earth's surface with very good precision and accuracy. To do this, however, it is necessary to determine the point coordinates taking account the reference system and the movements that affect them because of tectonic plate movements. These reference systems are materialized by a significant number of continuous measurement stations in South America. In SIRGAS (Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas, there are four Analysis Centers that process the data collected from satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, with the primary purpose to maintain the international terrestrial reference frame through calculation of the coordinates and velocities of the continuous GNSS stations of the SIRGAS-CON Network.

    In this work, we demonstrate the quality of the solutions from CIMA, one of the SIRGAS official processing centers operating in Mendoza, Argentina, in comparison with other South American processing centers. The importance of precise calculations of coordinates and velocities in a global frame is also shown. Finally, we give estimations of velocities from stations located within deformation zones in the Central Andes.

  7. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions (United States)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.


    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  8. Genetic structure of desert ground squirrels over a 20-degree-latitude transect from Oregon through the Baja California peninsula. (United States)

    Whorley, Joshua R; Alvarez-Castañeda, S Ticul; Kenagy, G J


    The genetic structure of populations over a wide geographical area should reflect the demographic and evolutionary processes that have shaped a species across its range. We examined the population genetic structure of antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) across the complex of North American deserts from the Great Basin of Oregon to the cape region of the Baja California peninsula. We sampled 73 individuals from 13 major localities over this 2500-km transect, from 43 to 22 degrees north. Our molecular phylogeographical analysis of 555 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 510 bp of the control region revealed great genetic uniformity in a single clade that extends from Oregon to central Baja California. A second distinct clade occupies the southern half of the peninsula. The minimal geographical structure of the northern clade, its low haplotype diversity and the distribution of pairwise differences between haplotypes suggest a rapid northward expansion of the population that must have followed a northward desert habitat shift associated with the most recent Quaternary climate warming and glacial retreat. The higher haplotype diversity within the southern clade and distribution of pairwise differences between haplotypes suggest that the southern clade has a longer, more stable history associated with a southern peninsular refugium. This system, as observed, reflects both historical and contemporary ecological and evolutionary responses to physical environmental gradients within genetically homogeneous populations. PMID:15315683

  9. Two new species of the bee genus Peponapis, with a key to the North and Central American species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini)


    Ricardo Ayala; Terry Griswold


    Two new species of squash bees, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. and P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n., are described and illustrated. Peponapis pacifica is oligolectic on flowers of Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae) endemic to Mexico, where it is found in the tropical dry forest along the Pacific Coast, between Sonora and Chiapas and in the Balsas River basin; and P. parkeri is known only from the Pacific slope of Costa Rica. A key for the North and Central American sp...

  10. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland


    Andrzej Antoszek


    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black mov...

  11. The Growth and Species-by-site Interaction of 18 Central American Multipurpose Tree Species Grown at 15 Tropical Sites World-wide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    From a world-wide plant introduction trial series utilising 25 central American species planted at over 100 sites in nearly 60 countries, eighteen species planted at 15 sites in the tropics were chosen for further study of the factors determining site productivity and site by species interactions. The species were Acacia pennatula, Acacia farnesiana, Albizia guachapele, Ateleia herbert-smithii, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia eriostachys, Caesalpinia velutina, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Gliricidia sepi...

  12. Redescriptions and lectotype designations of Central American species of Phaenonotum Sharp ( Coleoptera , Hydrophilidae ) based on the type material from the David Sharp collection


    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin


    Abstract In order to understand the identity of the Central American species of the genus Phaenonotum Sharp, 1882, the type specimens of the species described by Sharp (1882) deposited in the David Sharp collection in the Natural History Museum in London have been re-examined. The following species are redescribed: Phaenonotum apicale Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum collare Sharp, 1882, Phaenonotum dubium Sharp, 1882 (confirmed as junior synonym of Phaenonotum exstriatum (Say, 1835)), Phaenonotum la...

  13. The US Agency for International Development--Los Alamos National Laboratory--US Geological Survey Central American Geothermal Resources Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Janik, K. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Branch of Igneous and Geothermal Processes)


    Interdisciplinary field teams for this energy assistance program consisted of staff from Los Alamos, the US Geological Survey, the country of the study, and consultants; this provided the wide range of expertise necessary for geothermal resource evaluation. The program was successful largely because of the field teams dedication to their goals of verifying new geothermal resources and of sharing exploration techniques with in-country collaborators. Training programs included the geochemical, geophysical, and geological techniques needed for geothermal exploration. However, the most important aspect was long-term field work with in-country collaborators. Four geothermal gradient coreholes were drilled, three in Honduras and one in Guatemala. One of the coreholes was co-financed with Honduras, and showed their commitment to the project. Three of the exploration holes encountered high-temperature fluids, which provided information on the nature and extent of the geothermal reservoirs at promising sites in both countries. A geothermal well logging system was built and is shared between four Central American countries. For the evaluation of geothermal fluids, a geochemistry laboratory was established in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; it is now self-sufficient, and is part of Honduras' energy program. Through the teaching process and by working with counterparts in the field, the team expanded its own experience with a wide variety of geothermal systems, an experience that will be beneficial in the future for both the US investigators and in-country collaborators. At the working-scientists level, new contacts were developed that may flourish and professional ties were strengthened between scientists from a variety of US agencies. Rather than competing for research and field budgets, they worked together toward a common goal.

  14. Effects of fire management on the richness and abundance of central North American grassland land snail faunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekola, J. C.


    Full Text Available The land snail faunas from 72 upland and lowland grassland sites from central North America were analyzed. Sixteen of these had been exposed to fire management within the last 15 years, while the remainder had not. A total of 91,074 individuals in 72 different species were observed. Richness was reduced by approximately 30% on burned sites, while abundance was reduced by 50-90%. One-way ANOVA of all sites (using management type as the independent variable, a full 2-way ANOVA (using management and grassland type of all sites, and a 2-way ANOVA limited to 26 sites paired according to their habitat type and geographic location, demonstrated in all cases a highly significant (up to p < 0.0005 reduction in richness and abundance on fire managed sites. Contingency table analysis of individual species demonstrated that 44% experienced a significant reduction in abundance on fire-managed sites. Only six species positively responded to fire. Comparisons of fire response to the general ecological preferences of these species demonstrated that fully 72% of turf-specialists were negatively impacted by fire, while 67% of duff-specialists demonstrated no significant response. These differences were highly significant (p = 0.0006. Thus, frequent use of fire management represents a significant threat to the health and diversity of North American grassland land snail communities. Protecting this fauna will require the preservation of site organic litter layers, which will require the increase of fire return intervals to 15+ years in conjunction with use of more diversified methods to remove woody and invasive plants.

  15. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Coll, Joan Ramon; Aguilar, Enric


    Drought variability and change is assessed in this study across the Iberian Peninsula along the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century using state of the art drought indices: the Sc-PDSI, the SPI and the SPEI. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 time-series regularly spread over Iberian Peninsula are quality controlled and also homogenized in a monthly scale to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Sc-PDSI, the 12-month SPI and 12-month SPEI are computed on a monthly basis using the newly MITPS dataset to identify dry and wet conditions across time. Precipitation data is only required to compute SPI, but potential evapotranspiration (PET) is also needed to perform the Sc-PDSI and SPEI, which is estimated using the Tornthwaite's method. The analysis conducted in this study confirms that drought conditions are worsening for most of the Iberian Peninsula across time strongly induced by global warming especially during the last three decades. All drought indices have found a drying trend in the Pyrenees, Ebro basin, central Iberia and in the south and south-eastern area while a wetting trend is identified in the western and in the north-western region. Future projections also indicate a clear increase in hydrological drought conditions along the 21st century, thus, water saving and the application of effective water management strategies will be crucial to minimize the impact of hydrological droughts over the Iberian Peninsula into the near future. KEY WORDS: Drought, climate change, Iberian Peninsula, drought indices.

  16. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  17. Late Pleistocene/Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction and eruptive history of Central American volcanoes from lake bottom sediments of Lake Nicaragua (United States)

    Wulf, S.; Dull, R. A.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K. D.; Gardner, J. E.


    A shallow coring program in Lake Nicaragua was completed in May/June 2006 by the University of Texas (UT Department of Geography and UT Institute for Geophysics). A total of 35 sediment cores with lengths ranging between 12 cm and 100 cm along with five longer cores were extracted from the lake using a gravity corer and a modified manual square rod piston corer, respectively. Analyses of lake sediments have the following objectives: 1) to correlate the geophysical results with the core data to provide a stratigraphic framework for the shallow lake sediments; 2) to constrain past climate variability in this rather poorly investigated area; and 3) to establish a time series of explosive volcanic activity based on the identification and dating of tephra layers in the cores. Initial measurements of magnetic susceptibility, dry density, loss on ignition and XRF scanning indicated a dominance of fine-grained homogeneous diatomaceous sediments cover most of the lake floor. Increasing values in magnetic susceptibility in the upper part of several short cores most likely reflect increased erosion caused by land-use changes during the Spanish colonial period (1522-1822). Results on the two longest cores from the northeastern (355 cm) and southwestern (478 cm) parts of the lake reveal complete Holocene paleoclimate records in both areas that are comparable to other terrestrial and marine records in the Central and South- American tropics (i.e. Cariaco Basin). A lithologic change from homogeneous gyttia (diatomaceous mud) to blue- grayish waxy clay at the bottom of these records marks the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition as indicated by a radiocarbon dating on plant remains. The latter dense clay forms a distinctive stratigraphic marker in the lake basin. Tephra layers to date were detected in most gravity cores recovered west of Ometepe Island (Volcan Concepcion), and in long records in the northeastern basin (San Antonio Tephra, Masaya volcano, ca. 7,400 interpolated cal

  18. Bromine and chlorine emissions from Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc: From source to atmosphere (United States)

    Kutterolf, Steffen; Hansteen, Thor H.; Freundt, Armin; Wehrmann, Heidi; Appel, Karen; Krüger, Kirstin; Pérez, Wendy


    Large explosive volcanic eruptions inject gases, aerosols, and fine ashes into the stratosphere, potentially influencing climate and atmosphere composition on a global scale. Although the potential climate effect of chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br) injections into the stratosphere is known, the global mass fluxes are poorly constrained. In this study we focus on the magmatic degassing systematics and budgets of Br and Cl, and on constraining the major sources of Br in a subduction setting. We therefore present a regional time series of Br and Cl emissions from 29 highly explosive eruptions throughout the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), covering the last 200 ka, and a range of magmatic compositions and eruption magnitudes. We have measured Br and Cl in matrix glasses and melt inclusions using synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR micro-XRF) and electron microprobe, respectively. Melt inclusions of the CAVA tephras generally have higher Br (0.9 to 17.9 ppm) and Cl (770 to 3800 ppm) contents than the matrix glasses (0.39 to 1.5 ppm Br, 600 to 2800 ppm Cl). Moreover, the difference between maximum and minimum concentrations observed in melt inclusions of a given sample ranges between 9 and 90% of the maximum observed concentration for Br, and between 2 and 40% for Cl. Such intra-sample variations arise from variable pre-eruptive degassing of these halogens into a magmatic fluid phase. The relative loss of Br from the melt is 4 to 68 times higher than that of Cl. The masses of Br (2-1100 kt) and Cl (0.1 to 800 Mt) emitted by the eruptions generate instantaneous additions to the stratosphere potentially amounting to ∼6-5600% of the present-day stratospheric annual global loading of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine. As the size of the stratospheric impact is primarily a function of eruption magnitude, we use magnitude-frequency relationships to estimate that eruptions adding ∼10% to resident EESC loading would occur every

  19. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana) (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.


    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of periglaciation of the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Oliva, M.; Serrano, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; González-Amuchastegui, M. J.; Nieuwendam, A.; Palacios, D.; Pérez-Alberti, A.; Pellitero-Ondicol, R.; Ruiz-Fernández, J.; Valcárcel, M.; Vieira, G.; Antoniades, D.


    Active periglacial processes are currently marginal in the Iberian Peninsula, spatially limited to the highest mountain ranges. However, a wide variety of periglacial deposits and landforms are distributed in low and mid-altitude environments, which shows evidence of past periods of enhanced periglacial activity. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge of past periglacial activity in the Iberian Peninsula. The chronological framework takes four main stages into account: the last glaciation, deglaciation, Holocene and present-day processes. This study focuses on the highest massifs (Pyrenees, Cantabrian Range, NW ranges, Central Range, Iberian Range, Sierra Nevada) as well as other lower elevation environments, namely the central Iberian Meseta. During the last glaciation the periglacial belt extended to much lower altitudes than today, reaching current sea level in the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. A wide range of geomorphological landforms and sedimentary records is indicative of very active periglacial processes during that phase, in some cases related to permafrost conditions (i.e., block streams, rock glaciers). Most of the inactive landforms and deposits in low and mid-elevations in Iberia are also related to this phase. The massive deglaciation of the Iberian massifs was caused by a gradual increase in temperatures. The deglaciation phase was only interrupted by a short period with colder conditions (the Younger Dryas) that reactivated periglacial processes in the formerly glaciated cirques of the highest lands, specifically with the widespread development of rock glaciers. During the Holocene, periglacial processes have been only active in the highest ranges, shifting in altitude according to temperature regimes and moisture conditions. The Little Ice Age saw the reactivation of periglacial activity in lower elevations than today. Currently, periglacial processes are only active in elevations exceeding 2500 m in the southern

  1. Long-term persistence of subduction earthquake segment boundaries - evidence from Mejillones Peninsula, N-Chile (United States)

    Victor, P.; Sobiesiak, M.; Nielsen, S.; Glodny, J.; Oncken, O.


    The Mejillones Peninsula in N-Chile is a strong anomaly in coastline morphology along the Chilean convergent margin. The location of the Peninsula coincides with the northern limit of the 1995 Mw=8.0 Antofagasta earthquake and the southern limit of the 2007 Mw=7.8 Tocopilla earthquake and, probably, also with the southern limit of the 1877 Mw=8.5 Iquique earthquake. Although it is tempting to recognise the Mejillones Peninsula as the surface expression of a major segment boundary for large subduction earthquakes, so far evidence for its stability over multiple seismic cycles is lacking. We introduce a detailed analysis of the aftershock sequences in combination with new age data of the surface uplift evolution since the late Pliocene to test the hypothesis whether earthquake rupture propagation is limited at the latitude of Mejillones Peninsula since a longer time period. If the Peninsula really is linked to a persistent segment boundary, then the surface deformation of the Peninsula in fact holds the record about a deep-seated mechanism revealing the interaction between the subduction process and near-surface deformation. In our study we present new chronostratigraphic and structural data that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Peninsula at the surface and correlation of the latter with seismic cycle deformation on the interface. We investigated sets of paleo-strandlines preserved in beach ridges and uplifted cliffs to reconstruct the uplift history of the Peninsula. Our results show that the central graben area on the Peninsula started uplifting above sea level as an anticlinal hinge zone prior to 400 ky ago, most probably 790 ky ago. The resulting E-W trending hinge exactly overlies the limit between the rupture planes of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes. By correlating the uplift data with the slip distribution of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes, we demonstrate that deformation and uplift is focussed during the postseismic and

  2. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.


    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  3. Preliminary assessment of aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Andrade, C.; Corte-Real, J. A.


    Aridity is one of the key elements characterizing the climate of a region, having a severe impact on human activities. Aiming at assessing aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula, the spatial distribution of the UNEP aridity index is analyzed during the period 1901-2012. Gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets are used on a monthly basis. Results show that the southern half of Iberia is particularly vulnerable to water stress and hence to desertification processes. In particular, the UNEP aridity index reveals an increase and northward extension of the semi-arid regime in the Iberian Peninsula between 1901 and 2012. More than 50% of the north and western territory have experienced humid/sub-humid conditions, while the other regions underwent semi-arid settings. Results also reveal that climate was subjected to spatial and temporal variabilities with an overall statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level) trend to aridification in the south-easternmost and central regions. The remaining territory of the Iberian Peninsula does not reveal statistically significant trends.

  4. Long-term persistence of subduction earthquake segment boundaries: Evidence from Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile (United States)

    Victor, P.; Sobiesiak, M.; Glodny, J.; Nielsen, S. N.; Oncken, O.


    The Mejillones Peninsula in northern Chile has been recognized as the surface expression of a segment boundary for large subduction zone earthquakes. The sharp contact between the rupture planes of two instrumentally recorded earthquakes, the Mw = 8.0 Antofagasta (1995) and the Mw = 7.7 Tocopilla (2007) events, is located beneath the central part of Mejillones Peninsula. We present new chronostratigraphic and structural data that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Peninsula at the surface and correlation of the latter with seismic cycle deformation on the plate interface. Uplift commenced after 3.4 Myr, as recorded in the western highland. The central graben area on the Peninsula started uplifting above sea level as an anticlinal hinge zone prior to 400 kyr ago, most probably 790 kyr ago. The resulting E-W trending hinge exactly overlies the limit between the rupture planes of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes. By correlating the uplift data with the slip distribution of the above earthquakes, we demonstrate that deformation and uplift is focused during the postseismic and interseismic periods of the megathrust seismic cycle with coseismic deformation opposed to the long-term motion. Additionally, the slip deficit beneath the Peninsula accumulating between events is probably largely recovered by creep. Hence we suggest that Mejillones Peninsula owes its existence to the lateral variation of the propensity for unstable slip at the interface. Since the latter is a material property, the long-term spatial stability of the Peninsula as a barrier to rupture propagation since at least the middle Pleistocene is a necessary consequence.

  5. Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula lithosphere: Evidence from Mesozoic mafic rocks (United States)

    Riley, T. R.; Curtis, M. L.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    New geochronology from a thick (> 800 m) basaltic succession along the eastern margin of the Antarctic Peninsula confirm a Middle Jurassic age (178 ± 1 Ma). This marginally postdates the adjacent Ferrar large igneous province of the Transantarctic Mountains and predates the extensive silicic volcanism of the Mapple Formation (~ 170 Ma) of the Antarctic Peninsula. The geochemistry of other rare, but broadly contemporaneous, basaltic successions of the Antarctic Peninsula, along with Cretaceous-age mafic dykes, are used to interpret the influences of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle sources during the Mesozoic. Two significant high magmatic addition rate events occurred along the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin at 170 and 110 Ma and can be correlated to events along the South American Cordillera. These 'flare-up' events are characterised by extensive silicic (mostly ignimbrite) volcanism of the Chon Aike Province (V2 event: 170 Ma) and significant granitoid batholith emplacement of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite (110 Ma). The 170 Ma event is exposed across large parts of the northern Antarctic Peninsula, whilst the 110 Ma event is more widespread across the southern Antarctic Peninsula. The basaltic volcanism described here precedes the 'flare-up' event at 170 Ma and has geochemical characteristics that indicate a thickened lithosphere prevailed. A major dyke swarm that followed the 170 Ma event indicates that extensive lithospheric thinning had occurred, which allowed the ascent of depleted mafic melts. The thinning was the direct result of widespread lower crustal/upper lithospheric melting associated with the silicic volcanism. In the southern Antarctic Peninsula, the lithosphere remained over thickened until the emplacement of the major batholiths of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite at 110 Ma and was then immediately followed by the emplacement of more asthenosphere-like melts indicating extensive lithospheric thinning.

  6. Projected 21st-century changes in the Central American mid-summer drought using statistically downscaled daily CMIP5 precipitation projections (United States)

    Roby, N.; Maurer, E. P.


    The seasonal precipitation pattern of the Central American region is marked by a temporary reduction of precipitation during the typical May-October rainy season, often termed the mid-summer drought. A mid-summer drought (MSD) has been defined as a period of significant decrease in precipitation over a time period greater than one month. Different characteristics of the MSD, including the start date, duration, and intensity, have implications for regional ecosystems, crop production, and the livelihood of farmers in the region. The characteristics and driving mechanisms of the MSD have been investigated for many years, and recently an objective algorithm for the presence and intensity (or strength) of the MSD was developed based on monthly precipitation data. The current work develops an objective algorithm for MSD intensity and duration based on daily precipitation from a data set of gridded observations. The algorithm is then applied to future daily precipitation projections for the Central American region, produced by statistically downscaling climate model output produced as part of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. This allows a representation of the projected changes in MSD at a finer temporal scale, and may help in shaping adaptation measures promoted to cope with these changes.

  7. Paleobiogeografía del arribo de mamíferos suramericanos al sur de América Central de previo al gran intercambio biótico americano: un vistazo al GABI en América Central Paleobiogeography of the arrival of south american mammals to southern Central America prior to the great american biotic interchange: a look at the GABI in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Laurito


    of South American mammals to the Southern Central America region, not known until now. The arrival of South American mammals to the Panama Region was due to a series of factors such as the development of the Costa Rica-Panamá Island Arc by subduction processes, the collision and the deformation of the Island Arc with the North-Western Colombia territories and the prevailing climate factors which stimulated the predominance of warm, humid and basal forests, both in Colombia and in southern Central America. This permitted the xenarthrans, which are considered strong swimmers and islands hoppers to migrate to the North. These conditions on the other hand, limited the migration to the South of the North American mammals, whose arrival in South America was postponed until the Blancan age with drier climatic conditions and the new land corridor that was established in the region. Additionally, the current state of the Great American Biotic Interchange in Central America (GABI is analyzed

  8. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.


    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  9. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Carra, Adriana; de Castillo, Ibis Soto; Florentin, Sara; Diaz de Bedoya, Fernando Hamuy; Mandler, Raul; de Siervi, Luiza Campanella; Pimentel, Maria Lúcia Vellutini; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Alvarenga, Marcos Papais; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Gama Pereira, Ana Beatriz Calmon; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Velasquez, Carolina; Soublette, Carlos; Fleitas, Cynthia Veronica; Diniz, Denise Sisteroli; Armas, Elizabeth; Batista, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Freda; Pereira, Fernanda Ferreira Chaves da Costa; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Cabeça, Hideraldo; Sanchez, Jose; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinicius; Barroso, Maria Cristina Del Negro; Ravelo, Maria Elena; Castillo, Maria Carlota; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito; Rocha, Maria Sheila Guimarães; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Molina, Omaira; Marinho, Patricia Beatriz Christino; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Brant de Souza, Renata; Pessanha Neto, Silvio; Camargo, Solange Maria das Graças; Machado, Suzana Costa; Neri, Vanderson Carvalho; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alvarenga, Helcio; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos


    The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=miscegenation found in SA, MS affects three quarters of all patients with IIDD, mainly white young women who share similar clinical characteristics to those in Western populations in the northern hemisphere, with the exception of ethnicity; approximately one-third of all

  10. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    ... Arabian Peninsula View Larger Map Cases of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) have been identified in multiple countries ... 7100). Additional Information: MERS Health Advisory Poster CDC Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) ...

  11. Travelers' Health: MERS in the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health website for more information on healthy travel. Health care workers People who are traveling to provide health care services in the Arabian Peninsula should review CDC’s recommendations for infection control of confirmed or ...

  12. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys...

  13. Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry (United States)

    A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of nine commercially available H5 vaccines against challen...

  14. Inventory of African desert dust events in the north-central Iberian Peninsula in 2003-2014 based on sun-photometer-AERONET and particulate-mass-EMEP data (United States)

    Cachorro, Victoria E.; Burgos, Maria A.; Mateos, David; Toledano, Carlos; Bennouna, Yasmine; Torres, Benjamín; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Herguedas, Álvaro


    A reliable identification of desert dust (DD) episodes over north-central Spain is carried out based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) columnar aerosol sun photometer (aerosol optical depth, AOD, and Ångström exponent, α) and European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) surface particulate-mass concentration (PMx, x = 10, 2.5, and 2.5-10 µm) as the main core data. The impact of DD on background aerosol conditions is detectable by means of aerosol load thresholds and complementary information provided by HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model) air mass back trajectories, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images, forecast aerosol models, and synoptic maps, which have been carefully reviewed by a human observer for each day included in the DD inventory. This identification method allows the detection of low and moderate DD intrusions and also of mixtures of mineral dust with other aerosol types by means of the analysis of α. During the period studied (2003-2014), a total of 152 DD episodes composed of 418 days are identified. Overall, this means ˜ 13 episodes and ˜ 35 days per year with DD intrusion, representing 9.5 % days year-1. During the identified DD intrusions, 19 daily exceedances over 50 µg m-3 are reported at the surface. The occurrence of DD event days during the year peaks in March and June, with a marked minimum in April and lowest occurrence in winter. A large interannual variability is observed showing a statistically significant temporal decreasing trend of ˜ 3 days year-1. The DD impact on the aerosol climatology is addressed by evaluating the DD contribution in magnitude and percent (in brackets) for AOD, PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5 - 10, obtaining mean values of 0.015 (11.5 %), 1.3 µg m-3 (11.8 %), 0.55 µg m-3 (8.5 %) and 0.79 µg m-3 (16.1 %), respectively. Annual cycles of the DD contribution for AOD and PM10 present two maxima - one in summer (0.03 and 2.4 µg m-3 for AOD in

  15. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov


    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  16. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Papais-Alvarenga

    Full Text Available The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO among multiple sclerosis (MS cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%, increasing in Mestizos (8% and Africans (15.4%-27.5% living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian. The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%, NMO (11.8%, other NMO syndromes (6.5%, CIS (3.5%, ADEM (1.0%, and acute encephalopathy (0.4%. Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS score (r=0.374; p=<0.001. This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs. Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect

  17. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk


    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.O gênero de ariídeos Cathorops inclui espécies que habitam principalmente águas doces e estuarinas das plataformas orientais e ocidentais do sul do México, Américas do Sul e Central. Neste estudo, se apresenta uma revisão das espécies de Cathorops da Mesoamérica (bacias do Atlântico e Caribe centroamericano, incluindo a descrição de três espécies novas: C. belizensis, de áreas de manglar em Belice; C. higuchii, de águas costeiras rasas e rios costeiros do Caribe centroamericano, desde Honduras até o Panamá; e C. kailolae, das bacias do rio Usumacinta e lago Izabal no México e Guatemala. Adicionalmente, se redescrevem C. aguadulce, da bacia do rio Papaloapan no México, e C. melanopus, da bacia do rio Motagua na Guatemala e Honduras, apresentando-se uma revisão de suas distribuições geográficas.

  18. Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology of the Pallatanga fault (Central Ecuador), a major structure of the South-American crust


    Baize, S; Audin, Laurence; Winter, T.; Alvarado, A.; Moreno, L. P.; Taipe, M.; Reyes, P; Kauffmann, P; H. Yepes


    The Pallatanga fault (PF) is a prominent NNE-SSW strike-slip fault crossing Central Ecuador. This structure is suspected to have hosted large earthquakes, including the 1797 Riobamba event which caused severe destructions to buildings and a heavy death toll (more than 12,000 people), as well as widespread secondary effects like landsliding, liquefaction and surface cracking. The scope of this study is to evaluate the seismic history of the fault through a paleoseismological approach. This wor...

  19. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. (United States)

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana


    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  20. The value of Standards and Labelling: an international cost-benefit analysis tool for Standards and Labelling programs with results for Central American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a cost-benefit spreadsheet analysis tool that provides an evaluation of the net impacts of an appliance standards and labelling (SandL) program. The tool is designed to provide a rough estimate at very low cost to local analysts, while allowing for a more accurate evaluation when detailed local data are available. The methodology takes a bottom-up engineering approach, beginning with appliance-specific engineering parameters relating efficiency improvement and incremental costs associated with specific design technologies. Efficiency improvement afforded by each potential policy option is combined with local appliance use patterns to estimate average annual energy consumption for each appliance. This information is combined with appliance lifetime data and local energy prices to provide a life cycle cost impact assessment at the household level. In addition to household level impacts, the analysis tool forecasts future appliance sales, in order to calculate potential energy savings, consumer financial impacts and carbon emissions reductions at the national level. In order to demonstrate the features of the policy model employed, this poster presents a regional analysis based on the most recent publicly available appliance data. In particular, a set of developing countries in Central America were chosen as an example. Taken as a whole, the Central American results demonstrate the general level of benefit which could be afforded in these countries. Comparison between the countries reveals the key parameters determining the benefit a given country can expect from a standards program

  1. Little Ice Age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A. (United States)

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.; Schuster, P.F.; Ready, M.M.; Taylor, H.E.; Yanosky, T.M.; McConnaughey, E.A.


    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The ??18O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95??? shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the ??18O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  2. The 10 April 2014 Nicaraguan Crustal Earthquake: Evidence of Complex Deformation of the Central American Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Angélica; Farraz, Isaac A.; Talavera, Emilio; Tenorio, Virginia; Novelo-Casanova, David A.; Sánchez, Antonio


    On 10 April 2014, an M w 6.1 earthquake struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan national seismic network and other regional seismic stations. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt in central Nicaragua but caused relatively little damage. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that the 1972 earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks of the 2014 event shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a northwest to southeast striking fault, parallel to the volcanic arc. The source mechanism agrees with this right-lateral, strike-slip motion on a plane with the same orientation as the aftershock sequence. For an earthquake of this magnitude, seismic scaling relations between fault length and magnitude predict a sub-surface fault length of approximately 16 km. This length is in good agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of aftershocks beneath Apoyeque volcano occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated from the first. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Nevertheless, the decay of the number of earthquakes beneath Apoyeque as a function of time shows the typical behavior of an aftershock sequence and not of a volcanic swarm. The northeast-southwest striking Tiscapa/Ciudad Jardín and Estadio faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. These orthogonal faults in close geographic proximity show that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic setting. The Nicaraguan forearc sliver, between the trench and the volcanic arc, moves to the

  3. The Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (Des Moines, IA, April 29-May 3, 1992). [Abstracts. (United States)

    Richardson, James A., Ed.; Hoadley, Michael, Ed.

    This publication is designed to communicate the history and research activities of members of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. It presents summaries of 30 papers and conference presentations on such topics as pioneering physical educators; cholesterol in college football players;…

  4. The Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (Omaha, NE, April 29-May 2, 1993). [Abstracts. (United States)

    Richardson, James A., Ed.; Hoadley, Michael, Ed.

    This publication, designed to communicate the history and research activities of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, presents summaries of 20 papers. The papers focus on elementary physical education specialists; physical education instruction of classroom teachers; child care…

  5. Helianthemum marmoreum (Cistaceae), a new species from the Central Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit


    Helianthemum marmoreum is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula (R. Macedonia). It inhabits rocky marble and limestone slopes and pastures at moderate altitudes of 240-1400 m. The closes...

  6. Wind characteristics on the Yucatan Peninsula based on short term data from meteorological stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando [CREST, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Watson, Simon [CREST, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, David [Institute of Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    Due to the availability of sparsely populated and flat open terrain, the Yucatan Peninsula located in eastern Mexico is a promising region from the perspective of wind energy development. Study of the diurnal and seasonal wind resource is an important stage in the move towards commercial exploitation of wind power in this Latin American region. An analysis of the characteristics of the wind resource of the Yucatan Peninsula is presented in this paper, based on 10 min averaged wind speed data from nine meteorological stations, between 2000 and 2007. Hourly and monthly patterns of the main environmental parameters have been examined. Highly directional behaviour was identified that reflects the influence of winds coming from the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The characteristics of the wind speed variation observed at the studied sites reflected their proximity to the coast and whether they were influenced by wind coming predominantly from over the land or predominantly from over the sea. The atmospheric stability over the eastern seas of the Yucatan Peninsula was also analysed to assess thermal effects for different wind directions. The findings were consistent with the variation in average wind speeds observed at the coastal sites where winds came predominantly from over the sea. The research presented here is to be used as a basis for a wind atlas for the Yucatan Peninsula. (author)

  7. Report on the game conditions on the Alaskan Peninsula (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report on the game conditions on the Alaska Peninsula. This report critically examines threats to the animals on the Alaskan Peninsula. Species covered...

  8. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)


    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev


    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  10. The Korean peninsula: some recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the end of the cold war, peace seemed to have dawned in the Asian continent, especially in the Korean peninsula, when Seoul and Beijing opened the doors to a new regional power arrangement by establishing full diplomatic relations on 24 August, 1992. The normalisation of relations between the two countries was already on the cards and Beijing's consideration of North Korea's sensitiveness had been the only factor that blocked an earlier normalisation. This paper details the developments taking place regarding the reunification of Korean peninsula, nuclear issues and the future of the area

  11. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.


    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  12. Isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites in Central and South American Calea species and their biochemical systematic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen species of the genus Calea (Family Compositae, Tribe Heliantheae) from Central and northern South America, including the type species for the genus, were investigated chemically to determine their secondary metabolites. The taxa studied were C. leptocephala Blake, C. megacephala Rob, and Greenm., and C. trichotoma B. Smith from Mexico, C. prunifolia Kunth (syn. C. pittieri) from Costa Rica, C. prunifolia Kunth from Panama, C. jamaicensis L. from Jamaica, and the Venezuelan species C. berteriana DC., C. divaricata Benthem, C. oliverii Rob. and Greenm., C. prunifolia Kunth, C. septuplinervia Hieron., C. solidaginea Kunth, and C. subcordata Kunth. The chemical investigation of these Calea species, undertaken as part of biochemical systematic study, has resulted in the isolation of 83 compounds, of which 38 are new natural products. The isolated compounds were represented by a dioxin derivative, 3 benzofuranes, 5 chromenes, 12 flavones, and 62 sesquiterpene lactones. The structures of the new compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. These methods included MS, IR, UV, and CD, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis

  13. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables. (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A


    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented. PMID:26490448

  14. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.; Waight, Tod Earle; Kent, Adam J.R.; Grassineau, Nathalie V.; Skovgaard, Anna Cecile


    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  15. Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology of the Pallatanga fault (Central Ecuador), a major structure of the South-American crust (United States)

    Baize, Stéphane; Audin, Laurence; Winter, Thierry; Alvarado, Alexandra; Pilatasig Moreno, Luis; Taipe, Mercedes; Reyes, Pedro; Kauffmann, Paul; Yepes, Hugo


    The Pallatanga fault (PF) is a prominent NNE-SSW strike-slip fault crossing Central Ecuador. This structure is suspected to have hosted large earthquakes, including the 1797 Riobamba event which caused severe destructions to buildings and a heavy death toll (more than 12,000 people), as well as widespread secondary effects like landsliding, liquefaction and surface cracking. The scope of this study is to evaluate the seismic history of the fault through a paleoseismological approach. This work also aims at improving the seismotectonic map of this part of the Andes through a new mapping campaign and, finally, aims at improving the seismic hazard assessment. We show that the PF continues to the north of the previously mapped fault portion in the Western Cordillera (Rumipamba-Pallatanga portion) into the Inter-Andean Valley (Riobamba basin). Field evidences of faulting are numerous, ranging from a clear geomorphological signature to fault plane outcrops. Along the western side of the Riobamba basin, the strike-slip component seems predominant along several fault portions, with a typical landscape assemblage (dextral offsets of valleys, fluvial terrace risers and generation of linear pressure ridges). In the core of the inter-Andean valley, the main fault portion exhibits a vertical component along the c. 100 m-high cumulative scarp. The presence of such an active fault bounding the western suburbs of Riobamba drastically increases the seismic risk for this densely inhabited and vulnerable city. To the east (Peltetec Massif, Cordillera Real), the continuation of the Pallatanga fault is suspected, but not definitely proved yet. Based on the analysis of three trenches, we state that the Rumipamba-Pallatanga section of the PF experienced 4 (maybe 5) Holocene to Historical strong events (Mw > 7). The coseismic behavior of the fault is deduced from the occurrence of several colluvial wedges and layers associated with the fault activity and interbedded within the organic

  16. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek


    Full Text Available This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  17. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek


    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  18. Mapping South American Summer Monsoon Changes during Heinrich Event 1 and the LGM: Insights from New Paleolake Records from the Central Andes (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; McGee, D.; Quade, J.


    Cave stalagmite records show strong evidence of abrupt changes in summer monsoons during Heinrich events, but we lack rigorous constraints on the amount of wetting or drying occurring in monsoon regions. Studies on shoreline deposits of closed-basin lakes can establish quantitative bounds on water balance changes through mapping-based estimates of lake volume variations. We present new dating constraints on lake level variations in Agua Caliente I and Laguna Loyoques, two closed-basin, high-altitude paleolakes on the Altiplano-Puna plateau of the Central Andes (23.1°S, 67.4°W, 4250 masl). Because this area receives >70% of its total annual precipitation during austral summer, the region is ideally suited to capture a pure response to changes in the South American summer monsoon (SASM). The plateau is home to several small (modern. Hydrologic modeling constrained by paleotemperature estimates is used to provide bounds for these past precipitation changes. We also tentatively explore physical mechanisms linking Heinrich events and the regional hydroclimate by comparing freshwater hosing experiments and transient climate simulations. Our results in Agua Caliente I and Laguna Loyoques act as a proof of concept, and lend us confidence in expanding our U-Th work to other shoreline tufas in the surrounding region to produce a more detailed, spatiotemporal record of water balance changes in South America.

  19. Comparing the impacts of Miocene-Pliocene changes in inter-ocean gateways on climate: Central American Seaway, Bering Strait, and Indonesia (United States)

    Brierley, Chris M.; Fedorov, Alexey V.


    Changes in inter-ocean gateways caused by tectonic processes have been long considered an important factor in climate evolution on geological timescales. Three major gateway changes that occurred during the Late Miocene and Pliocene epochs are the closing of the Central American Seaway (CAS) by the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama, the opening of the Bering Strait, and the closing of a deep channel between New Guinea and the Equator. This study compares the global climatic effects of these changes within the same climate model framework. We find that the closure of the CAS and the opening of the Bering Strait induce the strongest effects on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, these effects potentially compensate, as the closure of the CAS and the opening of the Bering Strait cause similar AMOC changes of around 2 Sv (strengthening and weakening respectively). Previous simulations with an open CAS consistently simulated colder oceanic conditions in the Northern Hemisphere - contrasting with the evidence for warmer sea surface temperatures 10-3 million years ago. Here we argue that this cooling is overestimated because (a) the models typically simulated too strong an AMOC change not yet in equilibrium, (b) used a channel too deep and (c) lacked the compensating effect of the closed Bering Strait - a factor frequently ignored despite its potential influence on northern high latitudes and ice-sheet growth. Further, we discuss how these gateway changes affect various climatic variables from surface temperature and precipitation to ENSO characteristics.

  20. Calling the EU's bluff. Who are the real champions of biodiversity and traditional knowledge in the EU-Central American and EU-Community of Andean Nations Association Agreements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Europe and the EU's Raw Materials Initiative are designed to bolster the EU's economic position - whatever the cost - in the face of fierce global competition for both markets and resources, especially from emerging economies such as China and India. The EU also fears losing trade to the US, which has already secured trade and investment concessions from countries in the Western hemisphere, through the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) and other bilateral trade agreements.

  1. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato


    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  2. Refugees from Central American gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Kennedy


    Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  3. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the trend of coal demand in Central and South American countries; 1994 nendo kaigaitan kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chunanbei shokoku ni okeru sekitan jukyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Focusing on the present status and future of coal demand in Central/South American countries and the coal trade between Central/South American countries and the U.S., the paper described the present status and future of coal demand there and the effects on Japan. Export of Colombian coal will amount to approximately 30-35 million tons in 2000. Venezuelan coal 10-20 million tons. The U.S. imported good-quality general coal low in sulfur content, 3.08 tons from Columbia and 1.39 tons from Venezuela. Coal export from the U.S. to Central/South America was mostly of raw material coal, 5 million tons in 1993 and 5.39 million tons in 1994. General coal was 180,000 tons. The U.S. has no plans of increasing US coal export to Central/South America. But it is safely predicted that Columbia and Venezuela will increase coal export to Europe in the future. It will bring about decrease in export of US coal to Europe, which connects with increasing pressure for the coal trade amount of Japan. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hatice Mergen; Reyhan Öner; Cihan Öner


    Throughout human history, the region known today as the Anatolian peninsula (Turkey) has served as a junction connecting the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia, and, thus, has been subject to major population movements. The present study is undertaken to obtain information about the distribution of the existing mitochondrial D-loop sequence variations in the Turkish population of Anatolia. A few studies have previously reported mtDNA sequences in Turks. We attempted to extend these results by analysing a cohort that is not only larger, but also more representative of the Turkish population living in Anatolia. In order to obtain a descriptive picture for the phylogenetic distribution of the mitochondrial genome within Turkey, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region sequence variations in 75 individuals from different parts of Anatolia by direct sequencing. Analysis of the two hypervariable segments within the noncoding region of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of 81 nucleotide mutations at 79 sites. The neighbour-joining tree of Kimura’s distance matrix has revealed the presence of six main clusters, of which H and U are the most common. The data obtained are also compared with several European and Turkic Central Asian populations.

  5. Wildfire activity in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Trigo, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Rasilla, Domingo


    The main objective of this work is to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the monthly wildfire activity in the Iberian Peninsula trough the first comprehensive assessment of wildfires from both countries (Portugal and Spain). This was made possible for the 28-year long period spanning between 1980 and 2007 using and comparing the Portuguese and Spanish fire databases. We use the Portuguese wildfire database kindly provided by the Forest National Authority which includes information of the fire events recorded between the 1980-2007 period and compute time series of monthly values of burnt area that will be used and the correspondent values from the Spanish database. It should be stressed that the Iberian Peninsula is characterized by very different wildfire regimes. The majority of Iberia being dominated by an intense seasonal peak in the summer, particularly the western (Portugal) and southern (Andalucía) areas. However, the greener provinces in the north present a strong secondary peak in late winter (Galicia) or even a higher activity during the months of February-March (Asturias). Furthermore, we also aim to characterize the weather conditions and the atmospheric circulation associated with high wildfire activity over different areas of the Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose a set of large-scale atmospheric fields was retrieved from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results obtained for the description of the individual and joint spatial and temporal analysis were based on different methodology, including multivariate statistical analysis (PCA, cluster analysis) and regression techniques, as well as the weather conditions and synoptic patterns characteristic of the months with higher values of burnt area.

  6. Two new species of the bee genus Peponapis, with a key to the North and Central American species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini) Dos especies nuevas de abejas del género Peponapis, con una clave para las especies de América del Norte y Central (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini)


    Ricardo Ayala; Terry Griswold


    Two new species of squash bees, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. and P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n., are described and illustrated. Peponapis pacifica is oligolectic on flowers of Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae) endemic to Mexico, where it is found in the tropical dry forest along the Pacific Coast, between Sonora and Chiapas and in the Balsas River basin; and P. parkeri is known only from the Pacific slope of Costa Rica. A key for the North and Central American sp...

  7. American Horseshoe Crab Abundance in the Northern Central Gulf of Mexico from 2012-05-21 to 2013-08-20 (NCEI Accession 0149391) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains sightings of American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, during shoreline surveys conducted in late spring and summer in 2012 and 2013. The...

  8. Disarmament and confidence-building on the Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems that should have primary attention in restoration and confidence-building and achievement of permanent peace in Korean peninsula are taken into consideration. Disarmament on the peninsula must be realized. The way in which Korea is to be reunified should be confirmed at once. The conversion of armistice system into durable peace on Korean peninsula should be achieved. The Korean peninsula should be denuclearized. In this respect an initial list of nuclear installations and material was submitted to IAEA, and preparations were completed for acceptance of IAEA inspection by North Korea. It is emphasised that nuclear-weapon states must respect and guarantee the non-nuclear status of the Korean peninsula

  9. Seroprevalence of antibodies against the excreted antigen superoxide dismutase by Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). (United States)

    López-Cespedes, A; Longoni, S S; Sauri-Arceo, C H; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Villegas, N; Escobedo-Ortegón, J; Barrera-Pérez, M A; Sánchez-Moreno, M; Bolio González, M E; Marín, C


    Numerous studies have shown the role of dogs as a reservoir for the American trypanosomiasis, as the bridge connecting sylvatic and peridomestic cycles. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of American trypanosomiasis in the dog population (630 sera) from seven localities in the Yucatan Peninsula (city of Mérida and the towns of Molas, Playa del Carmen, Akumal, Xcalacoop, Xcalac and Xahuachol). These data are key for developing control measures for the disease. The sera were analysed to detect antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi, using Fe-SOD excreted as the antigenic fraction by ELISA and Western blot as confirmation. The total prevalence found in the Yucatan Peninsula was some 14.76%, with 10.74% in the state of Yucatan (city of Mérida, towns of Molas and Xcalacoop) and 21.34% in the state of Quintana Roo (towns of Playa del Carmen, Akumal, Xcalac and Xahuachol). However, a more thorough epidemiological study of the dog population, both wild and urban, in the Yucatan Peninsula will be required to design a control strategy for these diseases, paying particular attention to the population affected and even broadening the study to other Mexican states as well as neighbouring countries. These results again confirm that iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by T. cruzi constitutes a good source of antigen for serodiagnosis in epidemiological studies. PMID:22775973

  10. The Perspectives of University Administrators towards International Leadership, Study Abroad Programs, and Cooperative Agreements in Central American Public and Private Universities (United States)

    Curbelo Ruiz, Aurelio


    As the world becomes globalized by the influence of science and technology, academic institutions in Central America must provide international academic and research opportunities that are conductive to multicultural learning for students, faculty, and staff. Public and private universities in Central America are attempting to increase awareness…

  11. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Holt


    Full Text Available George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat, radar (ERS 1/2 SAR and laser altimetry (GLAS datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010 are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009 to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to ongoing atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  12. Initial subalkaline magmatism of the neoarchean alkaline province of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-Pb Dating of zircons from sub-alkaline rock of latite-monzonite association has been performed to study the specific features of sub-alkaline magmatism of the neoarchean alkaline province of the Kola Peninsula central area. It is found that prevalent portions of zircon grains subjected to isotope dating have concordant ages as follows (m.a.): 2671 ± 6 (quartz latite), 2667 ± 10 (quartz monzonite), 2677 ± 5 (quartz syenite). Taking into account the error of age determination, a 2670 - 2680 m.a. limit is set on the time of magmatic crystallization of latite-monzonite rocks

  13. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia


    Collin Blattner; Dennis C Polley; Frank Ferritto; Elston, Dirk M


    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  14. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Sellers


    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  15. Cherax (Astaconephrops) pulcher, a new species of freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia. (United States)

    Lukhaup, Christian


    A new species, Cherax (Astaconephrops) pulchersp. n., from Hoa Creek, close to the village Teminabuan in the southern-central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the morphologically closest species, Cheraxboesemani Lukhaup & Pekny, 2008. PMID:26019660

  16. Cherax (Astaconephrops pulcher, a new species of freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop Peninsula, Irian Jaya (West Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lukhaup


    Full Text Available A new species, Cherax (Astaconephrops pulcher sp. n., from Hoa Creek, close to the village Teminabuan in the southern-central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the morphologically closest species, Cherax boesemani Lukhaup & Pekny, 2008.

  17. Diagnosis Analysis of One Cold Airflow Snowfall in Shandong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective]One cold airflow snowfall in Shandong Peninsula was analyzed.[Method] Using conventional weather observation data,the NCEP /NCAR 1°×1° grid point by 6 h in data analysis,the synoptic weather dynamics principle and diagnosis analysis method,the cold airflow snowfall in Shandong Peninsula on December 4,2008 to 6 th was analyzed and summarized.[Result]The results showed that the cold deep groove of large scale circulation form caused the cold airflow snowfall in Shandong Peninsula.While the 850 hPa ...

  18. Assessing methods for developing crop forecasting in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Ines, A. V. M.; Capa Morocho, M. I.; Baethgen, W.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Han, E.; Ruiz Ramos, M.


    Seasonal climate prediction may allow predicting crop yield to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate variability and its extremes. It has been already demonstrated that seasonal climate predictions at European (or Iberian) scale from ensembles of global coupled climate models have some skill (Palmer et al., 2004). The limited predictability that exhibits the atmosphere in mid-latitudes, and therefore de Iberian Peninsula (PI), can be managed by a probabilistic approach based in terciles. This study presents an application for the IP of two methods for linking tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts with crop models to improve crop predictability. Two methods were evaluated and applied for disaggregating seasonal rainfall forecasts into daily weather realizations: 1) a stochastic weather generator and 2) a forecast tercile resampler. Both methods were evaluated in a case study where the impacts of two seasonal rainfall forecasts (wet and dry forecast for 1998 and 2015 respectively) on rainfed wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize in IP were analyzed. Simulated wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize were computed with the crop models CERES-wheat and CERES-maize which are included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at several locations in Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. These methodologies would allow quantifying the benefits and risks of a seasonal climate forecast to potential users as farmers, agroindustry and insurance companies in the IP. Therefore, we would be able to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse ones. ReferencesPalmer, T. et al., 2004. Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the

  19. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects


    Donato, Katharine M.; Blake Sisk


    In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1) enter without legal authorization to do so; (2) are more likely to cross the ...

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  1. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear Ursus arctos population. The human...

  2. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for herring spawning areas in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  4. 2013-2014 USGS Lidar: Olympic Peninsula (WA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS Olympic Peninsula Washington LIDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00849...

  5. Investigations of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel 1966 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of doing n census study of the Delmarva Peninsula Fox Squirrel is to provide some basis for determining the annual and periodic fluctuation in the...

  6. Avian Point Transect Survey; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian point-transect survey data and habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We...

  7. Observations on sea lion harvest, Alaska Peninsula, summer, 1965 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers observations of a sea lion pup harvest on the Alaskan peninsula during the summer of 1965. Culling was kept to only 50 of the rookerys pups. The...

  8. Annual report, Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands areas, 1959 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery and other FWS service activities, 1959, Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, including Stream Guard program, and extensive statistics.

  9. Seismic Cycle Deformation and Net Coastal Uplift at San Juanillo, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica (United States)

    Butcher, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Morrish, S.; Ritzinger, B.; Wellington, K.


    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica lies ~60 km inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos Plate subducts under the Caribbean Plate at ~9 cm/yr. This outer fore arc peninsula overlies the seismogenic zone along a mature seismic gap, with an estimated recurrence interval of ~50 yr for large megathrust earthquakes. The last major event (M 7.7, 1950) resulted in 1.0-1.5 m of coseismic uplift along the peninsula's central coast. Since then, gradual coastal subsidence has been observed as the plate interface accumulates interseismic strain. While elastic seismic-cycle deformation produces short-term shoreline fluctuations on the Nicoya Peninsula, net tectonic uplift throughout the Quaternary results in long-term coastal emergence and the formation of marine terraces. At San Juanillo, north of Punta Guiones, emergent carbonate beachrock horizons mark former Holocene shorelines with calibrated radiocarbon ages of 0.9-1.8 ka. The position of these deposits on the upper beach face is consistent with net uplift at ~0.5 m/k.y. Tidal erosion and the undermining of beachrock and adjacent cliffs may reflect coastal inundation associated with the current phase of elastic interseismic subsidence. Inland of the beach, two uplifted marine terraces mark former late Quaternary shorelines with inner edge elevations of ~30 m and ~55 m above mean sea level. The ages of these surfaces are estimated at 80 ka and 125 ka respectively, based on correlation with OSL dated terraces ~80 km to the south and the timing of late Pleistocene sea level high stands (Oxygen Isotope Stages 5a-5e). Long-term net uplift at San Juanillo therefore occurs at a rate of 0.3-0.5 m/k.y. This is the highest uplift rate recorded among seven marine terrace study sites along the Nicoya coast, with the exception of the peninsula's southern tip (Cabo Blanco) where accelerated uplift occurs in response to seamount subduction. Since the 1950 Nicoya earthquake, Costa Rica's population and tourism industry have

  10. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  11. Modelling of sediment transport at Muria peninsula coastal, Jepara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modelling of transport sediment modelling at Muria Peninsula have been done. In this study we had been used mathematical model that consist of hydrodynamics and sediment transport . Data input for modelling has been used tidal, monsoon wind, and river debit. Simulation result of sediment transport modelling showed that tides pattern and seasonal variations are the main causes of variations in the suspended sediment distribution in Muria Peninsula. (author)

  12. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Sunarno


    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  13. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae [KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline.

  14. Why does the Antarctic Peninsula Warm in climate simulations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Xin; Hall, Alex [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, PO BOX 951565, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Boe, Julien [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, PO BOX 951565, Los Angeles, CA (United States); CNRS/CERFACS, URA 1875, Toulouse (France)


    The Antarctic Peninsula has warmed significantly since the 1950s. This pronounced and isolated warming trend is collectively captured by 29 twentieth-century climate hindcasts participating in the version 3 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. To understand the factors driving warming trends in the hindcasts, we examine trends in Peninsula region's atmospheric heat budget in every simulation. We find that atmospheric latent heat release increases in nearly all hindcasts. These increases are generally anthropogenic in origin, and account for about 60% of the ensemble-mean warming trend in the Peninsula. They are driven primarily by well-understood features of the anthropogenic intensification of global hydrological cycle. As sea surface temperature increases, moisture contained in atmospheric flows increases. When such flows are forced to ascend the Peninsula's topography, enhanced local latent heat release results. The mechanism driving the warming of the Antarctic Peninsula is therefore clear in the models. Evidence for a similar mechanism operating in the real world is seen in the increasing snow accumulation rates inferred from ice cores drilled in the Peninsula. However, the relative importance of this mechanism and other processes previously identified as potentially causing the observed warming, such as the recent sea ice retreat in the Bellingshausen Sea, is difficult to assess. Thus the relevance of the simulated warming mechanism to the observed warming is unclear, in spite of its robustness in the models. (orig.)

  15. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard


    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  16. The Holocene deglaciation of the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica) based on the dating of lake sedimentary records (United States)

    Oliva, M.; Antoniades, D.; Giralt, S.; Granados, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Toro, M.; Liu, E. J.; Sanjurjo, J.; Vieira, G.


    The process of deglaciation in the Antarctic Peninsula region has large implications for the geomorphological and ecological dynamics of the ice-free environments. However, uncertainties still remain regarding the age of deglaciation in many coastal environments, as is the case in the South Shetland Islands. This study focuses on the Byers Peninsula, the largest ice-free area in this archipelago and the one with greatest biodiversity in Antarctica. A complete lacustrine sedimentary sequence was collected from five lakes distributed along a transect from the western coast to the Rotch Dome glacier front: Limnopolar, Chester, Escondido, Cerro Negro and Domo lakes. A multiple dating approach based on 14C, thermoluminescence and tephrochronology was applied to the cores in order to infer the Holocene environmental history and identify the deglaciation chronology in the Byers Peninsula. The onset of the deglaciation started during the Early Holocene in the western fringe of the Byers Peninsula according to the basal dating of Limnopolar Lake (ca. 8.3 cal. ky BP). Glacial retreat gradually exposed the highest parts of the Cerro Negro nunatak in the SE corner of Byers, where Cerro Negro Lake is located; this lake was glacier-free since at least 7.5 ky. During the Mid-Holocene the retreat of the Rotch Dome glacier cleared the central part of the Byers plateau of ice, and Escondido and Chester lakes formed at 6 cal. ky BP and 5.9 ky, respectively. The dating of the basal sediments of Domo Lake suggests that the deglaciation of the current ice-free easternmost part of the Byers Peninsula occurred before 1.8 cal. ky BP.

  17. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew


    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  18. Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula. (United States)

    Zamora, M J; Alvarez, M; Olmedo, J; Blanco, M C; Pozio, E


    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites circulating in most continents, including Europe. In Spain, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are highly prevalent in wildlife but seldom in domestic pigs. In Portugal, only T. britovi was documented in wild carnivores. In the period 2006-2013 in Spain, 384 (0.0001%) pigs and 1399 (0.20%) wild boars (Sus scrofa) were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae, which were identified as T. spiralis or T. britovi. In 2014, Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae were isolated from a wild boar hunted in the Gerona province, Cataluña region, North-East of Spain, near the border to France. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula, which suggests a broad distribution area of this zoonotic nematode in Europe. Since larvae of this Trichinella species do not encapsulate in the host muscles, they can be detected only by artificial digestion of muscle samples. T. pseudospiralis is the only Trichinella species infecting both mammals and birds. Birds can spread this pathogen over great distances including islands triggering new foci of infections in areas previously considered at low risk for this pathogen. PMID:25913596

  19. Preliminary study of long-term wind characteristics of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler-Bientz, Rolando [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Holywell Park, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Yucatan Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Industrias no contaminantes x Anillo periferico norte s/n, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Watson, Simon [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Holywell Park, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, David [Institute of Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula is one of the most promising areas for wind energy development within the Latin American region but no comprehensive assessment of wind resource has been previously published. This research presents a preliminary analysis of the meteorological parameters relevant to the wind resource in order to find patterns in their long-term behaviour and to establish a foundation for subsequent research into the wind power potential of the Yucatan Peninsula. Three meteorological stations with data measured for a period between 10 and 20 years were used in this study. The monthly trends of ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed data were identified and are discussed. The directional behaviour of the winds, their frequency distributions and the related Weibull parameters are presented. Wind power densities for the study sites have been estimated and have been shown to be relatively low (wind power class 1), though a larger number of suitable sites needs to be studied before a definitive resource evaluation can be reported. (author)

  20. Hybridization between Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus moreletii in the Yucatan Peninsula: II. Evidence from microsatellites. (United States)

    Rodriguez, David; Cedeño-Vázquez, José Rogelio; Forstner, Michael R J; Densmore, Llewellyn D


    Detecting and quantifying hybridization between endangered or threatened taxa can provide valuable information with regards to conservation and management strategies. Hybridization between members of the genus Crocodylus has been known to occur in captivity and in some wild populations. We tested for hybridization among wild populations of American crocodile (C. acutus) and Morelet's crocodile (C. moreletii) in the Yucatan Peninsula by comparing Bayesian assignment tests, based on microsatellite data, to mitochondrial and morphological assignments. Skin clips from 83 individuals were taken for genetic identification, and a total of 32 individuals (38.6%) exhibited some evidence of hybridization by combined morphological, mitochondrial and microsatellite analyses. The majority of hybrids were classified as F(2) hybrids and backcrosses to C. moreletii. Most of the introgression occurs in two national biosphere reserves located on the northern and eastern coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula. Preliminary tests did not find a significant decrease in hybridity across three life stages, thus far indicating a low level of selection against hybrids. Model-based analyses on multilocus genotypes of pure individuals returned little geographic partitioning in both C. acutus and C. moreletii. PMID:18800373

  1. Cenotes – Lakes of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeroczyńska Krystyna


    Full Text Available Cenote lakes are natural sinkholes or depressions resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock exposing the groundwater underneath. Thousands of such lakes are particularly encountered on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico. These lakes were of great significance for the Maya culture as important religious places and primary source of drink­ing water. They permitted the survival of Mayan communities through dry periods known as “Maya drought”. Most of the cenote lakes are large open water pools measuring tens of meters in diameter. The majority of cenotes are smaller sheliered sites. Their waiers are usually very clear and oligotrophic, originating from rain waier filtering slowly through the ground. The auihors visited and coliected zooplankion samples from eight cenotes in November 2013, namely: Ik-Kil, Samula, Zaci, X-Kekn, Actum Ha, Cristal, Sian Ka’an, and Chan Chemuxil (transect Merida-Tulum- Cancun. The analysed lakes differ considerably in morphological terms, varying from very deep to shallow. Some of them are under human impact (tourists. The water samples were anaiysed for zooplankton content, but the phyto­plankton frequently occurring was also taken into account. The obtained results are largely varied, indicated big eco­logical verity among cenotes which depended on lake age, localization and morphometry. As showed our study Cladocera zooplankion was very rare and only present at several sites. Beiween the fauna community Copepoda and Ostracoda species were the most abundant. Phytoplankton were present in all studied lakes and it sees that played the central role in those ecosystems.

  2. Evidence for Bombus occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Populations in the Olympic Peninsula, the Palouse Prairie, and Forests of Northern Idaho. (United States)

    Rhoades, Paul R; Koch, Jonathan B; Waits, Lisette P; Strange, James P; Eigenbrode, Sanford D


    Since the mid-1990s, Bombus occidentalis (Green) has declined from being one of the most common to one of the rarest bumble bee species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Although its conservation status is unresolved, a petition to list this species as endangered or threatened was recently submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To shed light on the conservation situation and inform the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decision, we report on the detection and abundance of B. occidentalis following bumble bee collection between 2012 and 2014 across the Pacific Northwest. Collection occurred from the San Juan Islands and Olympic peninsula east to northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon, excluding the arid region in central Washington. B. occidentalis was observed at 23 collection sites out of a total of 234. With the exception of three sites on the Olympic peninsula, all of these were in the southeastern portion of the collection range. PMID:26856817

  3. An exploratory study of Hispanic officer recruiting in the Mexican-American community of South-Central Los Angeles: implications for the officer corps of the future


    Hernandez, Javier


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis examines factors relating to youth interest in joining the Navy among the Hispanic population in South-Central Los Angeles, California. The study begins with a comprehensive review of literature on Hispanics of Mexican origin. Informatio on youth interest in the Navy is gleaned from personal interviews with teachers, counselors, JROTC instructors, military recruiters, and local clergy. The results suggest that Hispanic yout...

  4. Hybridization between Crocodylus acutus and Crocodylus moreletii in the Yucatan Peninsula: I. Evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. (United States)

    Cedeño-Vázquez, José Rogelio; Rodriguez, David; Calmé, Sophie; Ross, James Perran; Densmore, Llewellyn D; Thorbjarnarson, John B


    The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) and the Morelet's crocodile (C. moreletii) are broadly sympatric in Belize and Mexico. The presence of morphologically anomalous individuals in the overlapping range area suggests possible hybridization between these species. Analysis of 477 base pairs of the mitochondrial tRNA(Pro)-tRNA(Phe)-Dloop region revealed the presence of pure C. acutus (N=43) and C. moreletii (N=56), as well as a high proportion of interspecific hybrids (N=17, 14.6%) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Although all individuals could be assigned to one species or other based on phenotypic characters, some had been characterized as potential hybrids in the field by anomalous scale counts. The hybridization zone lies along the area of sympatry between C. acutus and C. moreletii investigated in this study, but extends further inland if hybrid localities from Belize are included. Hybridization in the Yucatan Peninsula is bidirectional, which indicates considerably more genetic contact between these species than previously recognized, and is probably more detrimental to the genetic integrity of smaller C. acutus populations. A more intensive study of the pattern of hybridization is warranted and supports continued classification of C. acutus as a critically threatened species in the Yucatan Peninsula. PMID:18626922

  5. The Verdict Is In: The Impact of Crime on Public Trust in Central American Justice Systems El impacto de delincuencia sobre la confianza pública en el sistema de justicia en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fran T. Malone


    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the countries of Central America have confronted soaring crime rates. Justice systems of dubious quality provide thin shields against this crime crisis, despite substantial international and domestic investment in justice reform. Indeed, there is growing concern that crime will undermine justice reform efforts. Scholars and practitioners have pointed out that public frustration with crime, coupled with dissatisfaction with justice institutions, can lead citizens to reject reform efforts. Still, the micro-level relationships between crime and public support of the justice system have been understudied. Using public opinion data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP, this study aims to add to the literature by examining the effects of victimization and fear of crime on public trust in the justice system. The results indicate that crime can erode public support for the justice system, but the mechanics of this relationship vary according to national context. Durante las últimas dos décadas, los países de América Central se ven enfrentados con altos niveles de delincuencia. La capacidad de los gobiernos para contrarrestar esta crisis es comprometida por las debilidades severas de los sistemas de justicia, a pesar de la inversión internacional y domestica en reformas de la justicia. De hecho, existe la preocupación que la delincuencia frustrará los esfuerzos de reforma judicial. Gente cansada de altos niveles de delincuencia y frustrada con las instituciones de justicia puede rechazar esfuerzos de reforma. No obstante, las relaciones individuales entre delincuencia y apoyo público para el sistema de justicia no han sido estudiadas de forma suficiente. Por lo cual, este estudio usa los datos del Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP para examinar las reacciones públicas a la delincuencia. Los resultados indican que la delincuencia puede erosionar el apoyo para el sistema de justicia, pero los

  6. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø


    This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities in...... the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university...

  7. Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans (United States)

    ... Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. According to the ... are: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, obesity, suicide, and liver disease. Other Health Concerns: Hispanics ...

  8. Bedrock geologic map of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and accompanying conodont data (United States)

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Werdon, Melanie B.; Bleick, Heather A.


    This 1:500,000-scale geologic map depicts the bedrock geology of Seward Peninsula, western Alaska, on the North American side of the Bering Strait. The map encompasses all of the Teller, Nome, Solomon, and Bendeleben 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, and parts of the Shishmaref, Kotzebue, Candle, and Norton Bay 1:250,000-scale quadrangles (sh. 1; sh. 2). The geologic map is presented on Sheet 1. The pamphlet includes an introductory text, detailed unit descriptions, tables of geochronologic data, and an appendix containing conodont (microfossil) data and a text explaining those data. Sheet 2 shows metamorphic and tectonic units, conodont color alteration indices, key metamorphic minerals, and locations of geochronology samples listed in the pamphlet. The map area covers 74,000 km2, an area slightly larger than West Virginia or Ireland.

  9. Saker Falcon on the Crimean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin


    Full Text Available In this article we made a revaluation of a number of the Saker (Falco cherrug on the Crimean Peninsula based on data obtained in an expedition conducted in May 9–26 of 2015. During this expedition Sakers were observed on 58 sites (31 times they were seen on pylons of power lines, 14 – on cliffs in the foothills of Crimean Mountains, 8 – on the coastal cliffs and 4 on the coastal precipices, and one adult male was seen in the forest shelter belt near Syvash lagoon. We revealed 49 breeding territories of Saker including 42 occupied nests with successful breeding. The estimation of the total number of breeding population on peninsula is 145–184 (mean 165 breeding pairs, including 125–159 (mean 142 pairs which breeding attempts were successful in 2015. The distance between the neighboring pairs is 1.95–15.21 km (mean 6.56±3.37 km, n=43. Pylons of power lines were used by 30 breeding pairs (61.22% out of 49, and 29 successful nests (69.05% out of 42 were built on pylons. Supposedly, 63.83% of all breeding pairs in Crimea are bred on pylons, and the percentage of successful nests out of the total number of nests in population is 71.89%. From the 34 nests that were built on pylons, 24 (70.59% were located on the concrete pylons and 10 (29.41% on the metal ones. On cliffs and precipices we found 24 nests in total. Eighteen (75% of them were built on a bare ground, while the others were found in the nests built by other bird species (most of them were made in the former nests of the Raven (Corvus corax, and one pair occupies a nest of the Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus located on cliff. The percentage of successful nests out of occupied ones was 85.71%. We found broods of 1–4 nestlings, which in average (n=23 makes 2.83±0.78 nestling per successful nest. The majority of broods (65.22% consisted of 3 nestlings. On 20 breeding territories (90.91% male birds were older then 2 years old, and two breeding territories (9.09% were occupied

  10. Potamogeton schweinfurthii in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit, Albert


    Full Text Available We provide the first records for the Iberian Peninsula of Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn., a species distributed mainly in Africa that was not discovered in Europe until 2005, where it is assumed to be indigenous but it has generally been confused with P. lucens. The Iberian specimens, which for the most part are from recent collections, have been identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular studies. We have detected 8 localities, 4 in the northeastern area of the Peninsula (Catalonia and Navarra and 4 from the West (south and north of Portugal and western Andalusia. Our studies show that it is a very rare species on a regional level. Although it is a mainly tropical and subtropical species, we have found that P. schweinfurthii (both natural populations and those cultivated has a high tolerance to climates with severe winters and frequent frosts. The large proportion of populations found in anthropogenic habitats, and the fact that most European records are from the past half-century, suggest that P. schweinfurthii may have experienced a recent expansion favoured by the construction of large number of artificial water bodies in the Mediterranean region. This raises the possibility that P. schweinfurthii in Europe is a species that forms temporary populations and has a naturally unstable area.Se aportan las primeras citas de Potamogeton schweinfurthii A. Benn. en la Península Ibérica, una especie de área básicamente africana que no fue descubierta en Europa hasta 2005, donde se supone que es autóctona y en general había sido confundida con P. lucens. Los ejemplares ibéricos han sido identificados por sus caracteres morfológicos y por estudios moleculares y, en su mayor parte, proceden de recolecciones recientes. Se ha detectado en 8 localidades, 4 del noreste peninsular (Cataluña y Navarra y 4 del oeste (sur y norte de Portugal y Andalucía occidental. Según la información actualmente disponible, se trataría de

  11. Tectonic implication of Jurassic adakite arc magmatism in the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won


    Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock chemical compositions of Early to Middle Jurassic plutons from the central to southern Korean Peninsula are reported to investigate the effect of paleo-Pacific plate subduction preserved along the continental margin. Twenty-one plutonic rocks from the Yeongnam massif (i.e., Sunchang and Namwon plutons), the Okcheon belt (Jeongup, Boeun, and Mungyeong plutons), the northeast (Gangreung pluton), and the Gyeonggi massif (Gonam, Anheung, and Ganghwa plutons) have age ranges from ca. 189-186 Ma to 177 Ma, 177-166 Ma, and 177-173 Ma, respectively. Most plutonic rocks have chemistry equivalent to adakites, showing high SiO2 (53.96-73.31 wt.%), low MgO (0.33-2.84 wt.%), high Na2O (2.65-4.83 wt.%), high Sr/Y and La/Yb, low Y and Yb, as well as low HFSEs (Nb and Ta), suggesting that the plutonic rocks resulted from partial melting of the basaltic portion of oceanic crust subducted beneath volcanic arcs. Spatial distributions of this adakite-equivalent plutonic belt, based on the present study, together with the previously reported geochronological results, indicate that magmatic pulses had gradually migrated toward the continent at the Korean Peninsula as a result of slab shallowing caused by periodic slab buckling. The petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the similar geochronological and geochemical characteristics of the plutonic belt among the Korean Peninsula, Japan, northeastern China, and Russia provide a possible link to an active subduction system that existed during the Early to Middle Jurassic ages, although the results of the plate subduction might differ in different locations along the East Asian continental margin.

  12. The Sociophonetic and Acoustic Vowel Dynamics of Michigan's Upper Peninsula English (United States)

    Rankinen, Wil A.

    The present sociophonetic study examines the English variety in Michigan's Upper Peninsula (UP) based upon a 130-speaker sample from Marquette County. The linguistic variables of interest include seven monophthongs and four diphthongs: 1) front lax, 2) low back, and 3) high back monophthongs and 4) short and 5) long diphthongs. The sample is stratified by the predictor variables of heritage-location, bilingualism, age, sex and class. The aim of the thesis is two fold: 1) to determine the extent of potential substrate effects on a 71-speaker older-aged bilingual and monolingual subset of these UP English speakers focusing on the predictor variables of heritage-location and bilingualism, and 2) to determine the extent of potential exogenous influences on an 85-speaker subset of UP English monolingual speakers by focusing on the predictor variables of heritage-location, age, sex and class. All data were extracted from a reading passage task collected during a sociolinguistic interview and measured instrumentally. The findings of this apparent-time data reveal the presence of lingering effects from substrate sources and developing effects from exogenous sources based upon American and Canadian models of diffusion. The linguistic changes-in-progress from above, led by middle-class females, are taking shape in the speech of UP residents of whom are propagating linguistic phenomena typically associated with varieties of Canadian English (i.e., low-back merger, Canadian shift, and Canadian raising); however, the findings also report resistance of such norms by working-class females. Finally, the data also reveal substrate effects demonstrating cases of dialect leveling and maintenance. As a result, the speech spoken in Michigan's Upper Peninsula can presently be described as a unique variety of English comprised of lingering substrate effects as well as exogenous effects modeled from both American and Canadian English linguistic norms.

  13. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system. (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce


    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  14. New Mesostigmata records and species from the Korean Peninsula*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontschán, Jenő


    Full Text Available A total of 20 Mesostigmata species are recorded from the Korean Peninsula, of which 15 (Asca nubes Ishikawa, 1969, Lasioseius tomokoae Ishikawa, 1969, Evimirus uropodinus (Berlese, 1903, Macrocheles glaber (Müller, 1860, Macrocheles punctatus Ishikawa, 1967, Pachylaelaps ishizuchiensis Ishikawa, 1977, Gamasiphis pulchellus (Berlese, 1887, Ololaelaps ussurinensis Bregetova & Koroleva, 1964, Gamasellus humosus Ishikawa, 1969, Gamasholaspis variabilis Petrova, 1967, Parholaspulus hiasmaticus Petrova, 1967, Podocinum tsushimanum Ishikawa, 1970, Neoparasitus scleoides Ishikawa, 1969, Veigaia ochracea Bregetova, 1961, Uropoda similihamulifera Hiramatsu, 1979 are presented as first occurrences from this peninsula. Asca aphidioides (Linnaeus, 1758 is already reported from the southern part of the peninsula, but we present the first occurrence in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. One species (Trachytes koreana Kontschán & Lim, sp. nov. is described and illustrated in this paper. Seventeen of the recovered species were collected in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; the others were collected in the area of Republic of Korea.

  15. The mangrove and its conservation in Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiu-mei; Han Wei-dong; Liu Shu-qing


    Leizhou Peninsula, located at southern end of mailand China, has 9284.3 ha mangrove distributed more than 100 sites along its inlets and open coastlines. This paper presents the surveys on mangrove area in Leizhou Peninsula during 2000 and 2008, especially the survey in the eight major mangrove areas in 2002. The flora recorded in mangrove systems includes 69 large algea species, 13 native true mangrove species, nine native semi-mangrove species, and another seven intoduced true mangrove species with Sonneratia apetala as the quickest growing exotic mangrove species dominatant in the mangrove plantations, and more than 100 land flora species, consisting of 17 main mangrove associations. The plant biodiversity habitats remained mainly small patches and diverse, and were becoming worse under the intensive disturbance of human acitivities and coastal pollutions, which decreased the value of mangrove coasts as the important sites for flying-by migrating birds in Leizhou Peninsula. The effective mangrove conservation measures should be implemented.

  16. Forest Policy and Law for Sustainability within the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Park


    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, sustainable forest management (SFM has emerged as a paradigm of forest management on global, regional and national levels. In developing countries, avoiding deforestation is a preliminary step towards SFM. The Korean peninsula experienced severe deforestation and forest degradation after the Korean War (1950–1953. In the 1970s and 1980s, South Korea achieved forest restoration through the National Greening Program. In contrast, North Korea failed to restore forests in spite of continuous trials with forest restoration plans. In North Korea, deforestation has accelerated since the mid-1980s. Deforestation and forest degradation in North Korea threatens stability throughout the Korean peninsula. This study focuses on comparing the forest policy and laws of South Korea and North Korea and suggesting forest policy that promotes sustainability in the Korean peninsula. The research findings can provide developing countries with significant information on forest policy and laws to avoid deforestation and forest degradation and move towards sustainability.

  17. Brood parasitism among waterfowl nesting on islands and peninsulas in North Dakota (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.


    During 1985 and 1986 I studied interspecific brood parasitism among seven species of waterfowl nesting on 36 islands and 24 peninsulas in central North Dakota. On islands, 40% of 178 nests were parasitized with an average of 4.3 parasitic eggs, and on peninsulas 2% of 275 nests were parasitized with an average of 2.2 parasitic eggs. Redheads (Aythya americana) were the primary parasite, adding eggs to 92% of all parasitized nests. Species nesting in open cover were parasitized at a higher rate than species nesting in dense cover. Nests with parasitic eggs had fewer host eggs and there was a negative association between the number of parasitic eggs and the success of host eggs. Parasitized nests had lower success, but additional parasitic eggs had no added influence on nest success. Interspecific brood parasitism had significant negative effects on dabbling ducks on islands but Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) were little affected. Even so, the number of young hatched per nest was much higher on islands because of the high loss of eggs to predators on the mainland. Parasitic eggs were deposited during the middle of the nesting season, but the peak of parasitic laying occurred before the peak of normal nesting.

  18. New Uropodina records and species from the Korean Peninsula (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontschán, J.


    Full Text Available Thirteen Mesostigmata species are recorded from the Korean Peninsula. Two of them Nenteria koreana and Leonardiella koreana spp. nov. are new to science, and further eleven species are recorded for the first time from the Korean Peninsula.

  19. A Flat Spectral Response AWG Demultiplexer Composed of Slabs with Islands and Peninsulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka Natsume; Junji Yamauchi; Ryoichi Tazawa; Koji Ishikawa; Shigeru Kawaguchi; Yuichi Yamamoto; Hisamatsu Nakano


    Phase adjustment elements called islands and peninsulas are introduced to obtain an AWG demultiplexer with a flat spectral response. Use of the peninsulas enables us to achieve a 1dB bandwidth of 0.5 nm.

  20. A Flat Spectral Response AWG Demultiplexer Composed of Slabs with Islands and Peninsulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka; Natsume; Junji; Yamauchi; Ryoichi; Tazawa; Koji; Ishikawa; Shigeru; Kawaguchi; Yuichi; Yamamoto; Hisamatsu; Nakano


    Phase adjustment elements called islands and peninsulas are introduced to obtain an AWG demultiplexer with a flat spectral response. Use of the peninsulas enables us to achieve a IdB bandwidth of 0.5 nm.

  1. Possibilities for wind energy on the Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J.; Rathmann, O.; Lundsager, P. [and others


    This paper presents an extensive feasibility study regarding the introduction of wind energy in the energy supply of the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia that was carried out during 1996-97. The study covers as well grid connected wind turbines as autonomous systems and a wind atlas was prepared. Special emphasis is put on non-technical activities and objectives like financing models, international funding and a sound politic support. The wind resources on the Kola peninsula are excellent and there are still no reasons to why wind energy installations couldn`t be carried out successfully. Recommendations for starting this development are presented. (au)

  2. Voluntary activities on actinides by the public in Peninsula Shimokita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peninsula Shimokita is known as a Nuclear Peninsula. A technical term actinides', however, is not used among the public here. It is not only used, but also is not probably known among them, although an investigation for the terminology and vocabulary on the nuclear science and technology among the public in this district has not ever performed. The terms in use here widely are uranium (-235, -238), plutonium (-239), and trans-uranium elements for what are heavier than the uranium. The present paper will report on voluntary activities by the public in the Penin. Shimokita performed after the neutron criticality accident at JCO Tokai of a company for nuclear fuel conversion. (author)

  3. Interactions Between Islamic and Christian Traditions in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Pre-Romanesque churches in the Iberian Peninsula include a number of constructions from the fourth-fifth to the eleventh century when the first Romanesque churches appeared in the north of Spain. This period of time coincided with the Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. An important number of churches and mosques were built with prescriptions for the orientation, which possibly included astronomical observations. Investigations show that both groups of monuments reacted by avoiding the areas of theoretical influence of the other religion while trying to obey their own orientation rules.

  4. Nuclear weapons and the Korean Peninsula: A Chinese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, North and South Korea issued a joint declaration on the denuclearisation of the peninsula. Such denuclearisation will undoubtedly be conductive to the security, stability and development of the region. The establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zone relies, in the first place, on the efforts of the countries in the region. China does not advocate, nor support nuclear proliferation. China's basic position concerning nuclear issue on the Korean peninsula is to seek to maintain peace and stability and to promote realisation of denuclearisation

  5. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  6. An international cooperative effort to protect Opuntia cactus resources in the American Southwest and Mexico from the South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (United States)

    The South American Cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was intentionally introduced to an island in the Caribbean in the 1950’s and eventually made its way to the Florida peninsula by 1989. In 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APH...

  7. Early Variscan magmatism along the southern margin of Laurasia: geochemical and geochronological evidence from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey (United States)

    Şengün, Fırat; Koralay, O. Ersin


    Massive, fine-grained metavolcanic rocks of the Çamlıca metamorphic unit exposed in the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Anatolia, have provided new Carboniferous ages and arc-related calc-alkaline petrogenesis constraints, suggesting that the Biga Peninsula was possibly involved in the Variscan orogeny. The metavolcanic rocks are mainly composed of metalava and metatuff and have the composition of andesite. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns from these rocks are fractionated (LaN/YbN ~ 2.2 to 8.9). Europium anomalies are slightly variable (Eu/Eu* = 0.6 to 0.7) and generally negative (average Eu/Eu* = 0.68). The metavolcanic rocks have a distinct negative Nb anomaly and negative Sr, Hf, Ba, and Zr anomalies. These large negative anomalies indicate crustal involvement in their derivation. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that all metavolcanic rocks formed within a volcanic arc setting. Zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS) of two samples yield 333.5 ± 2.7 and 334.0 ± 4.8 Ma. These ages are interpreted to be the time of protolith crystallization. This volcanic episode in the Biga Peninsula correlates with other Variscan age and style of magmatism and, by association with a collisional event leading to the amalgamation of tectonic units during the Variscan contractional orogenic event. Carboniferous calc-alkaline magmatism in the Sakarya Zone is ascribed to arc-magmatism as a result of northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys under the Laurasian margin. Geochemical and U-Pb zircon data indicate that the Sakarya Zone is strikingly similar to that of the Armorican terranes in central Europe. The Biga Peninsula shows a connection between the Sakarya Zone and the Armorican terranes.

  8. Recent Rapid Regional Climate Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Vaughan, D. G.; Marshall, G. J.; Connolley, W. M.; Parkinson, C.; Mulvaney, R.; Hodgson, D. A.; King, J. C.; Pudsey, C. J.; Turner, J.


    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed that global warming was 0.6 ñ 0.2 degrees C during the 20th Century and cited increases in greenhouse gases as a likely contributor. But this average conceals the complexity of observed climate change, which is seasonally biased, decadally variable and geographically patchy. In particular, over the last 50 years three high-latitude areas have undergone recent rapid regional (RRR) warming ? substantially more rapid than the global mean. We discuss the spatial and temporal significance of RRR warming in one area, the Antarctic Peninsula. New analyses of station records show no ubiquitous polar amplification of global warming but significant RRR warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. We investigate the likelihood that this could be amplification of a global warming, and use climate-proxy data to indicate that this RRR warming on the Antarctic Peninsula is unprecedented over the last two millennia and unlikely to be a natural mode of variability. We can show a strong connection between RRR warming and reduced sea-ice duration in an area on the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, but here we cannot yet distinguish cause and effect. Thus for the present we cannot determine which process causes the RRR warming, and until the mechanism initiating and sustaining it is understood, and is convincingly reproduced in climate models, we lack a sound basis for predicting climate change in this region over the coming century.

  9. Modeling of Regional Climate over Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Observations, re-analyses, and climate model simulations show strong surface temperature trends in Middle East and Arabian Peninsula in the last 30 years. Trends are especially pronounced in summer exceeding +1K/decade. However, some regions, e.g., the So

  10. Terfezia terfezioides - a new hypogeous fungus for Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz


    Full Text Available Terfezia terfezioides (Matt. Trappe was found for the first time in FR Yugoslavia in 1991. Description of the specimens, its mycorrhizal association with Robinta pseudoacacia and distribution in Europe are discussed in the paper. This is the first locality of T. terfezioides on Balkan Peninsula.

  11. New records of interesting xenophytes in the Iberian Peninsula


    Verloove, Filip; Sánchez Gullón, Enrique


    New records of interesting xenophytes in the Iberian Peninsula. Botanical inventories in various parts of Spain mainly between 2005 and 2007 yielded numerous chorological novelties.Cyperus prolifer is probably reported for the first time in Europe. Chenopodium simplex, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria violascens, Eragrostis frankii, Ipomoea x leucantha, Ludwigia peploides subsp. montevidensis, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Melinis repens subsp. repens, Oenothera indecora subsp. indecora, Pan...

  12. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio


    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  13. The genus Nervilia (Orchidaceae) in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson, Börge


    The orchidaceous genus Nervilia Comm. ex Gaud, is revised for Africa, including Madagascar and other islands, and the Arabian peninsula. Sixteen species are recognized, two of which are each subdivided into two varieties. Keys are presented for all taxa. Lectotypes or neotypes are given for all rele

  14. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Lee

    Full Text Available Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  15. Karyotypic variation in mammals of the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Jan

    Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic, 2004 - (Griffiths, H.; Kryštufek, B.; Reed, J.), s. 109-133 ISBN 1-4020-2853-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/0562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : karyotypes * Balkan Peninsula * Mammalia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Low altitudinal distribution of Salamandra salamandra from the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Balej, P.; Jůna, F.; Homolka, Miloslav


    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2013), s. 563-566. ISSN 2071-5773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fire salamander * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. 77 FR 53168 - Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Olympic Peninsula Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Olympia, WA. The... Black Lake Blvd. SW., Olympia, WA 98512. A conference call line will be made available for members of... Forest, Supervisor's Office, located in Olympia, WA. Please call ahead to Grace Haight at 360-956-2303...

  18. Chinese Auto Show in Indo-China Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan


    @@ Chinese auto and motorcycle exhibition group will drive to Indo-China Peninsula in Juanuary 2005 to participate in the 3rd Mudan Cup China International Auto Exhibition (Vietnam and Cambodia). Those Chinese machinery products including automobiles, motorcycles are the first batch commodities entering Vietnam and Cambodia after the signing of China-ASEAN Agreement of Cargo Trade.

  19. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: three cases from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. (United States)

    Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge; Cárdenas-Marrufo, María; Vado-Solís, Ignacio; Cetina-Cámara, Marco; Cano-Tur, José; Laviada-Molina, Hugo


    Three leptospirosis cases with lung involvement are reported from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. All three patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to acute respiratory failure. Treatment with antibiotics resulted in favorable evolution despite the negative prognosis. Leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and lung involvement. PMID:18853016

  20. Aphids of the genus Macrosiphoniella of the Korean Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holman, Jaroslav; Lee, S.; Havelka, Jan

    Rennes: SosterChaubet, 2001. s. 71. [Aphids in a New Millenium - International Symposium on Aphids /6./. 03.09.2001-07.09.2001, Rennes] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Korean peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Review: The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Charvet, Guillaume;


    The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer is one of the most extensive and spectacular karst aquifer systems on the planet. This transboundary aquifer system extends over an area of approximately 165,000 km2 in México, Guatemala and Belize. The Triassic to Holocene Yucatán limestone platform is located...

  2. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula. (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia


    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  3. Drought trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the last 112 years (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Ramos, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo M.


    time between drought events, although no clear pattern has emerged. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C. (2012) "Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012. Hoerling, M., Eischeid, J., Perlwitz, J., Quan, X., Zhang, T., and Pegion, P. (2012). On the increased frequency of Mediterranean drought. J. Clim., 25, 2146-2161. Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen M.R., Massey N. (2013), The record Winter drought of 2011-12 in the Iberian Peninsula [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective". [Peterson, T. C., M. P. Hoerling, P.A. Stott and S. Herring, Eds.] Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (9), S41-S45. Vicente-Serrano S.M., López-Moreno J.I., Beguería S., Lorenzo-Lacruz J., Sanchez-Lorenzo A., García-Ruiz J.M., Azorin-Molina C., Móran-Tejeda E., Revuelto J., Trigo R., Coelho F., Espejo F.: Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe. Environmental Research Letters, 9, 044001, 2014. Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  4. The Romanian Schools and Churches in Balkan Peninsula. 1864-1948. Archives Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu


    Full Text Available The present article on Romanian schools and churches, in the Balkan Peninsula, over the period 1918-1948 is based on the unprecedented documents identified in the funds preserved in the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the Central Historic National Archives in Bucharest. The author has studied and selected the unprecedented documents that had the most important significance for the purpose of presenting the evolution of the school and churche situation of the Romanian communities situated at the south of the Danube, starting from year 1864, when the first school was established in Tarnova, (Macedonia and up to 1948 when the Romanian state abandoned the work unveiled by ruler Al. Ioan Cuza. The article presents this situation, very dramatic, of the Romanian communities from the Balkans based on the documents of Archives.

  5. The species description process of North and Central American Geotrupinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae Proceso de descripción de especies de Geotrupinae norte y centroamericanos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Trotta-Moreu


    Full Text Available The description process for North and Central American species of Geotrupinae was analyzed and compared with that of Western Palaearctic species. This process was fitted to an asymptotic function to explore when the curve stabilized. By means of GLMs, the influence of some variables from 3 different groups (body size, geographic range and location was examined, taking into account both pure and combined effects on the development of the process of species description. The accumulation curve of North and Central American Geotrupinae showed that probably 84-91% of the total number of species is already known and 10-20 species remain yet to be described. Body size has not shown any influence on Geotrupinae species description for either region. The most influential elements were the pure effect of the geographic range, followed by the pure effect of the geographic location, and their combined effect. These same variables were also the most influential in the Western Palaearctic region, although with a different significance. As this species inventory remains yet to be completed, it is possible that some factors, such as distribution, could become progressively more important, as for the Geotrupinae species in the Western Palaearctic region.Se analizó el proceso de descripción de especies de Geotrupinae de América del Norte y Central y se comparó con el de las especies del Paleártico Occidental. Este proceso se ajustó a una función asintótica para explorar cuándo la curva terminaba estabilizándose. A través de GLMs, se examinó la influencia de 3 tipos diferentes de variables (tamaño corporal, rango geográfico y localización en el proceso de descripción, teniendo en cuenta sus efectos puros y combinados. La curva de acumulación de Geotrupinae de América del Norte y Central mostró que probablemente se conoce un 84-91% del número total de especies y que quedarían 10-20 especies por describir. El tamaño corporal no mostró ninguna

  6. Interpretation of ground and aeromagnetic surveys of Palmer Land, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Masolov


    Full Text Available Aeromagnetic data for Palmer Land provide new information on crustal structures of the Antarctic Peninsula. Features shown on the compilation of the Lassiter Coast and Orville Coast are characterized by systems of subparallel regional anomaly zones and lineaments. The magnetic data reveal the widespread presence of an orthogonal pattern of crosscutting linear discontinuities that can be interpreted as a Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary fracture pattern. The main displacements in the anomaly pattern between the two units are recognized in Wetmore-Irvine glaciers area where the structure of the Antarctic Peninsula changes orientation from SW-NE to S-N. The NW-SE trending transitional zone is probably a transfer zone associated with north-westerly movement of the Lassiter Coast crustal segment relative to the Orville Coast segment. Within the Lassiter Coast a fragment of Pacific Margin Anomaly (PMA, Central Plateau Magnetic Anomaly and East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA are mapped. Two-dimensional modelling suggests that PMA is caused by a limited depth body (8 km consisting of numerous plutons, probably, of different ages, composition and magnetization. The Central Plateau Magnetic Anomaly and the Merrick-Sweeney-Latady zone of the Orville Coast are represented by strong positive anomaly bands that are associated with gabbro-diorite rocks and accompanying plutons intruded near by the border of Mount Poster Formation and Latady Formation. The ECMA are alignments of high-amplitude magnetic anomalies caused by gabbro-diorite bodies, which are located within the framework of the Cretaceous granite-granodiorite plutons. Granite-granodiorite plutons of Lassiter Coast Intrusive Suite are mostly reflected by positive anomalies (100-500 nT. Modelling studies and the character of distribution of the magnetic anomalies suggest that the plutons of Lassiter Coast Intrusive Suite are prominently reflected in magnetic anomalies of regional extent. The plutonic

  7. Two new species of the bee genus Peponapis, with a key to the North and Central American species (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini Dos especies nuevas de abejas del género Peponapis, con una clave para las especies de América del Norte y Central (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ayala


    Full Text Available Two new species of squash bees, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. and P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n., are described and illustrated. Peponapis pacifica is oligolectic on flowers of Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae endemic to Mexico, where it is found in the tropical dry forest along the Pacific Coast, between Sonora and Chiapas and in the Balsas River basin; and P. parkeri is known only from the Pacific slope of Costa Rica. A key for the North and Central American species of Peponapis is provided.Se describen e ilustran 2 especies nuevas de abejas, Peponapis pacifica Ayala and Griswold sp. n. y P. parkeri Griswold and Ayala sp. n. De éstas, P. pacifica es oligoléctica sobre flores de Schizocarpum longisepalum (Cucurbitaceae, endémica de México, con distribución asociada al bosque tropical caducifolio a lo largo de la vertiente del Pacífico entre Sonora y Chiapas y en la Cuenca del río Balsas; P. parkeri es conocida sólo para la vertiente del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Se incluye una clave para las especies de América del norte y central.

  8. The deglaciation of the Tröllaskagi Peninsula, Northern Iceland, based on cosmogenic datings (United States)

    Palacios, David; Andres, Nuria; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Brynjólfsson, Skafti


    The Tröllaskagi Peninsula is a mountainous area in central northern Iceland. Deep valleys have dissected the Tertiary plateau basalts which form the peninsula, ranging in altitude from sea level to 1500 m. The aim of this work is to provide an initial approach to the deglaciation process in some valleys in the Tröllaskagi Peninsula, mainly by dating polished thresholds and some moraine boulders using cosmic radiation exposure and production of isotope 36Cl. The results obtained lead to the following conclusions: a) In the outermost coastal areas, i.e. the peninsular capes and the mouths of the great fjords, the dating of polished thresholds situated at present around 100-150 m a.s.l obtains ages immediately after Heinrich Event 1: thus two thresholds located at the end point of the Skagi Peninsula give ages of 16.9 ± 1.5 ka and 17.1 ± 1.6 ka. At the entrance to the Eyjafjördur, fjord near the town of Dalvik, another polished threshold has been dated to 16.3 ± 1.4 ka. b) In the intermediate areas of the fiords, deglaciation occurred just at the end of the Oldest Dryas: two thresholds, one on each side of the Skagafjördur fjord at around 150 m a.s.l. obtain minimum ages of 12.6 ± 1.2 ka on the edge of the Skagi Peninsula and 13.8 ± 1.3 ka on the island of Þórđarhöfđi, at a similar altitude. c) The bottoms of the great valleys which originate in the central highlands of the island and which currently drain the proglacial waters from the inland ice caps were deglaciated very early in the Holocene. Dates ranging from 11.5 to 10.00 ka were obtained from 7 polished thresholds at altitudes of between 120 and 700 m a.s.l. in the valley of the Eystri and Vestrari Jökulrsár Rivers which flows into the Skagafjördur fjord, with no clear altitude-related differences observed in the chronology. Taking into account the margin of error, these results may in fact show that the deglaciation of these thresholds was practically simultaneous. A similar date of 11.6 ±1

  9. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave (United States)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  10. Biostratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Brachiopods from Central Spain


    Reyes-Abril, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Villas, E.


    A recent taxonomic study on the rhynchonelliformean brachiopods from the Darriwilian dark shales of the Central-Iberian Zone, Central Spain (Reyes-Abril, 2009; Reyes-Abril et al., 2010) has considerably increased the number of orthides and strophomenides known across the whole Iberian Peninsula. The studied brachiopods were collected in 58 localities of 6 provinces from the regions of Castilla-La Mancha, Andalucía and Extremadura. Middle Ordovician brachiopods previously known in ...

  11. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean


    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  12. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.


    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  13. Cenotes – Lakes of the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico)


    Szeroczyńska Krystyna; Zawisza Edyta


    Cenote lakes are natural sinkholes or depressions resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock exposing the groundwater underneath. Thousands of such lakes are particularly encountered on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). These lakes were of great significance for the Maya culture as important religious places and primary source of drink­ing water. They permitted the survival of Mayan communities through dry periods known as “Maya drought”. Most of the cenote lakes are large open water pool...

  14. Results of storm activity registration in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtsev A. V.


    Full Text Available Results of storm activity registration processing in the Kola Peninsula during 2013-2014 have been given. Considerable fluctuations of storm activity and unevenness of lightning discharges distribution across the region territory have been noted. It has been proposed to use a cloud-to-ground discharge density indicator taking into account their distribution in the region at an assessment of lightning protection efficiency of power generation facilities in areas with low thunder-storms intensity

  15. Blue and fin whale acoustics and ecology off Antarctic Peninsula


    Sirovic, Ana


    Blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) in the Southern Ocean were subjects of extensive whaling industry during the twentieth century. Their current population numbers remain low, making population monitoring using traditional visual surveys difficult. Both blue and fin whales produce low frequency, regularly repeated calls and are suitable for acoustic monitoring. Eight, continuously recording acoustic recorders were deployed off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) betwe...



    Benavent, M.; Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.


    Abstract We developed a new 1/12-degree resolution oceanic tide model in the complex region that surrounds the Iberian Peninsula. The model, named IBER01, allows us to obtain more accurate tidal loading computations for precise geodetic and gravimetric observations in this area. The modeling follows the scheme of data assimilation (coastal tide gauge, bottom pressure sensors and TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry) into a hydrodynamical model, which is based on two dimensional barotropic dept...

  17. Infectious Laryngotracheitis in the Niagara Peninsula: A Case Control Study


    Zellen, G. K.; Weber, L J; Martin, S W


    The method(s) of spread of infectious laryngotracheitis in poultry flocks is uncertain. Based on an outbreak of the disease in the Niagara Peninsula in the summer of 1982, managers of infected (case) flocks and noninfected (control) flocks were interviewed to compare their management practices. The data were statistically analyzed; however, the results are not conclusive since only thirteen farms were involved in the outbreak. The results do suggest the following: farms with previous infectio...

  18. Wild reindeer of the Kamchatka Peninsula - past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mosolov


    Full Text Available A unique subspecies of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus phylarchus Hollister that is endemic to the Kamchatka Peninsula has been declining in number since the 1950s due to commercial hunting, increasing industrial development and competition with domestic reindeer. The largest remaining herd of wild reindeer occurs in the Kronotsky Reserve in northeastern Kamchatka, and the reserve is now critical to the preservation of this subspecies of reindeer.

  19. Korean peninsula – the hot potato in International security


    Lee, Jeonghyun


    This project deals with one of the hottest issue in international security. Korea, being the only divided country in the world, is always on the surface of international security issue. Recently the tension in Korean peninsula increased rapidly in accordance to when South Korea is going through the change in authorities with the new president. The international society’s attention was gathered with Korea welcoming its first female president Park Geun-hye; moreover she is the daughter of the f...

  20. Knowledge dialogues with Central American social movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees); R.A. Icaza Garza (Rosalba)


    textabstractIt was almost seven years back when Hivos invited the ISS to participate in a new programme that was going to explore possibilities for a ‘knowledge exchange’. The idea of the programme was to take advantage of all the interesting information present in the drawers (and in the heads) of

  1. Knowledge dialogues with Central American social movements


    Biekart, Kees; Icaza Garza, Rosalba


    textabstractIt was almost seven years back when Hivos invited the ISS to participate in a new programme that was going to explore possibilities for a ‘knowledge exchange’. The idea of the programme was to take advantage of all the interesting information present in the drawers (and in the heads) of project officers in Hivos and their colleagues in partner organisations worldwide. It was assumed that a ‘treasure box’ existed somewhere out there, containing a wealth of rough but interesting dat...

  2. Gold-quartz vein deposition in an uplifted blueschist terrane, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, J.J.


    The Big Hurrah mine, located on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consists of gold-quartz-carbonate veins which cut sheared carbonaceous metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The rocks underwent regional syn-kinematic blueschist facies metamorphism in the Jurassic. Glaucophane in metabasite and mafic and pelitic schists has been reported from the central Seward Peninsula. Chlorite+/-epidote+/-albite+/-paragonite pseudomorphs after lawsonite and glaucophane have also been reported. The replacement of these blueschist facies minerals probably occurred during uplift and retrogradation of the terrane. The veins at Big Hurrah range from early, concordant metamorphic quartz lenses to discordant tension veins to discontinuous quartz-Au lodes which occur in sheared zones cross-cutting the foliation. The veins are thought to have formed during the late stages of shearing and uplift. Fluid inclusions in the veins are similar to those found in metamorphic rocks in that they are small, most are secondary, and may contain CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/. The is evidence for CO/sub 2/-CH/sub 4//H/sub 2/O liquid immiscibility. Pressure estimates of 0.8 kbar were calculated from coexisting CO/sub 2/-CH/sub 4/ and aqueous inclusions. Pressure corrected homogenization temperatures for quartz deposition are in the range 300-400/sup 0/C. Hence, the veins were deposited at lower pressures and temperatures than those of the blueschist facies event. It is thought that the veins at Big Hurrah were formed during uplift by a fluid phase derived by metamorphic dehydration and channeled into conduits depositing quartz, carbonate and gold.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Barral-Arca, Ruth; Pischedda, Sara; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Pastoriza, Ana; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; López-Soto, Manuel; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Salas, Antonio


    The Iberian Peninsula has been the focus of attention of numerous studies dealing with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, most of them targeting the control region segment. In the present study we sequenced the control region of 3,024 Spanish individuals from areas where available data were still limited. We also compiled mtDNA haplotypes from the literature involving 4,588 sequences and 28 population groups or small regions. We meta-analyzed all these data in order to shed further light on patterns of geographic variation, taking advantage of the large sample size and geographic coverage, in contrast with the atomized sampling strategy of previous work. The results indicate that the main mtDNA haplogroups show primarily clinal geographic patterns across the Iberian geography, roughly along a North-South axis. Haplogroup HV0 (where haplogroup U is nested) is more prevalent in the Franco Cantabrian region, in good agreement with previous findings that identified this area as a climate refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), prior to a subsequent demographic re-expansion towards Central Europe and the Mediterranean. Typical sub-Saharan and North African lineages are slightly more prevalent in South Iberia, although at low frequencies; this pattern has been shaped mainly by the transatlantic slave trade and the Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. The results also indicate that summary statistics that aim to measure molecular variation, or AMOVA, have limited sensitivity to detect population substructure, in contrast to patterns revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Overall, the results suggest that mtDNA variation in Iberia is substantially stratified. These patterns might be relevant in biomedical studies given that stratification is a common cause of false positives in case-control mtDNA association studies, and should be also considered when weighting the DNA evidence in forensic casework, which is strongly dependent on haplotype frequencies. PMID

  4. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy) (United States)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes


    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  5. American ginseng (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  6. "Muy poco se sabe de los resultados": Francis E. Bond's expedition to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela (1911). (United States)

    Dorr, L J


    The natural history expedition of the American banker and stock broker Francis E. Bond and companions to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela, in early 1911 is described. Biographical details are provided for the three principles: Francis E. Bond, Stewardson Brown and Thomas S. Gillin. The itinerary of their three and a half month expedition is elaborated, and notes are provided on the collection of plants, animals, and artefacts that they gathered in South America and deposited in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on their return. PMID:21137585

  7. Tectonics and sedimentary evolution of the Sandino forearc basin off Nicaragua, Central America (United States)

    Costa Pisani, P.; Silver, E.; McIntosh, K.; Ahmed, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Taylor, B.


    The Sandino basin is the Nicaragua sector of the Central American forearc, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Middle America trench. Recently, Ranero et al. have interpreted a seismic section across the margin and proposed a history of formation of the forearc which is constrained by industry drilling in the basin. They suggested a late Cretaceous to Paleocene accretion event, followed by later subduction erosion processes. The margin wedge consists of the ophiolitic Nicoya complex. The seismic units, unconformities and tectonic features record a rich history of both local and regional vertical movements occurring since the Middle Eocene, which are linked to the evolution of the Pacific convergent margin. During June, 2000, 2800 kms of multichannel seismic reflection data were collected on the R/V Ewing off Nicaragua. Analysis of the 240 channels dataset indicates rapid changes along strike in the Sandino basin. The basin is relatively thin in the southern part, thinning quite rapidly southward against the Nicoya complex of the Santa Elena peninsula of Costa Rica. The forearc sediments thickness approaches and locally exceeds 10 kms in the central and northern parts of the Sandino basin. The oldest units (Upper Cretaceous-Middle Eocene) are very thick off northern Nicaragua, with relatively thin middle to late Cenozoic deposits. However, off central Nicaragua the latter units (Middle-Upper Miocene) attain great thicknesses and the older units appear to thin. This pattern suggests a history of successive deepening of the basin from north to south, after the convergent system evolved from accretion to subduction erosion processes. Present efforts are devoted to quantifying this change in development and using it to understand the dynamics of forearc basin evolution offshore of Central America.

  8. Isotopic measurements in research on seawater ingression in the carbonate aquifer of the Salentine Peninsula, Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretaceous calcareous and dolomitic rocks, bedded, jointed and karstified, and hence generally very permeable, form the basement of the Salentine Peninsula. These rocks constitute a huge aquifer with fresh and brackish groundwaters that float on groundwaters of marine origin. Sea level constitutes the base level of the ground waters. A basic outline is first given of the hydrogeology and the paleohydrogeology, so as to provide the necessary background information on the seawater intrusion phenomenon and to permit comparison of the results of the isotope data with those obtained by the classical methods of hydrogeological investigation. This is followed by presentation of the results of the isotopic measurements on 18O, D, 13C and 14C. The δ13C contents indicate, in good agreement with the carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentrations, that seawater ingression leads to the migration of carbon dioxide from the fresh and brackish waters towards the subjacent intrusive waters of marine origin. Along those stretches of coast where the seawaters are in direct communication with the groundwaters, all the isotope data point to very active renewal of groundwaters of marine origin by seawater. In the central parts of the peninsula and along those stretches of coast where direct communication between seawaters and groundwaters is impeded by impervious clays, the 14C contents indicate that the seawater intrusion and consequently the migration of carbon dioxide are either very slow and continuous in time or that they occurred relatively rapidly in the past. Taking into consideration the paleohydrogeology of the peninsula, and the fact that the δ18O and δD values are higher than those of the present seawaters, leads to the belief that seawater intrusion may well have occurred during major variations in the sea level in the past, when climatic conditions were different from those now prevailing. (author)

  9. Magnetic anomaly patterns over crustal blocks of the King Edward VII Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spano


    Full Text Available Within the framework of the GITARA II project an aeromagnetic survey was performed during the GANOVEXVII expedition (1992/1993 over the King Edward VII Peninsula in northwestern Marie Byrd Land (West Antarctica. This region which may represent the eastern flank of the Ross Sea rift system had previously been explored only at reconnaissance level. New total field and upward continued (10 km magnetic anomaly maps are produced and interpreted here to map and discuss the crustal structure of the Edward VII Peninsula. Tworound-shaped, high-amplitude magnetic anomalies are recognised over the Alexandra Mountains block. The anomalies are difficult to interpret since susceptibility data indicate the prevalence of non-magnetic rocks at the surface. A possible interpretation is that the anomalies are due to Cretaceous mafic intrusives distinct from weakly magnetic Byrd Coast Granite of the adjacent Rockefeller Mountains block. Alternatively the anomalies could be related to buried pluton-sized Devonian Ford Granodiorite intruded by dikes. If Cretaceous in age, the former intrusives revealed from the magnetics could also be responsible for contact metamorphism of the adjacent Alexandra Mountains migmatites. Lower amplitude circular anomalies over the Central Plateau and Prestrud Inlet are likely to be caused by unexposed Devonian Ford Granodiorite which crops out in the Ford Ranges. Elongated high-frequency anomalies of the Sulzberger Bay are similar to those recognised over seismically constrained Cenozoic rift-related volcanics of the Ross Sea. A broad magnetic low over the Sulzberger Ice Shelf may be indicative of a fault bounded graben-like basin with sedimentary infill. Overall recognition of magnetic anomaly patterns and trends reveals segmentation of the Edward VII Peninsula and of the adjacent marine areas in distinct crustal blocks. Faults may separate these blocks and they are interpreted to reflect multiple Cretaceous and maybe Cenozoic crustal

  10. Building destruction from waves and surge on the bolivar peninsula during hurricane ike (United States)

    Kennedy, A.; Rogers, S.; Sallenger, A.; Gravois, U.; Zachry, B.; Dosa, M.; Zarama, F.


    The Bolivar Peninsula in Texas was severely impacted by Hurricane Ike with strong winds, large waves, widespread inundation, and severe damage. This paper examines the wave and surge climate on Bolivar during the storm and the consequent survival and destruction of buildings. Emphasis is placed on differences between buildings that survived (with varying degrees of damage) and buildings that were completely destroyed. Building elevations are found to be the primary indicator of survival for areas with large waves. Here, buildings that were sufficiently elevated above waves and surge suffered relatively little structural damage, while houses at lower elevations were impacted by large waves and generally completely destroyed. In many areas, the transition from destruction to survival was over a very small elevation range of around 0.5 m. In areas where waves were smaller, survival was possible at much lower elevations. Higher houses that were not inundated still survived, but well-built houses at lower elevations could also survive as the waves were not large enough to cause structural damage. However, the transition height where waves became damaging could not be determined from this study. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  11. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women. (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sucheta


    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  12. The Climate Variabilities of Air Temperature Around the Korean Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hoon YOUN


    In this study, changes in climatological conditions around the Korean Peninsula are estimated quantitatively using various types of high order statistical analyses. The temperature data collected from Incheon station have been analyzed for the assessment of the climate variation. According to our analysis,the climate changes observed over the Korean Peninsula for the last century are similar to the global observational data in many respects. First of all, the warming trend [+1.5℃ (100 yr)-1] and the overall evolving pattern throughout the century are quite similar to each other. The temperature change in the Korean Peninsula is about two to three times larger than that of the global scale which may partially be ascribed to the influence of urbanization at mid and high latitudes. In this work, a new Winter Monsoon Index (WMI) is suggested based on the European continental scale circulation index (EU1) pattern. Our WMI is defined as the normalized sea level pressure (SLP) difference in the winter period between the centers of the East Sea and west of Lake Baikal in Siberia, the two eastern centers of the EU1 action patterns. A strong similarity is found between the time series of the WMI and surface air temperature at Incheon. The WMI has decreased gradually since the 1920s but has shifted to a rapid increasing trend in the last two decades; it was in fact accompanied by a weakening of the Siberian High and a decreasing of the northerly during winter. Our findings of the close correlations between the surface air temperature at Incheon and the WMI strongly indicate that our newly suggested index is unique and can be used as an efficient tool to predict climate variability in Korea.

  13. Self-similarity patterns of precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Morata, A.; Martín, M. L.; Luna, M. Y.; Valero, F.


    An objective classification of the precipitation field over the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands is obtained. Data are derived from a high-resolution daily precipitation dataset obtained from in-situ measurements. The dataset, Iberian monthly Precipitation Dataset (IPD), consists of monthly precipitation data over a 25 km × 25 km grid from 1st January 1961 to 31st December 2003. Therefore, 960 data series over the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands are disposed over the grid for 43-year period. Multi-resolution wavelet analysis is used to extract similar information in the precipitation field at different timescales. An objective classification of the obtained wavelet coefficient series is carried out by means of the Kohonen’s neural network, also named Self-Organizing Map (SOM). SOM is formed by an unsupervised learning algorithm that may be used to find clusters of similar events in the input data and is able to identify some underlying dynamic structures of the multi-dimensional datasets. SOM is applied to the wavelet coefficients for intramonthly, intermonthly and interannual oscillations, obtaining self-organised maps which objectively identify similar zones of precipitation behaviour over the Iberian Peninsula. The homogeneity of the patterns is also studied by means of non-parametric correlations, energy scalograms and tests of significance. The intramonthly, intermonthly and interannual waves resulted in seven, five and three SOM patterns, respectively. As timescale increases, the wavelet series coefficients tend to be highly clustered. The results indicate that as the oscillation frequencies decrease, the Iberian precipitation behaves more linearly.

  14. SeaWiFS Images Fires on Yucatan Peninsula (United States)


    This image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dense smoke from fires in the Yucatan peninsula on April 24, 2000. In the El Nino year of 1998 fires in the region emitted enough smoke to cause authorities in Texas to issue air quality warnings. For more information, see: SeaWiFS Project Home Page Global Fire Monitoring 4km2 TRMM Fire Data Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. The Hel Peninsula – Smart Grid Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Noske


    Full Text Available The paper presents the scope and results of engineering, and the scope of Smart Grid deployment in the Hel Peninsula. The following functionalities will be described: Fault Detection, Isolation & Recovery – FDIR function, Integrated Volt/Var Control (IVVC function, advanced supervision of LV grid, including distributed energy resources. The paper contains implementation results and research findings, as well as preliminary cost-benefit analysis of the project. Moreover, since Smart Metering and Smart Grid projects are being deployed in the same region – the Hel Peninisula – the benefit achieved by merging the two projects will be explained.

  16. Late Cenozoic stress field distribution in Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey (United States)

    Ozden, S.; Bekler, T.; Tutkun, S. Z.; Kurcer, A.; Ates, O.; Bekler, F. N.; Kalafat, D.


    Biga Peninsula is a seismically active region both in instrumental and historical period in NW Turkey. In this part, middle and southern branches of North Anatolian Fault are represented by Etili, Can-Biga, Yenice-Gonen, Manyas-Danisment, Lapseki, Sinekci, Terzialan, Dogruca, Uluabat, Edincik, Pazarkoy-Hamdibey-Kalkim, Edremit, Yigitler, Sarikoy-Inova, Troia and Karabiga Faults. All of these faults are responsible of the seismic activity in Biga Peninsula. Historical earthquakes happened in 29, 155, 170, 543, 620, 1440, 1737, 1855, 1865 and 1875. Furthermore, as for instrumental period, Saros Gulf-Murefte earthquakes (M:7.3 and M:6.3) in 1912, Erdek Gulf (M:6.4) and Can-Biga (M:6.3) in 1935, Edremit Gulf-Ayvaci k (M:6.8) in 1944, Yenice-Gonen (M:7.2) in 1953, Gonen (M:5.8) in 1964, Edremit-Baki rcay (M:5.5) in 1971, Biga (M:5.8) in 1983, Kusgolu-Manyas (M:5.2) and Bandirma (M:5.0) in 2006. In this study, we determined the Late Cenozoic stress field distribution and present-day tectonic regimes both fault-slip data (by 253 fault planes) and earthquake focal mechanism solutions (by 58 earthquakes) were investigated by the inversion methods. The results indicate that a transtensional stress regime is dominant with a NW-SE to WNW-ESE directed compression (1) and NE-SW to ENE-WSW directed extension (3), which yielded a NE-SW, ENE-WSW and also E-W trending strike-slip faulting faults with a normal component. While a transtensional tectonic regime has an active component in Biga Peninsula, a local and consistent transpressional tectonic regime were determined along an E-W trending narrow zone in the northern part of the Biga Peninsula also. The tectonic regime and stress field is resulted from interactions both continental collision of Eurasian/Anatolian/Arabian plate in the east and subduction processes (roll back and/or slab-pull) of the African plate along the Cyprus and Hellenic arc in the Mediterranean region.

  17. The Implementation of Temperature Distribution Model at Muria Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of temperature in the open ocean are mostly affected by factors control by nature such as differences in solar heat due to relative position of sun on earth surface, differences of precipitation and evaporation and ocean circulation. Human interfere are specifically occur in a smaller body of sea water. One of human activity that interfere marine environment is operation of nuclear installation that use ocean water as cooling water. In this chase, heat as secondary effluent can released to the ocean. On this paper, global temperature distribution model using Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) is discussed. And also its implementation at Muria Peninsula as candidate site of nuclear power plant. (author)

  18. The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Per; Alexanderson, Helena; Funder, Svend Visby;


    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred to...... in the text e and on data presented by Russian workers from the 1930s to our days and by German colleagues working there since the 1990s. Although glaciations even up here often started in the local mountains, their culminations in this region invariably seems to have centred on the shallow Kara Sea...

  19. Fire–weather relationship in the Italian peninsula


    Masala, Francesco; Bacciu, Valentina; Sirca, Costantino; Spano, Donatella


    Climate and weather are two of the main key factors influencing fire regime and they have a number of different effects on fire. The objective of this work is to improve our knowledge of the relationship between meteorological variables and forest fire across Italian peninsula. In the first part of this work, we collected meteorological and fire events data. The second part of the work involved the assemblage of fire and weather data into a GIS to facilitate manipulation and display of the da...

  20. Territorial dynamics and boundary effects in a protected area of the Central Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Heras, Paloma; Fernández-Sañudo, Paloma; López-Estébanez, Nieves; Roldán, María


    We analysed the main changes in land use over a 21 year period within the perimeter of a Protected Natural Area (PNA) and outside this perimeter. The area is characterised by its Mediterranean mid-mountain landscape and its piedmont, which extends almost as far as the city of Madrid. We employed cartography of land use and plant formation from 1980 and 2001. We identified land uses and their changes in this time period in order to determine the principal territorial dynamics (scrub encroachment, urban development, forest encroachment, new pastures and new crops). Subsequently, we performed a comparative analysis between the changes inside and those outside the protected area. The results show that there is a boundary effect between the protected area and the surrounding zone, which is more notable in the areas where urban development has intensified. This kind of research serves to establish whether or not a PNA contributes to protecting and conserving natural resources as compared to what occurs in the unprotected surrounding area, which tends to be subjected to more aggressive dynamics.

  1. Late holocene environments in Las Tablas de Daimiel (south central Iberian peninsula, Spain)


    Gil García, M. José; Ruiz Zapata, María Blanca; Santisteban Navarro, Juan Ignacio; Mediavilla López, Rosa María; López Pamo, Enrique; Cristino J. Dabrio


    The use of a high resolution pollen record in combination with geochemical data from sediments composed mainly of layers of charophytes alternating with layers of vegetal remains plus some detrital beds permits the reconstruction of the environmental evolution of the last 3000 years in an inland wetland of the Mediterranean domain, thus introducing a new climatic dataset for the Late Holocene. Hydrological fluctuations, reflected in the relationship between emerged and...

  2. Identifying Causes of Construction Waste – Case of Central Region of Peninsula Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasitharan Nagapan


    Full Text Available Construction waste becomes a global issue facing by practitioners and researchers around the world. Waste can affects success of construction project significantly. More specifically, it has major impact on construction cost, construction time, productivity and sustainability aspects. This paper aims to identify various factors causing construction waste in Malaysia. Study was carried out through structured questionnaire focusing three major parties (i.e. clients, consultants and contractors involved in construction project. Data was analyzed with Statistical Software Package SPSS. Reliability of data was found as 0.917 which showed that data collected was highly reliable. The calculation of Mean Rank of the construction waste causes found that the 5 key causes are Poor site management and supervision, Lack of experience, inadequate planning and scheduling, Mistakes and errors in design and finally Mistakes during construction. Spearman correlation analysis showed that Mistakes during construction was highly correlated with Rework (with 0.829 correlation value and Slow information flow between parties (with a value of 0.60 and vice versa. Through identifying the causes and its correlation of the construction waste it gives better understanding to the construction community for future construction projects which benefit not only in term of economy but also the environment.

  3. Widespread occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in contemporary and historical samples of the endangered Bombina pachypus along the Italian peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Canestrelli

    Full Text Available Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is considered a main driver of the worldwide declines and extinctions of amphibian populations. Nonetheless, fundamental questions about its epidemiology, including whether it acts mainly as a "lone killer" or in conjunction with other factors, remain largely open. In this paper we analysed contemporary and historical samples of the endangered Apennine yellow-bellied toad (Bombina pachypus along the Italian peninsula, in order to assess the presence of the pathogen and its spreading dynamics. Once common throughout its range, B. pachypus started to decline after the mid-1990s in the northern and central regions, whereas no declines have been observed so far in the southern region. We show that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is currently widespread along the entire peninsula, and that this was already so at least as early as the late 1970s, that is, well before the beginning of the observed declines. This temporal mismatch between pathogen occurrence and host decline, as well as the spatial pattern of the declines, suggests that the pathogen has not acted as a "lone killer", but in conjunction with other factors. Among the potentially interacting factors, we identified two as the most probable, genetic diversity of host populations and recent climate changes. We discuss the plausibility of this scenario and its implications on the conservation of B. pachypus populations.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean field mouse Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia, Murinae) from China. (United States)

    Jeon, Mi Gyung; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Yung Chul


    We sequenced and characterized a complete mitogenome (KP671850) of the Chinese Apodemus peninsulae and compared it with a previously published mitogenome of the Korean A. peninsulae (NC016060). The total length of the Chinese A. peninsulae mitogenome is 16,457 bp. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one D-loop region. The most common start codon was ATG, used in the nine PCGs for initiation. The mitogenomes of Chinese and Korean A. peninsulae showed 98.9% sequence similarity. The intra-/interspecific phylogeny of the Chinese A. peninsulae revealed that the Chinese A. peninsulae was well grouped with the Korean A. peninsulae. The clade of A. peninsulae was sister to that of Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus chejuensis, and Apodemus chevrieri. PMID:26006285

  5. 75 FR 20991 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental... environmental assessment (EA) regarding Upper Peninsula Power Company's plan to replace the spillway at the Bond... significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Copies of the EA are available for review in...

  6. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺


    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  7. Mantle-Lid P Wave Attenuation in the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Lee, K.; Hong, T.


    The mantle-lid P wave, Pn, is the first arrival phase in regional distances. The Pn waves are widely analyzed for estimation of event sizes. Also, it is known that analysis of Pn waves is effective for discrimination of nuclear explosions from natural earthquakes. The attenuation of Pn waves provides us information on medium properties in mantle lid. It is crucial to understand the nature of Pn attenuation for correct estimation of event sizes from Pn amplitudes. We investigate the lateral variation of Pn attenuation in the mantle lid of the Korean Peninsula from vertical regional seismograms for events around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands. The number of events is 149, and the focal depths are less than 50 km. The seismic records with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 1.5 are analyzed. The number of stations is 121. The Pn quality factors are calculated using a two-station method in which ratios of Pn displacement spectra of stations on the same azimuths are used. The power-law frequency dependence term is estimated using a least-squares fitting for quality factors at frequencies from 0.37 Hz to 25 Hz. The number of station pairs is 3317. The average quality factor at 1 Hz is determined to be about 67, which is consistent with previous studies. We present the resultant Pn attenuation model, and discuss the correlations with geological and geophysical properties in the medium.

  8. Distribution and characteristic of PAHs in snow of Fildes Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangshui Na; Chunyang Liu; Zhen Wang; Linke Ge; Xindong Ma; Ziwei Yao


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) investigation in different matrices has been reported largely,whereas reports on snow samples were limited.Snow,as the main matrix in the polar region,has an important study meaning.PAHs in snow samples were analyzed to investigate the distribution and contamination status of them in the Antarctic,as well as to provide some references for global migration of PAHs.Snow samples collected in Fildes Peninsula were enriched and separated by solid-phase membrane disks and eluted by methylene dichloride,then quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.All types of PAHs were detected except for Benzo(a)pyrene.Principal component analysis method was applied to characterize them.Three factors (Naphthalene,Fluorene and Pbenanthrene) accounted for 60.57%,21.61% and 9.80%,respectively.The results showed that the major PAHs sources maybe the atmospheric transportation,and the combustion of fuel in Fildes Peninsula.The comparison of concentration and types of PAHs between accumulated snow and fresh snow showed that the main compound concentrations in accumulated snow samples were higher than those in fresh ones.The risk assessment indicated that the amount of PAHs in the snow samples would not lead to ecological risk.

  9. New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Mercier, Norbert; Sistiaga, Ainara; Soler, Vicente


    The timing of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic and the disappearance of Neanderthals continue to be strongly debated. Current chronometric evidence from different European sites pushes the end of the Middle Palaeolithic throughout the continent back to around 42 thousand years ago (ka). This has called into question some of the dates from the Iberian Peninsula, previously considered as one of the last refuge zones of the Neanderthals. Evidence of Neanderthal occupation in Iberia after 42 ka is now very scarce and open to debate on chronological and technological grounds. Here we report thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from El Salt, a Middle Palaeolithic site in Alicante, Spain, the archaeological sequence of which shows a transition from recurrent to sporadic human occupation culminating in the abandonment of the site. The new dates place this sequence within MIS 3, between ca. 60 and 45 ka. An abrupt sedimentary change towards the top of the sequence suggests a strong aridification episode coinciding with the last Neanderthal occupation of the site. These results are in agreement with current chronometric data from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and point towards possible breakdown and disappearance of the Neanderthal local population around the time of the Heinrich 5 event. Iberian sites with recent dates (<40 ka) attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic should be revised in the light of these data. PMID:25016565

  10. How to realize a nuclear-free Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is certain that, unless the nuclear issue is solved, there can be no progress in inter-Korean relations. To this end, comprehensive and intrusive mutual inspections of any suspicious sites, as well as IAEA inspections, should certainly be implemented. Once international and bilateral arrangements for nuclear inspection are agreed and implemented to the satisfaction of the parties concerned, this will not only solve the problem of nuclear proliferation, but also lay a firm foundation for greater confidence-building measures on the Korean peninsula. This could also be a valuable example for future arms control in Korea. However, even mutual inspection between the two Koreas cannot necessarily guarantee a nuclear-free Korea. The most effective way to ensure the denuclearization of Korea may be to remove elements that the two Koreas perceive as incentives to go nuclear, in parallel with operating a tight and stable verification regime based on mutual and international inspections. Since the major reasons to go nuclear in Korea are military threats and mutual distrust between the two Koreas, no efforts should be spared to rectify these situations. Therefore, confidence- and security-building measures, including full-scale arms control, must be carried out in order to realize and preserve a nuclear-free Korea. In the long run, the greatest contribution to reducing the threat of nuclear proliferation in the Korean peninsula will be through improving overall relations between South and North Korea

  11. El Grupo Trinity Peninsula en la península Tabarin, extremo norte de la península Antártica The Trinity Peninsula Group in the Tabarin Peninsula, northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. del Valle


    Full Text Available La península Tabarin, Antártida Occidental, exhibe rocas deformadas durante los ciclos orogénicos gondwánico y ándico. La Formación Hope Bay y Formación Düse Bay (Carbonífero tardío-Triásico están incluidas dentro del Grupo Trinity Peninsula, registrando el ciclo orogénico gondwánico. Las estructuras sedimentarias, asociaciones de facies y rasgos deposicionales de la Formación Hope Bay, sugieren sedimentación en ambientes marinos someros. La presencia de capas calcáreas con morfología build-up y matas calcáreas, y rocas piroclásticas, incluyendo ignimbritas, peperitas y depósitos ricos es escoria volcánica, también indican escasa profundidad del mar para la sedimentación de la Formación Düse Bay. El área de aporte del Grupo Trinity Peninsula estaba compuesta por rocas volcánicas y plutónicas con cantidades menores de rocas sedimentarias y metamórficas, probablemente ubicadas hacia el este para la parte inferior Formación Hope Bay de la secuencia, y hacia el oeste para la parte superior de la Formación Düse Bay, con mayor participación volcánica en el último caso. El ambiente de sedimentación más probable para la Formación Hope Bay fue una plataforma silícicoclástica somera y de baja energía, y una cuenca de retroarco de antepaís, relacionada con la orogenia gondwánica, en el caso de la Formación Düse Bay.The Tabarin Peninsula, West Antarctica, showsrocks deformed by both the Gondwanic and Andean orogenic cycles. The Hope Bay Formation and Düse Bay Formation (Late Carboniferous-Triassic are included within the Trinity Peninsula Group, recording the Gondwanic orogenic cycle. Sedimentary structures, facies associations and depositional features of Hope Bay Formation, suggest shallow marine deposition. The presence in the Düse Bay Formation of calcareous beds with build-up morphology and algal mats, and primary pyroclastic rocks including: ignimbrites, peperites and scoria-rich fall deposits, also

  12. Analysis of Immigration Development in Leizhou Peninsula Since Tang and Song Dynasties%唐宋以来移民开发雷州半岛探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    中原移民进入雷州半岛可能始于秦汉时期;唐宋时以闽浙为主体的濒海移民迁入雷州半岛数量之大、分布之广,可从“闽音”在雷州长期流行得到印证。这些濒海移民进入雷州半岛后,继续从事海洋性开发,使雷州经济发展始终呈海洋性特色,移民与土著经过长期互动到清末已逐渐融为一体。%There had been immigrants moved from the central part of China to Leizhou peninsula since Qin and Han dynasty.In the Tang and Song dynasties,The main body of these coastal immigrants moved into the Leizhou Peninsula are almost originally from Fujian and Zhejiang.Based on the 〞Fujian sound〞long popular in Leizhou Peninsula,We can know it's large number and widely distributed.These coastal migration continued to engage in the marine development,and made the economic development of Leizhou always being of ocean features.Immigrants and natives to the end of the Qing dynasty after the long-term interaction has gradually come into one group with same local characteristics.

  13. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  14. Monogeneans of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, E F; Scholz, T; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Vargas-Vázquez, J


    During a survey of the parasites of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula the following species of monogeneans were found on cichlid, pimelodid, characid and poeciliid fishes: Sciadicleithrum mexicanum Kritsky, Vidal-Martinez et Rodriguez-Canul, 1994 from Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) (type host), Cichlasoma friedrichsthali (Heckel), Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regan), and Cichlasoma synspilum Hubbs, all new host records; Sciadicleithrum meekii Mendoza-Franco, Scholz et Vidal-Martínez, 1997 from Cichlasoma meeki (Brind); Urocleidoides chavarriai (Price, 1938) and Urocleidoides travassosi (Price, 1938) from Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther); Urocleidoides costaricensis (Price et Bussing, 1967), Urocleidoides heteroancistrium (Price et Bussing, 1968), Urocleidoides anops Kritsky et Thatcher, 1974, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle Kritsky et Fritts, 1970, and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis Kritsky et Fritts, 1970 from Astyanax fasciatus; and Gyrodactylus sp. from Gambusia yucatana Regan. Urocleidoides chavarriai, U. travassosi, U. costaricensis, U. heteroancistrium, U. anops, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis are reported from North America (Mexico) for the first time. These findings support the idea about the dispersion of freshwater fishes and their monogenean parasites from South America through Central America to southeastern Mexico, following the emergence of the Panamanian isthmus between 2 and 5 million years ago. PMID:10730199

  15. Multiproxy paleoecological evidence of Holocene climatic changes on the Boothia Peninsula, Canadian Arctic (United States)

    Fortin, Marie-Claude; Gajewski, Konrad


    A study of chironomid remains in the sediments of Lake JR01 on the Boothia Peninsula in the Central Canadian Arctic provides a high-resolution record of mean July air temperatures for the last 6.9 ka. Diatom and pollen studies have previously been published from this core. Peak Holocene temperatures occurred prior to 5.0 ka, a time when overall aquatic and terrestrial biological production was high. Chironomid-inferred summer air temperatures reached up to 7.5°C during this period. The region of Lake JR01 cooled over the mid- to late-Holocene, with high biological production between 6.1 and 5.4 ka. Biological production decreased again at ∼2 ka and the rate of cooling increased in the past 2 ka, with coolest temperatures occurring between 0.46 and 0.36 ka, coinciding with the Little Ice Age. Although biological production increased in the last 150 yr, the reconstructed temperatures do not indicate a warming during this time. During transitions, either warming or cooling, chironomid production increases, suggesting an ecosystem-level response to climate variability, seen at a number of lakes across the Arctic.

  16. Cenozoic structures and polymetallic mineralizations in the central part of the Serbo-Macedonian massif


    Volkov, A.; Serafimovski, Todor; Tasev, Goran


    Serbo-Macedonian massif (SMM) represents remarkable geotectonic unitwithin central parts of the Balkan Peninsula where have been confirmed numerous structures, morphostructures and significant ore mineralizations. From the geological point of view the SMM has been built mainly of gneisses, mica-schists and Paleozoic schists, while the structural construction has been dominated by plicative structures and disjunctive ruptures.

  17. Climate Variabilities of Sea Level around the Korean Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Hoon YOUN; Im Sang OH; Young-Hyang PARK; Ki-Hyun KIM


    In order to study the climate variabilities of the sea level around the Korean Peninsula, tidal data observed at local stations in Korea were compared against those obtained using TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetric sea level data. In the course of our study, the amount of sea level rise was estimated using the tidal data from 9 stations selected by an anomaly coherency analysis. The results indicated that the sea level has risen by 0.28 cm yr-1 around the Korean Peninsula over the past two decades. The extent of such a rise is about two times higher than that of the global increase (0.1-0.2 cm yr-1). However,because most global warming effects occurred mainly over mid- and high-latitudes, this level of change appears to be realistic. According to the spectral analysis (at a spectral window of k = 2, k is the number of subdivisions), the decadal band of sea level variability is computed at 30% of the energy. Its spectral peak is found at 12.8 years. In the interannual band, the predominant sea level variability is in the 1.4-1.9-year band, with a sharp peak at 1.6 years. A secondary peak, although marginal, has a period of 2.2years. Based on our estimates of sea level height from Topex/Poseidon, the quasi-biennial periodicity of 1.6 years is the representative interannual sea level variability in the seas adjacent to Korea. Trends vary greatly according to the geographical location, from a maximum of 1.0 cm yr-1 (the southern sector of the East Sea) to a minimum of 0.17 cm yr-1 (the northern sector of the East Sea). This is fairly consistent with the qualitative description already given with reference to the global map. As an analogue to the pattern seen in Korea, that of the Yellow Sea reveals practically the same trend as that of the adjacent seas (0.56 cm yr-1). However, in the case of TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) data, there is no clear evidence of a linkage between the interannual sea level variability around the Korean Peninsula and ENSO.

  18. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  19. Cherax snowden, a new species of crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula in Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia. (United States)

    Lukhaup, Christian; Panteleit, Jörn; Schrimpf, Anne


    A new species, Cherax snowden sp. n., from the Oinsok River Drainage, Sawiat District in the central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the closest related species, Cherax holthuisi Lukhaup & Pekny, 2006. This species is collected and exported for ornamental purposes and its commercial name in the pet trade is "orange tip" or "green orange tip". Both species may be easily distinguished morphologically or by using sequence divergence, which is substantial, for considering Cherax snowden sp. n. to be a new species. PMID:26448698

  20. Changes in Typhoon Activities and Regional Precipitation Variability over the Korean Peninsula according to Different Phases of El Niño


    Jong-Suk Kim; Sun-Kwon Yoon; Sang Myeong Oh; Young-Il Moon


    We analyzed typhoon activities such as tropical cyclone (TC) genesis position, movement routes and central pressure of typhoons, and changes in local patterns of rainfall stemming from TCs passing through the Korean domain. The results showed a remarkable difference in changes in typhoons that affect the Korean Peninsula (KP) during cold tongue (CT) and warm pool (WP) El Niño years. In particular, TCs that move through the ocean off Korea and the Kuroshio during WP El Niño years are relativel...

  1. Possible salt mine and brined cavity sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern southern peninsula of Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern sites for waste disposal include environmental, geologic, and economic factors. The Michigan basin is a structural bowl of Paleozoic sediments resting on downwarped Precambrian rocks. The center of the bowl is in Clare and Gladwin Counties, a short distance north of the middle of the Southern Peninsula. The strata dip toward this central area, and some stratigraphic sequences, including especially the salt-containing Silurian section, increase considerably in thickness in that direction. Lesser amounts of salt are also present in the north central part of the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has been an oil and gas producing state since 1925 and widespread exploration has had two effects on the selection of waste disposal sites: (1) large areas are leased for oil and gas; and (2) the borehole concentrations, whether producing wells, dry holes, or industrial brine wells that penetrated the salt section, should be avoided. Two types of nuclear waste, low level and high level, can be stored in man-made openings in salt beds. The storage facilities are created by (1) the development of salt mines where the depths are less than 3000 ft, and (2) cavities produced by pumping water into a salt bed, and bringing brine back out. The high level waste disposal must be confined to mines of limited depth, but the low level wastes can be accommodated in brine cavities at any depth. Seven potential prospects have been investigated and are described in detail

  2. Isotope composition of precipitation and water vapour in the Iberian peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first set of isotope results (δ18O, δD and T) obtained by the Spanish Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (SNIP), obtained during the years 2000-2002 are presented and analysed in terms of the geographical and climatic factors controlling its seasonal and spatial distribution. SNIP maintains in operation 16 meteorological stations. The present evaluation of isotope data in precipitation focus on the governing atmospheric circulation processes in the vicinity of the Iberian Peninsula and the influence of Atlantic and Mediterranean marine air masses as well as the Central European or African continental air masses. Also in this paper are presented the first results of the stable isotope measurements carried out on single precipitation events and water vapour collected in a weather station located near the meteorological station of Madrid-Retiro. The long-term isotope values obtained in this programme show a reasonable agreement with the GMWL, with mean d-excess values for the different stations ranging from +7 to +14 per mille. These values are coherent with the prevailing westerly circulation, being the North and Tropical Atlantic the major sources of water vapour producing precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula. The most depleted isotope values in rain and snow were observed during the invasion of cold continental air masses from Russia and Northern Europe, but in all cases, associated to small amounts of precipitation. The most enriched isotope values in precipitation are measured in summer months when convective rains are formed. The most intense rain events in Portugal and western Spain are generally related to events involved humid air masses originated in the tropical Atlantic, especially during autumn and spring. The influence of the air masses generated over the Mediterranean is generally restricted to a short distance from the coastline, mainly in the form of extreme events (>100 mm in a few hours) during the months of September and October. The

  3. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.


    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  4. American Headache Society (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  5. Cancer and African Americans (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  6. American Sign Language (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  7. Shape of the plate interface near the Mejillones Peninsula in Northern Chile inferred from high resolution relocation of Tocopilla aftershocks (United States)

    Fuenzalida, A.; Schurr, B.; Lancieri, M.; Madariaga, R. I.


    The 14 November, Mw 7.8 2007 Tocopilla earthquake broke the southern part of seismic gap of northern Chile. The earthquake broke a rupture area 130 km by 30km along the deep plate interface between the Nazca and South American plates.The aftershock of this event were very well recorded by the IPOC (GFZ-IPGP-DGF) and Task Force networks (GFZ). Since the IPOC network was installed before the main Tocopilla earthquake we could locate the first two weeks of aftershocks with low accuracy.The first two weeks of aftershocks were characterised by a strong seismicity in the southern area starting with two big events of Mw 6.8 and 6.3 one day after the Tocopilla earthquake. On 29 November 2007 a Task Force (TF) Network of 20 short period instruments was installed by the GFZ team in the area of the Mejillones Peninsula. On 16 December a large Mw 6.8 slab push event took place at the center of this network. This event broke the oceanic crust of the subducted Nazca plate.(see Ruiz and Madariaga, this meeting). We have analysed in detail the TF data from its installation to 20 December. Hypocentral locations of the sequence were computed by automatic identification of the aftershocks and careful hand made readings of the arrival times of P and S phases for each seismogram. In a first study, we used the the nonlinear location software,NonLinLoc of Anthony Lomax using both a 1D model proposed by Husen from the study of earlier events in the region and the 2D model proposed by Patzwall et al from seismic profiles across the Mejillones Peninsula. We find that aftershocks were located along a thin, clearly defined zone that we interpret as the plate interface. As expected events situated off-shore of the Mejillones peninsula are less well located by Nonlinloc although our results suggest that several of these events occurred above the plate interface in the South American wedge. In a second step we relocated 850 events using the HypoDD method of Waldhauser et al with time delays

  8. Leishmania spp. Epidemiology of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. López-Céspedes


    Full Text Available Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico. A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high.

  9. Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments (United States)

    Cao, Min; Huguet, Carme; Rull, Valenti; Valero, Blas; Rosell-Mele, Antoni


    Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments Min Cao1, Carme Huguet1, Valenti Rull2, Blas L. Valero-Garces3, Antoni Rosell-Melé1,4 1Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain; 2Institut de Botanic de Barcelona (CSIC), Passeig del Migdia s/n, 08038, Barcelona, Spain, 3 Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologıa (CSIC), Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain, 4Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The continuing buildup of industrial greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and concomitant increase in global temperatures has made much of the world's society aware that decades to centuries of environmental change lie ahead, and that these will have profound economic, political and societal impacts. The Iberian Peninsula lies in the boundary between tropical and subtropical climates and seems to amplify the climatic signals form the northern hemisphere through both atmospheric and water circulation feedbacks, making it an ideal site to monitor Northern hemisphere climate changes. This extreme sensitivity to climatic changes also makes the Iberian Peninsula extremely vulnerable to future climate changes. This is why understanding sensitivity to climate change and the consequences it will have on both climate and the hydrological cycle is key to implement preventive measures. The aim of our study is to come up with a high resolution quantitative reconstruction of climate variability (temperature, production and precipitation) in the Iberian Peninsula from lake sediments. We also want to establish the relation between those changes and the ones observed in both ice cores from Greenland and paleotemperature records from marine sediments of the continental Iberian margin. For these reasons we sampled a core in Moncortes (42.3N, 0.99E), a lake of karstic origin with an average depth of 25m and an area of 0

  10. Induced seismicity in the Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula) (United States)

    Kremenetskaya, Elena O.; Trjapitsin, Victor M.


    The topic of this paper is to review recent processes of increasing seismic activity in the Khibiny Massif in the Kcla Peninsula. It is a typical example of induced seismicity caused by rock deformation due to the extraction of more than 2·109 tons of rock mass since the mid-1960s. The dependence of seismic activity on the amount of extracted ore is demonstrated. Some of the induced earthquakes coincide with large mining explosions, thus indicating a trigger mechanism. The largest earthquake, which occurred on 16 April 1989 ( M L= 4.1) could be traced along the surface for 1200 m and observed to a depth of at least 220 m. The maximum measured displacement was 15 20 cm.

  11. Ancient Land Routes On The Paximadhi Peninsula, Karystos, Euboea (United States)

    Keller, D.; Hom, E.

    Recent regional surface surveys have placed more focus on rural investigations, but the means of transport and communication within those rural surroundings has not always received adequate attention. The Southern Euboea Exploration Project has undertaken a new phase of research in the Karystos area with the goal of developing a methodology that allows for a more detailed record of the pre-modern land routes. On the Paximadhi peninsula it was possible to identify numerous fragments of suspected ancient routes dating to the Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the majority of cases these fragments were closely associated with adjacent datable ancient sites. By taking into consideration the evidence recorded during the survey it was sometimes possible to propose the extension of these ancient segments and to theorize the directions, lengths, and purposes of ancient networks.

  12. Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Cook, A J; Holland, P R; Meredith, M P; Murray, T; Luckman, A; Vaughan, D G


    In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region. PMID:27418507

  13. Population structure of three Psammodromus species in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Horreo


    Full Text Available The knowledge of a species’ population structure is essential for the development of adequate conservation actions as well as for the understanding of its evolution. The population structure is unknown in all species of the Genus Psammodromus, including the Western Sand Racer (Psammodromus occidentalis; a recently described species, the Edward’s Sand Racer (P. edwardsianus and the Spanish Sand Racer (P. hispanicus. In this article, the genetic variability and population structure of Psammodromus edwardsianus, P. hispanicus, and P. occidentalis were studied in the Iberian Peninsula covering their natural geographic distribution. Mitochondrial DNA showed genetically different units in all species with higher genetic variability in their southern populations (latitudinal variation. Genetic differentiation was different among species and contrasted to those of species with similar characteristics. Our results therefore highlight the importance of species-specific studies analysing population structure.

  14. Late Holocene tephrochronology of the northern Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Björck, Svante; Sandgren, Per; Zale, Rolf


    Andesitic and basaltic andesitic tephra layers are abundant in Holocene deposits from the Antarctic Peninsula. Visually discernible tephra horizons occur in three lakes on Livingston Island. Tephra in two other lakes and in a moss bank on Elephant Island, with very low ash concentrations, were detected magnetically. Deception Island is the most likely volcanic source for the tephra. With direct 14C dating, age/depth curves, and cross-correlations at least 14 tephra horizons dating to between ca. 4700 and 250 yr B.P. were identified and now form the basis for a preliminary regional tephrochronology that will be a valuable dating tool for investigating the Holocene climatic history of Antarctica.

  15. Precambrian crustal evolution in Rangrim Massif, Korean Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LYANG To Jun; LIU Yongjiang; YANG Jong Hyok; KIM Hon; HAN Ryong Yon; KIM Jong Nam


    Petrological, chronological and geotectonic geological analysis of Precambrian metamorphic rock in Korean Peninsula shows that the remnants (>3.4 Ga) of continental nuclei crust were formed in the Paleoarchean in the Rangrim Massif. In the massif, the main formation ages of continental crust range from 3.2 Ga to 2.5 Ga, its important growing period was 2.8-2.5 Ga. The subsequent expansion period of the Rangrim Massif was 2.4-2.2 Ga. The division events occurred in 1.85 Ga and in the Late Paleoproterozoic- -Early Mesopro-terozoic, respectively. Since then the massif was relatively stable. However, the last division of the Rangrim Massif occurred at 793 Ma.

  16. Practice of Propaganda on Korean Peninsula (1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhyvora Olexii


    Full Text Available The topic of propaganda, which was thought to be a part of the Cold War past, was recently revived by modern and rather successful application in Georgian, Syrian and Ukrainian conflicts. In this regard Korean Peninsula is a perfect example of prolonged use of mutual practice of indoctrination to study its origins. This article discuses the evolution of propaganda use by both Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea (1945-1960 in cultural, economic and political dimensions. Qualitative text analysis and case study in conjunction with theoretical framework of A. E. Cassirer, S. Langer, E. Barneys and W. Lippmann are used to establish techniques used, and to explain its overall success.

  17. Climate variability and change and related drought on Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results on climate variability including variations of air temperature and precipitation in Bulgaria during the 20th century are presented. There has been an increase of air temperature during the last two decades. The years 1994 and 2000 were the warmest years on record in the country. Annual precipitation in Bulgaria varied considerably from year to year during the 20th century. In some years, very low annual precipitation caused droughts of different intensities. The country has experienced severe drought episodes in the 1940s, 1980s and 1990s. There was a decreasing trend in precipitation during the period April-September from the end of 1970s. Precipitation was below the 1961-1990 average for 14 of the last 20 years of investigation. A winter precipitation deficit was observed during the last decade. Both spring and summer as well as autumn precipitation had a tendency to decrease at the end of the 20th century. The anomalies of annual air temperature and precipitation as well as related drought occurrence on the Balkan Peninsula were also analyzed. For this purpose, different weather sources (such as the CRU climate dataset, ATEAM weather dataset for Europe, etc.) were used. Several climate change scenarios for the Balkan Peninsula were developed and analyzed. These scenarios were based on GCM (global circulation model) weather outputs. Both GCM outputs with coarse spatial resolution (e.g. MAGICC/SCENGEN scenarios: 500 km x 500 km) as well as with high resolution (e.g. HadCM3 scenarios: 10'x 10' (less than 20 km x 20 km)) were used. The GCM climate change scenarios created by the Tyndall Centre (UK) for the Balkan countries were also considered and discussed. (Author)

  18. Penal modernism: an American tragedy


    Farmer, Lindsay


    This paper discusses Whitman’s analysis of penal modernism. While I am in agreement with the central claim that penal modernism has been ignored and caricatured, I argue here that Whitman’s account of the penal modernist theory of judging must be understood in the context of a wider reframing of the social functions of the criminal law in penal modernism. This is explored by considering the unusual connection that the novel An American Tragedy (1925) has to the history of American criminal la...

  19. Economy aspect for nuclear desalination selection in Muria Peninsula using 1000 MWe PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An assessment of economy aspect for nuclear desalination selection has been carried out. This study is done to explore any possibility to utilize co-generation concept of desalination, because there is a plan to introduce nuclear power plants (NPP) into Indonesia's electricity grid. A comprehensive study on different energy sources shows that NPP is economically and technically viable to be introduced into the grid in 2016/2017. The candidate site is Muria Peninsula in Central Java. Currently, the total of install electricity capacity is about 29.083 GWe, and it is estimated that electricity energy growth is about 7.1% per year. The install capacity in Java is about 23 GWe (65% of national capacity). With economic growth projection is about 6%, therefore in the 2025, it is needed electricity energy about 70 GWe, so electricity demand increase 2000 MWe per year. Therefore, a PWR of 1000 MWe will coupled with a desalination plant of MSF (Multi-stage Flash Distillation), MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) and RO (Reverse Osmosis). The costs of water production for the Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF), Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process coupled to PWR 1000 MWe would be compared. The objectives of the economic evaluation is to help the decision-maker to eventually implement an integrated nuclear desalination plant, generating both electricity and fresh water. Economic analysis of water cost are performed using a computer program issued by the IAEA, DEEP-3.1. In this study, option for turbine scheme is set as extraction and back pressure. Options for specific carbon tax, thermal steam compression and backup heat are not used. Construction cost for NPP is assumed to be 2600 $/kW, production capacity 2.750 m3/d, interest rate 5%, construction cost for MSF 1200 $/m3/d, MED 900 $/m3/d and RO 700 $/m3/d, ratio of recovery RO 45%, top brine temperature for MED 65 deg. C and MSF 110 deg. C. The results of the performed case

  20. Eclogite in West Papua (Wandamen Peninsula), petrological and geochemical characterization : geodynamical implications (United States)

    de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Bailly, Vivien; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    The Lengguru accretionary wedge (West Papua) is located in a very active geodynamical context. It results from the oblique convergence between the Pacific plate and the Australian plate. All the wedge has been build between 11 and 2 Ma (Bailly et al., 09). Exceptional boulders of fresh eclogites were discovered in the internal part of the Lengguru wedge, in the so called Wandamen peninsula. The Wandamen peninsula displays an increasing metamorphic gradient from West to East. This metamorphic peninsula may also be regarded as the continuation of the inner part of the Central range of Papua New Guinea farther east. The eclogites area embedded in metasediments that present similarities with Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of the Australian margin in the continuation of Lengguru wedge. According to geochemical analysis of major and traces elements on the two freshest eclogites, their protolith has a Fe-Ti gabbroic composition. The CIPW norm of these rocks suggest a protolith, with 32% of pyroxenes, 47% of anorthite, less than 3% of olivine, with 7% of ilmenite and 7% of magnetite. Major elements show a tholeiitic characters. Traces elements suggest a T MORB signature with a high content of TiO2. The eclogites are medium to coarse grained. The metamorphic paragenesis consists of clinopyroxenes, garnets, amphiboles, rutiles, quartz and accessory minerals like apatites. Clinopyroxenes with omphacitic composition (XJd: 0.3-0.4) are poecilitic, rare textures of retrogression (symplectites) are observed. Symplectites are composed by diopside or Na-Ca-Fe pyroxene XJd (0.18) and albite, locally calcic amphiboles can replace the clinopyroxene. Garnet of several millimeters (3-4 mm) result from the aggregation of smaller euhedral crystals (500-700 µm). Some of them display atoll microstructure and exhibit a core filled by omphacite, slightly green amphibole, or by quartz. They contain minute inclusions of omphacite, amphibole, apatite, quartz. Many rutiles exsolutions are

  1. Reverse polarity magnetized melt rocks from the Chicxulub impact structure, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Marin, Luis E.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Quezada, Juan Manuel


    Further paleomagnetic data for core samples of melt rock recovered in the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) exploratory wells within the Chicxulub structure, northern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico are reported. A previous report by Sharpton showed that the rocks studied contain high iridium levels and shocked breccia clasts, and an Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.2 plus or minus 0.4 Ma. The geomagnetic polarity determined for two samples is reverse (R) and was correlated with chron 29R that includes the K/T boundary. Our present analysis is based on two samples from each of three clasts of the melt rock from PEMEX well Y6-N17 (1295 to 1299 m b.s.l.). This study concentrates on the vectorial nature and stability of the remanence (NRM), the magnetic mineralogy and remanence carriers (i.e., the reliability and origin of the record), and on the implications (correlation with expected paleolatitude and polarity). The relative orientation of the drill core samples with respect to the horizontal is known. Samples were stable under alternating field (AF) and thermal treatments, and after removal of a small component they exhibited single-vectorial behavior. The characteristic remanence inclinations show small dispersion and a mean value (-43 deg) in close agreement with the expected inclination and paleolatitude (derived from the North American apparent polar wander path). Isothermal remenence (IRM) acquisition experiments, Lowrie-Fuller tests, coercivity and unblocking temperature spectra of NRM and saturation IRM, susceptibility and Q-coefficient analyses, and the single-component nature indicate a dominant mineralogy of iron-rich titanomagnetites with single or pseduo-single domain states. The stable characteristic magnetization may be interpreted as a result of shock heating of the rock at the time of formation of the inpact structure and its polarity, age, and paleolatitude are consistent with a time about the K/T boundary.

  2. Reverse polarity magnetized melt rocks from the Chicxulub impact structure, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Marin, Luis E.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Quezada, Juan Manuel


    Further paleomagnetic data for core samples of melt rock recovered in the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) exploratory wells within the Chicxulub structure, northern Yucatan peninsula, Mexico are reported. A previous report by Sharpton showed that the rocks studied contain high iridium levels and shocked breccia clasts, and an Ar-40/Ar-39 age of 65.2 plus or minus 0.4 Ma. The geomagnetic polarity determined for two samples is reverse (R) and was correlated with chron 29R that includes the K/T boundary. Our present analysis is based on two samples from each of three clasts of the melt rock from PEMEX well Y6-N17 (1295 to 1299 m b.s.l.). This study concentrates on the vectorial nature and stability of the remanence (NRM), the magnetic mineralogy and remanence carriers (i.e., the reliability and origin of the record), and on the implications (correlation with expected paleolatitude and polarity). The relative orientation of the drill core samples with respect to the horizontal is known. Samples were stable under alternating field (AF) and thermal treatments, and after removal of a small component they exhibited single-vectorial behavior. The characteristic remanence inclinations show small dispersion and a mean value (-43 deg) in close agreement with the expected inclination and paleolatitude (derived from the North American apparent polar wander path). Isothermal remenence (IRM) acquisition experiments, Lowrie-Fuller tests, coercivity and unblocking temperature spectra of NRM and saturation IRM, susceptibility and Q-coefficient analyses, and the single-component nature indicate a dominant mineralogy of iron-rich titanomagnetites with single or pseduo-single domain states. The stable characteristic magnetization may be interpreted as a result of shock heating of the rock at the time of formation of the inpact structure and its polarity, age, and paleolatitude are consistent with a time about the K/T boundary.

  3. Following solar activity with geomagnetic and cosmic-ray ground-based stations in the Iberian Peninsula region (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Victor; José Blanco, Juan; Miquel Torta, Joan; Catalán, Manuel; Ribeiro, Paulo; Morozova, Anna; Tordesillas, José Manuel; Solé, Germán; Gomis-Moreno, Almudena


    The Iberian Peninsula is located in the South-West of Europe between 36°00' N and 43°47' N and between 9°29' W and 3°19' E. There are four Geomagnetic Observatories currently operative in this area devoted to the observation of the Earth's magnetic field: Observatori de l'Ebre (NE Spain); Observatorio de San Pablo de los Montes (central Spain); Observatorio de San Fernando (southern Spain); Observatório de Coimbra (central Portugal); plus another one, Observatorio de Güímar, in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). There is also one neutron monitor located in Guadalajara (central Spain; 40°38' N, 3°9' W at 708 m asl) continuously measuring the arrival of cosmic rays to the Earth's surface. In this work we show combined observations of these six stations during events caused by solar activity. We analyze them looking for differences that could imply extremely local effects caused by the response of the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere to solar activity.

  4. The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean


    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Ruiz, Olga; Green, Andy J.; Sánchez, Marta I.; Figuerola, Jordi; Hortas, F.


    The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. sal- ina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the 1980s. Based on brine shrimp cyst samples...

  5. North Central regional environmental characterization report: executive summary - final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the States within the North Central Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  6. Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, and Wilderness Review (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes a final environmental impact statement EIS for the Alaska Peninsula Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan. It describes five alternative...

  7. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula - 1985, SDLS CD-ROM vol 16 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1985 field season along the north side of the Antarctic-Peninsula by the British...

  8. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  9. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for marine mammals in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations...

  10. A special report on fishery resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Territory of Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The commercial fishery resource of the Kenai Peninsula has an average annual value of $3,611,000. In addition, a sport fishery of considerable importance exists in...

  11. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula 1987-88, SDLS CD-ROM vol 24 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1987-88 in the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...

  12. Socioeconomic Features - Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Summary Data (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Point and line coverage depicting several human-use, or socioeconomic features in the Cook Inlet/Kenai Peninsula region including oil facilities, oil platforms,...

  13. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear Ursus arctos from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  14. Revised Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Alaska Peninsula and Becharof NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  15. A special report on fishery resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Territory of Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report evaluates existing fisheries of the Kenai Peninsula and is broken down in two section, values associated with commercial fishery resources and value of...

  16. The distribution and abundance of seabirds along the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula, fall 1974 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the distribution and abundance of sea birds along the Aleutian Islands and Alaska peninsula during fall 1974. Quantitative observations on the...

  17. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent...

  18. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Antarctic Peninsula - 1988-1989, SDLS CD-ROM vol 25 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1988-89 in the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...



    Lukyanov A. A.


    The work presents the results of the scientific research in the Taman Peninsula soil properties. We carry out the historic review of the studies in the Taman Peninsula soils, and its geological structure. We present morphological characteristics of the soil profile for the southern, calcareous, ultra heavy loam chernozem developed from the loessial loams and forming genetic horizons. The studies of the humus content in the soils show the associations between its percentage and the type and in...

  20. Coastal upwelling activity on the Pacific shelf of the Baja California Peninsula


    O. Zaytsev; Cervantes Duarte, Rafael; Montante, Orzo; Gallegos García, A.


    High primary productivity on the Pacific coast of the Baja California Peninsula is usually related to coastal upwelling activity that injects nutrients into the euphotic zone in response to prevailing longshore winds (from the northwest to north). The upwelling process has maximum intensity from April to June, with the coastal upwelling index varying from 50 to 300 m3/s per 100 m of coastline. Along the entire coast of the peninsula, the upwelling intensity changes in accordance with local wi...

  1. Paleomagnetism and tectonics of the South Shetland Islands and the northern Antarctic Peninsula


    Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, Pierrich; Astudillo, N.; Herve, F; Kraus, S.; J. P. Le Roux


    New paleomagnetic data presented here from 61 sites in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous and sedimentary rocks from the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands constrain the relative motion of the Antarctic Peninsula since the mid-Cretaceous and allow the quantification of tectonic rotation between the different blocks recognized within the area. Paleozoic and Jurassic results failed the fold test and suggest an important remagnetization in the area. The similarity between t...

  2. Subtidal understorey algal community structure in kelp beds around the Cape Peninsula (Western Cape, South Africa)


    Leliaert, F.; Anderson, R J; Bolton, J. J.; Coppejans, E.


    The subtidal understorey seaweed communities were studied along a coastal distance of 104 km around the Cape Peninsula, which is situated in an overlap region between two marine provinces and characterized by a considerable temperature gradient. Sampling was carried out at six sites (4 to 10 quadrats per site) around the Cape Peninsula. For each of the quadrats, biomass of each species, grazing, and environmental variables such as temperature, wave exposure and sand cover were determined. The...

  3. Clinical picture of cutaneous leishmaniases due to Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico


    Andrade-Narváez Fernando J; Vargas-González Alberto; Canto-Lara Silvia B; Damián-Centeno Alma G


    Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), known as "chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico, was described by Seidelin in 1912. Since then, the sylvatic region of the Yucatan peninsula has been identified as an endemic focus of LCL. The purpose of the present work was to describe the clinical picture of LCL caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula. A total of 136 cases of LCL, based on isolation and characterization of L. (L.) mexicana by isoenzymes and/or monoclonal a...

  4. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)


    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 1.5 m

  5. Development of a diagnosis index of tropical cyclones affecting the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi


    This study has developed the index for diagnosis on possibility that tropical cyclones (TCs) affect Korean Peninsula. This index is closely related to the strength of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), which is calculated as a difference in meridional wind between at the highest correlation area (around Korean Peninsula) and at the lowest correlation area (sea southeast of Japan) through a correlation analysis between TC frequency that affects Korean Peninsula and 500 hPa meridional wind. In low frequency years that selected from Korea affecting TC index, anomalous northeasterly is strengthened from Korea to the South China Sea because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to northwest of Korean Peninsula. Thus, TCs tend to move westward from the sea east of the Philippines to the mainland China. On the other hand, in high frequency years, anomalous southwesterly serves as steering flow that more TCs move toward Korean Peninsula because the center of anomalous anticyclonic circulation is located to sea east of Japan. Consequently, this study suggests that if this index is calculated using real time 500 hPa meridional winds that forecasted by dynamic models during the movement of TCs, the possibility that TCs approach Korean Peninsula can be diagnosed in real time.

  6. [Diversity, structure and regeneration of the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico]. (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Angélica María; García-Méndez, Socorro


    Seasonally dry tropical forests are considered as the most endangered ecosystem in lowland tropics. The aim of this study was to characterize the floristic composition, richness, diversity, structure and regeneration of a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape constituted by mature forest, secondary forest and seasonally inundated forest located in the Northeastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. We used the Gentry's standard inventory plot methodology (0.1 ha per forest type in 2007) for facilitating comparison with other Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. A total of 77 species belonging to 32 families were observed in the study area. Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the families with the largest taxonomic richness in the three forest types. Low levels of β diversity were observed among forest types (0.19-0.40), suggesting a high turnover of species at landscape level. The non-regenerative species were dominant (50-51 %), followed by regenerative species (30- 28 %), and colonizer species (14-21 %) in the three forest types. Zoochory was the most common dispersal type in the study area. The 88 % of the observed species in the study area were distributed in Central America. Some floristic attributes of the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Yucatán Peninsula, fall into the values reported for Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Natural disturbances contributed to explain the high number of individuals, the low number of liana species, as well as the low values of basal area observed in this study. Our results suggested that the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Peninsula seems to be resilient to natural disturbances (hurricane) in terms of the observed number of species and families, when compared with the reported values in Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Nonetheless, the recovery and regeneration of vegetation in long-term depends on animal-dispersed species. This study highlights the importance of

  7. Widespread distribution of ascending fluids transporting mantle helium in the fore-arc region and their upwelling processes: Noble gas and major element composition of deep groundwater in the Kii Peninsula, southwest Japan (United States)

    Morikawa, Noritoshi; Kazahaya, Kohei; Takahashi, Masaaki; Inamura, Akihiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi A.; Yasuhara, Masaya; Ohwada, Michiko; Sato, Tsutomu; Nakama, Atsuko; Handa, Hiroko; Sumino, Hirochika; Nagao, Keisuke


    Chemical and isotopic studies including analyses of noble gases were comprehensively conducted on the groundwater of the entire Kii Peninsula, which is located in the fore-arc region of southwest Japan. Groundwater of Na-Cl-HCO3, Na-HCO3-Cl, and Na-Cl types was shown to be distributed across the whole area. Groundwater in the inland central part of the peninsula shows relatively low salinity, whereas groundwater from the area along the ENE-trending Median Tectonic Line (MTL), on the north side of the peninsula, shows high salinity (up to 18,800 mg/L of Cl-) and the presence of unusual heavy oxygen isotopes. This trend is similar to that documented in saline waters from the Arima region (the so-called "Arima-type thermal water"). High 3He/4He ratios relative to the atmospheric value (up to 6.7 Ra) were recorded throughout the Kii Peninsula, covering a wider area than documented previously. The saline groundwater is also strongly depleted in 20Ne and heavy noble gases. From the wide distribution of high 3He/4He values and the associated 20Ne and Cl- concentrations, we infer that aqueous fluids derived from dehydration of the subducting slab are present at depth beneath almost the entire Kii Peninsula. These aqueous fluids may ascend along the major north-dipping boundary faults. The isotopic composition of groundwater from the southern part of the peninsula suggests that the contribution from these dehydration-derived fluids is relatively small in this region. However, volatile components (e.g., noble gases and CO2) in the groundwater of this area may originate from the dehydration-derived fluids. Upwelling of Arima-type thermal water of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type is expected to undergo a phase separation of volatile species due to decompression as the fluid ascends. The variety of water types documented may be due to this water-gas separation and the subsequent incorporation of gaseous species into shallow meteoric groundwater. The observed high 3He/4He ratios in the

  8. Stable Attitude of Seafloor Geodetic Benchmarks Confirmed Through Diving Surveys After the 2004 Fff-Kii Peninsula Earthquake (United States)

    Fujimoto, H.; Tadokoro, K.; Okuda, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kido, M.; Osada, Y.; Kurihara, K.


    Tohoku University, Nagoya University, and Japan Coast Guard (JCG) deployed benchmarks for GPS/Acoustic seafloor positioning in Kumano-nada, Central Japan, which detected horizontal crustal deformation caused by the off-Kii Peninsula earthquake M7.4 on September 5, 2004 (Tadokoro et al., 2005; Kido et al., 2006). It would be the first to observe crustal deformation on the seafloor associated with an offshore earthquake. When we, working on the GPS/A seafloor positioning, reported on results of observation, we were often requested to answer the following question: "Can the benchmarks be sunk and tilted due to the shaking of the sedimented seafloor?" Indeed the benchmarks are precision acoustic transponders (PXPs) and we dropped them from the sea surface assuming soft and stable landing on the sediment. Moreover, a branch of the aftershock distribution of the off-Kii Peninsula earthquake extended close to the benchmarks. It would be the first experience for the benchmarks for cm-order seafloor geodesy to be shaked by large earthquakes. We had a chance to carry out diving surveys there by using the ROV "Dolphin 3K" of JAMSTEC during the NT06-07 cruise of the R/V Natsushima to obtain the following results. (1) We observed 10 PXPs (Tohoku 4, Nagoya 3, JCG 3) on the seafloor. All of them stood stably on the flat sedimented bottom with their bases partly sunk in the mud. We could not find any indication that the earthquake changed the attitude of some of the benchmarks. (2) We recovered one of the PXPs, which were deployed by JCG 6 years ago as the first benchmarks around the Japanese Islands. We could confirm little erosion of the instrument made of stainless frames and a glass sphere covered with a hard hut. (3) We could not find any feature on the bottom indicating local crustal deformation. This research was partly supported by the Research Revolution 2002 Program, MEXT, Japan.

  9. GM and KM immunoglobulin allotypes in the Galician population: new insights into the peopling of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Martín Antonio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current genetic structure of Iberian populations has presumably been affected by the complex orography of its territory, the different people and civilizations that settled there, its ancient and complex history, the diverse and persistent sociocultural patterns in its different regions, and also by the effects of the Iberian Peninsula representing a refugium area after the last glacial maximum. This paper presents the first data on GM and KM immunoglobulin allotypes in the Galician population and, thus, provides further insights into the extent of genetic diversity in populations settled in the geographic extremes of the Cantabrian region of northern Spain. Furthermore, the genetic relationships of Galicians with other European populations have been investigated. Results Galician population shows a genetic profile for GM haplotypes that is defined by the high presence of the European Mediterranean GM*3 23 5* haplotype, and the relatively high incidence of the African marker GM*1,17 23' 5*. Data based on comparisons between Galician and other Spanish populations (mainly from the north of the peninsula reveal a poor correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.30, P = 0.105, a noticeable but variable genetic distances between Galician and Basque subpopulations, and a rather close genetic affinity between Galicia and Valencia, populations which are geographically separated by a long distance and have quite dissimilar cultures and histories. Interestingly, Galicia occupies a central position in the European genetic map, despite being geographically placed at one extreme of the European continent, while displaying a close genetic proximity to Portugal, a finding that is consistent with their shared histories over centuries. Conclusion These findings suggest that the population of Galicia is the result of a relatively balanced mixture of European populations or of the ancestral populations that gave rise to them

  10. A climatological study of sea breeze clouds in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Alicante, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin-Molina, C. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain)]. E-mail:; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain); Calbo, J. [Grupo de Fisica Ambiental, Universidad de Girona, Campus Montilivi, Cataluna (Spain)


    Sea breezes blow under anticyclonic weather types, weak surface pressure gradients, intense solar radiation and relatively cloud-free skies. Generally, total cloud cover must be less than 4/8 in order to cause a thermal and pressure difference between land and sea air which allows the development of this local wind circulation. However, many numerical and observational studies have analyzed the ability of sea breezes to generate clouds in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on cloud types in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. The study area is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (province of Alicante, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 6-yr study period (2000-2005). This climatological study is mainly based on surface cloud observations at the Alicante-Ciudad Jardin station (central coastal plain) and on an extensive cloud observation field campaign at the Villena-Ciudad station (Prebetic mountain ranges) over a 3-yr study period (2003-2005). The results confirm the hypothesis that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. Sea breezes trigger the formation of thunderstorm clouds (Cumulonimbus) at the sea breeze convergence zone, which also have a secondary impact on high-level (Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, Cirrostratus), medium-level (Altostratus, Altocumulus) and low-level clouds (Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus) associated with the Cumulonimbus clouds (e.g., Cumulonimbus anvil). [Spanish] Las brisas marinas soplan bajo tipos de tiempo anticiclonicos, debiles gradientes de presion atmosferica, radiacion solar intensa y cielos practicamente despejados. Por lo general, la cobertura nubosa total debe ser inferior a 4/8 para que se genere un diferencial termico y de presion entre el aire sobre las

  11. The genus Nigritella (Orchidaceae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Llorenç


    Full Text Available As a result of the revision of Nigritella L.C.M. Richard in the Iberian Peninsula, here we recompile information of its variability, taxonomy, nomenclature and chorology. Two taxa are recognized: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. and N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, and the presence of N. corneliana is excluded. Detailed phytodermologic analysis showed that size of guard cells is useful for species identification.Tras la revisión del género Nigritella L.C.M. Richard en la Península Ibérica, se aportan datos sobre la variabilidad, taxonomía, nomenclatura y corología de sus diferentes especies. Se reconocen dos táxones: Nigritella austriaca subsp. iberica (Teppner & E. Klein L. Sáez, comb. nov. y N. gabasiana Teppner & Klein, y se excluye la presencia de N. corneliana. El análisis fitodermológico indica que el tamaño de las células oclusivas es un carácter útil para la identificación de ambas especies

  12. Meso-Cenozoic basin evolution in northern Korean Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAK Hyon Uk; LYANG To Jun; LIU Yongjiang; HYON Yun Su; KIM Gyong Chol


    In the Korean Peninsula the Meso-Cenozoic basins were mainly formed due to fault block and block movement. The Mesozoic fracture structures correspond basically to modern large rivers in direction. Such faults were usually developed to rift and formed lake-type tectonic basin, such as the Amrokgang-, Taedonggang-, Ryesonggang-, Hochongang-, Jangphari-, Susongchon-, Pujon-, and Nampho basins. The Mesozoic strata are considered to be divided into the Lower Jurassic Taedong System, Upper Jurassic Jasong System, Upper Jurassic- -early Lower Cretaceous Taebo System, and the Upper Cretaceous- -Paleocene (Chonjaebong, Hongwon, Jaedok Series). The Cenozoic block movement succeeded the Mesozoic fault block movement. The Kilju-Myongchon Graben and Tumangang Basin, etc, are the basins related to the fault zones developed from the Oligocene to Miocene. In addition, the Tertiary basins were formed in many areas in the Miocene (e.g. Sinhung, Oro, Hamhung, Yonghung, Anbyon, Cholwon, etc). The Cenozoic sedimentation occurred mainly from the late Oligocene to Miocene. The Kilju-Myongchon Graben was the fore deep connected to the sea and the basins inclined in the Chugaryong Fault Zone are intramountain basins. Therefore, coal-bearing beds and clastic rocks in the intramountain basins and rare marine strata and terrigenous clastic rocks are main sedimentary sequences in the Cenozoic.

  13. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. (Geological Inst., Moscow (USSR)); Fernandez, R. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. (Polytechnical Inst., Kuybyshev (USSR))


    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula

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    X. Lana


    Full Text Available The fractal behaviour of the seismicity in the Southern Iberian Peninsula is analysed by considering two different series of data: the distance and the elapsed time between consecutive seismic events recorded by the seismic network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics (AIG. The fractal analyses have been repeated by considering four threshold magnitudes of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0. The re-scaled analysis lets to determine if the seismicity shows strong randomness or if it is characterised by time-persistence and the cluster dimension indicates the degree of time and spatial clustering of the seismicity. Another analysis, based on the reconstruction theorem, permits to evaluate the minimum number of nonlinear equations describing the dynamical mechanism of the seismicity, its 'loss of memory', its chaotic character and the instability of a possible predicting algorithm. The results obtained depict some differences depending on distances or elapsed times and the different threshold levels of magnitude also lead to slightly different results. Additionally, only a part of the fractal tools, the re-scaled analysis, have been applied to five seismic crises in the same area.

  15. Cell-zonal textures of tinguaites from the Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Voitsekhovsky, Y. L.; Shpachenko, A. K.; Skiba, V. I.

    Textures of tinguaite dykes cutting the alkaline Khibiny massif in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, are described. They are characterized by a combination of a fractal microfracture network dividing rock into pencil-like cells and of a concentric rhythmical zonation in almost all of them. The latter is formed by interchange of volatile-enriched and volatile-depleted mineral zones. The location of the textures only where dykes contact host khibinites appears to point out the contraction nature of the microfracture network. The cooling time calculated agrees well with this hypothesis. The zonation appears to have arisen through autometamorphic processes with two main competing factors, namely (a) overall cooling of the system and (b) periodic depletion of it in some elements, mainly Na and K. Another mechanism which may be applied to explain the zonation is the known Marangoni Instability effect at the early stage of evolution of the volatile-saturated phonolite melt. Thus, tinguaite textures are caused by nonspecific influences external to the system and may be regarded as an example of self-organization in nature.

  16. Post-Glacial climatic change on Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut, Canada (United States)

    Zabenskie, Susan; Gajewski, Konrad


    A high temporal resolution pollen diagram from a lake in the mid-Arctic region of the Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut, Canada, documents the history of the regional vegetation and climate for the past 7200 yr. Major tundra pollen taxa in the core include Cyperaceae and Salix, with Cyperaceae comprising over 50% of the pollen in the early and late Holocene. Tree pollen, transported from far to the south, comprised a large percentage of the pollen sum, with Pinus accounting for 30% of the pollen in some levels of the core. Pollen percentages and concentrations of taxa typical of the mid-Arctic were highest in the mid-Holocene, corresponding to warm conditions. Decreasing pollen concentrations indicate cooling temperatures, with more rapid decreases occurring around 4200, 3800-3400, and 2500 cal yr BP. Pollen percentages of Salix, Cyperaceae, and Artemisia increased in the past 35 yr in response to global warming. Reconstructions of July temperature using the modern analog technique showed that the mid-Holocene (5800-2800 cal yr BP) was approximately 1 °C higher than during the past 1000 yr.

  17. Restructuring and generation of electrical energy in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal and Spain are on the threshold of the creation of an Iberian electricity market. In order to help its development, the power of the electric interconnection between the countries has been increased and market mechanisms designed to resolve congestion, should it arise. A system of joint supply for the Iberian Peninsula will lead to single price for the whole area except at times when the interconnection is saturated, in which case prices will be somewhat higher in the importing zone. In the medium term, the hope is that both systems will have very similar generating equipment and that their variable costs will equalize due to the substitution of the most obsolete equipment with combined cycle power stations, and to the increase of exchange capacity. The coming into effect of this market will bring about improvements in the security and efficiency of supply in both countries. There will also be some obstacles to overcome, such as, for example, the current regulatory frame deficiencies on power generation, the contacts which exist at present in Portugal between the producers and the National Electricity Network, the asymmetry of the distribution channels in each country, the differences in rates and the limited capacity for exchange. (author)

  18. Relationship of runoff, erosion and sediment yield to weather types in the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Cortesi, N.; Desir, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Lasanta, T.; Lucía, A.; Marín, C.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Pacheco, E.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Romero Díaz, A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Taguas, E. V.; Taboada-Castro, M. M.; Taboada-Castro, M. T.; Úbeda, X.; Zabaleta, A.


    Precipitation has been recognized as one of the main factors driving soil erosion and sediment yield (SY), and its spatial and temporal variability is recognized as one of the main reasons for spatial and temporal analyses of soil erosion variability. The weather types (WTs) approach classifies the continuum of atmospheric circulation into a small number of categories or types and has been proven a good indicator of the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between WTs, runoff, soil erosion (measured in plots), and sediment yield (measured in catchments) in different areas of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) with the aim of detecting spatial variations in these relationships. To this end, hydrological and sediment information covering the IP from several Spanish research teams has been combined, and related with daily WTs estimated by using the NMC/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. The results show that, in general, a few WTs (particularly westerly, southwesterly and cyclonic) provide the largest amounts of precipitation; and southwesterly, northwesterly and westerly WTs play an important role in runoff generation, erosion and sediment yield as they coincide with the wettest WTs. However, this study highlights the spatial variability of erosion and sediment yield in the IP according to WT, differentiating (1) areas under the influence of north and/or north-westerly flows (the north coast of Cantabria and inland central areas), (2) areas under the influence of westerly, southwesterly and cyclonic WTs (western and southwestern IP), (3) areas in which erosion and sediment yield are controlled by easterly flows (Mediterranean coastland), and (4) lastly, a transitional zone in the inland northeast Ebro catchment, where we detected a high variability in the effects of WTs on erosion. Overall results suggest that the use of WTs derived from observed atmospheric pressure patterns could be a useful

  19. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Amphiboles of the Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Konopleva, N. G.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.; Men'shikov, Yu. P.; Korchak, Yu. A.


    The rocks of the Khibiny pluton contain 25 amphibole varieties, including edenite, fluoredenite, kaersutite, pargasite, ferropargasite, hastingsite, magnesiohastingsite, katophorite, ferrikatophorite, magnesiokatophorite, magnesioferrikatophorite, magnesioferrifluorkatophorite, ferrimagnesiotaramite, ferrorichterite, potassium ferrorichterite, richterite, potassium richterite, potassium fluorrichterite, arfvedsonite, potassium arfvedsonite, magnesioarfvedsonite, magnesioriebeckite, ferriferronyboite, ferrinyboite, and ferroeckermannite. The composition of rock-forming amphiboles changes symmetrically relative to the Central Ring of the pluton; i.e., amphiboles enriched in K, Ca, Mg, and Si are typical of foyaite near and within the Central Ring. The Fe and Mn contents in amphiboles increase in the direction from marginal part of the pluton to its center. Foyaite of the marginal zone contains ferroeckermannite, richterite, arfvedsonite, and ferrorichterite; edenite is typical of foyaite and hornfels of the Minor Arc. Between the Minor Arc and the Central Ring, foyaite contains ferroeckermannite, arfvedsonite, and richterite; amphiboles in rischorrite, foidolite and hornfels of the Central Ring are (potassium) arfvedsonite, (potassium) richterite, magnesiokatophorite, magnesioarfvedsonite, ferroeckermannite, and ferriferronyboite; amphiboles in foyaite within the Central Ring, in the central part of the pluton, are arfvedsonite, magnesioarfvedsonite, ferriferronyboite, katophorite, and richterite. It is suggested that such zoning formed due to the alteration of foyaite by a foidolite melt intruded into the Main (Central) Ring Fault.

  1. Sustainable development of Shandong peninsula Peninsula urban agglomeration: a scenario analysis based on water shortage and water environment changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China has experienced a rapid urbanization since late 1970s. The great increase of urban population has resulted in various environmental changes, of which urban water shortage and water environment problems have occurred in most cities, especially in the rapidly developing urban agglomerations in the eastern coastal region. This research, taking Shandong Peninsula Urban Agglomeration (SPUA) as a case study area, analyzes the urbanization expansion in the last decades, discusses the water shortage and water environment changes following the rapid economic development and urbanization such as groundwater sinking in the urban and plain area, sea water and salt-water intrusion in the coastal cities, water pollution overspreading and "water ecosystem degradation, and puts forwards some strategies for sustainability in populous regions with severe water shortage. Some countermeasures for sustainable development of SPUA are put forward, such as modern water resources inter-city networks to regulate water resource between cities, adjusting urbanization policy and urban scale planning to promote the development of small towns and medium sized cities, optimizing urban industry structure by restricting high water consumption enterprises and stimulating the growth of tertiary industry, improving water use efficient to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge, introducing economic means to water pricing and water management system. and restoring ecological conditions to strengthen the natural water-making capacity.

  2. Show Me the Money: How College Students Perceive the American Dream


    Christine Wernet


    This research explores how typical college students define the American Dream. The central components of the American Dream have persisted in American culture over the course of the last two centuries. Adams defined the American Dream as "that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement…regardless of [circumstances at birth]." More recently in national polls about the American Dream, Anderson...

  3. Ancient bronze horse muzzles of the Iberian Peninsula

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    Garcés Estallo, Ignasi


    Full Text Available Horse muzzles and Bronze muzzles are unique equestrian tools that have been referred to in scattered accounts throughout history. Nevertheless, the majority of these objects have received short descriptions and an overall study is still missing. The lack of a comprehensive study hinges on the over looked importance of these items and the superficial manner that have characterized their documentation. Both these reasons have limited observations on chronology and archaeological investigation. The recent identification of new unpublished exemplars among the Museums’ collections in Barcelona and Lleida has encouraged the authors of this paper to start a new study dedicated to these objects. Starting from a catalogue inclusive of all muzzles and muzzles currently known in the Iberian Peninsula, an attempt will be made to propose an accurate description, typological classification and, for some of the items, a revision of the decorative scenes that have marked their place in bronze horse muzzle and muzzle chronology. The formal development and the chronological framework here proposed refer to those of the exemplars found in Greece and in Italy. The broadening of the geographical area will allow reconsideration of those social phenomena that have in the past determined the diffusion of elements in horse tack throughout most of the western Peninsula in the Mediterranean.

    Los bozales y las muserolas en bronce para caballo constituyen unos excepcionales complementos ecuestres cuyo conocimiento se encuentra disperso en una extensa bibliografía. De muchos ejemplares apenas se ha publicado una breve descripción y nunca hasta el presente han sido objeto de un estudio monográfico, quizás por el desaliento que produce el desconocimiento de su procedencia en unos casos, o la superficial noticia del contexto de aparición en la mayoría de ellos, hecho que ha limitado las consideraciones cronológicas y de asociación. La identificación de nuevos

  4. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans. (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  5. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J.M.


    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretari??a de Recursos Hidra??ulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands. ?? 1981.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgijev


    Full Text Available Author disputes the position of the authors K o t t e l a t (1997 and K o t t e l a t & F r e y h o f (2007 about the existence of several species belonging to the Salmo genus in some parts of Balkan Peninsula: Salmo aphelios Kottelat, 1997; Salmo balcanicus (Karaman, 1927; Salmo farioides (Karaman, 1938; Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814; Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924; Salmo lumi Poljakov, Filipi & Basho, 1958; Salmo macedonicus (Karaman, 1924; Salmo montenigrinus (Karaman, 1933; Salmo pelagonicus Karaman, 1938; Salmo peristericus Karaman, 1938; Salmo taleri (Karaman, 1932. Majority of those species were described by dr. Stanko Karaman, the author who is, regarding the number of described species of European freshwater fishes, on the second place, just behind Carl Linnaeus. It is hardly believable that four trout species were formed in a small and oligotrophic microhabitat like Ohrid Lake, or three species in the Vardar River, knowing that the factor of geographic isolation doesn’t exist in either of the habitats. The author’s position is that all of these species are actually just types of one, highly plastic regarding the micro ecological conditions and phenotypic manifestations, species: Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1785. The author supports his opinion by his own results, as well the results of other scientists, obtained through studies of ecology and taxonomy of the brown trout in fluent and still water microhabitats. Also the author suggests that it is unacceptable to apply the terminology immanent to the anthropogenic factor in a sphere of another scientific area where such factor doesn't exist (agronomy-race and biology-natural selection.

  7. Mercury in Hair of Muskox on the Seward Peninsula

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    Claudia Ihl


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Muskoxen (Ovibus moschatus are distant relatives of sheep (Caprinae and have roamed the Arctic for a million years, with populations reaching North America between 150,000 and 250,000 years ago. Muskox populations could be negatively influenced by climate change and increased exposure to contaminants. Since the snow depth is a critical factor in their ecology, effects could occur throughout their distribution. Muskox typically feed on plants on hilltops and upper slopes where shrubs are increasing at the expense of graminoid and lichen species. Besides changes in plant species composition, wildfires and flooding, as well as renewed mining developments, can lead to an increased incidence of total Hg (THg bioavailability. Approach: In this survey THg concentrations were measured in the hair of muskox at several sites on Seward Peninsula of Alaska, USA. Results: Muskox exhibited mean THg levels in the hair of 29.3 ng g-1 for the west base of Mineral Mountain, 28.6 ng g-1 for Nature Hill and 23.0 ng g-1 for the camp at Deering. Means for THg levels at Anvil were 35.2 ng g-1 at the top, 31.8 ng g-1 on the southwest slope and 29.9 ng g-1 at the base. Qiviut from two muskox at Anvil and Mineral Mountain possessed lower THg values than when compared to their guard hair (32.9 and 44.8 ng g-1, respectively. Conclusion: These current THg levels are relatively low and helping establish a baseline for Hg exposure in muskoxen.

  8. Shelves around the Iberian Peninsula (II): Evolutionary sedimentary patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a synthetic view of continental-shelf evolutionary patterns around the Iberian Peninsula, focusing on proposed sequence stratigraphy interpretations and attempting a comparison between Atlantic- and Mediterranean-type shelf-margin constructions. Most of the studied shelves show a dominance of regressive to low stand deposition through successive pro gradations, particularly evident in the Pliocene-Quaternary, documenting the influence of glacio-eustasy. Transgressive to high stand development predating the Last Glacial Maximum seems to be favoured off major rivers, but the highest variability is seen during post glacial evolution. Transgressive deposits tend to show a higher spatial variability, ranging from pro graded para sequences to extensive sand sheets. Holocene high- stand deposits usually show a more homogeneous character, with development of proximal wedge-shaped deposits and a distal sheet-like deposition. Atlantic continental shelves off Iberia display three different types of shelf growth: depositional shelves, shelves with restricted pro gradation and erosional shelves. They result from the interplay between depositional and hydrodynamic regimes, with the occurrence of a latitudinal gradation from erosional shelves in the Cantabrian continental shelf to depositional shelves in the northern Gulf of Cadiz shelf. Some shelf sectors do not correspond to this general pattern, as shelf sedimentation is mainly controlled by morpho-structural features (e.g., ria environments and shelves crossed by major tectonic accidents). The Mediterranean continental shelves of Iberia show two basic types, high- versus low-supply shelves, and their growth patterns are mainly a response to the amount of fluvial supply. The low-supply style is clearly the most frequent type, and it may show further complexity according to the occurrence of submarine canyons and/or morpho-structural control. (Author)

  9. Fossil tubeworms link coastal uplift of the northern Noto Peninsula to rupture of the Wajima-oki fault in AD 1729 (United States)

    Hamada, Masaaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Oda, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki


    The active fault zone on the seafloor off the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula of central Japan is divided into four segments from west to east: Monzen-oki, Saruyama-oki, Wajima-oki, and Suzu-oki. To examine the latest event that occurred in these segments, we investigated the dates and elevations of fossilized intertidal tubeworms along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula, located on the hanging-wall sides of the faults, using radioactive carbon dating and global positioning measurements. For each fossil, we calculated the difference between the past and present elevation, thereby estimating the elevation of the sea level at the date of the fossil, using a curve for sea level change. This calculation provided us with the elevation change at each site. The vertical changes estimated from the elevations and ages of the intertidal tubeworms revealed that the coastal emergence probably occurred between 1600 and 1800 AD. This area of coastal emergence lies adjacent to active faults within the Wajima-oki segment. A model for rectangular faults with three fault planes and a moment magnitude of 6.6 for the Wajima-oki segment reproduced the observed pattern of coastal emergence well. Only one damaging earthquake, that in 1729, is known to have occurred in this part of the northern Noto Peninsula between 1600 and 1800 AD, and there has not been one since 1800 AD. The slip distribution of the fault predicted by the model is consistent with the distribution of shaking-related damage documented in 1729. We conclude that rupture of the Wajima-oki segment caused the 1729 earthquake.

  10. Mountain glacier evolution in the Iberian Peninsula during the Younger Dryas (United States)

    García-Ruiz, J. M.; Palacios, D.; González-Sampériz, P.; de Andrés, N.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gómez-Villar, A.


    We review the evolution of glaciers in the Iberian Mountains during the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka, following the chronology of Greenland Stadial 1 - GS1) and compare with available environmental and climate data to investigate glacier dynamics during cold stadial episodes. The best examples of Younger Dryas moraines are found in the Central Pyrenees, involving short ice tongues up to 4 km in length in the highest massifs (above 3000 m a.s.l.) of the southern versant. Small cirque glaciers and rock glaciers formed during the YD occurred in other Pyrenean massifs, in the Cantabrian Range and in the Gredos and Guadarrama sierras (Central Range), as indicated by several rocky, polished thresholds that were ice-free at the beginning of the Holocene. Although some former rock glaciers were re-activated during the Younger Dryas, glacial activity was limited in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula (Sierra Nevada). Most Iberian records show vegetation changes during the YD characterized by a forest decline and an expansion of shrubs (mainly Juniperus) and steppe herbs, although the vegetation response was not homogeneous because of variable resilience among ecosystems. Available records also document a variable lake response in terms of hydrology and productivity, with a decrease in sedimentation rates and organic productivity in most high altitude lakes and increases in salinity and relatively lower lake levels at lower altitudes. The impact of the Younger Dryas on the coastal environment was almost negligible, but it was responsible for a brief cessation in sea level rise. High-resolution analyses of new speleothem records have documented a double structure for the YD with an earlier drier phase followed by a relatively more humid period. The review of geomorphological evidence demonstrates a strong latitudinal control of glacial activity during the YD, with more intense development in the northern than in the southern regions. The increase in humidity during

  11. Variable glacier response to atmospheric warming, northern Antarctic Peninsula, 1988–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Davies


    Full Text Available The northern Antarctic Peninsula has recently exhibited ice-shelf disintegration, glacier recession and acceleration. However, the dynamic response of land-terminating, ice-shelf tributary and tidewater glaciers has not yet been quantified or assessed for variability, and there are sparse data for glacier classification, morphology, area, length or altitude. This paper firstly classifies the area, length, altitude, slope, aspect, geomorphology, type and hypsometry of 194 glaciers on Trinity Peninsula, Vega Island and James Ross Island in 2009 AD. Secondly, this paper documents glacier change 1988–2009. In 2009, the glacierised area was 8140±262 km2. From 1988–2001, 90% of glaciers receded, and from 2001–2009, 79% receded. This equates to an area change of −4.4% for Trinity Peninsula eastern coast glaciers, −0.6% for western coast glaciers, and −35.0% for ice-shelf tributary glaciers from 1988–2001. Tidewater glaciers on the drier, cooler eastern Trinity Peninsula experienced fastest shrinkage from 1988–2001, with limited frontal change after 2001. Glaciers on the western Trinity Peninsula shrank less than those on the east. Land-terminating glaciers on James Ross Island shrank fastest in the period 1988–2001. This east-west difference is largely a result of orographic temperature and precipitation gradients across the Antarctic Peninsula, with warming temperatures affecting the precipitation-starved glaciers on the eastern coast more than on the western coast. Reduced shrinkage on the western Peninsula may be a result of higher snowfall, perhaps in conjunction with the fact that these glaciers are mostly grounded. Rates of area loss on the eastern side of Trinity Peninsula are slowing, which we attribute to the floating ice tongues receding into the fjords and reaching a new dynamic equilibrium. The rapid shrinkage of tidewater glaciers on James Ross Island is likely to continue because of their low elevations and

  12. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland) (United States)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn


    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines

  13. Petrography, geochemistry and geodynamic environment of potassic alkaline rocks in Eslamy peninsula, northwest of Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Hajalilou; M Moayyed; Gh Hosseinzadeh


    Eslamy peninsula, 360 km2 in area, is located in the eastern coast of Urmieh lake in the northwest of Iran. This peninsula is a complex stratovolcano with a collapsed center, which is elevated due to later intrusions of sub-volcanic masses with trachytic to microsyenitic composition. The composite cone consists of a sequence of leucite tephrite, tephrite, leucite basanite, basanite and related pyroclastic rocks. Magmatic activities in the Eslamy peninsula begin with potassic alkaline to ultrapotassic and basic, silica-undersaturated shoshonitic rocks and they are followed by intrusions of lamprophyric dykes and end with acidic magmatism including trachytic, microsyenitic, syenitic and phonolitic domes. The original magma of the Eslamy peninsula rocks has a potassic alkaline nature (Roman type) rich in LREE and LILE and depleted of HREE. These characteristics suggest that the origin of magma can be from deep mantle with a garnet lherzolite composition, a low partial melting rate which has been contaminated by crustal materials in its way up. Fractional crystallization of olivine, diopsidic clinopyroxene and leucite played an important role in the evolution of magmas. Scrutinizing the geodynamic environment of Eslamy peninsula rocks in discrimination diagrams indicates that these rocks must have been formed in a post-collision magmatic arc setting.

  14. Archean to Paleoproterozoic polymetamorphic history of the Salma eclogite in Kola Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Imayama, Takeshi; Oh, Chang-Whan; Park, Chan-Soo; Yi, Keewook; Jung, Haemyeong


    One of the most important questions in the Earth Science is when and how plate tectonics operate in the Precambrian time. The tectonic and thermal evolution of the Precambrian eclogite is significant key for understanding the Precambrian geodynamic mechanisms. Eclogites in Kola Peninsula, Russia are some of the oldest eclogites of the world, but there has been much debate about the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism: Archean (e.g. Volodichev et al. 2004; Mints et al., 2010) or Paleoproterozoic (e.g. Skublob et al., 2011, 2012). The controversy is mainly because of the lack of zircon dating coupled with the formation of garnet and omphacite. In this study, we present geochronological, petrographic, and geochemical data from the Salma eclogites in the Kola Peninsula, Russia to characterize subduction and collision processes in the Precambrian. Microstructural observations, P-T analyses, zircon inclusion analyses, and U-Pb zircon dating revealed multiple metamorphic stages that the Salma eclogite underwent. The amphibolite facies metamorphic event firstly occurred at 2.73-2.72 Ga during Archean. In the Paleoproterozoic period, the Salma eclogites underwent prograde stage of epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. The eclogite facies metamorphic event took place under the P-T condition of 16-18 kbar and 740-770 °C at 1.89-1.88 Ga, with a subsequent granulite facies metamorphism during decompression stage from 18 kbar to 9-12 kbar. Finally, later amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 8-10 kbar and 590-610 °C on cooling. The Archean metamorphic zircons that contain inclusions of Grt + Am + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt are unzoned grains with dark CL, and they are relatively enriched in HREE. In contrast, the 1.89-1.88 Ga sector or concentric zoned zircons with pale-grey CL include inclusions of Grt + Omp + Ca-Cpx + Am + Bt + Qtz + Rt, and they have the flat pattern of HREE due to the amounts of abundant garnet during the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Whole rock

  15. Shelves around the Iberian Peninsula (II): Evolutionary sedimentary patterns; Las plataformas continentales de la Peninsula Iberica (II): Patrones sedimentarios evolutivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, F. J.; Duran, R.; Roque, C.; Ribo, M.; Carrera, G.; Mendes, I.; Ferrin, A.; Fernandez-Salas, L. M.; Garcia-Gil, S.; Galpalsoro, I.; Rosa, F.; Barcenas, P.


    We present a synthetic view of continental-shelf evolutionary patterns around the Iberian Peninsula, focusing on proposed sequence stratigraphy interpretations and attempting a comparison between Atlantic- and Mediterranean-type shelf-margin constructions. Most of the studied shelves show a dominance of regressive to low stand deposition through successive pro gradations, particularly evident in the Pliocene-Quaternary, documenting the influence of glacio-eustasy. Transgressive to high stand development predating the Last Glacial Maximum seems to be favoured off major rivers, but the highest variability is seen during post glacial evolution. Transgressive deposits tend to show a higher spatial variability, ranging from pro graded para sequences to extensive sand sheets. Holocene high- stand deposits usually show a more homogeneous character, with development of proximal wedge-shaped deposits and a distal sheet-like deposition. Atlantic continental shelves off Iberia display three different types of shelf growth: depositional shelves, shelves with restricted pro gradation and erosional shelves. They result from the interplay between depositional and hydrodynamic regimes, with the occurrence of a latitudinal gradation from erosional shelves in the Cantabrian continental shelf to depositional shelves in the northern Gulf of Cadiz shelf. Some shelf sectors do not correspond to this general pattern, as shelf sedimentation is mainly controlled by morpho-structural features (e.g., ria environments and shelves crossed by major tectonic accidents). The Mediterranean continental shelves of Iberia show two basic types, high- versus low-supply shelves, and their growth patterns are mainly a response to the amount of fluvial supply. The low-supply style is clearly the most frequent type, and it may show further complexity according to the occurrence of submarine canyons and/or morpho-structural control. (Author)

  16. Population Redistribution and Migration of Asian Americans, 1970-1980. (United States)

    Kan, Stephen H.; Liu, William T.

    This paper uses 1980 Census data to assess the patterns of population redistribution and migration of Asian Americans. Analyzing migration flows, it argues that Asian Americans who immigrated to the United States before 1975 followed a national trend of regional population shift from the Northeast and the North Central to the West and South.…

  17. The Asian American Fakeness Canon, 1972-2002 (United States)

    Oishi, Eve


    The year 1972 can be seen to inaugurate not a tradition of Asian American New York theater, but the rich and multigenre collection of writing that the author has called "the Asian American fakeness canon." The fakeness canon refers to a collection of writings that take as one of their central points of reference the question of cultural and ethnic…

  18. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK


    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  19. Bounding information and media frontiers: short papers [de] SIACG 2002 - 1st Ibero-American Symposium in Computer Graphics


    Santos, Próspero dos; Jorge, Joaquim; Marcos, Adérito


    This is the book of short papers of the 1st Ibero-American Symposium in Computer Graphics (SIACG) which was the first in a series of similar events organised every year, alternating between Europe and South America. Its mission is to foster transatlantic co-operation through the exchange of scholars, ideas, information and participation in joint projects between Computer Graphics communities in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America.

  20. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity: Its Use with Euro-American, Latino, and Native American Undergraduates (United States)

    Johnson, Tanisha Maxwell; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Arredondo, Patricia; Tovar-Gamero, Zoila G.


    This study examined the reliability and validity of scores from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity with 550 Euro-American, 112 Latino, and 41 Native American undergraduates. Data for the Centrality, Private Regard, and Public Regard scales indicate that these scores have construct validity. Scores have acceptable Cronbach alpha…

  1. Culture, Power, Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being within Romantic Relationships: A Comparison of European American and Mexican Americans (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne


    This study investigated possible cultural differences in the association of power, authentic self-expression, and well-being within romantic relationships. Participants (N = 314) included European American students from a central Texas university and Mexican American students from a border university. Results indicated that power inequality was…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海明; 何金海; 董敏


    In terms of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3), the effect of the Indian Peninsula on the course of the Asian tropical summer monsoon is simulated in this paper, and numerical experimental results show that the Indian Peninsula plays a critical role in the establishment process of the Asian tropical summer monsoon. When the CCM3 includes the Indian Peninsula,the model successfully simulates out the course of the Asian tropical summer monsoon, i.e. the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon at first bursts in middle May, while the Indian monsoon just establishes until middle June. However when the Indian Peninsula topography is deleted in the model, the Indian and SCS summer monsoons almost simultaneously establish in late May.Numerical results further indicate that in the former experiment the sensible heating of the Indian Peninsula warms the air above and produces evident temperature contrast between the peninsula and its adjacent SCS and Bay of Bengal (BOB), which results in the strengthening and maintenance of the BOB trough in the low-middle layer of the troposphere in the end of spring and early summer and thus the earliest establishment of the Asian tropical summer monsoon in the SCS in middle May. However, the Indian summer monsoon just establishes until middle June when the strong west wind over the Arabian Sea shifts northwards and cancels out the influence of the northwest flow behind the BOB trough. In the latter experiment the effect of Tibetan Plateau only produces a very weak BOB trough, and thus the SCS and Indian summer monsoons almost simultaneously establish.

  3. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasso, Rebecka L., E-mail: [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Polito, Michael J. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Lynch, Heather J. [Ecology and Evolution Department, 640 Life Sciences Bldg., Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Naveen, R. [Oceanites Inc., PO Box 15259, Chevy Chase, MD 20825 (United States); Emslie, Steven D. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)


    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adelie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adelie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell {delta}{sup 15}N or {delta}{sup 13}C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three species of Pygoscelis

  4. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adélie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values (δ15N and δ13C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adélie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell δ15N or δ13C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: ► We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. ► Three species of Pygoscelis penguins were used as biomonitors. ► Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher mercury than Ad

  5. Analysis of Evapotranspiration Variability and Trends in the Arabian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad El-Nesr


    Full Text Available Abstract:  Problem statement: Climate variability is receiving much attention recently because it has significant effects on water resources and therefore on the livelihood of society especially in water scarce countries such the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Approach: The aim of this study was to explore changes in the reference evapotranspiration (ETo using data from 27 weather stations through years 1980-2008 and to identify trend directions in the ETo as an indicator to climate variability in the region. ETo was calculated using FAO-56 Penman Monteith method and trends analyses were performed with non-parametric statistics proposed by Mann-Kendall and Sen slope estimator. Results: Results indicated that the average ETo varied from 5 mm day -1 in January to more than 15 mm day -1 in July with extreme average values ranged from 4 mm day-1 in January to 18 mm day-1 in July. The trend analyses indicated that the average annual maximum and minimum daily ETo steadily increased over the study period. The ETo annual daily average had increased from about 9.6 mm day-1  in 1980 to 10.5 mm day-1 in 2008. Trend analysis with Mann-Kendall and Sen Slope gave consistent results and were able to detect trend direction and its significant level for each month and for each station. In general, most of stations showed an increasing trend especially in the Northern parts of KSA and along the longitudinal line of 45°. ‘Yenbo’ station showed a significant increasing trend in ETo for the entire year. The increasing trends prevailed during most of the year except in the winter months from October to January. Even during these winter months, significant decreasing trends were observed for only four stations. Conclusion: It is recommended to perform similar studies on other parts of the Arabian Peninsula using wider databases, and to consider the increasing trend of ETo in the planning for agricultural and water resources projects.

  6. Linking seasonal climate forecasts with crop models in Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Capa, Mirian; Ines, Amor; Baethgen, Walter; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Han, Eunjin; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita


    Translating seasonal climate forecasts into agricultural production forecasts could help to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse conditions. In this study, we use seasonal rainfall forecasts and crop models to improve predictability of wheat yield in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Additionally, we estimate economic margins and production risks associated with extreme scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecast. This study evaluates two methods for disaggregating seasonal climate forecasts into daily weather data: 1) a stochastic weather generator (CondWG), and 2) a forecast tercile resampler (FResampler). Both methods were used to generate 100 (with FResampler) and 110 (with CondWG) weather series/sequences for three scenarios of seasonal rainfall forecasts. Simulated wheat yield is computed with the crop model CERES-wheat (Ritchie and Otter, 1985), which is included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at two locations in northeastern Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. Once simulated yields were obtained, an assessment of farmer's gross margin for different seasonal climate forecasts was accomplished to estimate production risks under different climate scenarios. This methodology allows farmers to assess the benefits and risks of a seasonal weather forecast in IP prior to the crop growing season. The results of this study may have important implications on both, public (agricultural planning) and private (decision support to farmers, insurance companies) sectors. Acknowledgements Research by M. Capa-Morocho has been partly supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UCM-UPM) and MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) References Hoogenboom, G. et al., 2010. The Decision

  7. Groundwater temperature transients on the Armutlu peninsula, eastern Marmara region (United States)

    Woith, Heiko; Caka, Deniz; Seyis, Cemil; Italiano, Francesco; Celik, Cengiz; Wang, Rongjiang; Baris, Serif


    Since many years MAM and GFZ in co-operation with Kocaeli University (KU) operate fluid monitoring stations around the Sea of Marmara. In the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417) these networks were jointly evaluated for the first time. The on-land fluid monitoring networks continuously monitor the following parameters: soil radon (21 sites), temperature and conductivity of thermal springs (9 sites) operated by MAM covering the whole Marmara region; fluid pressure and water level/temperature (8 sites) within ARNET operated by GFZ/KU. ARNET is a combined seismological/hydrogeological monitoring network covering the Armutlu peninsula located SE of Istanbul. Additional to the geothermal wells and springs - our main target to detect transients of potentially seismo-tectonic origin - three shallow groundwater wells (tenth of meters deep) are being operated to identify and quantify seasonal variations, and meteorological influences like rainfall and snowmelt. But it turned out that these shallow aquifer systems showed very stable conditions with very small annual temperature amplitudes (0.2 - 0.3°C). One of these shallow monitoring wells is located just south of Lake Iznik (in the village of Sölöz) very close to the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Water level showed a steady decreasing trend since June 2012. This trend resulted in a data gap starting in January 2014, when the water level dropped below the sensor position. After adjusting the sensor position, positive spikes in the borehole temperature were recorded in June and August 2014, and again in 2015. The spikes are characterised by a sharp temperature increase followed by a decay lasting several days until the pre-event temperature was reached again. Since the spikes occurred on two independent logger systems, and since they lasted several days, a

  8. Assessment of the Climate Vulnerabilities of the Arabian Peninsula (United States)

    Alharbi, T.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Chouinard, K.


    The Arabian Peninsula (AP), like many places around the world, is apparently witnessing the impacts (amount, patterns, and frequency of precipitation) of global warming. Precipitation over the AP is largely controlled by two main wind regimes, the winter (October to March) northerlies or northwesterlies, hereafter referred to as westerlies, and the summer (April to September) monsoonal wind regimes. The global monthly Climate Prediction Centers (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data (spatial resolution: 2.5° × 2.5°; temporal resolution: monthly; operational period: January 1979 to November 2011) was used to investigate the nature and magnitude of precipitation variations over the AP throughout 1979 - 2010. Trends in CMAP-derived precipitation patterns were examined over the winter and summer seasons throughout Periods I (1979-1995) and II (1996-2010). Reversals in precipitation patterns were observed in Periods I and II, where areas witnessing an increase in precipitation in Period I showed a decrease in precipitation throughout Period II, and vice versa for the remaining areas. Our findings suggest: (1) an increase in precipitation during Period I over the southeastern and southwestern coastal areas of AP (e.g., Muscat, Sanaa, and Jeddah) that is probably related to the intensification of the monsoons at the expense of the westerlies, (2) an increase in precipitation during Period II over the northwestern and southeastern of AP (e.g., northwestern Saudi Arabia, Empty Quarter, western and southwestern Oman, and eastern Yemen) is here attributed to intensification of the westerlies, and 3) the general similarity of annual trend patterns to the summer trend (Period I) and to winter trend (Period II) suggest that the annual trends are largely controlled by monsoonal wind regimes in Period I and by the westerlies in Period II. Outputs (i.e., precipitation) of climatic models (CCSM4.0) over the AP are being extracted (for upcoming 100 years) , downscaled

  9. Dynamics of the Iberian Peninsula Coastal Low-Level Jet (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Rijo, Nádia; Miranda, Pedro; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro


    Coastal low-level jets (CLLJ) are important mesoscale phenomena of some regional coastal climates. They are characterized by a coast-parallel flow which has a wind speed maxima within the first few hundred meters above sea level (usually below 1000 m, and most of the times around 500 m), encapsulated within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). Coastal jets have a larger scale synoptic forcing behind them: a high pressure system over the ocean and a thermal low inland. The regions where CLLJ occur coincide with cold equator-ward eastern boundary currents in the mid-latitudes (with an exception of the coast of Oman in the Arabian Sea), where the contrast between the cold ocean and the warm land in the summer is highest. As a response of CLLJ occurrences a positive feedback mechanism is triggered: the coast-parallel wind induces upwelling currents at the coast, reducing the sea surface temperature, which in turn increase the thermal (pressure) gradient at the coast, leading to higher wind speeds. The Iberian Peninsula Coastal Jet (IPCJ) is an example of a CLLJ, developed mostly during the summer season due to the effect of the semi-present Azores high-pressure system in the North Atlantic and of a thermal low pressure system inland. This synoptic pattern drives a seasonal (western) coast parallel wind, often called the Nortada (northerly wind), where the IPCJ develops. A detailed analysis of the IPCJ structure and dynamics will be presented, trough the analysis of two case studies off the west coast of Portugal. The case studies are simulated using the WRF mesoscale model, at 9 and 3 km horizontal resolution, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis. The MABL structure off the west coast of Iberia, the interaction of the flow with the two main west Iberia capes (Finisterre and Roca), and the consequences on the cloud cover and wind speed up- and down-wind of the capes will be analysed.

  10. Neuropsychological study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex in Kii peninsula, Japan


    Shindo, Akihiro; Ueda, Yukito; Kuzuhara, Shigeki; Kokubo, Yasumasa


    Background The Kii peninsula of Japan is one of the foci of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) in the world. The purpose of this study is to clarify the neuropsychological features of the patients with ALS/PDC of the Kii peninsula (Kii ALS/PDC). Methods The medical interview was done on 13 patients with Kii ALS/PDC, 12 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 10 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, 10 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration an...

  11. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective. (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  12. Holocene climate variability along the Antarctic Peninsula and linkage with a terrestrial paleoclimate record from South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific. In this regard, we note that the strongest Southern Oscillation atmospheric pressure anomaly in the Southern Ocean is in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen seas, upwind from our Antarctic Peninsula study site. We see temporal coherence between a rapid mid-Holocene excursion at site 1098 and a similarly rapid 85 m lowering of the level of Lake Titicaca, at 14 deg. S in the South American Altiplano, again suggestive of a Pacific Ocean control. Comparison with other Antarctic margin paleoclimate records from East Antarctica and the Ross Sea as well as with terrestrial records from Australia and New Zealand generally shows heterogeneity across longitudes and coherence across latitudes. However, convincing conclusions along these lines are still difficult because of problems in comparing chronologies at sub-millennial timescales between marine records, ice cores, and terrestrial records. (author)

  13. Holocene climate variability along the Antarctic Peninsula and linkage with a terrestrial paleoclimate record from South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific. In this regard, we note that the strongest Southern Oscillation atmospheric pressure anomaly in the Southern Ocean is in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen seas, upwind from our Antarctic Peninsula study site. We see temporal coherence between a rapid mid-Holocene excursion at site 1098 and a similarly rapid 85 m lowering of the level of Lake Titicaca, at 14 deg. S in the South American Altiplano, again suggestive of a Pacific Ocean control. Comparison with other Antarctic margin paleoclimate records from East Antarctica and the Ross Sea as well as with terrestrial records from Australia and New Zealand generally shows heterogeneity across longitudes and coherence across latitudes. However, convincing conclusions along these lines are still difficult because of problems in comparing chronologies at sub- millennial timescales between marine records, ice cores, and terrestrial records. (author)

  14. Blue Mountain and The Gas Rocks: Rear-Arc Dome Clusters on the Alaska Peninsula (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.


    Behind the single-file chain of stratovolcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, independent rear-arc vents for mafic magmas are uncommon, and for silicic magmas rarer still. We report here the characteristics, compositions, and ages of two andesite-dacite dome clusters and of several nearby basaltic units, all near Becharof Lake and 15 to 20 km behind the volcanic front. Blue Mountain consists of 13 domes (58-68 weight percent SiO2) and The Gas Rocks of three domes (62-64.5 weight percent SiO2) and a mafic cone (52 weight percent SiO2). All 16 domes are amphibole-biotite-plagioclase felsite, and nearly all are phenocryst rich and quartz bearing. Although the two dome clusters are lithologically and chemically similar and only 25 km apart, they differ strikingly in age. The main central dome of Blue Mountain yields an 40Ar/39Ar age of 632?7 ka, and two of the Gas Rocks domes ages of 25.7?1.4 and 23.3?1.2 ka. Both clusters were severely eroded by glaciation; surviving volumes of Blue Mountain domes total ~1 km3, and of the Gas Rocks domes 0.035 km3. Three basaltic vents lie close to The Gas Rocks, another lies just south of Blue Mountain, and a fifth is near the north shore of Becharof Lake. A basaltic andesite vent 6 km southeast of The Gas Rocks appears to be a flank vent of the arc-front center Mount Peulik. The basalt of Ukinrek Maars has been called transitionally alkalic, but all the other basaltic rocks are subalkaline. CO2-rich gas emissions near the eponymous Gas Rocks domes are not related to the 25-ka dacite dome cluster but, rather, to intracrustal degassing of intrusive basalt, one batch of which erupted 3 km away in 1977. The felsic and mafic vents all lie along or near the Bruin Bay Fault where it intersects a broad transverse structural zone marked by topographic, volcanologic, and geophysical discontinuities.

  15. The bases for understanding of the NW Dinarides and Istria Peninsula tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer


    Full Text Available Thrust structure of the northeastern part of the External Dinarides is depended upon paleogeography of the Adriatic–Dinaric Mesozoic Carbonate Platform, which was in the southeast (in the recent position composed of Dinaric and Adriatic segment with intermediate Budva Trough. In the northwest in the area of the present Slovenia, it represents uniform platform. In the northwestern continuation of the Budva Trough, shallow halftrough formed and more to the west, shallow Friuli Paleogene Basin came in to being, which separated so called Friuli Carbonate Platform from the central part of the carbonate platform. Area of Istria was separated from Adriatic segment with Kvarner Fault, originated already in the Mesozoic.External Dinaric Thrust Belt formed in the finalphaseoftheDinaridesoverthrusting.ItoriginatedfromDinaricsegment of the Mesozoic Carbonate Platform at the end of the Eocene and was thrusted on the Adriatic segment of the Mesozoic Carbonate Platform. Whole process also triggered formation of the External Dinaric Imbricate Belt with Thrust Front of the External Dinarides against Adriatic-Apulian Foreland. Later also represents rigid indenter of the Adria Lithospheric Microplate (“Adria”, and External Dinaric Imbricate Belt represents its deformed margin, therefore we place it to the rigid indenter.Segmentation of the “Adria” occurred in the Miocene or later. It roughly disintegrated in the Padan and Adriatic part along Kvarner Fault. During rotation of the Padan part in the counter clockwise sense, the corner part, representing Istria Peninsula, rotated and underthrusted towards northeast under External Dinarides. As a result, Istria-Friuli Underthrust Zone formed, structurally conditioned with the position of the Friuli Paleogene Basin, and vast Istria Pushed Area between Southern Alps, Velebit Mts. and Želimlje Fault. This process is still active recently.During Istria underthrusting and pushing in the northwest direction, Ra

  16. Patrones biogeográficos de las aves de la península de Yucatán Biogeographical patterns of the Yucatán Peninsula birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gala Cortés-Ramírez


    Full Text Available Con el propósito de actualizar el conocimiento de la avifauna (residente, migratoria y endémica de la Península de Yucatán, se analizaron datos de distribución puntual y distribuciones potenciales obtenidas mediante modelos de nicho ecológico a partir de la información obtenida de colecciones científicas. Para examinar la similitud entre la avifauna, se utilizó un índice de distancia fenética y se estimó el número probable de especies que se distribuye en la región. El número de registros en la base de datos quedó conformado por la presencia de 436 especies de aves (de 440 estimadas, 5 de las cuales son endémicas de México y se distribuyen en isla Cozumel y en la parte norte de la península, donde se encuentran las zonas de mayor aridez, el bosque tropical seco y 17 especies cuasiendémicas que se distribuyen en el resto de la península. Se reconocieron 4 principales agrupamientos de similitud faunística; uno al norte, otro en el área central, uno más al sur de la península y el cuarto en isla Cozumel.We analyzed geographical distribution patterns for the resident, migratory and endemic birds of the Yucatán Peninsula, using data obtained in scientific collections and predicted distributional areas obtained by ecological niche models with the purpose of updating the knowledge about the birds of the area. We examined the similarity between the bird components using a phenetic distance index, and estimated the possible number of species distributed in the peninsula. We recorded the presence of 436 species (of 440 estimated with the information of database. Five species are endemic to Mexico and 17 quasiendemic. Mexican endemics are distributed in Cozumel Island and in the northwestern portion of the peninsula, in dryer areas with tropical dry forest. Quasiendemic species are distributed in the southeastern portion of the peninsula, mainly in areas with high humidity. Similarity analysis lead to the recognition of 4 major

  17. Earthquake induced landslide hazard field observatory in the Avcilar peninsula (United States)

    Bigarre, Pascal; Coccia, Stella; Theoleyre, Fiona; Ergintav, Semih; Özel, Oguz; Yalçinkaya, Esref; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; Gamba, Paolo; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco


    Earthquake-triggered landslides have an increasing disastrous impact in seismic regions due to the fast growing urbanization and infrastructures. Just considering disasters from the last fifteen years, among which the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, these events generated tens of thousands of coseismic landslides. Those resulted in amazing death toll and considerable damages, affecting the regional landscape including its hydrological main features. Despite a strong impetus in research during past decades, knowledge on those geohazards is still fragmentary, while databases of high quality observational data are lacking. These phenomena call for further collaborative researches aiming eventually to enhance preparedness and crisis management. The MARSITE project gathers research groups in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Sea of Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated parts of Europe and rated at high seismic risk level since the 1999 Izmit and Duzce devastating earthquakes. Besides the seismic threat, landslides in Turkey and in this region constitute an important source of loss. The 6th Work Package of MARSITE project gathers 9 research groups to study earthquake-induced landslides focusing on two sub-regional areas of high interest among which the Cekmece-Avcilar peninsula, located westwards of Istanbul, as a highly urbanized concentrated landslide prone area, showing high susceptibility to both rainfalls while affected by very significant seismic site effects. A multidisciplinary research program based on pre-existing studies has been designed with objectives and tasks linked to constrain and tackle progressively some challenging issues related to data integration, modeling, monitoring and mapping technologies. Since the start of the project, progress has been marked on several important points as follows. The photogeological interpretation and analysis of ENVISAT-ERS DIn

  18. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) nest characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica. (United States)

    Guittar, John L; Dear, Fiona; Vaughan, Christopher


    The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceibapentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw's long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. PMID:19637716

  19. Acremonium camtosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (United States)

    Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) is a frequent and co-dominant tree of tropical sub-caducifolious forest in the Yucatan Peninsula. This species is important ecologically because it can grow in poor, clay or sandy, saline soils. The Mayan communities use this plant medicinally for its analgesic, antimy...

  20. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravec, F.; Vidal-Martínez, V.M.; Aguirre-Macedo, M.L.


    Moravec, F., V.M. Vidal-Martinez & M.L. Aguirre-Macedo, 1995. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72: 55-68. One nematode species, Hysterothylacium eurycheilum, the acanthocephalan Gorgorhynchus

  1. New hypogean cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiers, Frank; Reid, Janet W.; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo


    Four previously unknown hypogean species of cyclopoid copepods were collected in cenotes and wells of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Diacyclops chakan sp. n. and D. puuc sp. n. differ from their congeners in combining 3-segmented swimming legs, 11-segmented antennules, and legs 1-4 endopodite segmen

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of sulfate-affected landscapes in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica (United States)

    de Souza, José João L. L.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Abrahão, Walter Antônio P.; de Mello, Jaime Wilson V.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; da Silva, Juscimar; Francelino, Márcio R.


    Keller Peninsula, located in King George Island, has a typical Maritime Antarctica climatic regime, with higher temperatures and rainfall than other areas in Continental Antarctica. The main outcropping rocks are pyritized andesites, volcaniclastics and basalts. Recent pedological investigation indicated that the presence of sulfides in Keller Peninsula accelerates the weathering process. The aim of this work was the determination of the geochemical background in water channels following geomorphological gradients in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica. We delimited and mapped all catchments in Keller Peninsula using GIS techniques and field observations. Water samples were analyzed for twenty-nine elements by ICP-OES and IEC, after the proper treatments. Eight catchments were identified as sulfide-affected, although water pH was nearly neutral. The ionic concentration in solution was high, both in non-affected and sulfide-affected catchments, with a trend of greater values in the latter, and changing downslope. Concentration values are above the range of other hydrogeochemical studies from elsewhere in Antarctica. The values of molar ratio HCO3-:(Ca + Mg)2 + and Na+:Cl- indicated the absence of carbonate-bearing rocks. Local precipitation of evaporites, as gypsum and epsomite was confirmed by the Ca2 +:SO42 - and Mg2 +:SO42 - molar ratios. The high ionic concentration in sulfide-affected areas illustrates the role of sulfate soil formation in this part of Antarctica.

  3. Indication of a species in an extinction vortex: The ocellated turkey on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampichler, C.; Calmé, S.; Weissenberger, H.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.


    The ocellated turkey Meleagris ocellata (OT) is a large, unmistakable endemic bird of the Yucatan peninsula. The species has suffered a considerable loss of distributional area as well as local abundance between 1980 and 2000 and is classified as endangered according to Mexican norms. We applied Cla

  4. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T.M.; Kukkonen, J.


    The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion

  5. Phenological development of introduced species Picea A. Dietr. on the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharova Oxana Alexandrovna


    Full Text Available In the article results of long-term phenologucal observations of introduced species of Picea A. Dietr. on the Kola Peninsula. The cycle of vegetative development of types of Picea corresponds to the vegetative period of a place of an introduction.

  6. Evaluation of machine-building enterprises of the Kola Peninsula for developing of the Arctic communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchaninova T. V.


    Full Text Available The research of engineering enterprises with a single and small-batch manufacturing of the Kola Peninsula has been carried out. The possibilities of satisfying demands for their products and services in the regional market have been determined, that is very important for understanding the prospects for the development and exploitation of the Arctic communications

  7. CEDEX research activities in Antarctica. Aquatic ecosystems in Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, maritime Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001 CEDEX has taken part in many Antarctic joint research projects with different institutions from Spain and other countries, developing scientific activities in the International Camp of Byers Peninsular (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). This place was designed as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area (No.126) because the importance and value of its terrestrial and aquatic habitats. It is one of the largest ice-free areas of maritime Antarctica, with the highest diversity of environments and geological, hydrological and biological processes in the whole region, all of them in a pristine state. Byers Peninsula is considered the most significant limnological area in the Antarctic Peninsula region because it hosts a high number of lakes, ponds and streams, with an exceptional fauna and flora diversity, including the most singular, representative or endemic Antarctic species. Furthermore, the lakes sedimentary record is one of the widest and complete archives in Antarctic Peninsula region for the palaeocological and climatic study of the Holocene. Because Byers Peninsula is an Antarctic biodiversity hotspot, and it is located in one of the areas in the Earth where global warming is being more significant, it must be considered as a suitable international reference site for limnetic, terrestrial and coastal studies, and long term monitoring programmes. (Author)

  8. Strongylocoris ferreri n. sp. from Andalusia (Spain), southern Iberian Peninsula(Hemiptera : Heteroptera : Miridae)


    Ribes, Jordi; Pagola-Carte, Santiago


    A new plant bug species of the genus Strongylocoris (Miridae: Orthotylinae: Halticini) is described on the basis of a single specimen from Algeciras (province of Cádiz), Andalusia (Spain), southern Iberian Peninsula. Strongylocoris ferreri n. sp. is easily separated from the remaining species of the genus by its external morphology and the shape of the left paramere.

  9. Estimation of Water Availability Considering Climate Change in the Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Yoo, S.; Lee, D. K.; Hanasaki, N.


    The hydrological cycle is directly affected by climate and human intervention. Climate change is expected to affect hydrology and water resources. In Korean Peninsula, the rainfall pattern is seasonally concentrated, causing temporal and spatial variations in water availability. Many previous studies have investigated that the Korean Peninsula region is vulnerable to changes in water availability with changing climate, but a majority of the studies have focused on natural river discharge. However, the present-day hydrological cycle is not natural, but is affected by human activity, such as the water demands of agriculture, the industrial and domestic sector, and reservoir operations. In this study, water availability considering the impacts of human activity and climate change in the Korean Peninsula region is assessed in terms of water supply and demand. To assess present and future water availability, the integrated water resources model H08, which has six sub-modules to address land surfaces, river routing, crop growth, environmental flow requirements, and anthropogenic water withdrawal (Hanasaki et al., 2008), was applied to simulate historical and future hydrological processes based on climate scenarios. The model was calibrated and validated based on observed river discharge data. The simulation results show the temporal and spatial variations of water availability in the Korean Peninsula region. Results of this research could be used for spatial planning, taking into account the water availability.

  10. Testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) in Quaternary Permafrost Sediments of Bykovsky Peninsula, Arctic Yakutia


    Bobrov, Anatoly A.; Siegert, Christine; Andreev, Andrei A.; Schirrmeister, Lutz


    The results of the first protozoological study in terms of paleoecology of long-term sediments and buried soils formed in the cryolite zone of northeastern Siberia are discussed. The data on testaceans (Protozoa: Testacea) inhabiting various sites of Bykovsky Peninsula, Laptev Sea coast near estuary of Lena, within the last 53 000 years (Late Pleistocene and Holocene) are presented.

  11. A tectonic model of the Sinai Peninsula based on magnetic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the tectonic position of the Sinai Peninsula based on the interpretation of magnetic data. A high-resolution magnetic survey was undertaken, combined with aeromagnetic data, GPS and seismic stress-tension analysis. The magnetic data was interpreted using the analytical signal, horizontal gradient, Euler and Werner deconvolutions and 2.5 dimensional magnetic modelling methods. The seismological focal mechanism and stress-tension forces have also been evaluated. We conclude that the structural trend N35°–N45° west reflects the most predominant tectonic force in the southern part of the Sinai Peninsula, with a secondary N45°–N65° east tectonic trend. Interestingly, this situation is reversed in the northern part of the peninsula. The depth of the basement rocks ranges from zero at the southern end to more than 4 km below sea level at the northern end of the studied area. Furthermore, we found that the depth of the basement rocks increases from east to west, which is consistent with available well log data. This reflects a source of stress situated in the south that is pushing in the NE direction. Correlating the seismological and GPS analysis has enabled the construction of a tectonic model for the Sinai Peninsula

  12. Notes on the genus Argostemma (Rubiaceae) of the Malay Peninsula and Peninsular Thailand


    Sridith, K.


    The genus Argostemma Wall. (Rubiaceae) in the Malay Peninsula and Peninsular Thailand are discussed with regard to general morphology, distribution and ecology from studies of herbarium specimens from various herbaria together with the field surveys of the natural populations in the study area during November 2001 – December 2006.

  13. Notes on the genus Argostemma (Rubiaceae) of the Malay Peninsula and Peninsular Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridith, K.


    The genus Argostemma Wall. (Rubiaceae) in the Malay Peninsula and Peninsular Thailand are discussed with regard to general morphology, distribution and ecology from studies of herbarium specimens from various herbaria together with the field surveys of the natural populations in the study area durin


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fossil plants studied in this paper were collected by the Chinese Antarctic Expeditions (1986—1987 and 1987—1988) from the locality Fossil Hill on the Fildes Peninsula southwest of the King George Island of the South Shetland Islands.

  15. Growth of Little Stint Calidris minuta chicks on the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Nehls, G; Hotker, H; Tomkovich, PS; Kania, W; Chylarecki, P; Soloviev, M; Van Roomen, M


    Growth of mass and linear body dimensions (bill, tarsus and wing length) was studied in the Little Stint Calidris minuta at several locations on the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia (73 degrees-76 degrees N) in 1983-94. Little Stints fledged at near-adult body mass, at 15 days of age. Growth followed an S-

  16. Winter precipitation over the Iberian peninsula and its relationship to circulation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodríguez-Puebla


    Full Text Available Winter precipitation variability over the Iberian peninsula was investigated by obtaining the spatial and temporal patterns. Empirical Orthogonal Functions were used to describe the variance distribution and to compress the precipitation data into a few modes. The corresponding spatial patterns divide the peninsula into climatic regions according to precipitation variations. The associated time series were related to large scale circulation indices and tropical sea surface temperature anomalies by using lag cross-correlation and cross-spectrum. The major findings are: the most influential indices for winter precipitation were the North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Atlantic/West Russian pattern; coherent oscillations were detected at about eight years between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation and some dynamic consequences of the circulation on precipitation over the Iberian peninsula were examined during drought and wet spells. In the end statistical methods have been proposed to downscale seasonal precipitation prediction. Keywords: Winter precipitation, circulation indices, Iberian peninsula climate, climate variations, precipitation trend

  17. Typical Infrasonic Daily Changes Associated with Weather Conditions in Southern Korean Peninsula (United States)

    Lee, S. T.


    The dominant source of infrasonic waves in Korean peninsula is associated with weather changes around 0.1 to several hertz. The microbarom are mainly observed with KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) infrasound station and other activity associated with typhoon in summer. The period of observation was processed during year of 2012. The KMA running two permanent infrasound stations at the middle of Korean peninsula which located DeMilitarized Zone from the 2011. For the special event that recorded from the Northern Korean Peninsula was missle launch 12-Dec 2012 which was clearly recorded. The Korean peninsula is located on Northern Hemisphere that induce the typhoon visit in summer rainy season, so main infrasonic activity was associated this weather changes concentrated general weather activity frequency area. We focused on seasonal changes induced by weather activities and processed infrasonic data related with typhoon report by KMA's weather report. The progressing results was reviewed for the infrasonic noise level changes which associated with typhoon and missle launch record on Dec-2012 for the special event.

  18. Isochronic K-Ar age and helium isotopes of hyperbasite dike, Mossel peninsula, New Frisland (Spitsbergen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age of a series of ultrabasic rocks and minerals, forming a hyperbasite dike in Mossel peninsula, Spitsbergen, was estimated by the isochronous K-Ar method using 40Ar/36Ar-40K/36Ar coordinates. The age of three peridotite samples and one olivine sample is found to be 1870±52 Ma

  19. A Late Holocene Slip Rate Of The North Anatolian Fault, Hersek Peninsula, Izmit Bay, Turkey (United States)

    Kozaci, O.; Altunel, E.; Clahan, K.; Yonlu, O.; Sundermann, S. T.; Lettis, W. R.; Turner, J.; Altekruse, J.; Gumus, I.; Lindvall, S. C.


    The Hersek Peninsula has been a strategic site for at least the last two millennia as a result of its location. It extends into Izmit Bay and creates a shortcut for the historical Bagdad Road, an important section of the spice route, between Istanbul (Constantinople) and Iznik (Nicaea). It also controls the entrance of Izmit Bay to Izmit (Nicomedia). Civilizations have been investing in this location by building harbors, fortifications, baths, roads, bridges, aqueducts, and temples. The remnants of these historical structures record evidence for past destruction of both anthropogenic and tectonic origin. From an active tectonics point of view, the Hersek Peninsula is a key locality for understanding seismic hazard in the Marmara Region. It is the last place that the North Anatolian fault can be studied on land before it enters the Marmara Sea and it has experienced strong ground shaking most recently during the M7.4 Izmit earthquake in 1999. Paleoseismic trenching as well as archeoseismologic investigations were recently performed on the Hersek Peninsula for regional and site specific seismic hazard characterization. Our paleoseismic trenches north of the Hersek Lagoon provided fault exposures confirming the location of the North Anatolian fault on the peninsula. Detailed mapping of a 6th century A.D. Byzantine aqueduct offset 14 ± 1 meters along the projection of this fault trace revealed a minimum late Holocene slip rate of 13.6 +1/-3.5 mm yr-1. Rapid fan deposition and subsidence on the delta plain across the Hersek Peninsula has resulted in the relatively recent deposition of several meters of relatively young alluvium and nearshore tidal deposits. Nearly 2 km of trench exposures revealed these deposits were continuous and contain only minor evidence of ground shaking in the form of secondary liquefaction deposits and ground fractures. The lack of primary ground surface rupture evidence in these approximately 300-year-old sediments strongly suggests that the

  20. China’ s Strategy toward Neighbor Countries and Regions and Unification Future of Korean Peninsula%中国周边战略与朝鲜半岛统一前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chinese government is paying more attention on surrounding affairs , and the diplomatic focus is shifting from developed countries to neighbor countries and surrounding regions .This tendency will apparently effect the situation on Korean peninsula and the process of North Korea nuclear issue in three aspects:China will exercise more political influence and more economic help on North Korea;North Korea will restrain itself in provocative ac-tions;China will make more efforts to coordinate with other related countries .Meanwhile , the influence of Ameri-can factor on Korean peninsula affairs is decreasing .Consequently , the key point of Korean peninsula will shift from security topic to economic field .If conditions above are given , the unification of Korean peninsula is feasible . The way for unification of Korean peninsula should be peaceful , initiative, symmetrical and gradual .%中国新政府重视周边的外交战略逐渐显现。中国的外交重点正在向周边国家和地区倾斜。这对朝鲜半岛的前景以及朝核问题的进程都将产生重大影响,主要表现在三个方面:一、中国将加大对朝鲜的政治影响和经济帮助,中朝关系更加紧密而不是相反;二、朝鲜的极端行为将减少,半岛局势进一步缓和;三、中国与相关大国围绕朝核问题的协商与协调将不断增加。与此同时,美国因素在半岛进程中的影响呈现下降的趋势,半岛议题将从安全领域逐渐向经济领域过渡。在上述条件都成为现实的情况下,讨论朝鲜半岛和平统一才具有可能性和可行性。半岛的统一应该具有和平性、对称性、自发性、渐进性等特征。

  1. Seismic attenuation structure associated with episodic tremor and slip zone beneath Shikoku and the Kii peninsula, southwestern Japan, in the Nankai subduction zone (United States)

    Kita, Saeko; Matsubara, Makoto


    The three-dimensional seismic attenuation structure (frequency-independent Q) beneath southwestern Japan was analyzed using t* estimated by applying the S coda wave spectral ratio method to the waveform data from a dense permanent seismic network. The seismic attenuation (Qp-1) structure is clearly imaged for the region beneath Shikoku, the Kii peninsula, and eastern Kyushu at depths down to approximately 50 km. At depths of 5 to 35 km, the seismic attenuation structure changes at the Median tectonic line and other geological boundaries beneath Shikoku and the southwestern Kii peninsula. High-Qp zones within the lower crust of the overlying plate are found just above the slip regions at the centers of the long-term slow-slip events (SSEs) beneath the Bungo and Kii channels and central Shikoku. Beneath central Shikoku, within the overlying plate, a high-Qp zone bounded by low-Qp zones is located from the land surface to the plate interface of the subducting plate. The high-Qp zone and low-Qp zones correspond to high-Vp and low-Vp zones of previous study, respectively. The boundaries of the high- and low-Qp zones are consistent with the segment boundaries of tremors (segment boundaries of short-term SSEs). These results indicated that the locations of the long- and short-term SSEs could be limited by the inhomogeneous distribution of the materials and/or condition of the overlying plate, which is formed due to geological and geographical process. The heterogeneity of materials and/or condition within the fore-arc crust possibly makes an effect on inhomogeneous rheological strength distribution on the interface.

  2. Dynamics of the Coordination of Economy-Society and Resource-Environment in Shandong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Rongqing; Zhao Minghua


    Shandong Peninsula, as a more developed region in Shandong Province even the east coast of China, is facing challenges from resources and environment pressures. This paper tried to track and assess the coordination status and the dynamic between resource-environment and economy-society systems in Shandong Peninsula during 2001-2008 in order to provide deci- sion support for regional sustainability. An appraisal index system was built including five aspects of harmony degree (A), sustain- ability degree (B), opening degree (C), stability degree (D) and controllability degree (E). The results showed that: 1) The coor- dination level of resource-environment and economy-society in Shandong Peninsula has continuously grown, and it has undergone three stages: no coordinated degree (2001-2002), weak coordi- nated degree (2003-2006) and basically coordinated degree (2007- 2008). 2) Five indexes of criterion hierarchy also increased overall, but each index showed different trends. Harmony degree, sustain- ability degree and opening degree rose all the time, while stability degree and controllability degree alternately rose and fell. The improvement of controllability degree was the slowest. 3) The ag- gravating trend of environmental pollution was slowing down. The economic growth was driven by industrial growth and urbanization typically and investment was still the main force to pull the regional economic growth. At the same time, technology and education were becoming more and more important for economic growth. The level of foreign capital utility declined and the geographical advantage of Shandong Peninsula was exerted. Meanwhile some characteristics of knowledge economy were presenting. Water re- sources become the main constraint factor of fast development in Shandong Peninsula. It is necessary to further strengthen the coordination ability of government on regional sustainable development.

  3. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica (United States)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.


    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  4. American Society of Echocardiography (United States)

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  5. American Urogynecologic Society (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  6. North American Spine Society (United States)

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  7. American Epilepsy Society (United States)


  8. American Society of Transplantation (United States)

    ... Trials in Transplantation September 13, 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and its Transplantation & Immunology Research Network ... Learn More Donate Donate Donate to the American Society of Transplantation Advertisement member spotlight View all Joanna ...

  9. American Cancer Society (United States)

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  10. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  11. American Vitiligo Research Foundation (United States)

    ... testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By Sight" PO ... by Using GoodSearch Copyright 2005 - 2014 American Vitiligo Research Foundation Inc. Disclaimer: Information provided on this website is ...

  12. Obesity and Hispanic Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Obesity and Asian Americans (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  14. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men


    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.


    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  15. Diabetes in African Americans


    Marshall, M.


    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  16. Electromagnetic studies on the Kola peninsula and in Northern Finland by means of a powerful controlled source (United States)

    Velikhov, Ye. P.; Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Belkov, I. V.; Gorbunov, G. I.; Hjelt, S. E.; Lisin, A. S.; Vanyan, L. L.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Demidova, T. A.; Korja, T.; Kirillov, S. K.; Kuksa, Yu. I.; Poltanov, A. Ye.; Tokarev, A. D.; Yevstigneyev, V. V.


    Station "Khibiny", equipped with a powerful magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and/or diesel generator, has been successfully used since 1976 to study the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust in the northern part of the Baltic Shield. The present paper describes the techniques of measurement, data processing and interpretation of the five-component electromagnetic fields created by this source. A longitudinal conductance map for the upper 10 km of the Earth's crust has been constructed. Several blocks, with conductances varying from 0.1 to some thousands of Siemens, have been revealed on the Kola Peninsula, in northern Karelia and in northern Finland. The blocks of high conductance are connected with relatively young complexes of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean ages. In some places, they create thick and extensive conductive belts such as the Imandra-Varzuga and the Pechenga zones. More often, they appear in the shape of vast regions with enhanced conductivity (e.g., the granulite belts and the Allarechen region). The geoelectric cross-section of the Imandra-Varzuga ore-critical structure has been studied in detail, using the method of electromagnetic field migration. Its depth extent is approximately 10 km. Highly resistant blocks are associated with the most ancient geological units, of early Archean age. Resistant regions have been found in the Murmansk and Central Kola regions, as well as in the Kovdor massif and in the Central Finland granite area. These regions are the most promising ones for deep electromagnetic sounding of the lower crust and the upper mantle of the Earth.

  17. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  18. American Indian Recipes. (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  19. Heart Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  20. Infant Mortality and African Americans (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  1. Geomorphic disequilibrium in the Eastern Korean Peninsula: Possible evidence for reactivation of a rift-flank margin (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Seong, Yeong Bae; Byun, Jongmin; Weber, John; Min, Kyoungwon


    -level changes. Our 1-D modeling of knickpoint propagation suggests that tectonic disturbance is the factor most likely to produce knickzones in the study area, raising the possibility that erosional signals caused by late-Pleistocene tectonic disturbance affected channel gradients, but that the knickpoints have not yet propagated through the entire catchment area. Our results suggest that the eastern part of the Korean Peninsula is approaching, but has not completely reached, a geomorphic steady-state, and that transient conditions have been induced by reactivation of the rift-flank margin no later than the late Pleistocene, causing tilting of the central Korean Peninsula to the west at a rate of 7.0 × 10- 10 m/m per year over the past ~ 125 ka.

  2. A comparison of three macroinvertebrate sampling devices for use in conducting rapid-assessment procedures of Delmarva Peninsula wetlands (United States)

    Lowe, Terrence (Peter); Tebbs, Kerry; Sparling, Donald W.


    Three types of macroinvertebrate collecting devices, Gerking box traps, D-shaped sweep nets, and activity traps, have commonly been used to sample macroinvertebrates when conducting rapid biological assessments of North American wetlands. We compared collections of macroinvertebrates identified to the family level made with these devices in 6 constructed and 2 natural wetlands on the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland. We also assessed their potential efficacy in comparisons among wetlands using several proportional and richness attributes. Differences in median diversity among samples from the 3 devices were significant; the sweep-net samples had the greatest diversity and the activity-trap samples had the least diversity. Differences in median abundance were not significant between the Gerking box-trap samples and sweep-net samples, but median abundance among activity-trap samples was significantly lower than among samples of the other 2 devices. Within samples, the proportions of median diversity composed of major class and order groupings were similar among the 3 devices. However the proportions of median abundance composed of the major class and order groupings within activity-trap samples were not similar to those of the other 2 devices. There was a slight but significant increase in the total number of families captured when we combined activity-trap samples with Gerking box-trap samples or with sweep-net samples, and the per-sample median numbers of families of the combined activity-trap and sweep-net samples was significantly higher than that of the combined activity-trap and Gerking box-trap samples. We detected significant differences among wetlands for 4 macroinvertebrate attributes with the Gerking box-trap data, 6 attributes with sweep-net data, and 5 attributes with the activity-trap data. A small, but significant increase in the number of attributes showing differences among wetlands occurred when we combined activity-trap samples with those of the

  3. Morphotectonic Index Analysis as an Indicator of Neotectonic Segmentation of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica (United States)

    Morrish, S.; Marshall, J. S.


    The Nicoya Peninsula lies within the Costa Rican forearc where the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate at ~8.5 cm/yr. Rapid plate convergence produces frequent large earthquakes (~50yr recurrence interval) and pronounced crustal deformation (0.1-2.0m/ky uplift). Seven uplifted segments have been identified in previous studies using broad geomorphic surfaces (Hare & Gardner 1984) and late Quaternary marine terraces (Marshall et al. 2010). These surfaces suggest long term net uplift and segmentation of the peninsula in response to contrasting domains of subducting seafloor (EPR, CNS-1, CNS-2). In this study, newer 10m contour digital topographic data (CENIGA- Terra Project) will be used to characterize and delineate this segmentation using morphotectonic analysis of drainage basins and correlation of fluvial terrace/ geomorphic surface elevations. The peninsula has six primary watersheds which drain into the Pacific Ocean; the Río Andamojo, Río Tabaco, Río Nosara, Río Ora, Río Bongo, and Río Ario which range in area from 200 km2 to 350 km2. The trunk rivers follow major lineaments that define morphotectonic segment boundaries and in turn their drainage basins are bisected by them. Morphometric analysis of the lower (1st and 2nd) order drainage basins will provide insight into segmented tectonic uplift and deformation by comparing values of drainage basin asymmetry, stream length gradient, and hypsometry with respect to margin segmentation and subducting seafloor domain. A general geomorphic analysis will be conducted alongside the morphometric analysis to map previously recognized (Morrish et al. 2010) but poorly characterized late Quaternary fluvial terraces. Stream capture and drainage divide migration are common processes throughout the peninsula in response to the ongoing deformation. Identification and characterization of basin piracy throughout the peninsula will provide insight into the history of landscape evolution in response to

  4. The influence of eastern North American autumnal migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) on continuously breeding resident monarch populations in southern Florida. (United States)

    Knight, Amy; Brower, Lincoln P


    In Florida, the eastern North American population of the monarch butterfly exhibits geographic variability in population structure and dynamics. This includes the occurrence of migrants throughout the peninsula during the autumnal migration, occasional overwintering clusters that form along the Gulf Coast, remigrants from Mexico that breed in north-central Florida during the spring, and what have been assumed to be year-round, resident breeding populations in southern Florida. The work reported here focused on two monarch populations west of Miami and addressed four questions: Are there permanent resident populations of monarchs in southern Florida? Do these breed continuously throughout the year? Do they receive northern monarchs moving south during the autumn migration? Do they receive overwintered monarchs returning via Cuba or the Yucatan during the spring remigration from the Mexican overwintering area? Monthly collections and counts of spermatophores in the bursa copulatrices of females established that a resident population of continuously breeding monarchs exists year-round in southern Florida. It was determined through cardenolide fingerprinting that most of the butterflies had bred on the local southern Florida milkweed species, Asclepias curassavica. During the autumn migration period, however, some monarchs had fed on the northern milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. It appears that instead of migrating to Mexico, these individuals travel south through peninsular Florida, break diapause, mate with and become incorporated into the resident breeding populations. None of the monarchs captured in spring had the A. syriaca cardenolide fingerprint, which is evidence against the southern Florida populations receiving overwintered remigrants from Cuba, Central America or Mexico. PMID:19579046

  5. Aerial survey of sea otters and other marine mammals Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, 19 April to 9 May 1965 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial survey, 19 April to 9 May 1965 yielded information on marine animals and birds in the Aleutian Islands and limited areas along the Alaska Peninsula. In...

  6. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the two subunits of the Pennsylvanian aquifer in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Pennsylvanian aquifers in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Included are: (1) polygon extents; datasets...

  7. Fildesia Pulchra,, gen. et sp. nov.-Leaf fossil from lower Tertiary from Fildes peninsula, King George Island, Antartic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes Fildesia pulchra gen. et sp. nov., a compound leaf collected at Fossils Hill, Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica) in vulcanoclastics of probably early Tertiary age. (author)

  8. Multi-frequency observations of seawater carbonate chemistry on the central coast of the western Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Schram


    Full Text Available Assessments of benthic coastal seawater carbonate chemistry in Antarctica are sparse. The studies have generally been short in duration, during the austral spring/summer, under sea ice, or offshore in ice-free water. Herein we present multi-frequency measurements for seawater collected from the shallow coastal benthos on a weekly schedule over one year (May 2012–May 2013, daily schedule over three months (March–May 2013 and semidiurnal schedule over five weeks (March–April 2013. A notable pH increase (max pH = 8.62 occurred in the late austral spring/summer (November–December 2012, coinciding with sea-ice break-out and subsequent increase in primary productivity. We detected semidiurnal variation in seawater pH with a maximum variation of 0.13 pH units during the day and 0.11 pH units during the night. Daily variation in pH is likely related to biological activity, consistent with previous research. We calculated the variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC over each seawater measurement frequency, focusing on the primary DIC drivers in the Palmer Station region. From this, we estimated net biological activity and found it accounts for the greatest variations in DIC. Our seasonal data suggest that this coastal region tends to act as a carbon dioxide source during austral winter months and as a strong sink during the summer. These data characterize present-day seawater carbonate chemistry and the extent to which these measures vary over multiple time scales. This information will inform future experiments designed to evaluate the vulnerability of coastal benthic Antarctic marine organisms to ocean acidification.

  9. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines


    Mould, A


    Bats (order Chiroptera) form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 M...

  10. Age, geographical distribution and taphonomy of an unusual occurrence of mummified crabeater seals on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula


    Nelson, A. E.; Smellie, J. L.; Williams, M.; Moreton, S.


    An unusually dense collection of some 150 dead crabeater seals (Family Phocidae), in various stages of decay, occurs in the Brandy Bay hinterland, north-western James Ross Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula. Throughout the past 100 years, the presence of shelf ice (no longer present today) and sea ice in Prince Gustav Channel, between James Ross Island and the Antarctic Peninsula, has prevented seals from readily accessing the western side of James Ross Island. However, open water pools, so...

  11. The effects of land use and climate on red kite distribution in the Iberian peninsula


    Seoane, Javier; Viñuela, Javier; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo; Bustamante, Javier


    The main breeding populations of the red kite (Milvus milvus L.), have been declining in the Iberian peninsula during the last decade. However, there is a lack of regional assessments of habitat suitability that identifies limiting ecological factors for the species and areas with conservation problems. In this work we present a regional model for the distribution and abundance of breeding red kites in the Iberian peninsula. The occurrence and estimated abundance in 100 km2 UTM squares resulti...

  12. Mapping lichen distribution on the Antarctic Peninsula using remote sensing, lichen spectra and photographic documentation by citizen scientists


    Casanovas, Paula; Black, Martin; Fretwell, Peter; Convey, Peter


    On the Antarctic Peninsula, lichens are the most diverse botanical component of the terrestrial ecosystem. However, detailed information on the distribution of lichens on the Antarctic Peninsula region is scarce, and the data available exhibit significant heterogeneity in sampling frequency and effort. Satellite remote sensing, in particular the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has facilitated determination of vegetation richness and cover distribution in some remote ...

  13. Tectonics and seismicity of the ApulianRidge south of Salento peninsula(Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ligi


    Full Text Available Multichannel reflection seismic data were acquired south of the Salento peninsula, in an area where crustal seismicity has been recorded. Seismic profiles show the presence of small grabens bounded by extensional faults with NW-SE direction. These grabens are filled with Plio-Quaternary sediments and represent the prolongation of the grabens located onshore in the Salento peninsula. Outer arc extension due to flexuring of the Adriatic-Apulian lithosphere under the double load of the Hellenides and Apennines-Calabrian arc is thought to have originated these grabens. The Adriatic-Apulian continental lithosphere presents a very small radius of curvature and a decoupling between upper crust and mantle lithosphere is expected. Inner arc compression within the upper crust may be responsible for the seismicity recorded in the area.

  14. Submarine mass movements around the Iberian Peninsula. The building of continental margins through hazardous processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submarine mass movements, such as those which occur in all environments in every ocean of the world, are widely distributed across the Iberian continental margins. A lack of consistent data from various areas around the Iberian Peninsula makes it difficult to precisely understand their role in the sedimentary record. However, all the studies carried out over the past two decades reveal that they are a recurrent and widespread sedi- mentary process that may represent a significant geohazard. The majority of submarine mass movements observed in both the Mediterranean and Atlantic margins of the Iberian Peninsula have been generically identified as Mass Transport Deposits, but debris flows, slides, slumps and turbidites are common. Only a few remarkable examples involve huge volumes of sediment covering large areas (such as ∼500 km3 and ∼6x104 km2), but more moderate deposits (<200 km2) are frequently found on the seafloor or embedded in the sedi- mentary sequences, building margins and basins. (Author)

  15. Holocene environmental change according to lake core in Fildes Peninsula of King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小梅; 袁宝印; 赵俊琳


    Lake core sampled from Xihu in Fildes Peninsula of King Gorge Island, Antarctica could reveal the environmental change of the district. The lake core(GA7) , 9.28 meters long ,was sectioned at an interval of 2 cm. Through measuring the organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility, granularity and organic carbon isotope of GA7, by use of 14C age it was estimated that there were four periods of high temperature in Fildes Peninsula: 4800-4400 aB.P., 3600-3350 aB.P.,2100-1800 aB.P. and 900 aB.P. - present. Meanwhile, results showed that there was a strikingly positive correlation between the content of organic carbon and that of organic carbon isotope(δC13org) which could be the substitute indicators of environmental temperature.

  16. Historical Introduction of Japanese Wild Mice, Mus musculus, from South China and the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Nunome


    Full Text Available In Japan, the wild house mouse Mus musculus consists of two lineages, one from Southeast Asia (Mus musculus castaneus; CAS and one from northern Eurasia (Mus musculus musculus; MUS. However, the exact origins of the parental lineages are unclear. A recent work using mitochondrial sequences revealed that Japanese CAS and MUS are closely related to haplotypes from South China and the Korean Peninsula, respectively. Recent phylogeographic analyses using nuclear gene sequences have also confirmed a close relationship between Japan and Korea in the MUS component. However, the Japanese CAS components in the nuclear genome are likely to be unique and to differ from those of other CAS territories, including South China. Although the origins are still unresolved, these results allow us to conclude that two areas of the continent, South China and the Korean Peninsula, are the primary source areas of Japanese wild mice and suggest pre-historical introductions associated with certain historical agricultural developments in East Asia.

  17. Stratigraphy and paleontology of fossil hill Peninsula Fildes, Rey Jorge island, Antarctica: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the first Uruguayan paleontologic and biostratigraphical investigations in Antarctica are presented.The field work was performed in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, near the Uruguayan station Base Cientifica Antartida Artigas. Some fossiliferous outcrops were geologic and pale ontologically analyzed, among them the Fossil Hill, placed in the middle part of the peninsula, in front of Ardley Island between the Chinese and Chilean stations. This hill is composed of fossil bearing piroclastic and epiclastic rocks, assigned to the Fossil Hill Fm.Vegetal remains (petrified wood and leaf impronts)were observed and collected in this unit and it is remarkable the presence of Nothofagus sp. and invertebrate trace fossils Cochlichnus isp and Helminthopsis isp.

  18. Description of three new troglobiontic species of Cybaeodes (Araneae, Liocranidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Ribera, Carles; De Mas, Eva


    Three new troglobiontic species of the spider genus Cybaeodes Simon endemic to caves in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated: Cybaeodes indalo sp. n. from Almería, C. dosaguas sp. n. from València and C. magnus sp. n. from Alacant. The new species confirm the presence of Cybaeodes on the Iberian Peninsula and its wide distribution throughout the Western Mediterranean including Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, France, Spain and the islands of Sardinia, Sicily and Mallorca. A record of C. liocraninus (Simon), from an Iberian cave was probably based on misidentified specimens of C. magnus sp. n. C. liocraninus is known only from Algeria and should be removed from lists of the Iberian fauna. In addition, the three new species are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26249078

  19. Folk Toponymy and Offshore Fishing Ground Names on the Dudley Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Nash


    Full Text Available This paper analyses data on two aspects of unofficial place-naming or folk toponymy on the Dudley Peninsula, the eastern peninsula of Kangaroo Island, South Australia, namely (1 local unofficial toponyms, and (2 offshore fishing ground names. These place-name categories reflect naming patterns that embody specific local events, history and land use in the island’s colourful past, and represent an important element of the collective memory of the area. It argues that a deeper analysis of various taxa of folk toponymy, especially in remote island locations with brief histories, can help toponymists and linguists understand broad principles involved in place-naming. Furthermore, it suggests island toponymy in Australia is an under-researched field, which deserves greater prominence in Australian place-name studies.

  20. From Cairo to the Straits Settlements: Modern Salafiyyah Reformist Ideas in Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Zakariya


    Full Text Available Abstract: Early twentieth-century Malay Peninsula witnessed the emergence of Islamic reform movements. The Malay reformists who were discontented with the socio-economic and political conditions of the Malays criticised the Malay elites and called for “reformation” of their society. The Malay reformists derived inspirations for their reformist ideology from the leading Middle Eastern reformists, Muhammad ≤Abduh, Rashīd Riḍā and others, known as salafiyyah. Available data suggest that the transmission of salafiyyah ideas in particular, and Middle Eastern reformism in general, to Malay Peninsula were made possible by many factors. Of these factors, the roles of the ḥaramayn, the centres of learning in Cairo and the invention of printing machines have been least explored. This study attempts to fill in the void in the existing literature.

  1. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia


    Giday Mirutse; Teklehaymanot Tilahun


    Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fideli...

  2. The seasonal cycle of ocean-atmosphere CO2 Flux in Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula.


    Legge, Oliver J.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Johnson, Martin T.; Meredith, Michael P.; Venables, Hugh J.; Brown, Peter J.; Lee, Gareth A.


    Approximately 15 million km2 of the Southern Ocean is seasonally ice covered, yet the processes affecting carbon cycling and gas exchange in this climatically important region remain inadequately understood. Here, 3 years of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measurements and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from Ryder Bay on the west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are presented. During spring and summer, primary production in the surface ocean promotes atmospheric CO2 uptake. In winter, higher DIC, caus...

  3. First record of the common bream (Abramis brama) introduced to the Iberian Peninsula


    Benejam Vidal, Lluís; Carol Bruguera, Joaquim; Alcaraz Cazorla, Carles; García-Berthou, Emili


    This is the first record of the common bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758), introduced into the Iberian Peninsula. Eight individuals of this cyprinid fish species were captured (of a total of 978 fish) in the Boadella Reservoir (Catalonia, Spain) on August 18, 2004. This reservoir is only 14 km away from France, where the bream is native, and contains several exotic freshwater fish that are still not widespread in Spain. The further introduction of species and the illegal translocation of t...

  4. Steps for specific vulnerability maps, management & conservation in Yucatan peninsula anchialine systems


    Torres Talamante, Olmo; Aguilar Rámirez, Alejandra; Merediz Alonso, Gonzalo


    A GIS project was developed for cenote management and decision making in the Yucatan Peninsula. Information was obtained through governmental and civil databases, satellite imagery analysis and field visits. Spatial analysis was performed at the scale of 1:250,000 for cenotes and geology; land use and vegetation; soil type; protected areas; urban areas; population size of human settlements and roads. Danger and risk models for ecological degradation of cenotes were developed.

  5. Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Mexico: three clinical cases from the Peninsula of Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barrera-Pérez


    Full Text Available Human lagochilascariasis (HL is a parasite produced by Lagochilascaris minor Leiper 1909 that also can be found in cats and dogs. HL is considered an emerging zoonosis in the Americas, spreading from Mexico to Argentina, and the Caribbean Islands. The present paper describes three HL cases from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico, recorded in the last decade. It describes the characteristics of the lesions and discusses the route of transmission in humans and particularly in the observed patients.

  6. Re-engineering the enrollment management system at the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District (MPUSD)


    Dobbs, Stanley


    This thesis establishes a Forecasting Enrollment Management (FEM) system within the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District (MPUSD). In particular, it examines the effect the forecasting of student enrollment since the untimely departure of the Deputy Superintendent (DepSup) who had performed the function as Chief Enrollment Official for over two decades. The closure of the Fort Ord Army Facility had a significant impact on the accuracy of enrollment projections and inadvertently affected ...

  7. Composition and source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in oil polluted soils of Absheron peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to compare of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration in oil, oil polluted soils and clean area in Absheron peninsula, which were never done before. Above 30 soils samples were analyzed for fifteen individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) and were identified on GC/MS (chromatography/mass spectrometry). The rations of individual PAH in soil and blank sample were determined and source of origin polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was identified.

  8. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans


    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  9. Western Europe and the Iberian Peninsula from -120 000 years to the Present (computerized reconstruction maps)


    Garcin, Manuel; Bajos, Carmen; Del Olmo, Carlos; Godefroy, Pierre


    International audience The aim of this study, carried out as part of EEC Project No. F12W-CT91-0075, entitled "Paleoclimatological revision of climate evolution and environment in Western Mediterranean Regions", is to construct paleo-maps of Western Europe and the Iberian Peninsula for the last climatic cycle (-120,000 years to Present) using the Geoprospect software developed at BRGM. After defining the different concepts concerning the climatic variations and their geological corollaries...

  10. Sensitivity of fire weather index to different reanalysis products in the Iberian Peninsula


    Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J M; Zavala, G.; I. R. Urbieta; Moreno, J.M.


    Wildfires are a major concern on the Iberian Peninsula, and the establishment of effective prevention and early warning systems are crucial to reduce impacts and losses. Fire weather indices are daily indicators of fire danger based upon meteorological information. However, their application in many studies is conditioned to the availability of sufficiently large climatological time series over extensive geographical areas and of sufficient quality. Furthermore, wind and relative humidity, im...

  11. Annotated checklist of Capitellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands


    M. El Haddad; Capaccioni Azzati, R.; García-Carrascosa, A. M.


    The present annotated checklist has been elaborated after revision of preserved materials (from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid and the reference collection of the Marine Biology Laboratory of the University of Valencia) and published literature related to capitellids from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands. Twenty-four species and subspecies belonging to thirteen genera are recognized as valid taxa. With this checklist we include some taxonomic de...

  12. Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities in Soils in the Vicinity of Wanda Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula


    Pessi, Igor Stelmach; de Oliveira Elias, Susana; Simões, Felipe Lorenz; Simões, Jefferson Cardia; Macedo, Alexandre José


    Microbial functional diversity in four soils sampled in the vicinity of Wanda Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula, was determined using Biolog EcoPlates at 5°C and 25°C. Comparisons of the patterns of substrate utilization and the diversity index showed differences in community composition, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of microorganisms in this environment. Differences in microbial diversity may be related to soil chemical properties. Higher incubation temperature influenced the overall...

  13. Science, sulphur and sustainability : environmental strategies of mining in the Russian Kola Peninsula


    Salmi, Olli H


    This dissertation analyses the problem of co-aligning corporate strategy and public policy for effective environmental governance. A case study of the mining industry in the Russian Kola Peninsula shows how institutional arrangements (including public policies) affect the environmental performance of industrial organizations. The analysis emphasizes the motivations that drive people's decisions and how they are affected by culture and formal institutions both inside and outside the domain of ...

  14. Functional ecology of microbial freshwater communities from Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica)


    Rochera Cordellat, Carlos


    This thesis studies the microbial communities inhabiting freshwater ecosystems of Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica). This is an ice-free area of around 60 km2 that holds numerous lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands. As a deglaciated region, the functioning of aquatic ecosystems is very closely linked with the surrounding land. So, when snow melting occurs during summer, interactions with the catchment become more intense, and coincide with enhanced biological activity. We conducte...

  15. Physicochemistry and zooplankton of two karstic sinkholes in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico


    Adrian Cervantes-Martinez; Martha Gutiérrez-Aguirre


    The planktonic communities composed of rotifers and crustaceans of two tropical karstic lakes in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with similar origin but different trophic state were analyzed. Both systems, the meso-eutrophic (El Padre) and oligotrophic (Minicenote) were considered as monomictic lakes. The abundance, temporal distribution of species, richness and diversity were measured and discussed in relation to the influence of abiotic factors and the presence of a natural predator. These a...

  16. Sources and Levels of Ambient Ocean Sound near the Antarctic Peninsula


    Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Haruyoshi Matsumoto; Minkyu Park; Won Sang Lee; Fowler, Matt J.; Tai-Kwan Lau; Haxel, Joseph H.; Mellinger, David K.


    Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region) from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapi...

  17. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin


    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  18. Interaction of landscape varibles on the potential geographical distribution of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico


    Plasencia–Vázquez, A. H.; Escalona–Segura, G.; Esparza–Olguín, L. G.


    The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of forested areas are endangering parrot populations. In this study, we determined the influence of fragmentation in relation to vegetation cover, land use, and spatial configuration of fragments on the potential geographical distribution patterns of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We used the potential geographical distribution for eight parrot species, considering the recently published maps obtained with the maximum entropy algorithm, and ...

  19. A Dynamic Simulation Model of Tourism and Environment in the Yucatan Peninsula


    P.P.A.A.H. Kandelaars


    Tourism in the Yucatan peninsula has been and is still growing, which may lead to conflicts between tourism and the environment, population and other economic sectors. A dynamic simulation model ahs been developed to understand the dynamic relationships between economy, environment, and population. In this model several scenarios are analyzed which incorporate various policies and development paths. The quality of the water, the beaches and the archeological sites are important factor for the...

  20. Comparing calibrated parameter sets of the SWAT model for the Scandinavian and Iberian Peninsulas




    The SWAT model has been setup to predict water discharge and nutrient losses as affected by anthropogenic activities at European Scale. A modelling protocol was proposed to deal with large-scale applications. This modelling protocol involves multi-objective calibration, sensitivity analysis and regionalization. In this context, we examine the spatial variation of calibrated parameter sets for stream flow obtained for head sub-basins in Scandinavia and the Iberian Peninsula. The main research ...